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Zakarid Armenia (Armenian: Զաքարյան Հայաստան Zakaryan Hayastan), was an Armenian principality between 1201 and 1360, ruled by the Zakarian dynasty. The city of Ani was the capital of the princedom. The Zakarids were vassals to the Kingdom of Georgia until 1236 when they became vassals to the Mongol Empire. Their descendants continued to hold Ani until the 1330s, when they lost it to a succession of Turkish dynasties, including the Kara Koyunlu, who made Ani their capital.

Contents

1 Prelude 2 History

2.1 Nomadic invasion and gradual decline

3 References

Prelude[edit]

Kingdom of Georgia at the peak of its power under Tamar of Georgia and George IV of Georgia (1184-1223).

Following the collapse of the Bagratid Armenia, Its southwestern territories were annexed by Byzantine[2] and incorporated into theme of Iberia. However after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 the Seljuq advance forced the Byzantines to evacuate the eastern Anatolia, In 1076, the Seljuk sultan Malik Shah I surged into Georgia and reduced many settlements to ruins. Harassed by the massive Turkic influx, known in Georgian history as the Great Turkish Invasion, from 1079/80 onward, Georgia was pressured into submitting to Malik-Shah to ensure a precious degree of peace at the price of an annual tribute. The struggle against the Seljuq invaders in Georgia was led by the young King David IV. In the 1090s, the energetic Georgian king David IV was able to exploit internal unrest in the Seljuq state and the success of the Western European First Crusade against Muslim control of the Holy Land, and established a relatively strong monarchy, reorganizing his army and recruiting Kipchak, Alan, and even Frankish mercenaries to lead them to the reconquest of lost lands and the expulsion of Turkish raiders. David's battles were not, like those of the Crusaders, part of a religious war against Islam, but rather were a political-military effort to liberate Caucasus from the nomadic Seljuks. A string of military successes over the regional successors of the Seljuq empire was concluded by a major victory over the Muslim armies at Didgori in 1121, which made the Georgian kingdom a formidable power in the Caucasus and East Anatolia. In 1124, David finally conquered Shirvan and took the Armenian city of Ani from the Muslim emirs, thus expanding the borders of his kingdom to the Araxes basin.[3] Armenians met him as a liberator providing some auxiliary force for his army. History[edit] The first historically traceable Zakarid-Mkhargrdzeli was Khosrov, who moved from Armenia to southern Georgia during the Seljuk invasions in the early 11th century. Over the next hundred years, Zakarids gradually gained prominence at the Georgian court, where they became known as Mkhargrdzeli (Long-shoulder) and became vassals of the Bagrationi kings. Under King George III of Georgia, Sargis Mkhargrdzeli was appointed as governor of the Armenian city of Ani in 1161. In 1177, the Mkhargrdzeli seized their chance during the rebellion of Prince Demna and the Orbeli family and supported the monarchy against the insurgents. The uprising was suppressed, and King George III persecuted his opponents and elevated the Mkhargrdzelis. Despite some complications in the reign of George III, the successes continued in the reign of the Queen Tamar.[3] This was chiefly due to the Armenian generals Zakaria and Ivane.[4][5] Starting in 1190, the Mkhargrdzelis rose quickly in power. Around the year 1199, they took the city of Ani, and in 1201, Tamar gave Ani to them as a fief.[3] Eventually, their territories came to resemble those of Bagratid Armenia.[2] Sargis’ offspring, Zakare (Zakaria) and Ivane Mkhargrdzeli, commanded the Georgian armies for almost three decades, achieving major victories at Shamkor in 1195 and Basian in 1203 and leading raids into northern Persia in 1210. They amassed a great fortune, governing all of northern Armenia; Zakare and his descendants ruled in northwestern Armenia with Ani as their capital, while Ivane and his offspring ruled eastern Armenia, including the city of Dvin. Nomadic invasion and gradual decline[edit] See also: Mongol invasions of Georgia During Khwarezmian invasion of Georgia, Dvin was ruled by the aging Ivane, who had given Ani to his nephew Shanshe (Shahanshah), son of Zakare. Dvin was lost, but Kars and Ani did not surrender.[3] The Mongols made their first appearance in the Georgian possessions when this latter kingdom was still in its zenith, dominating most of the Caucasus. They thrust into Armenia and defeated some 60,000 Georgians and Armenians commanded by King George IV and his atabek (tutor) and spasalar (commander-in-chief) Ivane Mkhargrdzeli at the Battle of Khunan on the Kotman River. The struggle against the Mongol rule created a diarchy, many powerful Armenian and Georgian families became independent of the Georgian King due to the Mongols' support. However, when Mongols took Ani in 1236, they had a friendly attitude towards the Zakarids.[3] They confirmed Shanshe in his fief, and even added to it the fief of Avag, son of Ivanē. Further, in 1243, they gave Akhlat to the princess T’amt’a, daughter of Ivanē.[3] After the Mongols captured Ani in 1236, the Zakarids ruled not as vassals of the Georgians, but rather the Mongols.[2] The later kings[citation needed] of Zakarids continued their control over Ani until the 1360, when they lost to the Kara Koyunlu Turkoman tribes, who made Ani their capital.[2] References[edit]

^ George A. Bournoutian «A Concise History of the Armenian People», map 19. Mazda Publishers, Inc. Costa Mesa California 2006 ^ a b c d Sim, Steven. "The City of Ani: A Very Brief History". VirtualANI. Retrieved 2007-07-15.  ^ a b c d e f Minorsky, Vladimir (1953). Studies in Caucasian History. New York: Taylor’s Foreign Press. pp. 102–103. ISBN 0-521-05735-3.  ^ http://www.aina.org/reports/tykaaog.pdf ^ Suny (1994), p. 39.

Coordinates: 40°30′27″N 43°34′22″E / 40.5075°N 43.5728°E / 40.5075; 43.5728

v t e

Historical states and regions of Armenia

Independent Armenian states

Kingdom of Ararat (Urartian kings, 860 BC–590 BC) Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity) (Orontids, Artaxiads and Arsacids, 553 BC–428 AD) Kingdom of Armenia (middle ages) (Bagratunis, 884-1045) Armenian Principality of Cilicia (Rubenids, 1080-1198) Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Rubenids, Hethumids and Lusignans, 1198-1375) Republic of Armenia (1918-1920) Republic of Armenia (1991-)

Minor or dependent Armenian states

Satrapy of Armenia (Orontids, 522-331 BC) Kingdom of Sophene (Hellenized Orontids, 3rd century–94 BC) Kingdom of Commagene (Hellenized Orontids, 163 BC–72 AD) Kingdom of Vaspurakan (Artsrunis, 908–1021) Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget (Kiurikians, 979–1118) Kingdom of Syunik (Siunis, 987–1170) Kingdom of Artsakh (Khachen, 1000–1261) Zakarid Principality of Armenia (Zakarians, 1201–1360) Melikdoms of Karabakh (Beglarians, Israelians, Hasan-Jalalians, Shanazarians and Avanians, 1603-1822) Republic of Mountainous Armenia (unrecognized, 1921) Soviet Armenia (1920-1991)

Provinces or Ashkhars of Armenia Major

Upper Armenia Sophene Arzanene Turuberan Moxoene Corduene Nor Shirakan Vaspurakan Syunik Artsakh Paytakaran Utik Gugark Tayk Ayrarat

Other Armenian regions

Lesser Armenia (regions: First, Second and Third Armenia) Commagene Armenian Mesopotamia Cilicia (regions: Mountainous, Plain and Rocky Cilicia)

Other provinces under Tigranes the Great

Syria Atropatene Adiabene Assyria Iberia Albania Cappadocia Judea Osroene

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