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Western Ghats
Western Ghats
also known as Sahyadri (Benevolent Mountains) is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, located entirely in India. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site and is one of the eight "hottest hot-spots" of biological diversity in the world.[1][2] It is sometimes called the Great Escarpment
Escarpment
of India.[3] The range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain, called Konkan, along the Arabian Sea. A total of thirty-nine properties including national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests were designated as world heritage sites - twenty in Kerala, ten in Karnataka, five in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and four in Maharashtra.[4][5] The range starts near the border of Gujarat
Gujarat
and Maharashtra, south of the Tapti river, and runs approximately 1,600 km (990 mi) through the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala
Kerala
and Tamil Nadu ending at Swamithoppe, near Kanyakumari, at the southern tip of India. These hills cover 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi) and form the catchment area for complex riverine drainage systems that drain almost 40% of India. The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
block southwest monsoon winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau.[6] The average elevation is around 1,200 m (3,900 ft).[7] The area is one of the world's ten "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" and has over 7,402 species of flowering plants, 1,814 species of non-flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species, 179 amphibian species, 6,000 insects species and 290 freshwater fish species; it is likely that many undiscovered species live in the Western Ghats. At least 325 globally threatened species occur in the Western Ghats.[8][9][10]

Contents

1 Geology 2 Geography

2.1 Peaks 2.2 Water bodies

3 Climate 4 Ecoregions 5 Biodiversity protection 6 Fauna

6.1 Mammals 6.2 Reptiles 6.3 Amphibians 6.4 Fish 6.5 Birds 6.6 Insects 6.7 Molluscs

7 Flora 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Geology[edit] The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
are the mountainous faulted and eroded edge of the Deccan Plateau. Geologic evidence indicates that they were formed during the break-up of the supercontinent of Gondwana
Gondwana
some 150 million years ago. Geophysical evidence indicates that the west coast of India came into being somewhere around 100 to 80 mya after it broke away from Madagascar. After the break-up, the western coast of India
India
would have appeared as an abrupt cliff some 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in elevation.[11] Basalt
Basalt
is the predominant rock found in the hills reaching a thickness of 3 km (2 mi). Other rock types found are charnockites, granite gneiss, khondalites, leptynites, metamorphic gneisses with detached occurrences of crystalline limestone, iron ore, dolerites and anorthosites. Residual laterite and bauxite ores are also found in the southern hills. Geography[edit]

Topography- Western Ghats
Western Ghats
(southern part)

The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
extend from the Satpura Range
Satpura Range
in the north, stretching from Gujarat
Gujarat
to Tamil Nadu. It traverses south past the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka
Karnataka
and Kerala. Major gaps in the range are the Goa
Goa
Gap, between the Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Karnataka
Karnataka
sections, and the Palghat Gap
Palghat Gap
on the Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Kerala
Kerala
border between the Nilgiri Hills and the Anaimalai Hills. The mountains intercept the rain-bearing westerly monsoon winds, and are consequently an area of high rainfall, particularly on their western side. The dense forests also contribute to the precipitation of the area by acting as a substrate for condensation of moist rising orographic winds from the sea, and releasing much of the moisture back into the air via transpiration, allowing it to later condense and fall again as rain. The northern portion of the narrow coastal plain between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
is known as the Konkan, the central portion is called Kanara
Kanara
and the southern portion is called Malabar. The foothill region east of the Ghats in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
is known as Desh, while the eastern foothills of the central Karnataka
Karnataka
state is known as Malenadu.[12] The range is known as Sahyadri (सह्याद्री) in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Karnataka. The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
meets the Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
at Nilgiris in northwestern Tamil Nadu. Nilgiris connects Biligiriranga Hills
Biligiriranga Hills
in southeastern Karnataka
Karnataka
with the Shevaroys
Shevaroys
and Tirumala
Tirumala
hills. South of the Palghat Gap are the Anamala Hills, located in western Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Kerala with smaller ranges further south, including the Cardamom Hills, then Aryankavu
Aryankavu
pass, Aralvaimozhi
Aralvaimozhi
pass near Kanyakumari. The range is known as Sehiyon (സെഹിയോൻ) in Kerala. In the southern part of the range is Anamudi
Anamudi
(2,695 metres (8,842 ft)), the highest peak in Western Ghats. Peaks[edit] Main article: List of peaks in the Western Ghats Western Ghats
Western Ghats
has many peaks that rise above 2,000 meters with Anamudi(2,695 m (8,842 ft)) being the highest peak. Water bodies[edit]

View from Varandha Pass showing the numerous waterfalls

The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
form one of the four watersheds of India, feeding the perennial rivers of India. The major river systems originating in the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
are Godavari, Kaveri, Krishna, Thamiraparani
Thamiraparani
and Tungabhadra. The majority of streams draining the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
join these rivers, and carry large volume of water during the monsoon months. These rivers flow to the east due to the gradient of the land and drain out into the Bay of Bengal. Major tributaries include Kali, Bhadra, Bhavani, Bhima, Malaprabha, Ghataprabha, Hemavathi and Kabini. The Periyar, Bharathappuzha, Pamba, Netravati, Sharavathi, Mandovi
Mandovi
and Zuari rivers flow westwards towards the Western Ghats, draining into the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
and are fast-moving, owing to the steeper gradient.

Jog Falls in Karnataka, one of the most spectacular waterfalls in India

The rivers have been dammed for hydroelectric and irrigation purposes with major reservoirs spread across the states. The reservoirs are important for their commercial and sport fisheries of rainbow trout, mahseer and common carp.[13] There are about 50 major dams along the length of the Western Ghats.[14] Most notable of these projects are the Koyna in Maharashtra, Linganmakki and Shivanasamudra
Shivanasamudra
in Karnataka, Mettur and Pykara
Pykara
in Tamil Nadu, Parambikulam, Malampuzha and Idukki in Kerala[12][15][16]

Banasura Sagar Dam

During the monsoon season, numerous streams fed by incessant rain drain off the mountain sides leading to numerous waterfalls. Major waterfalls include Dudhsagar, Unchalli, Sathodi, Magod, Hogenakkal, Jog, Kunchikal, Shivanasamudra, Meenmutty Falls, Athirappilly
Athirappilly
Falls. Talakaveri
Talakaveri
is the source of the river Kaveri
Kaveri
and the Kuduremukha range is the source of the Tungabhadra. Western Ghats
Western Ghats
have several man-made lakes and reservoirs with major lakes at Ooty (34 hectares (84 acres)) in Nilgiris, Kodaikanal (26 hectares (64 acres)) and Berijam in Palani Hills, Pookode lake, Karlad Lake in Wayanad, Devikulam
Devikulam
(6 hectares (15 acres)) and Letchmi (2 hectares (4.9 acres)) in Idukki, Kerala. Climate[edit]

Annual rainfall along the Western Ghat region

Climate in the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
varies with altitudinal gradation and distance from the equator. The climate is humid and tropical in the lower reaches tempered by the proximity to the sea. Elevations of 1,500 m (4,921 ft) and above in the north and 2,000 m (6,562 ft) and above in the south have a more temperate climate. Average annual temperature is around 15 °C (59 °F). In some parts frost is common, and temperatures touch the freezing point during the winter months. Mean temperature range from 20 °C (68 °F) in the south to 24 °C (75 °F) in the north. It has also been observed that the coldest periods in the South Western Ghats
Western Ghats
coincide with the wettest.[17] During the monsoon season between June and September, the unbroken Western Ghats
Western Ghats
chain acts as a barrier to the moisture laden clouds. The heavy, eastward-moving rain-bearing clouds are forced to rise and in the process deposit most of their rain on the windward side. Rainfall in this region averages 300 centimetres (120 in) to 400 centimetres (160 in) with localised extremes touching 900 centimetres (350 in). The eastern region of the Western Ghats which lie in the rain shadow, receive far less rainfall of about 100 centimetres (39 in) resulting in an average rainfall of 250 centimetres (98 in) across regions. The total amount of rain does not depend on the spread of the area with areas in northern Maharashtra
Maharashtra
receiving heavy rainfall followed by long dry spells, while regions closer to the equator receive less annual rainfall and have rain spells lasting several months in a year.[17] Ecoregions[edit]

Sholas, part of the rain forests

The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
are home to four tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregions – the North Western Ghats
Western Ghats
moist deciduous forests, North Western Ghats
Western Ghats
montane rain forests, South Western Ghats
Western Ghats
moist deciduous forests, and South Western Ghats
Western Ghats
montane rain forests. The northern portion of the range is generally drier than the southern portion, and at lower elevations makes up the North Western Ghats
Western Ghats
moist deciduous forests ecoregion, with mostly deciduous forests made up predominantly of teak. Above 1,000 meters elevation are the cooler and wetter North Western Ghats
Western Ghats
montane rain forests, whose evergreen forests are characterised by trees of family Lauraceae. The evergreen forests in Wayanad
Wayanad
mark the transition zone between the northern and southern ecologic regions of the Western Ghats. The southern ecologic regions are generally wetter and more species-rich. At lower elevations are the South Western Ghats
Western Ghats
moist deciduous forests, with Cullenia
Cullenia
the characteristic tree genus, accompanied by teak, dipterocarps, and other trees. The moist forests transition to the drier South Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
dry deciduous forests, which lie in its rain shadow to the east. Above 1,000 meters are the South Western Ghats montane rain forests, also cooler and wetter than the surrounding lowland forests, and dominated by evergreen trees, although some montane grasslands and stunted forests can be found at the highest elevations. The South Western Ghats
Western Ghats
montane rain forests are the most species-rich ecologic region in peninsular India; eighty percent of the flowering plant species of the entire Western Ghats range are found in this ecologic region. Biodiversity protection[edit]

Dense rain forests cover Western Ghats

Western Ghats
Western Ghats
is a UNESCO
UNESCO
heritage site

Historically the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
were well-covered in dense forests that provided wild foods and natural habitats for native tribal people. Its inaccessibility made it difficult for people from the plains to cultivate the land and build settlements. After the arrival of the British in the area, large swathes of territory were cleared for agricultural plantations and timber. The forest in the Western Ghats has been severely fragmented due to human activities, especially clear felling for tea, coffee, and teak plantations during 1860 to 1950. Species that are rare, endemic and habitat specialists are more adversely affected and tend to be lost faster than other species. Complex and species rich habitats like the tropical rainforest are much more adversely affected than other habitats.[18] The area is ecologically sensitive to development and was declared an ecological hotspot in 1988 through the efforts of ecologist Norman Myers. The area covers five percent of India's land with 27% of all species of higher plants in India
India
(4,000 of 15,000 species) are found here and 1,800 of these are endemic to the region. The range is home to at least 84 amphibian species, 16 bird species, seven mammals, and 1,600 flowering plants which are not found elsewhere in the world. The Government of India
India
established many protected areas including 2 biosphere reserves, 13 National parks to restrict human access, several wildlife sanctuaries to protect specific endangered species and many Reserve Forests, which are all managed by the forest departments of their respective state to preserve some of the ecoregions still undeveloped. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
comprising 5,500 square kilometres (2,100 sq mi) of the evergreen forests of Nagarahole
Nagarahole
and deciduous forests of Bandipur in Karnataka, adjoining regions of Wayanad-Mukurthi in Kerala
Kerala
and Mudumalai National Park-Sathyamangalam in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
forms the largest contiguous protected area in the Western Ghats.[19] Silent Valley in Kerala
Kerala
is among the last tracts of virgin tropical evergreen forest in India.[20][21] In August 2011, the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) designated the entire Western Ghats
Western Ghats
as an Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA) and assigned three levels of Ecological Sensitivity to its different regions.[22] The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
Ecology Expert Panel, headed by ecologist Madhav Gadgil, was a committee appointed by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests to assess the biodiversity and environmental issues of the Western Ghats.[23] Gadgil Committee
Gadgil Committee
and its successor Kasturirangan Committee recommended suggestions to protect the Western Ghats. Gadgil report was criticized as being too environment-friendly and Kasturirangan report was labelled as being anti-environmental.[24][25][26] In 2006, India
India
applied to the UNESCO
UNESCO
MAB for the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
to be listed as a protected World Heritage Site.[27] In 2012, the following places are declared as World Heritage Sites:[28][29]

Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve Thattekad Bird Sanctuary Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Periyar Tiger Reserve Srivilliputtur Wildlife Sanctuary Eravikulam National Park Grass Hills National Park Karian Shola National Park Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary Silent Valley National Park New Amarambalam Reserved Forest Mukurthi National Park Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary Talakaveri
Talakaveri
Wildlife Sanctuary Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary Kudremukh
Kudremukh
National Park Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary Kaas Plateau Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary Chandoli National Park Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary Pambadum Shola National Park Anamudi
Anamudi
Shola National Park Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary Wayanad
Wayanad
Wildlife Sanctuary Mathikettan Shola National Park Kurinjimala Sanctuary Karimpuzha National Park Idukki
Idukki
Wildlife Sanctuary Ranipuram
Ranipuram
National Park

Fauna[edit] The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
are home to thousands of animal species including at least 325 globally threatened species.[30] Mammals[edit] There are at least 139 mammal species. Of the 16 endemic mammals, 13 are threatened and amongst the 32 threatened species include the critically endangered Malabar large-spotted civet, the endangered lion-tailed macaque, Nilgiri tahr, Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
and Indian elephants, the vulnerable Indian leopard, Nilgiri langur
Nilgiri langur
and gaur.[31][32][33] These hill ranges serve as important wildlife corridors and forms an important part of Project Elephant
Project Elephant
and Project Tiger
Project Tiger
reserves. The largest population of tigers outside the Sundarbans is in the Western Ghats where there are seven populations with an estimated population size of 336 to 487 individuals occupying 21,435 km2 (8,276 sq mi) forest in three major landscape units spread across Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Kerala.[34] The Western Ghats eco-region has the largest Indian elephant
Indian elephant
population in the wild with an estimated 11,000 individuals across eight distinct populations.[35][36] The endemic Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
which was on the brink of extinction has recovered and has an estimated 3,122 individuals in the wild.[37] The Critically Endangered
Endangered
endemic Malabar large-spotted civet is estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals, with no sub-population greater than 50 individuals.[38] About 3500 lion-tailed macaques live scattered over several areas in the Western Ghats.[39]

Western Ghats
Western Ghats
has the largest tiger population outside Sunderbans

Endangered
Endangered
Lion-tailed macaque
Lion-tailed macaque
is endemic to Western Ghats

Western Ghats
Western Ghats
region has the largest Indian elephant
Indian elephant
population in India

Only 100 individuals of Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
were left in 2001 but has recovered to 3,300 by 2010

The endemic Nilgiri langur
Nilgiri langur
is endangered

Reptiles[edit] The major population of snake family Uropeltidae
Uropeltidae
of the reptile class is restricted to the region.[40] The region has significant population of vulnerable Mugger crocodiles.[41] Amphibians[edit] The amphibians of the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
are diverse and unique, with more than 80% of the 179 amphibian species being endemic to the rainforests of the mountains.[42] The endangered purple frog was discovered in 2003.[43] Four new species of frogs belonging to the genera Rhacophorus, Polypedates, Philautus
Philautus
and Bufo
Bufo
were described from the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
in 2005.[44] The region is also home to many caecilian species.

The region has significant population of vulnerable Mugger crocodile

Purple frog
Purple frog
(Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis) was discovered in 2003

Malabar gliding frog is endemic to Western Ghats

Pipe snakes are found only in South India
India
and Sri Lanka

Denison's barb
Denison's barb
is threatened from habitat loss and is now bred in captivity

Fish[edit] As of 2004[update], 288 freshwater fish species are listed for the Western Ghats, including 35 also known from brackish or marine water.[10] Several new species have been described from the region since then (e.g., Dario urops and S. sharavathiensis).[45][46] There are 118 endemic species, including 12 genera entirely restricted to the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
(Betadevario, Dayella, Horabagrus, Horalabiosa, Hypselobarbus, Indoreonectes, Lepidopygopsis, Longischistura, Mesonoemacheilus, Parapsilorhynchus, Rohtee
Rohtee
and Travancoria).[47] There is a higher fish richness in the southern part of the Western Ghats than in the northern,[47] and the highest is in the Chalakudy River, which alone holds 98 species.[48] Other rivers with high species numbers include the Periyar, Bharatapuzha, Pamba and Chaliyar, as well as upstream tributaries of the Kaveri, Pambar, Bhavani and Krishna rivers.[47] The most species rich families are the Cyprinids (72 species), hillstream loaches (34 species; including stone loaches, now regarded a separate family), Bagrid catfishes (19 species) and Sisorid catfishes (12 species).[10][47][48] The region is home to several brilliantly colored ornamental fishes like Denison's (or red line torpedo) barb,[49] several species of Dawkinsia
Dawkinsia
barbs, zebra loach, Horabagrus
Horabagrus
catfish, dwarf pufferfish and dwarf Malabar pufferfish.[50] The rivers are also home to Osteobrama bakeri, and larger species such as the Malabar snakehead
Malabar snakehead
and Malabar mahseer.[51][52] A few are adapted to an underground life, including some Monopterus
Monopterus
swampeels,[53] and the catfish Horaglanis and Kryptoglanis.[54] According to the IUCN, 97 freshwater fish species from the Western Ghats were considered threatened in 2011, including 12 critically endangered, 54 endangered and 31 vulnerable.[47] All but one (Tor khudree) of these are endemic to the Western Ghats. An additional 26 species from the region are considered data deficient (their status is unclear at present). The primary threats are from habitat loss, but also from overexploitation and introduced species.[47] Birds[edit] There are at least 508 bird species. Most of Karnataka's five hundred species of birds are from the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
region.[55][56] There are at least 16 species of birds endemic to the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
including the endangered rufous-breasted laughingthrush, the vulnerable Nilgiri wood-pigeon, white-bellied shortwing and broad-tailed grassbird, the near threatened grey-breasted laughingthrush, black-and-rufous flycatcher, Nilgiri flycatcher, and Nilgiri pipit, and the least concern Malabar (blue-winged) parakeet, Malabar grey hornbill, white-bellied treepie, grey-headed bulbul, rufous babbler, Wynaad laughingthrush, white-bellied blue-flycatcher and the crimson-backed sunbird.[57]

Nilgiri wood-pigeon

Great hornbill

Malabar barbet

Malabar (blue-winged) parakeet

Nilgiri pipit

White-bellied treepie

Insects[edit] There are roughly 6,000 insect species.[58] Of 334 Western Ghats butterfly species, 316 species have been reported from the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.[59] The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
is home to 174 species of odonates (107 dragonflies and 67 damselflies), including 69 endemics.[47] Most of the endemic odonate are closely associated with rivers and streams, while the non-endemics typically are generalists.[47] There are several species of leeches found all along the Western Ghats.[60]

The Malabar tree nymph is endemic to the Western Ghats

Tamil Lacewings are found only in South Asia

The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
has 67 species of damselflies

The endemic land snail Indrella ampulla

Phallus indusiatus
Phallus indusiatus
found in the Western Ghats

Molluscs[edit] Seasonal rainfall patterns of the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
necessitate a period of dormancy for its land snails, resulting in their high abundance and diversity including at least 258 species of gastropods from 57 genera and 24 families.[61] A total of 77 species of freshwater molluscs (52 gastropods and 25 bivalves) have been recorded from the Western Ghats, but the actual number is likely higher.[47] This include 28 endemics. Among the threatened freshwater molluscs are the mussels Pseudomulleria dalyi, which is a Gondwanan relict, and the snail Cremnoconchus, which is restricted to the spray zone of waterfalls.[47] According to the IUCN, 4 species of freshwater molluscs are considered endangered and 3 are vulnerable. An additional 19 species are considered data deficient.[47] Flora[edit] Of the 7,402 species of flowering plants occurring in the Western Ghats, 5,588 species are native or indigenous and 376 are exotics naturalised and 1,438 species are cultivated or planted as ornamentals. Among the indigenous species, 2,253 species are endemic to India
India
and of them, 1,273 species are exclusively confined to the Western Ghats. Apart from 593 confirmed subspecies and varieties; 66 species, 5 subspecies and 14 varieties of doubtful occurrence are also reported and therefore amounting 8,080 taxa of flowering plants.[62] Notes[edit]

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Diversity, archived from the original on 15 December 2005  ^ Radhakrishnan, C; K.C. Gopi & K.P. Dinesh (2007). "Zoogeography of Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis Biju and Bossuyt (Amphibia: Anura; Nasikabatrachidae) in the Western Ghats, India". Records of the Zoological Survey of India. 107: 115–121.  ^ "An evaluation of the endemism of the amphibian assemblages from the Western Ghats
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(PDF). IUCN
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References[edit]

Mahajan, Harshal. A rendezvous with Sahyadri Ingalhalikar, Shrikant. Flowers of Sahyadri. Corolla Publication; Pune Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions
Ecoregions
of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press; Washington, DC. Kapadia, Harish. Trek the Sahyadris Daniels, R.J. Ranjit, Wildlife institute of India, "Biodiversity in the Western Ghats" Ajith Kumar, Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore, India, Ravi Chellam, B.C.Choudhury, Divya Mudappa, Karthikeyan Vasudevan, N.M.Ishwar, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun, India, Barry Noon, Department of Fish and Wildlife Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, U.S.A. (2002) "Impact of Rainforest Fragmentation on Small Mammals and Herpetofauna in the Western Ghats, South India", Final Report, pp. 146, illus. Full text retrieved 14 March 2007 Verma Desh Deepak (2002) "Thematic Report on Mountain Ecosystems", Ministry of Environment and Forests,13pp, retrieved 27 March 2007 Thematic Report on Mountain Ecosystems Full text, detailed data, not cited. Abstracts, Edited by Lalitha Vijayan, Saconr. Vasudeva, University of Dharwad, Priyadarsanan, ATREE, Renee Borges, CES, ISSC, Jagdish Krishnaswamy, Atree & WCSP. Pramod, Sacon, Jagannatha Rao, R., FRLHTR. J. Ranjit Daniels, Care Earth, Compiled by S. Somasundaram, Sacon (1–2 December 2005) Integrating Science and Management of Biodiversity in the Western Ghats, 2nd National Conference of the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
Forum, Venue: State Forest Service College Coimbatore, Organized by Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Anaikatty, Coimbatore
Coimbatore
– 641108, India. Sponsored by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. Supported by The Arghyam Foundation, The Ford Foundation & Sir Dorabiji Trust Through Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE) Shifting Cultivation, Sacred Groves and Conflicts in Colonial Forest Policy in the Western Ghats. M.D. Subash Chandran; Chapter 22

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v t e

Geography of South Asia

Mountains and plateaus

Himalayas

Mount Everest

Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Aravalli Range Nilgiris Vindhya Range Satpura Range Garo Hills Shivalik Hills Mahabharat Range Khasi Hills Anaimalai Hills Cardamom Hills Sulaiman Mountains Toba Kakar Range Karakoram Hindu Kush Chittagong Hill Tracts Deccan Plateau Thar Desert Makran Chota Nagpur Naga Hills Mysore Plateau Ladakh
Ladakh
Plateau Gandhamardan Hills Malwa

Lowlands and islands

Indo-Gangetic plain Doab Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Terai Atolls of the Maldives Coromandel Coast Konkan Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands Sundarbans Reserve Forest Greater Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Protected areas in Tamil Nadu

By country

India Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Sri Lanka Bangladesh Maldives Afghanistan

v t e

Western Ghats

Rivers

Bhadra Bhavani Bhima Chalakudy Chittar Godavari Gurupura Kabini Kali Kallayi Kaveri Koyna Krishna Kundali Malaprabha Manimuthar Netravati Pachaiyar Parambikulam Saraswati Savitri Sharavati Tambaraparani Tapti Tunga Venna

Regions

Desh, Maharashtra Goa
Goa
Gap Konkan Malabar Malenadu North Malabar Kongu Nadu Palakkad Gap Tulu Nadu

Peaks

Agastya Mala Anamudi Anginda Anjaneri Banasura Biligirirangana Betta Brahmagiri Chembra Dhodap Doddabetta Gangamoola Harishchandragad Kalsubai Kemmangundi Kudremukh Kumarikkal Mala Kodachadri Kumara Parvata Meesapulimala Mullayanagiri Marunthuvazh Malai Nedumpara Peak Ponmudi Pushpagiri Paithalmala Raigad Salher Saptashrungi Sispara Sonsogor Tadiandamol Taramati Vavul Mala Vellarimala Ranipuram Vagamon

Hills

Ambanad Hills Anaimalai Hills Biligiriranga Hills Cardamom Hills Nilgiri mountains Satmala Range Selbari Range Palni Hills Trimbakeshwar Range

Waterfalls

Abbey Chunchanakatte Dudhsagar Falls Gokak Irupu Jog Kalhatti Mallalli Falls Sathodi Lushington Sivasamudram Athirapally Falls Vazhachal Falls Hogenakkal

States

Tamil Nadu Gujarat Karnataka Kerala Maharashtra Goa

Parks & Reserves

Annekal Reserved Forest Anshi National Park Aralam Reserved Forest Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve Agasthyavanam Biological Park Bandipur National Park Bannerghatta National Park Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary Bhimgad Wildlife Sanctuary Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary Chandoli National Park Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary Dandeli National Park Eravikulam National Park Grass Hills National Park Anamalai Tiger Reserve Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve Karian Shola National Park Karnala Bird Sanctuary Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary Kudremukh
Kudremukh
National Park Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary Mudumalai National Park Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Mukurthi National Park Nagarhole Rajiv Gandhi National Park New Amarambalam Reserved Forest Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Palani Hills
Palani Hills
National Park Parambikulam Tiger Reserve Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Periyar National Park Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary SAI Sanctuary Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary Silent Valley National Park Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary Talakaveri
Talakaveri
Wildlife Sanctuary Wayanad
Wayanad
Wildlife Sanctuary

Places

Bhivpuri Chiplun Chiplun Kalsubai Khandala Kudremukh Kodagu Karjat Kasara Lonavla Lavasa Mahabaleshwar Malshej Ghat Matheran Panchgani Raigad Fort Rajgad Fort Shivneri Fort Tamhini Ghat

Ghats

Amboli Ghat Bhor Ghat Tamhini Ghat Amba Ghat Bhor Road Ghat Chorla Ghat Goa
Goa
Gap Kasara
Kasara
Road Ghat Kumbharli Ghat Malshej Ghat Naneghat Charmadi
Charmadi
ghat Shiradi
Shiradi
ghat Bisle ghat Sampaje
Sampaje
ghat Palakkad Gap Varandha Ghat

Related

Mountains of Kerala Mountains of Maharashtra

v t e

World Heritage Sites in India

North

Agra Fort The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier Fatehpur Sikri Great Himalayan National Park Humayun's Tomb Keoladeo National Park Khajuraho Group of Monuments Kalka-Shimla Railway Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks Qutub Minar and its Monuments Red Fort
Red Fort
Complex Taj Mahal

East

Darjeeling Himalayan Railway Kaziranga National Park Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
Complex Nalanda Manas Wildlife Sanctuary Sun Temple at Konark Sundarbans National Park Khangchendzonga National Park

South

Great Living Chola Temples Group of Monuments at Hampi Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram Group of Monuments at Pattadakal Nilgiri Mountain Railway Western Ghats

West

Historic City of Ahmadabad Ajanta Caves Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Churches and convents of Goa Elephanta Caves Ellora Caves Hill Forts of Rajasthan Jantar Mantar of Jaipur Rani ki vav Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi Western Ghats

v t e

Mountain passes of India

Rail

Mountain Railways

Darjeeling Himalayan Railway Kalka-Simla Railway Matheran
Matheran
Hill Railway Nilgiri Mountain Railway

Rail Mountain Pass

Bhor Ghat Braganza Ghats Shindawane Ghat Thul Ghat Palakkad Gap

Road

Himalaya

Auden's Col Banihal Pass Bara-lacha la Bilafond La Bum La Pass Borasu Pass Chang La Chanshal Pass Cho La Debsa Pass Dehra Compass Diphu Pass Dongkha La Fotu La Goecha La Gyong La Indrahar Pass Jelep La Karakoram
Karakoram
Pass Khardung La Kongka Pass Kunzum Pass Lanak La Lipulekh Pass Lungalacha La Mana Pass Marsimik La Nama Pass Namika La Nathu La Pangsau Pass Pensi La Pin Parvati Pass Rohtang Pass Rupin Pass Saach Pass Sasser Pass Sela Pass Shingo La Shipki La Sia La Sin La Spangur Gap Tanglang La Traill's Pass Zoji La

Western Ghats

Agumbe
Agumbe
Ghat Amboli Ghat Amba Ghat Balebare Ghat Bisle Ghat Bopdev Ghat Bhor Ghat Chandanapuri Ghat Charmadi
Charmadi
Ghat Chorla Ghat Dive Ghat Ganesh Ghat Goa
Goa
Gap Kasara
Kasara
Ghat Kashedi Ghat Katraj Ghat Khambatki Ghat Kumbharli Ghat Mahur Ghat Malshej Ghat Naneghat Pasarni Ghat Palakkad Gap Phonda Ghat Sampaje
Sampaje
Ghat Shendurjana Ghat Shiradi
Shiradi
Ghat Tamhini Ghat Varandha Ghat

Others

Asirga