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William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom
King of the United Kingdom
and King of Hanover
King of Hanover
from 26 June 1830 until his death. The third son of George III, William succeeded his elder brother George IV, as the last king and penultimate monarch of Britain's House of Hanover. William served in the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in his youth and was, both during his reign and afterwards, nicknamed the "Sailor King".[1][2] He served in North America and the Caribbean. In 1789, he was created Duke
Duke
of Clarence and St Andrews. In 1827, he was appointed as Britain's first Lord High Admiral
Admiral
since 1709. Since his two older brothers died without leaving legitimate issue, he inherited the throne when he was 64 years old. His reign saw several reforms: the poor law was updated, child labour restricted, slavery abolished in nearly all of the British Empire, and the British electoral system refashioned by the Reform Act 1832. Although William did not engage in politics as much as his brother or his father, he was the last monarch to appoint a prime minister contrary to the will of Parliament. Through his brother Adolphus, the Viceroy
Viceroy
of Hanover, he granted his German kingdom a short-lived liberal constitution. At the time of his death William had no surviving legitimate children, but he was survived by eight of the ten illegitimate children he had by the actress Dorothea Jordan, with whom he cohabited for twenty years. William was succeeded in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
by his niece Victoria and in Hanover
Hanover
by his brother Ernest Augustus.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Service and politics 3 Relationships and marriage 4 Lord High Admiral 5 Reign

5.1 Early reign 5.2 Reform crisis 5.3 Foreign policy 5.4 King of Hanover 5.5 Later reign

6 Legacy 7 Titles, styles, honours, and arms

7.1 Titles and styles 7.2 Honours 7.3 Arms

8 Issue 9 Ancestry 10 See also 11 References 12 Sources 13 External links

Early life[edit] William was born in the early hours of the morning on 21 August 1765 at Buckingham House, the third child and son of King George III
George III
and Queen Charlotte.[3] He had two elder brothers, George and Frederick, and was not expected to inherit the Crown. He was baptised in the Great Council Chamber of St James's Palace
St James's Palace
on 20 September 1765. His godparents were his paternal uncles, the Duke
Duke
of Gloucester and Prince Henry (later Duke
Duke
of Cumberland), and his paternal aunt, Princess Augusta, then hereditary duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.[4]

William aged thirteen (left) and his younger brother Edward, painted by Benjamin West, 1778

He spent most of his early life in Richmond and at Kew Palace, where he was educated by private tutors.[5] At the age of thirteen, he joined the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
as a midshipman,[6] and was present at the Battle of Cape St Vincent in 1780.[7] His experiences in the navy seem to have been little different from those of other midshipmen, though in contrast to other sailors he was accompanied on board ships by a tutor. He did his share of the cooking[8] and got arrested with his shipmates after a drunken brawl in Gibraltar; he was hastily released from custody after his identity became known.[9] He served in New York during the American War of Independence. While William was in America, George Washington
George Washington
approved a plot to kidnap him, writing: "The spirit of enterprise so conspicuous in your plan for surprising in their quarters and bringing off the Prince William Henry and Admiral
Admiral
Digby merits applause; and you have my authority to make the attempt in any manner, and at such a time, as your judgment may direct. I am fully persuaded, that it is unnecessary to caution you against offering insult or indignity to the persons of the Prince or Admiral..."[10] The plot did not come to fruition; the British heard of it and assigned guards to William, who had up till then walked around New York unescorted.[11] He became a lieutenant in 1785 and captain of HMS Pegasus the following year.[12] In late 1786, he was stationed in the West Indies under Horatio Nelson, who wrote of William: "In his professional line, he is superior to two-thirds, I am sure, of the [Naval] list; and in attention to orders, and respect to his superior officer, I hardly know his equal."[13] The two were great friends, and dined together almost nightly. At Nelson's wedding, William insisted on giving the bride away.[14] He was given command of the frigate HMS Andromeda in 1788, and was promoted to rear-admiral in command of HMS Valiant the following year.[15] William sought to be made a duke like his elder brothers, and to receive a similar parliamentary grant, but his father was reluctant. To put pressure on him, William threatened to stand for the House of Commons for the constituency of Totnes in Devon. Appalled at the prospect of his son making his case to the voters, George III
George III
created him Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
and Earl of Munster
Earl of Munster
on 16 May 1789,[16] supposedly saying: "I well know it is another vote added to the Opposition."[17] William's political record was inconsistent and, like many politicians of the time, cannot be certainly ascribed to a single party. He allied himself publicly with the Whigs as well as his elder brothers George, Prince of Wales, and Frederick, Duke
Duke
of York, who were known to be in conflict with the political positions of their father.[18] Service and politics[edit]

William in dress uniform painted by Sir Martin Archer Shee, c.1800

William ceased his active service in the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in 1790.[19] When Britain declared war on France in 1793, he was anxious to serve his country and expected a command, but was not given a ship, perhaps at first because he had broken his arm by falling down some stairs drunk, but later perhaps because he gave a speech in the House of Lords opposing the war.[20] The following year he spoke in favour of the war, expecting a command after his change of heart; none came. The Admiralty
Admiralty
did not reply to his request.[21] He did not lose hope of being appointed to an active post. In 1798 he was made an admiral, but the rank was purely nominal.[22] Despite repeated petitions, he was never given a command throughout the Napoleonic Wars.[23] In 1811, he was appointed to the honorary position of Admiral
Admiral
of the Fleet. In 1813, he came nearest to any actual fighting, when he visited the British troops fighting in the Low Countries. Watching the bombardment of Antwerp
Antwerp
from a church steeple, he came under fire, and a bullet pierced his coat.[24] Instead of serving at sea, he spent time in the House of Lords, where he spoke in opposition to the abolition of slavery, which although not legal in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
still existed in the British colonies. Freedom would do the slaves little good, he argued. He had travelled widely and, in his eyes, the living standard among freemen in the Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
of Scotland was worse than that among slaves in the West Indies.[25] His experience in the Caribbean, where he "quickly absorbed the plantation owners' views about slavery",[26] lent weight to his position, which was perceived as well-argued and just by some of his contemporaries.[27] In his first speech before Parliament he called himself "an attentive observer of the state of the negroes" who found them well cared for and "in a state of humble happiness".[28] Others thought it "shocking that so young a man, under no bias of interest, should be earnest in continuance of the slave trade".[29] In his speech to the House of Lords, William insulted William Wilberforce, the leading abolitionist, saying: "the proponents of the abolition are either fanatics or hypocrites, and in one of those classes I rank Mr. Wilberforce".[30] On other issues he was more liberal, such as supporting moves to abolish penal laws against dissenting Christians.[31] He also opposed efforts to bar those found guilty of adultery from remarriage.[32] Relationships and marriage[edit] From 1791 William lived with an Irish actress, Dorothea Bland, better known by her stage name, Mrs. Jordan,[19] the title "Mrs." being assumed at the start of her stage career to explain an inconvenient pregnancy[33] and "Jordan" because she had "crossed the water" from Ireland to Britain.[34]

Mrs. Jordan in the Character of Hypolita, mezzotint by John Jones of London, 1791, after a painting by John Hoppner

William was part of the first generation to grow to maturity under the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which forbade descendants of George II from marrying unless they either obtained the monarch's consent or, if over the age of 25, gave twelve months' notice to the Privy Council. Several of George III's sons, including William, chose to cohabit with the women they loved, rather than seek a wife. Having legitimate issue was not a primary concern for William, as he was one of the younger sons of George III, he was not expected to figure in the succession, which was considered secure once the Prince of Wales married and had a daughter, Princess Charlotte, second-in-line to the throne. William appeared to enjoy the domesticity of his life with Mrs. Jordan, remarking to a friend: "Mrs. Jordan is a very good creature, very domestic and careful of her children. To be sure she is absurd sometimes and has her humours. But there are such things more or less in all families." The couple, while living quietly, enjoyed entertaining, with Mrs. Jordan writing in late 1809: "We shall have a full and merry house this Christmas, 'tis what the dear Duke
Duke
delights in."[35] George III
George III
was accepting of his son's relationship with the actress (though recommending that he halve her allowance);[36] in 1797, he created William Ranger of Bushy Park, which included a large residence, Bushy House, for William's growing family.[37] William used Bushy as his principal residence until he became king.[38] His London residence, Clarence House, was constructed to the designs of John Nash between 1825 and 1827.[39] The couple had ten illegitimate children—five sons and five daughters—nine of whom were named after William's siblings; each was given the surname "FitzClarence".[40][41] Their affair lasted for twenty years before ending in 1811. Mrs. Jordan had no doubt as to the reason for the break-up: "Money, money, my good friend, has, I am convinced made HIM at this moment the most wretched of men," adding, "With all his excellent qualities, his domestic virtues, his love for his lovely children, what must he not at this moment suffer?"[42] She was given a financial settlement of £4,400 (equivalent to £293,000 today[43]) per year and custody of her daughters on condition that she did not resume the stage. When she resumed acting in an effort to repay debts incurred by the husband of one of her daughters from a previous relationship, William took custody of the daughters and stopped paying the £1,500 (equivalent to £96,300 today[43]) designated for their maintenance. After Mrs. Jordan's acting career began to fail, she fled to France to escape her creditors, and died, impoverished, near Paris in 1816.[44] Before he met Mrs. Jordan, William had an illegitimate son whose mother is unknown; the son, also called William, drowned off Madagascar
Madagascar
in HMS Blenheim in February 1807.[45] Caroline von Linsingen, whose father was a general in the Hanoverian infantry, claimed to have had a son, Heinrich, by William in around 1790 but William was not in Hanover
Hanover
at the time that she claims and the story is considered implausible by historians.[46]

"The Disconsolate Sailor", 1811: a cartoon by Charles Williams about Catherine Tylney-Long's choice between the Duke
Duke
of Clarence (right) and William Wesley-Pole (left)

Deeply in debt, William made multiple attempts at marrying a wealthy heiress such as Catherine Tylney-Long, but his suits were unsuccessful.[47] Following the death of William's niece Princess Charlotte of Wales, then second-in-line to the British throne, in 1817, the king was left with twelve children, but no legitimate grandchildren. The race was on among the royal dukes to marry and produce an heir. William had great advantages in this race—his two older brothers were both childless and estranged from their wives, who were both beyond childbearing age anyway, and William was the healthiest of the three.[48] If he lived long enough, he would almost certainly ascend the British and Hanoverian thrones, and have the opportunity to sire the next monarch. William's initial choices of potential wives either met with the disapproval of his eldest brother, the Prince of Wales, or turned him down. William's younger brother Adolphus, the Duke
Duke
of Cambridge, was sent to Germany to scout out the available Protestant princesses; he came up with Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel, but her father Frederick declined the match.[49] Two months later, the Duke
Duke
of Cambridge married Augusta himself. Eventually, a princess was found who was amiable, home-loving, and was willing to accept, even enthusiastically welcoming William's nine surviving children, several of whom had not yet reached adulthood.[50] In the Drawing Room at Kew Palace
Kew Palace
on 11 July 1818,[51] William married Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, the daughter of George I, Duke
Duke
of Saxe-Meiningen. At 25, Adelaide was half William's age.

Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
by Sir William Beechey, c. 1831

Their marriage, which lasted almost twenty years until William's death, was a happy one. Adelaide took both William and his finances in hand. For their first year of marriage, the couple lived in economical fashion in Germany, and William's debts were soon on the way to being paid, especially since Parliament had voted him an increased allowance, which he reluctantly accepted after his requests to have it increased further were refused.[52] William is not known to have had mistresses after his marriage.[15][53][54] The couple had two short-lived daughters and Adelaide suffered three miscarriages.[55] Despite this, false rumours that Adelaide was pregnant persisted into William's reign—he dismissed them as "damned stuff".[56] Lord High Admiral[edit]

William, as Lord High Admiral, print by William James Ward, after Abraham Wivell's painting, first published in 1827

William's elder brother, the Prince of Wales, had been Prince Regent since 1811 because of the mental illness of their father, George III. In 1820, the King died, leaving the Crown to the Prince Regent, who became George IV. William, Duke
Duke
of Clarence, was now second in the line of succession, preceded only by his brother, Frederick, Duke
Duke
of York. Reformed since his marriage, William walked for hours, ate relatively frugally, and the only drink he imbibed in quantity was barley water flavoured with lemon.[57] Both of his older brothers were unhealthy, and it was considered only a matter of time before he became king.[58] When the Duke
Duke
of York died in 1827, William, then more than 60 years old, became heir presumptive. Later that year, the incoming Prime Minister, George Canning, appointed him to the office of Lord High Admiral, which had been in commission (that is, exercised by a board rather than by a single individual) since 1709. While in office, William had repeated conflicts with his Council, which was composed of Admiralty
Admiralty
officers. Things finally came to a head in 1828 when, as Lord High Admiral, he put to sea with a squadron of ships, leaving no word of where they were going, and remaining away for ten days. The King, through the Prime Minister, by now Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke
Duke
of Wellington, requested his resignation; he complied.[53] Despite the difficulties William experienced, he did considerable good as Lord High Admiral. He abolished the cat o' nine tails for most offences other than mutiny, attempted to improve the standard of naval gunnery and required regular reports of the condition and preparedness of each ship. He commissioned the first steam warship and advocated more.[59] Holding the office permitted him to make mistakes and learn from them—a process that might have been far more costly if he had not learnt before becoming King that he should act only with the advice of his councillors.[53][60] William spent the remaining time during his brother's reign in the House of Lords. He supported the Catholic Emancipation
Catholic Emancipation
Bill against the opposition of his younger brother, Ernest Augustus, Duke
Duke
of Cumberland, describing the latter's position on the Bill as "infamous", to the Duke
Duke
of Cumberland's outrage.[61] George IV's health was increasingly bad; it was obvious by early 1830 that he was near death. The King took his leave of his younger brother at the end of May, stating, "God's will be done. I have injured no man. It will all rest on you then."[62] William's genuine affection for his older brother could not mask his rising anticipation that he would soon be king.[61][63]

Reign[edit] Early reign[edit]

Portrait by James Lonsdale, 1830

When King George IV
George IV
died on 26 June 1830 without surviving legitimate issue, William succeeded him as King William IV. Aged 64, he was the oldest person yet to assume the British throne.[64] Unlike his extravagant brother, William was unassuming, discouraging pomp and ceremony. In contrast to George IV, who tended to spend most of his time in Windsor Castle, William was known, especially early in his reign, to walk, unaccompanied, through London or Brighton. Until the Reform Crisis eroded his standing, he was very popular among the people, who saw him as more approachable and down-to-earth than his brother.[65] The King immediately proved himself a conscientious worker. His first Prime Minister Arthur Wellesley, the Duke
Duke
of Wellington, stated that he had done more business with King William in ten minutes than he had with George IV
George IV
in as many days.[66] Lord Brougham described him as an excellent man of business, asking enough questions to help him understand the matter—whereas George IV
George IV
feared to ask questions lest he display his ignorance and George III
George III
would ask too many and then not wait for a response.[67] The King did his best to endear himself to the people. Charlotte Williams-Wynn wrote shortly after his accession: "Hitherto the King has been indefatigable in his efforts to make himself popular, and do good natured and amiable things in every possible instance."[68] Emily Eden noted: "He is an immense improvement on the last unforgiving animal, who died growling sulkily in his den at Windsor. This man at least wishes to make everybody happy, and everything he has done has been benevolent."[69] William dismissed his brother's French chefs and German band, replacing them with English ones to public approval. He gave much of George IV's art collection to the nation, and halved the royal stud. George IV
George IV
had begun an extensive (and expensive) renovation of Buckingham Palace; William refused to reside there, and twice tried to give the palace away, once to the Army as a barracks, and once to Parliament after the Houses of Parliament
Houses of Parliament
burned down in 1834.[70] His informality could be startling: When in residence at the Royal Pavilion in Brighton, King William used to send to the hotels for a list of their guests and invite anyone he knew to dinner, urging guests not to "bother about clothes. The Queen does nothing but embroider flowers after dinner."[71] Upon taking the throne, William did not forget his nine surviving illegitimate children, creating his eldest son Earl of Munster
Earl of Munster
and granting the other children the precedence of a younger son (or daughter) of a marquess. Despite this, his children importuned for greater opportunities, disgusting elements of the press who reported that the "impudence and rapacity of the FitzJordans is unexampled".[72] The relationship between William and his sons "was punctuated by a series of savage and, for the King at least, painful quarrels" over money and honours.[73] His daughters, on the other hand, proved an ornament to his court, as, "They are all, you know, pretty and lively, and make society in a way that real princesses could not."[74] Reform crisis[edit] At the time, the death of the monarch required fresh elections and, in the general election of 1830, Wellington's Tories lost ground to the Whigs under Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, though the Tories still had the largest number of seats. With the Tories bitterly divided, Wellington was defeated in the House of Commons in November, and Lord Grey formed a government. Grey pledged to reform the electoral system, which had seen few changes since the fifteenth century. The inequities in the system were great; for example, large towns such as Manchester and Birmingham
Birmingham
elected no members (though they were part of county constituencies), while small boroughs, known as rotten or pocket boroughs—such as Old Sarum with just seven voters—elected two members of Parliament each. Often, the rotten boroughs were controlled by great aristocrats, whose nominees were invariably elected by the constituents—who were, most often, their tenants—especially since the secret ballot was not yet used in Parliamentary elections. Landowners who controlled seats were even able to sell them to prospective candidates.[75]

Political cartoon supporting the Reform Act: King William sits above the clouds, surrounded by Whig politicians; below Britannia
Britannia
and the British Lion cause the Tories to flee.

When the House of Commons defeated the First Reform Bill in 1831, Grey's ministry urged William to dissolve Parliament, which would lead to a new general election. At first, William hesitated to exercise his prerogative to dissolve Parliament because elections had just been held the year before and the country was in a state of high excitement which might boil over into violence. He was, however, irritated by the conduct of the Opposition, which announced its intention to move the passage of an Address, or resolution, in the House of Lords, against dissolution. Regarding the Opposition's motion as an attack on his prerogative, and at the urgent request of Lord Grey and his ministers, William IV prepared to go in person to the House of Lords
House of Lords
and prorogue Parliament.[76] The monarch's arrival would stop all debate and prevent passage of the Address.[77] When initially told that his horses could not be ready at such short notice, William is supposed to have said, "Then I will go in a hackney cab!"[77] Coach and horses were assembled quickly and William immediately proceeded to Parliament. Said The Times
The Times
of the scene before William's arrival, "It is utterly impossible to describe the scene ... The violent tones and gestures of noble Lords ... astonished the spectators, and affected the ladies who were present with visible alarm."[78] Lord Londonderry brandished a whip, threatening to thrash the Government supporters, and was held back by four of his colleagues. William hastily put on the crown, entered the Chamber, and dissolved Parliament.[79] This forced new elections for the House of Commons, which yielded a great victory for the reformers. But although the House of Commons was clearly in favour of parliamentary reform, the House of Lords
House of Lords
remained implacably opposed to it.[80] The crisis saw a brief interlude for the celebration of the King's Coronation on 8 September 1831. At first, William wished to dispense with the coronation entirely, feeling that his wearing the crown while proroguing Parliament answered any need.[81] He was persuaded otherwise by traditionalists. He refused, however, to celebrate the coronation in the expensive way his brother had—the 1821 coronation had cost £240,000, of which £16,000 was merely to hire the jewels. At William's instructions, the Privy Council budgeted less than £30,000 for the coronation.[82] When traditionalist Tories threatened to boycott what they called the "Half Crown-nation",[83] the King retorted that they should go ahead, and that he anticipated "greater convenience of room and less heat".[84] After the rejection of the Second Reform Bill by the Upper House in October 1831, agitation for reform grew across the country; demonstrations grew violent in so-called "Reform Riots". In the face of popular excitement, the Grey ministry refused to accept defeat in the House of Lords, and re-introduced the Bill, which still faced difficulties in the House of Lords. Frustrated by the Lords' recalcitrance, Grey suggested that the King create a sufficient number of new peers to ensure the passage of the Reform Bill. The King objected—though he had the power to create an unlimited number of peers, he had already created 22 new peers in his Coronation Honours.[85] William reluctantly agreed to the creation of the number of peers sufficient "to secure the success of the bill".[86] However, the King, citing the difficulties with a permanent expansion of the peerage, told Grey that the creations must be restricted as much as possible to the eldest sons and collateral heirs of existing peers, so that the created peerages would eventually be absorbed as subsidiary titles. This time, the Lords did not reject the bill outright, but began preparing to change its basic character through amendments. Grey and his fellow ministers decided to resign if the King did not agree to an immediate and large creation to force the bill through in its entirety.[87] The King refused, and accepted their resignations. The King attempted to restore the Duke
Duke
of Wellington to office, but Wellington had insufficient support to form a ministry and the King's popularity sank to an all-time low. Mud was slung at his carriage and he was publicly hissed. The King agreed to reappoint Grey's ministry, and to create new peers if the House of Lords
House of Lords
continued to pose difficulties. Concerned by the threat of the creations, most of the bill's opponents abstained and the Reform Act 1832
Reform Act 1832
was passed. The mob blamed William's actions on the influence of his wife and brother, and his popularity recovered.[88] Foreign policy[edit] William distrusted foreigners, particularly anyone French,[89] which he acknowledged as a "prejudice".[90] He also felt strongly that Britain should not interfere in the internal affairs of other nations, which brought him into conflict with the interventionist Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston.[91] William supported Belgian independence and, after unacceptable Dutch and French candidates were put forward, favoured Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the widower of his niece, Charlotte, as a candidate for the newly created Belgian throne.[92] Though he had a reputation for tactlessness and buffoonery, William could be shrewd and diplomatic. He foresaw that the potential construction of a canal at Suez would make good relations with Egypt vital to Britain.[93] Later in his reign, he flattered the American ambassador at a dinner by announcing that he regretted not being "born a free, independent American, so much did he respect that nation, which had given birth to George Washington, the greatest man that ever lived".[94] By exercising his personal charm, William assisted in the repair of Anglo-American relations, which had been so deeply damaged during the reign of his father.[95] King of Hanover[edit] William never visited Hanover
Hanover
as its king. His brother, Prince Adolphus, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge, acted as viceroy there throughout William's reign as he had throughout George IV's reign. Public perception in Germany was that Britain dictated Hanoverian policy. This was not the case. In 1832, Metternich introduced laws that curbed fledgling liberal movements in Germany. Britain's Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston opposed this, and sought William's influence to cause the Hanoverian government to take the same position. The Hanoverian government instead agreed with Metternich, much to Palmerston's dismay, and William declined to intervene. The conflict between William and Palmerston over Hanover
Hanover
was renewed the following year when Metternich called a conference of the German states, to be held in Vienna, and Palmerston wanted Hanover
Hanover
to decline the invitation. Instead, the Viceroy
Viceroy
accepted, backed fully by William.[96] In 1833, William signed a new constitution for Hanover, which empowered the middle class, gave limited power to the lower classes, and expanded the role of the parliament of Hanover. The constitution was revoked after William's death by the new king, William's brother, Ernest Augustus. Later reign[edit]

Portrait by Sir David Wilkie, 1837

For the remainder of his reign, William interfered actively in politics only once, in 1834, when he became the last British sovereign to choose a prime minister contrary to the will of Parliament. In 1834, the ministry was facing increasing unpopularity and Lord Grey retired; the Home Secretary, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, replaced him. Lord Melbourne retained most Cabinet members, and his ministry retained an overwhelming majority in the House of Commons. Some members of the Government, however, were anathema to the King, and increasingly left-wing policies concerned him. The previous year Grey had already pushed through a bill reforming the Protestant Church of Ireland. The Church collected tithes throughout Ireland, supported multiple bishoprics and was wealthy. However, barely an eighth of the Irish population belonged to the Church of Ireland. In some parishes, there were no Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
members at all, but there was still a priest paid for by tithes collected from the local Catholics and Presbyterians, leading to charges that idle priests were living in luxury at the expense of the Irish living at the level of subsistence. Grey's bill had reduced the number of bishoprics by half, abolished some of the sinecures and overhauled the tithe system. Further measures to appropriate the surplus revenues of the Church of Ireland were mooted by the more radical members of the Government, including Lord John Russell.[97] The King had an especial dislike for Russell, calling him "a dangerous little Radical."[98]

Half-Crown of William IV, 1836. The inscription reads GULIELMUS IIII D(EI) G(RATIA) BRITANNIAR(UM) REX F(IDEI) D(EFENSOR) (William IV by the Grace of God King of the Britains, Defender of the Faith)

William IV drawn by his daughter Sophia de L'Isle and Dudley in early 1837

In November 1834, the Leader of the House of Commons
Leader of the House of Commons
and Chancellor of the Exchequer, John Charles Spencer, Viscount Althorp, inherited a peerage, thus removing him from the House of Commons to the Lords. Melbourne had to appoint a new Commons leader and a new Chancellor (who by long custom, must be drawn from the Commons), but the only candidate whom Melbourne felt suitable to replace Althorp as Commons leader was Lord John Russell, who William (and many others) found unacceptable due to his radical politics. William claimed that the ministry had been weakened beyond repair and used the removal of Lord Althorp—who had previously indicated that he would retire from politics upon becoming a peer[99]—as the pretext for the dismissal of the entire ministry. With Lord Melbourne gone, William chose to entrust power to a Tory, Sir Robert Peel. Since Peel was then in Italy, the Duke
Duke
of Wellington was provisionally appointed Prime Minister.[100] When Peel returned and assumed leadership of the ministry for himself, he saw the impossibility of governing because of the Whig majority in the House of Commons. Consequently, Parliament was dissolved to force fresh elections. Although the Tories won more seats than in the previous election, they were still in the minority. Peel remained in office for a few months, but resigned after a series of parliamentary defeats. Lord Melbourne was restored to the Prime Minister's office, remaining there for the rest of William's reign, and the King was forced to accept Russell as Commons leader.[101] The King had a mixed relationship with Lord Melbourne. Melbourne's government mooted more ideas to introduce greater democracy, such as the devolution of powers to the Legislative Council of Lower Canada, which greatly alarmed the King, who feared it would eventually lead to the loss of the colony.[102] At first, the King bitterly opposed these proposals. William exclaimed to Lord Gosford, Governor General-designate of Canada: "Mind what you are about in Canada ... mind me, my Lord, the Cabinet is not my Cabinet; they had better take care or by God, I will have them impeached."[103] When William's son Augustus FitzClarence
FitzClarence
enquired of his father whether the King would be entertaining during Ascot week, William gloomily replied, "I cannot give any dinners without inviting the ministers, and I would rather see the devil than any one of them in my house."[104] Nevertheless, William approved the Cabinet's recommendations for reform.[105] Despite his disagreements with Lord Melbourne, the King wrote warmly to congratulate the Prime Minister when he triumphed in the adultery case brought against him concerning Lady Caroline Norton—he had refused to permit Melbourne to resign when the case was first brought.[106] The King and Prime Minister eventually found a modus vivendi; Melbourne applying tact and firmness when called for; while William realised that his First Minister was far less radical in his politics than the King had feared.[104] Both the King and Queen were fond of their niece, Princess Victoria of Kent. Their attempts to forge a close relationship with the girl were frustrated by the conflict between the King and the Duchess of Kent, the young princess' widowed mother. The King, angered at what he took to be disrespect from the Duchess to his wife, took the opportunity at what proved to be his final birthday banquet in August 1836 to settle the score. Speaking to those assembled at the banquet, who included the Duchess and Princess Victoria, William expressed his hope that he would survive until Princess Victoria was 18 so that the Duchess of Kent would never be regent. He said, "I trust to God that my life may be spared for nine months longer ... I should then have the satisfaction of leaving the exercise of the Royal authority to the personal authority of that young lady, heiress presumptive to the Crown, and not in the hands of a person now near me, who is surrounded by evil advisers and is herself incompetent to act with propriety in the situation in which she would be placed."[107] The speech was so shocking that Victoria burst into tears, while her mother sat in silence and was only with difficulty persuaded not to leave immediately after dinner (the two left the next day). William's outburst undoubtedly contributed to Victoria's tempered view of him as "a good old man, though eccentric and singular".[108] William survived, though mortally ill, to the month after Victoria's coming of age. "Poor old man!", Victoria wrote as he was dying, "I feel sorry for him; he was always personally kind to me."[109] William was "very much shaken and affected" by the death of his eldest daughter, Sophia, Lady de L'Isle and Dudley, in childbirth in April 1837.[110] A watercolour sketch made by her during her pregnancy in early 1837 shows how frail he had become. William and his eldest son, George, Earl of Munster, were estranged at the time, but William hoped that a letter of condolence from Munster signalled a reconciliation. His hopes were not fulfilled and Munster, still thinking he had not been given sufficient money or patronage, remained bitter to the end.[111] Queen Adelaide attended the dying William devotedly, not going to bed herself for more than ten days.[112] William IV died in the early hours of the morning of 20 June 1837 at Windsor Castle, where he was buried. As he had no living legitimate issue, the Crown of the United Kingdom passed to Princess Victoria of Kent, the only child of Edward Augustus, Duke
Duke
of Kent, George III's fourth son. Under Salic Law, a woman could not rule Hanover, and so the Hanoverian Crown went to George III's fifth son, Ernest Augustus, Duke
Duke
of Cumberland. William's death thus ended the personal union of Britain and Hanover, which had persisted since 1714. The main beneficiaries of his will were his eight surviving children by Mrs. Jordan.[53] Although William IV is not the direct ancestor of the later monarchs of the United Kingdom, he has many notable descendants through his illegitimate family with Mrs. Jordan, including former Prime Minister David Cameron,[113] TV presenter Adam Hart-Davis, author and statesman Duff Cooper,[114] and the first Duke
Duke
of Fife, who married Queen Victoria's granddaughter Louise. Legacy[edit]

Statue of William IV in Göttingen, Germany

William IV had a short but eventful reign. In Britain, the Reform Crisis marked the ascendancy of the House of Commons and the corresponding decline of the House of Lords, and the King's unsuccessful attempt to remove the Melbourne ministry indicated a reduction in the political influence of the Crown and of the King's influence with the people. During the reign of George III, the King could have dismissed one ministry, appointed another, dissolved Parliament, and expected the people to vote in favour of the new administration. Such was the result of a dissolution in 1784, after the dismissal of the Fox-North Coalition, and in 1807, after the dismissal of Lord Grenville. But when William IV dismissed the Melbourne ministry, the Tories under Sir Robert Peel
Robert Peel
failed to win the ensuing elections. The monarch's ability to influence the opinion of the people, and therefore national policy, had been reduced. None of William's successors has attempted to remove a government or to appoint another against the wishes of Parliament. William understood that as a constitutional monarch he had no power to act against the opinion of Parliament. He said, "I have my view of things, and I tell them to my ministers. If they do not adopt them, I cannot help it. I have done my duty."[115] During his reign the British Parliament enacted major reforms, including the Factory Act of 1833 (preventing child labour), the Slavery Abolition Act 1833
Slavery Abolition Act 1833
(emancipating slaves in the colonies), and the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
(standardising provision for the destitute).[15] William attracted criticism from reformers, who felt that reform did not go far enough, and from reactionaries, who felt that reform went too far. A modern interpretation sees him as failing to satisfy either political extreme by trying to find compromise between two bitterly opposed factions, but in the process proving himself more capable as a constitutional monarch than many had supposed.[116][117] Titles, styles, honours, and arms[edit] Titles and styles[edit]

21 August 1765 – 16 May 1789: His Royal Highness
His Royal Highness
The Prince William Henry 16 May 1789 – 26 June 1830: His Royal Highness
His Royal Highness
The Duke
Duke
of Clarence and St Andrews 26 June 1830 – 20 June 1837: His Majesty The King of the United Kingdom and Hanover

His style in Hanover
Hanover
was "William the Fourth, by the Grace of God, King of the United Kingdom
King of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland, etc., and also King of Hanover, Duke
Duke
of Brunswick and Lüneburg, etc." Honours[edit] British honours[118]

5 April 1770: Knight of the Thistle 19 April 1782: Knight of the Garter 23 June 1789: Member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom 2 January 1815: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath 12 August 1815: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order 26 April 1827: Royal Fellow of the Royal Society

Foreign honours

 Kingdom of France: 24 April 1814: Knight of the Holy Spirit[118]  Russia: Knight of Saint Andrew[118]  Kingdom of Prussia: Knight of the Black Eagle[118]  Denmark: 15 July 1830: Knight of the Elephant[119]

Arms[edit] As a son of the sovereign, William was granted the use of the royal arms (without the electoral inescutcheon in the Hanoverian quarter) in 1781, differenced by a label of three points argent, the centre point bearing a cross gules, the outer points each bearing an anchor azure.[120] In 1801 his arms altered with the royal arms, however the marks of difference remained the same. As king his arms were those of his two kingdoms, the United Kingdom and Hanover, superimposed: Quarterly, I and IV Gules
Gules
three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules
Gules
(for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent
Argent
(for Ireland); overall an escutcheon tierced per pale and per chevron (for Hanover), I Gules
Gules
two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules
Gules
a lion rampant Azure (for Lüneburg), III Gules
Gules
a horse courant Argent
Argent
(for Westphalia), overall an inescutcheon Gules
Gules
charged with the crown of Charlemagne Or, the whole escutcheon surmounted by a crown.[121]

Coat of Arms from 1801 to 1830 as Duke
Duke
of Clarence

Coat of arms of King William IV

Coat of arms of King William IV (in Scotland)

Issue[edit]

Children of William IV of the United Kingdom

Name Birth Death Notes

By Dorothea Bland

George FitzClarence, 1st Earl of Munster 29 January 1794 20 March 1842 Married Mary Wyndham, had issue. Committed suicide aged 48.

Henry FitzClarence 27 March 1795 September 1817 Died unmarried, aged 22.

Sophia FitzClarence August 1796 10 April 1837 Married Philip Sidney, 1st Baron De L'Isle and Dudley, and had issue.

Mary FitzClarence 19 December 1798 13 July 1864 Married Charles Richard Fox, no issue.

Lord Frederick FitzClarence 9 December 1799 30 October 1854 Married Lady Augusta Boyle, one surviving daughter.

Elizabeth FitzClarence 17 January 1801 16 January 1856 Married William Hay, 18th Earl of Erroll, had issue.

Lord Adolphus FitzClarence 18 February 1802 17 May 1856 Died unmarried.

Augusta FitzClarence 17 November 1803 8 December 1865 Married twice, had issue.

Lord Augustus FitzClarence 1 March 1805 14 June 1854 Married Sarah Gordon, had issue.

Amelia FitzClarence 21 March 1807 2 July 1858 Married Lucius Cary, 10th Viscount Falkland, had one son.

By Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen

Princess Charlotte Augusta Louisa of Clarence 27 March 1819 Died a few hours after being baptised, in Hanover.[41]

Stillborn child 5 September 1819 Born dead at Calais[55] or Dunkirk.[41]

Princess Elizabeth Georgiana Adelaide of Clarence 10 December 1820 4 March 1821 Born and died at St James's Palace.[41]

Stillborn twin boys 8 April 1822 Born dead at Bushy Park.[122]

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of William IV of the United Kingdom

8. George II of Great Britain[124]

4. Frederick, Prince of Wales

9. Princess Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach[124]

2. George III
George III
of the United Kingdom

10. Frederick II, Duke
Duke
of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg[124]

5. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha

11. Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst[124]

1. William IV of the United Kingdom

12. Adolphus Frederick II, Duke
Duke
of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

6. Duke
Duke
Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz[123]

13. Princess Christiane Emilie of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen

3. Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

14. Ernest Frederick I, Duke
Duke
of Saxe-Hildburghausen

7. Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen[123]

15. Countess Sophia Albertine of Erbach-Erbach

See also[edit]

Cultural depictions of William IV of the United Kingdom

References[edit]

^ Staff writer (25 January 1831). "Scots Greys". The Times. UK. p. 3. ...they will have the additional honour of attending our "Sailor King"...  ^ Staff writer (29 June 1837). "Will of his late Majesty William IV". The Times. UK. p. 5. ...ever since the accession of our sailor King...  ^ Ziegler, p. 12. ^ "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page: Royal Christenings".  ^ Ziegler, pp. 13–19. ^ Ziegler, pp. 23–31. ^ Allen, p. 29 and Ziegler, p. 32. ^ Ziegler, p. 29. ^ Ziegler, p. 33. ^ George Washington
George Washington
writing to Colonel Ogden, 28 March 1782, quoted in Allen, p. 31 and Ziegler, p. 39. ^ Allen, p. 32 and Ziegler, p. 39. ^ Ziegler, pp. 54–57. ^ Ziegler, p. 59. ^ Somerset, p. 42. ^ a b c Ashley, Mike (1998). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. London: Robinson. pp. 686–687. ISBN 978-1-84119-096-9.  ^ Ziegler, p. 70. ^ Memoirs of Sir Nathaniel Wraxall, 1st Baronet, p. 154 quoted in Ziegler, p. 89. ^ Allen, p. 46 and Ziegler, pp. 89–92. ^ a b "William IV". Official web site of the British monarchy. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  ^ Ziegler, pp. 91–94. ^ Ziegler, p. 94. ^ Ziegler, p. 95. ^ Ziegler, pp. 95–97. ^ Ziegler, p. 115. ^ Ziegler, p. 54. ^ Hochschild, p. 186. ^ Ziegler, pp. 97–99. ^ Hochschild, p. 187. ^ Zachary Macaulay
Zachary Macaulay
writing to Miss Mills, 1 June 1799, quoted in Ziegler, p. 98. ^ Fulford, p. 121. ^ Ziegler, p. 99. ^ Fulford, pp. 121–122. ^ Van der Kiste, p. 51. ^ Allen, p. 49 and Ziegler, p. 76. ^ Fulford, p. 125. ^ Ziegler, pp. 80–81. ^ Somerset, p. 68. ^ Allen, pp. 52–53 and Ziegler, p. 82. ^ "Royal Residences: Clarence House". Official web site of the British monarchy. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  ^ Ziegler, p. 296. ^ a b c d Weir, pp. 303–304. ^ Somerset, pp. 78–79. ^ a b UK Retail Price Index
Retail Price Index
inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved November 6, 2017.  ^ Ziegler, pp. 108–109. ^ William writing to Lord Collingwood, 21 May 1808, quoted in Ziegler, p. 83. ^ Allen, p. 36 and Ziegler, p. 50. ^ Ziegler, pp. 99–100. ^ Ziegler, p. 118. ^ Letter from Hesse to the Duke
Duke
of Cambridge, 1 March 1818, quoted in Ziegler, p. 121. ^ Ziegler, p. 121. ^ The Times, Monday, 13 July 1818 p. 3 col.A ^ Ziegler, pp. 121–129. ^ a b c d Brock, Michael (2004) "William IV (1765–1837)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29451. Retrieved 6 July 2007 (subscription required) ^ Allen, p. 87. ^ a b Ziegler, p. 126. ^ Ziegler, p. 268. ^ Ziegler, p. 130. ^ Molloy, p. 9. ^ Ziegler, p. 141. ^ Ziegler, p. 133. ^ a b Ziegler, p. 143. ^ Fulford, p. 137. ^ Allen, pp. 77–78. ^ Ashley, p. 3. ^ Allen, pp. 83–86; Ziegler, pp. 150–154. ^ Van der Kiste, p. 179. ^ Somerset, p. 122. ^ Somerset, p. 110. ^ Van der Kiste, p. 178. ^ Somerset, p. 110–122. ^ Somerset, p. 119f. ^ Morning Post quoted in Ziegler, p. 158. ^ Ziegler, pp. 158–159. ^ Somerset, p. 117. ^ Ziegler, pp. 177–180. ^ Ziegler, pp. 182–188. ^ a b Ziegler, p. 188. ^ Grant, p. 59, quoting The Times ^ Allen, pp. 121–122 and Ziegler, p. 189. ^ Allen, pp. 124–127; Ziegler, p. 190f. ^ Allen, pp. 124, 130; Ziegler, pp. 189, 192. ^ Molloy, pp. 72–73. ^ Allen, p. 130 and Ziegler, p. 193. ^ Sir Herbert Taylor, the King's secretary, writing to Lord Grey, 15 August 1831, quoted in Ziegler, p. 194. ^ Allen, p. 132. ^ Correspondence of Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey
with William IV and Sir Herbert Taylor, edited by Henry Grey, 3rd Earl Grey, (1867) 2.102, 113, quoted in Brock ^ Allen, pp. 137–141; Ziegler, pp. 196–212. ^ Ziegler, pp. 214–222. ^ Allen, p. 205; Ziegler, p. 223. ^ Sir Herbert Taylor writing to Lord Grey, 1 May 1832, quoted in Ziegler, p. 224. ^ Ziegler, p. 225. ^ Ziegler, p. 227. ^ William writing to Palmerston, 1 June 1833, quoted in Ziegler, p. 234. ^ Ziegler, p. 292. ^ Allen, p. 229. ^ Ziegler, p. 230f. ^ Ziegler, pp. 242–255. ^ Molloy, p. 326. ^ Somerset, p. 187. ^ Ziegler, pp. 256–257. ^ Ziegler, pp. 261–267. ^ Ziegler, p. 274. ^ Somerset, p. 202. ^ a b Somerset, p. 200. ^ Allen, pp. 221–222. ^ Somerset, p. 204. ^ Somerset, p. 209. ^ Allen, p. 225. ^ Victoria writing to Leopold, 19 June 1837, quoted in Ziegler, p. 290. ^ Sir Herbert Taylor quoted in Ziegler, p. 287. ^ Ziegler, p. 287. ^ Ziegler, p. 289. ^ Price, Andrew (5 December 2005). "Cameron's royal link makes him a true blue". The Times. UK. Archived from the original on 14 May 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2008.  ^ Barratt, Nick (5 January 2008). "Family detective: Adam Hart-Davis". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 23 August 2008.  ^ Recollections of John Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton, quoted in Ziegler, p. 276. ^ Fulford, Roger (1967). "William IV". Collier's Encyclopedia. 23. p. 493.  ^ Ziegler, pp. 291–294. ^ a b c d Cokayne, G.E.; Gibbs, Vicary; Doubleday, H. A. (1913). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, London: St. Catherine's Press, Vol. III, p. 261. ^ Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 207. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.  ^ "Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family".  ^ Pinches, John Harvey; Pinches, Rosemary (1974). The Royal Heraldry of England. Heraldry Today. Slough, Buckinghamshire: Hollen Street Press. pp. 232–233. ISBN 978-0-900455-25-4.  ^ Ziegler, pp. 126–127. ^ a b Weir, pp. 285–287. ^ a b c d Weir, pp. 277–278.

Sources[edit]

Allen, W. Gore (1960). King William IV. London: Cresset Press. Brock, Michael (2004) "William IV (1765–1837)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29451. Retrieved 6 July 2007 (subscription required). Fulford, Roger (1973). Royal Dukes. London: Collins. (rev. ed.) Grant, James (1836). Random Recollections of the House of Lords. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Hochschild, Adam (2005). Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Molloy, Fitzgerald (1903). The Sailor King: William the Fourth, His Court and His Subjects. London: Hutchinson & Co. (2 vol.) Somerset, Anne (1980). The Life and Times of William IV. London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, ISBN 978-0-297-83225-6. Van der Kiste, John (1994). George III's Children. Stroud: Sutton Publishing Ltd. Weir, Alison (1996). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy, Revised edition. Random House. ISBN 978-0-7126-7448-5.  Ziegler, Philip (1971). King William IV. London: Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-211934-4.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to William IV of the United Kingdom.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: William IV of the United Kingdom

William IV at the official website of the British monarchy Digitised private and official papers of William IV at the Royal Collection William IV at Encyclopædia Britannica Marshal, John (1823). " William Henry, Duke
Duke
of Clarence".  Royal Naval Biography. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green. Wikisource. 

William IV of the United Kingdom House of Hanover Cadet branch of the House of Welf Born: 21 August 1765 Died: 20 June 1837

Regnal titles

Preceded by George IV King of the United Kingdom 26 June 1830 – 20 June 1837 Succeeded by Victoria

King of Hanover 26 June 1830 – 20 June 1837 Succeeded by Ernest Augustus

Political offices

Preceded by The Viscount Melville as First Lord of the Admiralty Lord High Admiral 1827–1828 Succeeded by The Viscount Melville as First Lord of the Admiralty

Honorary titles

Preceded by The Duke
Duke
of York and Albany Great Master of the Order of the Bath 1827–1830 Vacant Title next held by The Duke
Duke
of Sussex

v t e

English, Scottish and British monarchs

Monarchs of England before 1603 Monarchs of Scotland before 1603

Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Ælfweard Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Edmund II Cnut Harold I Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold II Edgar Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I

Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret of Norway First Interregnum John Balliol Second Interregnum Robert I David II Edward Balliol Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI

Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns
in 1603

James I & VI Charles I Commonwealth Charles II James II & VII William III & II and Mary II Anne

British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707

Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

v t e

Rulers of Hanover

Electors of Hanover

Ernest Augustus (Elector-designate) George I Louis* George II* George III*

Kings of Hanover

George III* George IV* William* Ernest Augustus George V

* also British monarch

v t e

British princes

The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family.

1st generation

King George II

2nd generation

Frederick, Prince of Wales Prince George William Prince William, Duke
Duke
of Cumberland

3rd generation

King George III Prince Edward, Duke
Duke
of York and Albany Prince William Henry, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester and Edinburgh Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland
Duke of Cumberland
and Strathearn Prince Frederick

4th generation

King George IV Prince Frederick, Duke of York
Prince Frederick, Duke of York
and Albany King William IV Prince Edward, Duke
Duke
of Kent and Strathearn King Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke
Duke
of Sussex Prince Adolphus, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge Prince Octavius Prince Alfred Prince William Frederick, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester and Edinburgh

5th generation

Albert, Prince Consort1 King George V
George V
of Hanover Prince George, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge

6th generation

King Edward VII Prince Alfred, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur, Duke
Duke
of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke
Duke
of Albany Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover

7th generation

Prince Albert Victor, Duke
Duke
of Clarence and Avondale King George V Prince Alexander John of Wales Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur of Connaught Prince Charles Edward, Duke
Duke
of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince George William of Hanover Prince Christian of Hanover Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke
Duke
of Brunswick

8th generation

King Edward VIII King George VI Prince Henry, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester Prince George, Duke
Duke
of Kent Prince John Alastair, 2nd Duke
Duke
of Connaught and Strathearn Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince George William of Hanover

9th generation

Prince Philip, Duke
Duke
of Edinburgh2 Prince William of Gloucester Prince Richard, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester Prince Edward, Duke
Duke
of Kent Prince Michael of Kent

10th generation

Charles, Prince of Wales Prince Andrew, Duke
Duke
of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex

11th generation

Prince William, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge Prince Henry of Wales James, Viscount Severn3

12th generation

Prince George of Cambridge

1 Not a British prince
British prince
by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince
British prince
by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom. 3 Status debatable; see his article.

v t e

Hanoverian princes

1st generation

King George IV1 Prince Frederick, Duke of York
Prince Frederick, Duke of York
and Albany1 King William IV1 Prince Edward, Duke
Duke
of Kent and Strathearn1 King Ernest Augustus I1 Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke
Duke
of Sussex1 Prince Adolphus, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge1 Prince William Frederick, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester and Edinburgh12

2nd generation

King George V1 Prince George, Duke
Duke
of Cambridge1

3rd generation

Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
Hanover
1

4th generation

Prince George William1 Prince Christian1 Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke
Duke
of Brunswick1

5th generation

Ernest Augustus, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick1 Prince George William1 Prince Christian Oscar Prince Welf Henry

6th generation

Prince Ernest Augustus Prince Ludwig Rudolph Prince Heinrich Prince Welf Ernst Prince Georg

7th generation

Prince Ernest Augustus Prince Christian Prince Otto Heinrich Prince Albert Prince Julius

1 also prince of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland 2 also prince of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland but son-in-law of King George III
George III
and in male line of King George II

v t e

Dukes of Clarence

Lionel of Antwerp
Antwerp
(1362–1368) Thomas of Lancaster (1412–1421) George Plantagenet (1461–1478) Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
(1789–1830) Prince Albert Victor, Duke
Duke
of Clarence and Avondale (1890–1892)

v t e

Great Masters of the Order of the Bath

John Montagu, 2nd Duke
Duke
of Montagu Vacant Prince Frederick, Duke of York
Prince Frederick, Duke of York
and Albany Prince William, Duke
Duke
of Clarence and St Andrews Vacant Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke
Duke
of Sussex Albert, Prince Consort Vacant Albert Edward, Prince of Wales Prince Arthur, Duke
Duke
of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Henry, Duke
Duke
of Gloucester Charles, Prince of Wales

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 265993441 LCCN: n50059902 ISNI: 0000 0000 6658 031X GND: 118632906 SUDOC: 083988971 BNF: cb149535263 (data) ULAN: 500373