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The European bison
European bison
( Bison
Bison
bonasus), also known as wisent (/ˈviːzənt/ or /ˈwiːzənt/) or the European wood bison, is a Eurasian species of bison. It is one of two extant species of bison, alongside the American bison. Three subspecies existed in the recent past, but only one survives today. The species is, theoretically, descended from a hybrid, a cross between a female aurochs, the extinct wild ancestor of modern cattle, and a male Steppe
Steppe
bison; the possible hybrid is referred to informally as the Higgs bison.[2][3] Alternatively, the Pleistocene woodland bison has been suggested as the ancestor to the species.[4][5] European bison
European bison
were hunted to extinction in the wild in the early 20th century, with the last wild animals of the B. b. bonasus subspecies being shot in the Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest
(on the Belarus-Poland border) in 1921, and the last of B. b. caucasus in the northwestern Caucasus in 1927.[6] B. b. hungarorum was hunted to extinction in the mid-1800s. The Białowieża or lowland European bison
European bison
was kept alive in captivity, and has since been reintroduced into several countries in Europe. They are now forest-dwelling. The species has had few recent predators besides humans, with only scattered reports from the 19th century of wolf and bear predation. European bison
European bison
were first scientifically described by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in 1758. Some later descriptions treat the European bison
European bison
as conspecific with the American bison. It is not to be confused with the aurochs, the extinct ancestor of domestic cattle. In 1996, the International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
classified the European bison
European bison
as an endangered species. Its status has since been changed to being a vulnerable species. In the past, especially during the Middle Ages, it was commonly killed for its hide and to produce drinking horns. The European Bison
Bison
is the national animal of Poland.

Contents

1 Description 2 Etymology 3 History 4 Genetic history 5 Differences from American bison 6 Behaviour and biology

6.1 Social structure and territorial behaviours 6.2 Reproduction 6.3 Diet

7 Conservation

7.1 Reintroduction 7.2 Numbers and distribution

7.2.1 Numbers 7.2.2 Distribution

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Description[edit]

In the Wisentgehege Springe
Springe
Game Park near Springe, Hanover, Germany

The European bison
European bison
is the heaviest surviving wild land animal in Europe; a typical European bison
European bison
is about 2.1 to 3.5 m (6.9 to 11.5 ft) long, not counting a tail of 30 to 80 cm (12 to 31 in) long, and 1.6 to 1.95 m (5.2 to 6.4 ft) tall. At birth, calves are quite small, weighing between 15 and 35 kg (33 and 77 lb). In the free-ranging population of the Białowieża Forest of Belarus and Poland, body masses among adults (aged 6 and over) are 634 kg (1,398 lb) on average in the cases of males, with a range of 400 to 920 kg (880 to 2,030 lb), and of 424 kg (935 lb) among females, with a range of 300 to 540 kg (660 to 1,190 lb).[7][8] An occasional big bull European bison
European bison
can weigh up to 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) or more.[9][10][11] On average, it is slightly lighter in body mass and yet taller at the shoulder than the American bison
American bison
( Bison
Bison
bison). Compared to the American species, the wisent has shorter hair on the neck, head, and forequarters, but longer tail and horns. Etymology[edit] The modern English word wisent was borrowed in the 19th century from modern German Wisent [ˈviːzɛnt], itself from Old High German wisunt, wisant, related to Old English
Old English
wesend, weosend, and Old Norse vísundr. The Old English
Old English
cognate disappeared as the bison's range shrank away from English-speaking areas by the Late Middle Ages.[12][13] The English word bison was borrowed around 1611[12] from Latin bisōn (pl. bisontes), itself from Germanic. The root *wis-, also found in weasel, originally referred to the animal's musk. The word bonasus was first mentioned by Aristotle
Aristotle
in the 4th century BC when he precisely described the animal, calling it βόνασος (bonasos) in Greek. He also noted that the Paeonians
Paeonians
called it μόναπος (monapos).[14] History[edit]

Bisons depicted at cave of Altamira

A specimen of the now-extinct Caucasian subspecies, 1889

Adult females with calves

European bison's skeleton

Skulls of European bison
European bison
(left) and American bison
American bison
(right)

Historically, the lowland European bison's range encompassed most of the lowlands of northern Europe, extending from the Massif Central
Massif Central
to the Volga River
Volga River
and the Caucasus. It may have once lived in the Asiatic part of what is now the Russian Federation. The European bison is known in southern Sweden only between 9500 and 8700 BP, and in Denmark similarly is documented only from the Pre-Boreal.[15] It is not recorded from the British Isles
British Isles
nor from Italy
Italy
or the Iberian Peninsula.[16] A possible ancestor, the extinct steppe bison, B. priscus, is known from across Eurasia
Eurasia
and North America, last occurring 7,000 BC,[17] and is depicted in the Cave of Altamira
Cave of Altamira
and Lascaux. Another possible ancestor, the Pleistocene woodland bison, B. schoetensaki, was last present 36,000 BC.[4] Cave paintings appear to distinguish between B. bonasus and B. priscus.[18] Within mainland Europe, its range decreased as human populations expanded and cut down forests. The last references (Oppian, Claudius Aelianus) to the animal in the transitional Mediterranean/Continental biogeographical region in the Balkans in the area of modern borderline between Greece, Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
date to the 3rd century AD.[19][20] Its population in Gaul
Gaul
was extinct in the 8th century AD. The species survived in the Ardennes
Ardennes
and the Vosges Mountains until the 15th century.[21] In the Early Middle Ages, the wisent apparently still occurred in the forest steppes east of the Urals, in the Altay Mountains, and seems to have reached Lake Baikal in the east. The northern boundary in the Holocene was probably around 60°N in Finland.[22] European bison
European bison
survived in a few natural forests in Europe, but their numbers dwindled. The last European bison
European bison
in Transylvania
Transylvania
died in 1790. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, European bison
European bison
in the Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest
were legally the property of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania until the third partition of Poland. Wild European bison herds also existed in the forest until the mid-17th century. Polish kings took measures to protect the bison. King Sigismund II Augustus instituted the death penalty for poaching a European bison
European bison
in Białowieża in the mid-16th century. In the early 19th century, Russian czars retained old Lithuanian laws protecting the European bison herd in Białowieża. Despite these measures and others, the European bison
European bison
population continued to decline over the following century, with only Białowieża and Northern Caucasus
Caucasus
populations surviving into the 20th century.[23][24] During World War I, occupying German troops killed 600 of the European bison in the Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest
for sport, meat, hides and horns.[23] A German scientist informed army officers that the European bison
European bison
were facing imminent extinction, but at the very end of the war, retreating German soldiers shot all but nine animals.[23][24] The last wild European bison
European bison
in Poland was killed in 1921. The last wild European bison in the world was killed by poachers in 1927 in the western Caucasus. By that year, fewer than 50 remained, all held by zoos. To help manage this captive population, Dr. Heinz Heck
Heinz Heck
began the first studbook for a nondomesticated species, initially as a card index in 1923, leading to a full publication in 1932.[25] Parallel efforts to reintroduce European bison
European bison
have been made in Poland. Between 1920 and 1928 there were no single European bison
European bison
in the Białowieża Forest. The European bison
European bison
was successfully reintroduced there in 1929 from the animals kept in zoos with 16 animals living in Białowieża Forest as of 1 September 1939. The first two bisons were released into nature to the Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest
in 1952.[26] By 1964 more than 100 existed.[27] Genetic history[edit]

External video

Higgs Bison
Bison
research, 22:08, 16 October 2016, Australian Centre for Ancient DNA[3]

Wisent is probably the descendant of hybrids originated from the hybridization between steppe bison and aurochs.[3]

A 2003 study of mitochondrial DNA indicated four distinct maternal lineages in the tribe Bovini:

Taurine cattle and zebu Wisent American bison
American bison
and yak Banteng, gaur, and gayal

Y chromosome
Y chromosome
analysis associated wisent and American bison.[28] An earlier study, using amplified fragment-length polymorphism fingerprinting, showed a close association of wisent and American bison and probably with yak. It noted the interbreeding of Bovini species made determining relationships problematic.[29] European bison
European bison
can cross-breed with American bison. The products of a German interbreeding programme were destroyed after the Second World War. This programme was related to the impulse which created the Heck cattle. The cross-bred individuals created at other zoos were eliminated from breed books by the 1950s. A Russian back-breeding programme resulted in a wild herd of hybrid animals, which presently lives in the Caucasian Biosphere Reserve
Caucasian Biosphere Reserve
(550 animals in 1999). Wisent-cattle hybrids also occur, similar to North America beefalo. Cattle
Cattle
and European bison
European bison
hybridise fairly readily, but the calves cannot be born naturally (birth is not triggered correctly by the first-cross hybrid calf, so they must be delivered by Caesarian section). First-generation males are infertile. In 1847, a herd of wisent-cattle hybrids named żubroń was created by Leopold Walicki. The animals were intended to become durable and cheap alternatives to cattle. The experiment was continued by researchers from the Polish Academy of Sciences until the late 1980s. Although the program resulted in a quite successful animal that was both hardy and could be bred in marginal grazing lands, it was eventually discontinued. Currently, the only surviving żubroń herd consists of just a few animals in Białowieża Forest, Poland and Belarus. In 2016, the first whole genome sequencing data from two European bison bulls from the Bialowieza Forest revealed that the bison and bovine species diverged from about 1.7 to 0.85 Mya through a speciation process involving limited gene flow.[30] These data further support the occurrence of more recent secondary contacts, posterior to the divergence between Bos
Bos
primigenius primigenius and Bos
Bos
p. namadicus (ca. 150,000 years ago), between the wisent and (European) taurine cattle lineages. An independent study of mitochondrial DNA and autosomal markers confirmed these secondary contacts (with an estimate of up to 10% of bovine ancestry in the modern wisent genome) leading the authors to go further in their conclusions by proposing the wisent to be a hybrid between steppe bison and aurochs with an hybridization event originating before 120,000 years ago.[3] This is also consistent with the apparent Bos
Bos
origin of the mitochondrial DNA. Some of the authors however support the hypothesis that similarity of wisent and cattle (Bos) mitochondrial genomes is result of incomplete lineage sorting during divergence of Bos
Bos
and Bison
Bison
from their common ancestors rather than further post-speciation gene flow (ancient hybridization between Bos
Bos
and Bison). But they agree that limited gene flow from Bos
Bos
primigenius taurus could account for the affiliation between wisent and cattle nuclear genomes (in contrast to mitochondrial ones).[31] Alternatively, genome sequencing completed on the Pleistocene woodland bison (B. schoetensaki), and published in 2017, posit that genetic similarities between the Pleistocene woodland bison and the wisent suggest that B. schoetensaki was the ancestor of the European wisent.[4][5] Differences from American bison[edit] Although superficially similar, a number of physical and behavioural differences are seen between the European bison
European bison
and the American bison. The European bison
European bison
has 14 pairs of ribs, while the American bison has 15.[32] Adult European bison
European bison
are (on average) taller than American bison, and have longer legs.[33] European bison
European bison
tend to browse more, and graze less than their American relatives, due to their necks being set differently. Compared to the American bison, the nose of the European bison
European bison
is set further forward than the forehead when the neck is in a neutral position. The body of the European bison
European bison
is less hairy, though its tail is hairier than that of the American species. The horns of the European bison point forward through the plane of their faces, making them more adept at fighting through the interlocking of horns in the same manner as domestic cattle, unlike the American bison, which favours charging.[34] European bison
European bison
are less tameable than the American ones, and breed with domestic cattle less readily.[35] Behaviour and biology[edit] Social structure and territorial behaviours[edit]

Bison
Bison
usually live in small herds of about 10 animals; the image shows a herd in a nursery in the Altai Mountains.

The European bison
European bison
is a herd animal, which lives in both mixed and solely male groups. Mixed groups consist of adult females, calves, young aged 2–3 years, and young adult bulls. The average herd size is dependent on environmental factors, though on average, they number eight to 13 animals per herd. Herds consisting solely of bulls are smaller than mixed ones, containing two individuals on average. European bison
European bison
herds are not family units. Different herds frequently interact, combine, and quickly split after exchanging individuals.[21] Territory held by bulls is correlated by age, with young bulls aged between five and six tending to form larger home ranges than older males. The European bison
European bison
does not defend territory, and herd ranges tend to greatly overlap. Core areas of territory are usually sited near meadows and water sources.[21] Reproduction[edit]

A cow bison nursing calf

The rutting season occurs from August through to October. Bulls aged 4–6 years, though sexually mature, are prevented from mating by older bulls. Cows usually have a gestation period of 264 days, and typically give birth to one calf at a time.[21] On average, male calves weigh 27.6 kg (60.8 lb) at birth, and females 24.4 kg (53.8 lb). Body size in males increases proportionately to the age of 6 years. While females have a higher increase in body mass in their first year, their growth rate is comparatively slower than that of males by the age of 3–5. Bulls reach sexual maturity at the age of two, while cows do so in their third year.[21]

A calf of European bison

European bison
European bison
have lived as long as 30[36] years in captivity, although in the wild their lifespans are shorter. Productive breeding years are between four and 20 years of age in females, and only between six and 12 years of age in males. Diet[edit] European bison
European bison
feed predominantly on grasses, although they also browse on shoots and leaves; in summer, an adult male can consume 32 kg of food in a day.[37] European bison
European bison
in the Białowieża Forest in Poland have traditionally been fed hay in the winter for centuries, and vast herds may gather around this diet supplement.[37] European bison
European bison
need to drink every day, and in winter can be seen breaking ice with their heavy hooves.[38] Despite their usual slow movements, European bison
European bison
are surprisingly agile and can clear 3-m-wide streams or 2-m-high fences from a standing start.[38][39] Conservation[edit]

Bison
Bison
in the Białowieża Forest, 1955

The protection of the European bison
European bison
has a long history; between the 15th and 18th centuries, those in the Forest of Białowieża were protected and their diet supplemented.[40] Efforts to restore this species to the wild began in 1929, with the establishment of the Bison Restitution Centre at Białowieża, Poland.[41][42] Subsequently, in 1948, the Bison
Bison
Breeding Centre was established within the Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve. The modern herds are managed as two separate lines – one consisting of only Bison
Bison
bonasus bonasus (all descended from only seven animals) and one consisting of all 12 ancestors, including the one B. b. caucasicus bull.[43] The latter is generally not considered a separate subspecies because they contain DNA from both B. b. bonasus and B. b. caucasicius, although some scientists classify them as a new subspecies, B. b. montanus.[44] Only a limited amount of inbreeding depression from the population bottleneck has been found, having a small effect on skeletal growth in cows and a small rise in calf mortality. Genetic variability continues to shrink. From five initial bulls, all current European bison
European bison
bulls have one of only two remaining Y chromosomes. Reintroduction[edit]

European bison
European bison
reserve in Spain, where an introduction programme in Castile and Leon
Castile and Leon
is in place.

Beginning in 1951, European bison
European bison
have been reintroduced into the wild, including some areas where they were never found wild.[45] Free-ranging herds are currently found in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Romania, Russia, Slovakia,[46] Latvia, Kyrgyzstan, and Germany,[47] and in forest preserves in the Western Caucasus. Białowieża Forest, an ancient woodland that straddles the border between Poland and Belarus, is now home to 800 wild bison.[48] Herds have also been introduced in Moldova (2005),[49] Spain
Spain
(2010),[50] Denmark (2012),[51] Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(2012) and Czech Republic (2014).[52] Numbers and distribution[edit] Numbers[edit]

A European bison
European bison
at Wildpark Pforzheim in Germany

The total worldwide population is around 4,663 (including 2,701 free-ranging) and has been increasing.[53] Some local populations are estimated as:

Belarus: 1428 animals[54] in 2016. Caucasus: Around 500 animals, population slowly increasing[citation needed] Czech Republic: 75 animals in 2015.[55] Denmark: Two herds were established in the summer of 2012, as part of conservation of the species. First, 14 animals were released near the town of Randers, and later, eight animals on Bornholm.[citation needed] France: One herd was established in 2005 in the Alps near the village of Thorenc (close to the city of Grasse), as part of conservation of the species. In 2015, it contained around 50 animals.[citation needed] Germany: A herd of eight wisents was released into nature in April 2013 at the Rothaarsteig
Rothaarsteig
natural reserve near Bad Berleburg
Bad Berleburg
(North Rhine-Westphalia). As of May 2015, 13 free-roaming wisents lived there.[citation needed] Lithuania: 214 free-ranging animals as of 2017.[56] Netherlands: Kraansvlak herd established in 2007 with three wisents, and expanded to six in 2008;[57] the Maashorst herd established in 2016 with 11 wisents;[58] and the Veluwe
Veluwe
herd established in 2016 with a small herd.[59] numbers in the end of 2017 are: Kraansvlak 22,Maashorst 15 and the veluwe 5 what brings the total population to 42. Poland: 1,434 animals as of 2014, out of which 1,212 are in free-range herds, and 522 belong to the wild population in the Białowieża Forest. Compared to 2013, the total population increased by 4.1%, while the free-ranging population increased by 6.5%.[53] The data for 31 December 2016 showed 1,698 animals living in Poland of which 1,455 are in free-range herds.[60] Romania: Almost 100 animals, population slowly increasing[citation needed] Russia: Around 461, population stable and increasing[citation needed] Slovakia: A bison reserve was established in Topoľčianky
Topoľčianky
in 1958.[61] The reserve has a maximum capacity of 13 animals but has bred around 180 animals for various zoos. There is also a wild breeding herd of 16 animals (2013) in Poloniny National Park
Poloniny National Park
with increasing population.[62] Spain: Two herds in northern Spain
Spain
were established in 2010.[63] Ukraine: A population of around 240 animals, population is unstable and decreasing.[citation needed]

Distribution[edit]

Bison
Bison
sparring in Russia

Since 1983, a small reintroduced population lives in the Altai Mountains. This population suffers from inbreeding depression and needs the introduction of unrelated animals for "blood refreshment". In the long term, authorities hope to establish a population of about 1,000 animals in the area. One of the northernmost current populations of the European bison
European bison
lives in the Vologodskaya Oblast
Vologodskaya Oblast
in the Northern Dvina River valley at about 60°N. It survives without supplementary winter feeding. Another Russian population lives in the forests around the Desna River
Desna River
on the border between Russia
Russia
and Ukraine.[22] The north-easternmost population lives in Pleistocene Park
Pleistocene Park
south of Chersky in Siberia, a project to recreate the steppe ecosystem which began to be altered 10,000 years ago. Five wisents were introduced on 24 April 2011. The wisents were brought to the park from the Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve
Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve
near Moscow. Winter temperatures often drop below -50 °C. Four of the five bison have subsequently died due to problems acclimatizing to the low winter temperature. In June 2012, one male and six females were moved to the Danish island of Bornholm. The plan is to release these animals into the wild after five years of adjusting to the island's environment. The plan is that the bison will aid biodiversity by naturally maintaining open grassland.[64] In 2011, three bison were introduced into Alladale Wilderness Reserve in Scotland. Plans to move more into the reserve were made, but the project failed due to not being "well thought through".[65] In April 2013, eight European bison
European bison
(one male, five females, and two calves) were released into the wild in the Bad Berleburg
Bad Berleburg
region of Germany,[66] after 850 years of absence since the species became extinct in that region.[67] Plans are being made to reintroduce two herds in Germany[68] and in the Netherlands in Oostvaardersplassen
Oostvaardersplassen
Nature Reserve[69] in Flevoland as well as the Veluwe. In 2007, a bison pilot project in a fenced area was begun in Zuid-Kennemerland National Park
Zuid-Kennemerland National Park
in the Netherlands.[70] Because of their limited genetic pool, they are considered highly vulnerable to illnesses such as foot-and-mouth disease. In March 2016, a herd was released in the Maashorst Nature Reserve in North Brabant. Zoos in 30 countries also have quite a few bison involved in captive-breeding programs. See also[edit]

Society for the Protection of the European Bison Vânători-Neamț Natural Park

References[edit]

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Bison
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Bison
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and Natural Habitats. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Tudge, Colin (1992). Last Animals at the Zoo. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-158-9.  ^ "Zagłada i restytucja żubrów". www.oep.neostrada.pl. Retrieved 2017-05-01.  ^ Ley, Willy (December 1964). "The Rarest Animals". For Your Information. Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. 94–103.  ^ Verkaar, EL; Nijman, IJ; Beeke, M; Hanekamp, E; Lenstra, JA (2004). "Maternal and Paternal Lineages in Cross-Breeding Bovine Species. Has Wisent a Hybrid Origin?". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21 (7): 1165–70. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh064. PMID 14739241.  ^ Buntjer, J B; Otsen, M; Nijman, I J; Kuiper, M T R; Lenstra, J A (2002). "Phylogeny of bovine species based on AFLP fingerprinting". Heredity. 88 (1): 46–51. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800007. PMID 11813106.  ^ Gautier, M.; Moazami-Goudarzi, K.; Leveziel, H.; Parinello, H.; Grohs, C.; Rialle, S. J.; Kowalczyk, R.; Flori, L (2016). "Deciphering the wisent demographic and adaptive histories from individual whole-genome sequences". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 33 (11): 2801–2814. doi:10.1093/molbev/msw144. PMC 5062319 . PMID 27436010.  ^ Massilani, Diyendo; Guimaraes, Silvia; Brugal, Jean-Philip; Bennett, E. Andrew; Tokarska, Malgorzata; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Baryshnikov, Gennady; Boeskorov, Gennady; Castel, Jean-Christophe; Davydov, Sergey; Madelaine, Stéphane; Putelat, Olivier; Spasskaya, Natalia N.; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; Grange, Thierry; Geigl, Eva-Maria (21 October 2016). "Past climate changes, population dynamics and the origin of Bison
Bison
in Europe". BMC Biology. 14 (93). doi:10.1186/s12915-016-0317-7. Retrieved 2016-11-29.  ^ The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge by Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain), published by C. Knight, 1835 ^ Trophy Bowhunting: Plan the Hunt of a Lifetime and Bag One for the Record Books, by Rick Sapp, Edition: illustrated, published by Stackpole Books, 2006, ISBN 0-8117-3315-7, 978-0-8117-3315-1 ^ American Bison: A Natural History, By Dale F. Lott, Harry W. Greene, ebrary, Inc., Contributor Harry W. Greene, Edition: illustrated, Published by University of California Press, 2003 ISBN 0-520-24062-6, 978-0-520-24062-9 ^ Zoologist: A Monthly Journal of Natural History, By Edward Newman, James Edmund Harting, Published by J. Van Voorst, 1859 ^ Medeiros, Luísa (3 September 2009). "Female European bison
European bison
in Brasília Zoo may be the species oldest". correiobraziliense.com.br. Retrieved 3 September 2009. (in Portuguese) ^ a b Pucek, Z.; Belousova, I.P.; Krasiñska, M.; Krasiñski, Z.A. & Olech, W. (2004). European Bison
Bison
Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.: IUCN/SSC Bison Specialist Group.  ^ a b Brent Huffman. "Ultimate Ungulate".  ^ Olech, W. (2011). Pers. comm.  ^ Trapani, J. " Bison
Bison
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Diversity Web.  ^ Krasińska, M.; Krasiński, Z. (2007). European bison
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- the nature monograph. Białowieża, Poland.: Mammal
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Research Institute.  ^ Macdonald, D. (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  ^ "Genetic status of the species". Bison
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Info - Caucasian European Bison". www.petermaas.nl. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.  ^ "How The Near-Extinct European Bison
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Made A Comeback". TheDodo.com. Retrieved 10 April 2016.  ^ "Wisents in Slovakia: the population has increased three times since 2004". European Wildlife. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2013.  ^ "Die Wisente kehren nach Deutschland zurück - Wissen & Umwelt". Deutsche Welle. 11 April 2013.  ^ Baczynska, Gabriela (28 September 2008). "FEATURE-Climate change clouds fate of ancient Polish woods". Reuters. Retrieved 28 September 2008.  ^ " Bison
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in the Republic of Moldova", IATP ^ "El bisonte europeo se reimplanta en España". Univision.com. 5 June 2010. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2011.  ^ "Denmark's Bornholm
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island gets rare bison from Poland". bbc.co.uk. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012.  ^ "Wisent rescue in Europe is only at the half-way point". European WILDLIFE. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2016.  ^ a b Żubry w Polsce i na Świecie ^ "В Беларуси подсчитали количество зубров". greenbelarus.info (in Russian). 2016-03-10. Retrieved 2018-03-03.  ^ "V Česku loni žilo 75 zubrů, nejvíce v historii, ukázalo první celostátní sčítání". Česká krajina.  ^ "Mįslė gamtosaugininkams: kaip visą būrį stumbrų perkelti į Dzūkiją". DELFI. 2018-01-09. Retrieved 2018-01-09.  ^ "History Wisentproject Kraansvlak". www.wisenten.nl. Retrieved 2017-03-17.  ^ "Wisent Maashorst". ARK Natuurontwikkeling (in Dutch). 2016-03-17. Retrieved 2017-03-17.  ^ "Wisent op de Veluwe". Stichting Wisent op de Veluwe
Veluwe
(in Dutch). Retrieved 2017-03-17.  ^ http://www.zubry.com/zubr-w-polsce-i-na-swiecie ^ "Zubria zvernica Topolčianky".  ^ "Zubři na Slovensku: populace se od roku 2004 zvětšila téměř čtyřnásobně". Česká krajina.  ^ OKIA. "Biggest bison transport ever Rewilding Europe".  ^ "Denmark's Bornholm
Bornholm
island gets rare bison from Poland". BBC News. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ http://www.alladale.com/downloads/Alladalepress.pdf ^ Bison
Bison
return to Germany after 300-year absence. Mongabay.com ^ Christoph Vetter (1 March 2010). "Wisente erobern die ITB". Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (WAZ), online edition. Retrieved 7 July 2013.  ^ "Startseite - Wisent Welt".  ^ "Second group of 3 European bison
European bison
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This article incorporates text from the ARKive
ARKive
fact-file "European bison" under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License and the GFDL. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bison
Bison
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has information related to European bison

European bison
European bison
media at ARKive
ARKive
Bison
Bison
entry from Walker's Mammals of the World The Extinction Website – Caucasian European bison
European bison
( Bison
Bison
bonasus caucasicus). The Extinction Website – Carpathian European bison
European bison
( Bison
Bison
bonasus hungarorum). European bison/wisent BBC NEWS Reversal fortunes I. Parnikoza, V. Boreiko, V. Sesin, M. Kaliuzhna History, current state and perspectives of conservation of European bison
European bison
in Ukraine // European Bison
Bison
Conservation Newsletter Vol 2 (2009) pp: 5-16 Species
Species
fact sheet on LHNet database "Wisent online" from Browsk Forest District in Białowieża National Park, Poland National Geographic - Rewilding Europe Brings Back the Continent’s Largest Land Animal

v t e

Extant Artiodactyla species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Ruminantia

Antilocapridae

Antilocapra

Pronghorn
Pronghorn
(A. americana)

Giraffidae

Okapia

Okapi
Okapi
(O. johnstoni)

Giraffa

Northern giraffe
Northern giraffe
(G. camelopardalis) Southern giraffe
Southern giraffe
(G. giraffa) Reticulated giraffe
Reticulated giraffe
(G. reticulata) Masai giraffe
Masai giraffe
(G. tippelskirchi)

Moschidae

Moschus

Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer
(M. anhuiensis) Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer
(M. berezovskii) Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer
(M. chrysogaster) Kashmir musk deer
Kashmir musk deer
(M. cupreus) Black musk deer
Black musk deer
(M. fuscus) Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster) Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer
(M. moschiferus)

Tragulidae

Hyemoschus

Water chevrotain
Water chevrotain
(H. aquaticus)

Moschiola

Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain
(M. indica) Yellow-striped chevrotain
Yellow-striped chevrotain
(M. kathygre) Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
(M. meminna)

Tragulus

Java mouse-deer
Java mouse-deer
(T. javanicus) Lesser mouse-deer
Lesser mouse-deer
(T. kanchil) Greater mouse-deer
Greater mouse-deer
(T. napu) Philippine mouse-deer
Philippine mouse-deer
(T. nigricans) Vietnam mouse-deer
Vietnam mouse-deer
(T. versicolor) Williamson's mouse-deer
Williamson's mouse-deer
(T. williamsoni)

Cervidae

Large family listed below

Bovidae

Large family listed below

Family Cervidae

Cervinae

Muntiacus

Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
(M. muntjak) Reeves's muntjac
Reeves's muntjac
(M. reevesi) Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
(M. crinifrons) Fea's muntjac
Fea's muntjac
(M. feae) Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac
(M. atherodes) Roosevelt's muntjac
Roosevelt's muntjac
(M. rooseveltorum) Gongshan muntjac
Gongshan muntjac
(M. gongshanensis) Giant muntjac
Giant muntjac
(M. vuquangensis) Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac
(M. truongsonensis) Leaf muntjac
Leaf muntjac
(M. putaoensis) Sumatran muntjac
Sumatran muntjac
(M. montanus) Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac
(M. puhoatensis)

Elaphodus

Tufted deer
Tufted deer
(E. cephalophus)

Dama

Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(D. dama) Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer
(D. mesopotamica)

Axis

Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

Rucervus

Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii)

Panolia

Eld's deer
Eld's deer
(P. eldii)

Elaphurus

Père David's deer
Père David's deer
(E. davidianus)

Hyelaphus

Hog deer (H. porcinus) Calamian deer
Calamian deer
(H. calamianensis) Bawean deer
Bawean deer
(H. kuhlii)

Rusa

Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) Rusa deer (R. timorensis) Philippine sambar (R. mariannus) Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)

Cervus

Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) Elk
Elk
(C. canadensis) Thorold's deer
Thorold's deer
(C. albirostris) Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon)

Capreolinae

Alces

Moose
Moose
(A. alces)

Hydropotes

Water deer
Water deer
(H. inermis)

Capreolus

Roe deer
Roe deer
(C. capreolus) Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
(C. pygargus)

Rangifer

Reindeer
Reindeer
(R. tarandus)

Hippocamelus

Taruca
Taruca
(H. antisensis) South Andean deer
South Andean deer
(H. bisulcus)

Mazama

Red brocket
Red brocket
(M. americana) Small red brocket
Small red brocket
(M. bororo) Merida brocket
Merida brocket
(M. bricenii) Dwarf brocket
Dwarf brocket
(M. chunyi) Gray brocket
Gray brocket
(M. gouazoubira) Pygmy brocket
Pygmy brocket
(M. nana) Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket
(M. nemorivaga) Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket
(M. pandora) Little red brocket
Little red brocket
(M. rufina) Central American red brocket
Central American red brocket
(M. temama)

Ozotoceros

Pampas deer
Pampas deer
(O. bezoarticus)

Blastocerus

Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

Pudu

Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles) Southern pudú (P. pudu)

Odocoileus

White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus) Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus)

Family Bovidae

Cephalophinae

Cephalophus

Abbott's duiker
Abbott's duiker
(C. spadix) Aders's duiker
Aders's duiker
(C. adersi) Bay duiker
Bay duiker
(C. dorsalis) Black duiker
Black duiker
(C. niger) Black-fronted duiker
Black-fronted duiker
(C. nigrifrons) Brooke's duiker (C. brookei) Harvey's duiker
Harvey's duiker
(C. harveyi) Jentink's duiker
Jentink's duiker
(C. jentinki) Ogilby's duiker
Ogilby's duiker
(C. ogilbyi) Peters's duiker (C. callipygus) Red-flanked duiker
Red-flanked duiker
(C. rufilatus) Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker
(C. natalensis) Ruwenzori duiker
Ruwenzori duiker
(C. rubidis) Weyns's duiker
Weyns's duiker
(C. weynsi) White-bellied duiker
White-bellied duiker
(C. leucogaster) White-legged duiker
White-legged duiker
(C. crusalbum) Yellow-backed duiker
Yellow-backed duiker
(C. Sylvicultor) Zebra duiker
Zebra duiker
(C. zebra)

Philantomba

Blue duiker
Blue duiker
(P. monticola) Maxwell's duiker
Maxwell's duiker
(P. maxwellii) Walter's duiker
Walter's duiker
(P. walteri)

Sylvicapra

Common duiker
Common duiker
(S. grimmia)

Hippotraginae

Hippotragus

Roan antelope
Roan antelope
(H. equinus) Sable antelope
Sable antelope
(H. niger)

Oryx

East African oryx
East African oryx
(O. beisa) Scimitar oryx
Scimitar oryx
(O. dammah) Gemsbok
Gemsbok
(O. gazella) Arabian oryx
Arabian oryx
(O. leucoryx)

Addax

Addax
Addax
(A. nasomaculatus)

Reduncinae

Kobus

Upemba lechwe
Upemba lechwe
(K. anselli) Waterbuck
Waterbuck
(K. ellipsiprymnus) Kob
Kob
(K. kob) Lechwe
Lechwe
(K. leche) Nile lechwe
Nile lechwe
(K. megaceros) Puku
Puku
(K. vardonii)

Redunca

Southern reedbuck
Southern reedbuck
(R. arundinum) Mountain reedbuck
Mountain reedbuck
(R. fulvorufula) Bohor reedbuck
Bohor reedbuck
(R. redunca)

Aepycerotinae

Aepyceros

Impala
Impala
(A. melampus)

Peleinae

Pelea

Grey rhebok
Grey rhebok
(P. capreolus)

Alcelaphinae

Beatragus

Hirola
Hirola
(B. hunteri)

Damaliscus

Topi
Topi
(D. korrigum) Common tsessebe
Common tsessebe
(D. lunatus) Bontebok
Bontebok
(D. pygargus) Bangweulu tsessebe
Bangweulu tsessebe
(D. superstes)

Alcelaphus

Hartebeest
Hartebeest
(A. buselaphus) Red hartebeest
Red hartebeest
(A. caama) Lichtenstein's hartebeest
Lichtenstein's hartebeest
(A. lichtensteinii)

Connochaetes

Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
(C. gnou) Blue wildebeest
Blue wildebeest
(C. taurinus)

Pantholopinae

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Caprinae

Large subfamily listed below

Bovinae

Large subfamily listed below

Antilopinae

Large subfamily listed below

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Caprinae)

Ammotragus

Barbary sheep
Barbary sheep
(A. lervia)

Budorcas

Takin
Takin
(B. taxicolor)

Capra

Wild goat
Wild goat
(C. aegagrus) Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur
(C. caucasia) East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur
(C. cylindricornis) Markhor
Markhor
(C. falconeri) Alpine ibex
Alpine ibex
(C. ibex) Nubian ibex
Nubian ibex
(C. nubiana) Spanish ibex
Spanish ibex
(C. pyrenaica) Siberian ibex
Siberian ibex
(C. sibirica) Walia ibex
Walia ibex
(C. walie)

Capricornis

Japanese serow
Japanese serow
(C. crispus) Taiwan serow
Taiwan serow
(C. swinhoei) Sumatran serow
Sumatran serow
(C. sumatraensis) Mainland serow
Mainland serow
(C. milneedwardsii) Red serow
Red serow
(C. rubidusi) Himalayan serow
Himalayan serow
(C. thar)

Hemitragus

Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(H. hylocrius) Arabian tahr
Arabian tahr
(H. jayakari) Himalayan tahr
Himalayan tahr
(H. jemlahicus)

Naemorhedus

Red goral
Red goral
(N. baileyi) Long-tailed goral
Long-tailed goral
(N. caudatus) Himalayan goral
Himalayan goral
(N. goral) Chinese goral
Chinese goral
(N. griseus)

Oreamnos

Mountain goat
Mountain goat
(O. americanus)

Ovibos

Muskox
Muskox
(O. moschatus)

Ovis

Argali
Argali
(O. ammon) Domestic sheep (O. aries) Bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep
(O. canadensis) Dall sheep
Dall sheep
(O. dalli) Mouflon
Mouflon
(O. musimon) Snow sheep
Snow sheep
(O. nivicola) Urial
Urial
(O. orientalis)

Pseudois

Bharal
Bharal
(P. nayaur) Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
(P. schaeferi)

Rupicapra

Pyrenean chamois
Pyrenean chamois
(R. pyrenaica) Chamois
Chamois
(R. rupicapra)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Bovinae)

Boselaphini

Tetracerus

Four-horned antelope
Four-horned antelope
(T. quadricornis)

Boselaphus

Nilgai
Nilgai
(B. tragocamelus)

Bovini

Bubalus

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
(B. bubalis) Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee) Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) Tamaraw
Tamaraw
(B. mindorensis)

Bos

Banteng
Banteng
(B. javanicus) Gaur
Gaur
(B. gaurus) Gayal
Gayal
(B. frontalis) Domestic yak
Domestic yak
(B. grunniens) Wild yak
Wild yak
(B. mutus) Cattle
Cattle
(B. taurus) Kouprey
Kouprey
(B. sauveli)

Pseudonovibos

Kting voar (P. spiralis)

Pseudoryx

Saola
Saola
(P. nghetinhensis)

Syncerus

African buffalo
African buffalo
(S. caffer)

Bison

American bison
American bison
(B. bison) European bison
European bison
(B. bonasus)

Tragelaphini

Tragelaphus (including kudus)

Sitatunga
Sitatunga
(T. spekeii) Nyala
Nyala
(T. angasii) Kéwel
Kéwel
(T. scriptus) Cape bushbuck
Cape bushbuck
(T. sylvaticus) Mountain nyala
Mountain nyala
(T. buxtoni) Lesser kudu
Lesser kudu
(T. imberbis) Greater kudu
Greater kudu
(T. strepsiceros) Bongo (T. eurycerus)

Taurotragus

Common eland
Common eland
(T. oryx) Giant eland
Giant eland
(T. derbianus)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Antilopinae)

Antilopini

Ammodorcas

Dibatag
Dibatag
(A. clarkei)

Antidorcas

Springbok
Springbok
(A. marsupialis)

Antilope

Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(A. cervicapra)

Eudorcas

Mongalla gazelle
Mongalla gazelle
(E. albonotata) Red-fronted gazelle
Red-fronted gazelle
(E. rufifrons) Thomson's gazelle
Thomson's gazelle
(E. thomsonii) Heuglin's gazelle
Heuglin's gazelle
(E. tilonura)

Gazella

Mountain gazelle
Mountain gazelle
(G. gazella) Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri) Speke's gazelle
Speke's gazelle
(G. spekei) Dorcas gazelle
Dorcas gazelle
(G. dorcas) Chinkara
Chinkara
(G. bennettii) Cuvier's gazelle
Cuvier's gazelle
(G. cuvieri) Rhim gazelle
Rhim gazelle
(G. leptoceros) Goitered gazelle
Goitered gazelle
(G. subgutturosa)

Litocranius

Gerenuk
Gerenuk
(L. walleri)

Nanger

Dama gazelle
Dama gazelle
(N. dama) Grant's gazelle
Grant's gazelle
(N. granti) Soemmerring's gazelle
Soemmerring's gazelle
(N. soemmerringii)

Procapra

Mongolian gazelle
Mongolian gazelle
(P. gutturosa) Goa (P. picticaudata) Przewalski's gazelle
Przewalski's gazelle
(P. przewalskii)

Saigini

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Saiga

Saiga antelope
Saiga antelope
(S. tatarica)

Neotragini

Dorcatragus

Beira (D. megalotis)

Madoqua

Günther's dik-dik
Günther's dik-dik
(M. guentheri) Kirk's dik-dik
Kirk's dik-dik
(M. kirkii) Silver dik-dik
Silver dik-dik
(M. piacentinii) Salt's dik-dik
Salt's dik-dik
(M. saltiana)

Neotragus

Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope
(N. batesi) Suni
Suni
(N. moschatus) Royal antelope
Royal antelope
(N. pygmaeus)

Oreotragus

Klipspringer
Klipspringer
(O. oreotragus)

Ourebia

Oribi
Oribi
(O. ourebi)

Raphicerus

Steenbok
Steenbok
(R. campestris) Cape grysbok
Cape grysbok
(R. melanotis) Sharpe's grysbok
Sharpe's grysbok
(R. sharpei)

Suborder Suina

Suidae

Babyrousa

Buru babirusa
Buru babirusa
(B. babyrussa) North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa
(B. celebensis) Togian babirusa
Togian babirusa
(B. togeanensis)

Hylochoerus

Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog
(H. meinertzhageni)

Phacochoerus

Desert warthog
Desert warthog
(P. aethiopicus) Common warthog
Common warthog
(P. africanus)

Porcula

Pygmy hog
Pygmy hog
(P. salvania)

Potamochoerus

Bushpig
Bushpig
(P. larvatus) Red river hog
Red river hog
(P. porcus)

Sus (Pigs)

Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig
(S. ahoenobarbus) Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig
(S. barbatus) Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus) Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig
(S. cebifrons) Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
(S. celebensis) Flores warty pig (S. heureni) Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig
(S. oliveri) Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig
(S. philippensis) Wild boar
Wild boar
(S. scrofa) Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis) Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig
(S. verrucosus)

Tayassuidae

Tayassu

White-lipped peccary
White-lipped peccary
(T. pecari)

Catagonus

Chacoan peccary
Chacoan peccary
(C. wagneri)

Pecari

Collared peccary
Collared peccary
(P. tajacu) Giant peccary (P. maximus)

Suborder Tylopoda

Camelidae

Lama

Llama
Llama
(L. glama) Guanaco
Guanaco
(L. guanicoe)

Vicugna

Vicuña
Vicuña
(V. vicugna) Alpaca
Alpaca
(V. pacos)

Camelus

Dromedary
Dromedary
(C. dromedarius) Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. ferus)

Whippomorpha
Whippomorpha
(unranked clade)

Hippopotamidae

Hippopotamus

Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus
(H. amphibius)

Choeropsis

Pygmy hippopotamus
Pygmy hippopotamus
(C. liberiensis)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q81091 ADW: Bison_bonasus ARKive: bison-bonasus EoL: 328110 EPPO: BISOBO Fauna Europaea: 305222 Fossilworks: 149695 GBIF: 2441184 ITIS: 183836 IUCN: 2814 MSW: 1420067