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Xenacoelomorpha[2] is a basal bilaterian phylum of small and very simple animals, grouping the xenoturbellids with the acoelomorphs. It was suggested by morphological synapomorphies,[3] and confirmed by phylogenomic analyses of molecular data.[4][2] Xenacoelomorphs emerged with the Nephrozoa
Nephrozoa
as sister clade. Phylogeny[edit] The clade Xenacoelomorpha, grouping Acoelomorpha
Acoelomorpha
and the genus Xenoturbella, was revealed by molecular studies.[4] Initially it was considered to be a member of the deuterostomes, but a more recent transcriptome analysis concluded that it is the sister group to the Nephrozoa, which includes the protostomes and the deuterostomes, being therefore the basalmost bilaterian clade.[2][5][6] Characteristics[edit] All xenacoelomorphs lack a typical stomatogastric system, i.e., they do not have a true gut. In acoels, the mouth opens directly into a large endodermal syncytium, while in nemertodermatids and xenoturbellids there is a sack-like gut lined by unciliated cells.[7] The nervous system is basiepidermal, i.e., located right under the epidermis, and a brain is absent. In xenoturbellids it is constituted by a simple nerve net without any special concentration of neurons, while in acoelomorphs it is arranged in a series of longitudinal bundles united in the anterior region by a ring comissure of variable complexity.[8] The sensory organs include a statocyst and, in some groups, two unicellular ocelli.[7][8] The epidermis of all xenacoelomorphans is ciliated. The cilia are composed by a set of 9 pairs of peripheral microtubules and one or two central microtubules (patterns 9+1 and 9+2, respectively). The pairs 4–7 terminate before the tip, creating a structure called a "shelf".[9] References[edit]

^ Tyler, S.; Schilling, S.; Hooge, M.; Bush, L.F. (2006–2016). "Xenacoelomorpha". Turbellarian taxonomic database. Version 1.7. Retrieved 2016-02-03.  ^ a b c Philippe, H.; Brinkmann, H.; Copley, R. R.; Moroz, L. L.; Nakano, H.; Poustka, A. J.; Wallberg, A.; Peterson, K. J.; Telford, M. J. (10 February 2011). " Acoelomorph
Acoelomorph
flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella". Nature. 470 (7333): 255–258. Bibcode:2011Natur.470..255P. doi:10.1038/nature09676. PMC 4025995 . PMID 21307940.  ^ Lundin, K (1998). "The epidermal ciliary rootlets of Xenoturbella bocki (Xenoturbellida) revisited: new support for a possible kinship with the Acoelomorpha
Acoelomorpha
(Platyhelminthes)". Zoologica Scripta. 27: 263–270. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.1998.tb00440.x.  ^ a b Hejnol, A.; Obst, M.; Stamatakis, A.; Ott, M.; Rouse, G. W.; Edgecombe, G. D.; et al. (2009). "Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic methods". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276: 4261–4270. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0896. PMC 2817096 . PMID 19759036. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Perseke, M.; Hankeln, T.; Weich, B.; Fritzsch, G.; Stadler, P.F.; Israelsson, O.; Bernhard, D.; Schlegel, M. (August 2007). "The mitochondrial DNA of Xenoturbella
Xenoturbella
bocki: genomic architecture and phylogenetic analysis" (PDF). Theory Biosci. 126 (1): 35–42. doi:10.1007/s12064-007-0007-7. PMID 18087755.  ^ Cannon, J.T.; Vellutini, B.C.; Smith, J.; Ronquist, F.; Jondelius, U.; Hejnol, A. (4 February 2016). " Xenacoelomorpha
Xenacoelomorpha
is the sister group to Nephrozoa". Nature. 530 (7588): 89–93. doi:10.1038/nature16520. PMID 26842059.  ^ a b Achatz, Johannes G.; Chiodin, Marta; Salvenmoser, Willi; Tyler, Seth; Martinez, Pedro (June 2013). "The Acoela: on their kind and kinships, especially with nemertodermatids and xenoturbellids ( Bilateria
Bilateria
incertae sedis)". Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 13 (2): 267–286. doi:10.1007/s13127-012-0112-4. ISSN 1439-6092.  ^ a b Perea-Atienza, E.; Gavilan, B.; Chiodin, M.; Abril, J. F.; Hoff, K. J.; Poustka, A. J.; Martinez, P. (2015). "The nervous system of Xenacoelomorpha: a genomic perspective". Journal of Experimental Biology. 218 (4): 618–628. doi:10.1242/jeb.110379. ISSN 0022-0949. PMID 25696825.  ^ Franzen, Ake; Afzelius, Bjorn A. (January 1987). "The ciliated epidermis of Xenoturbella
Xenoturbella
bocki (Platyhelminthes, Xenoturbellida) with some phylogenetic considerations". Zoologica Scripta. 16 (1): 9–17. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.1987.tb00046.x. ISSN 0300-3256. 

v t e

Extant Animal
Animal
phyla

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

A n i m a l i a

Porifera (sponges)

Diploblasts (Eumetazoa)

Ctenophora
Ctenophora
(comb jellies)

ParaHoxozoa

Placozoa
Placozoa
(Trichoplax)

Planulozoa

Cnidaria
Cnidaria
(jellyfish and relatives)

Bilateria (Triploblasts)

(see below↓)

Bilateria

Xenacoelomorpha

Xenoturbellida
Xenoturbellida
(Xenoturbella) Acoelomorpha

acoels nemertodermatids

N e p h r o z o a

Deuterostomia

Chordata

lancelets tunicates craniates / vertebrates

Ambulacraria

Echinodermata (starfish and relatives) Hemichordata

acorn worms pterobranchs

P r o t o s t o m i a

Ecdysozoa

Scalidophora

Kinorhyncha
Kinorhyncha
(mud dragons) Priapulida
Priapulida
(penis worms)

N+L+P

Nematoida

Nematoda (roundworms) Nematomorpha
Nematomorpha
(horsehair worms)

L+P

Loricifera

Panarthropoda

Arthropoda (arthropods) Tardigrada (waterbears) Onychophora
Onychophora
(velvet worms)

S p i r a l i a

Gnathifera¹

Chaetognatha
Chaetognatha
(arrow worms) Gnathostomulida (jaw worms) Micrognathozoa (Limnognathia) Syndermata

Rotifera Acanthocephala

Platytrochozoa

R+M

Mesozoa

Orthonectida Dicyemida
Dicyemida
or Rhombozoa

Rouphozoa¹

Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Gastrotricha (hairybacks)

Lophotrochozoa

Cycliophora (Symbion) Mollusca
Mollusca
(molluscs)

A+N

Annelida (ringed worms) Nemertea
Nemertea
(ribbon worms)

Lophophorata

Bryozoa

Entoprocta
Entoprocta
or Kamptozoa Ectoprocta (moss animals)

Brachiozoa

Brachiopoda (lamp shells) Phoronida (horseshoe worms)

Major groups within phyla

Sponges

Calcareous Hexactinellid Demosponge Homoscleromorpha

Cnidarians

Anthozoa
Anthozoa
inc. corals Medusozoa
Medusozoa
inc. jellyfish Myxozoa

Vertebrates

Jawless fish Cartilaginous fish Bony fish Amphibians Reptiles/Birds Mammals

Echinoderms

Sea lilies Asterozoa
Asterozoa
inc. starfish Echinozoa

Nematodes

Chromadorea Enoplea Secernentea

Arthropods

Chelicerates/Arachnids Myriapods Crustaceans Hexapods/Insects

Platyhelminths

Turbellaria Trematoda Monogenea Cestoda

Bryozoans

Phylactolaemata Stenolaemata Gymnolaemata

Annelids

Polychaetes Clitellata Echiura

Molluscs

Gastropods Cephalopods Bivalves Chitons Tusk shells

Phyla with ≥5000 extant species bolded See also Diploblasts Monoblastozoa (nomen dubium)

¹Platyzoa

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q3570860 iNaturalist: 211191 ITIS: 914162 NCBI: 1312402

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