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A war memorial is a building, monument, statue or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory, or (predominating in modern times) to commemorate those who died or were injured in a war.

Contents

1 Symbolism

1.1 Historical usage 1.2 Modern usage

2 History

2.1 World War I 2.2 Pacifist war memorials and those relating to war and peace 2.3 World War II
World War II
and later

3 Types

3.1 Tank
Tank
Monument

4 In cemeteries 5 Controversy 6 Notable examples

6.1 Africa 6.2 Americas 6.3 Asia 6.4 Europe 6.5 Oceania

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Symbolism[edit] Historical usage[edit] The oldest war memorial in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is Oxford University's All Souls College itself. It was founded in 1438 with the provision that its fellows should pray for those killed in the long wars with France.[1] War memorials for the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
(1870–71) were the first in Europe to have rank-and-file soldiers commemorated by name.[2] Every soldier that was killed was granted a permanent resting-place as part of the terms of the Treaty of Frankfurt (1871). To commemorate the millions who died in World War I, war memorials became commonplace in communities large and small around the world.[citation needed] Modern usage[edit] In modern times the main intent of war memorials is not to glorify war, but to honor those who have died. Sometimes, as in the case of the Warsaw Genuflection of Willy Brandt, they may also serve as focal points of increasing understanding between previous enemies. Using modern technology an international project is currently archiving all post-1914 Commonwealth war graves and Commonwealth War Graves Commission memorials to create a virtual memorial (see The War Graves Photographic Project for further details). History[edit] World War I[edit] Main article: World War I
World War I
memorials During the First World War, many nations saw massive devastation and loss of life. More people lost their lives in the east than in the west, but the outcome was different. In the west, and in response to the victory there obtained, most of the cities in the countries involved in the conflict erected memorials, with the memorials in smaller villages and towns often listing the names of each local soldier who had been killed in addition (so far as the decision by the French and British in 1916 to construct governmentally designed cemeteries was concerned) to their names being recorded on military headstones, often against the will of those directly involved, and without any opportunity of choice in the British Empire
British Empire
(Imperial War Graves Commission). Massive British monuments commemorating thousands of dead with no identified war grave, such as the Menin Gate
Menin Gate
at Ypres and the Thiepval memorial on the Somme, were also constructed. The Liberty Memorial, located in Kansas City, Missouri, is a memorial dedicated to all Americans who served in the Great War. For various reasons connected with their character, the same may be said to apply to certain governmental memorials in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(the Cenotaph in London, relating to the Empire in general, and the Scottish National War Memorial in Edinburgh, also with a reference to the Empire, but with particular connections to the United Kingdom, having been opened by the Prince of Wales in 1927 and with the King and the Queen the first visitors and contributors of a casket of the Scottish names for addition within the Shrine). In Maryland, in the center of the city of Baltimore
Baltimore
facing the Baltimore
Baltimore
City Hall to the west is a geometric paved tree-lined plaza with the War Memorial Building to the east with a large marble decorated civic auditorium and historical and veterans museum below, designed by Laurence Hall Fowler, dedicated 1925. Pacifist war memorials and those relating to war and peace[edit] After World War I, some towns in France set up pacifist war memorials. Instead of commemorating the glorious dead, these memorials denounce war with figures of grieving widows and children rather than soldiers. Such memorials provoked anger among veterans and the military in general. The most famous is at Gentioux-Pigerolles
Gentioux-Pigerolles
in the department of Creuse. Below the column which lists the name of the fallen stands an orphan in bronze pointing to an inscription 'Maudite soit la guerre' (Cursed be war). Feelings ran so high that the memorial was not officially inaugurated until 1990 and soldiers at the nearby army camp were under orders to turn their heads when they walked past. Another such memorial is in the small town of Équeurdreville-Hainneville
Équeurdreville-Hainneville
(formerly Équeurdreville) in the department of Manche. Here the statue is of a grieving widow with two small children.[3][4] There seems to be no exact equivalent form of a pacifist memorial within the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
but evidently sentiments were in many cases identical. Thus, and although it seems that this has never been generally recognized, it can be argued that there was throughout the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
a construction of war memorials with reference to the concept of peace (e.g. West Hartlepool War Memorial in what is now known as Hartlepool (previously West Hartlepool) with the inscription 'Thine O Lord is the Victory' relating to amongs other architecture the 1871 Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
of Arts and Sciences with a frieze including the same words and concluding 'Glory be to God on high and on earth peace'). It seems also to be the case that relatives were after the First World War
First World War
(and possibly after other subsequent wars) in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and possibly also in France given the option, presumably on the basis that the issue was historically somewhat controversial, of not having the names of their military casualties included on war memorials, notwithstanding that this approach was arguably either in clear parallel with or in support of the form of the memorials erected in the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic, these questions being at the time (the First World War) therefore reflected in political controversy. World War II
World War II
and later[edit] In many cases, World War I
World War I
memorials were later extended to show the names of locals who died in the World War II
World War II
in addition. Since that time memorials to the dead in other conflicts such as the Korean War
Korean War
and Vietnam War
Vietnam War
have also noted individual contributions, at least in the West. In relation to actions which may well in point of fact be historically connected with the world wars even if this happens, for whatever reason, not to be a matter of general discussion (e.g. occupation by Western forces in the 1920s of Palestine and other areas being the homelands of Arabs in the Near East and followed eighty years later in 2001 by the '9/11' raid on New York and elsewhere in the United States) similar historically and architecturally significant memorials are also designed and constructed (vide National September 11 Memorial). Types[edit]

War memorials can differ significantly in type and composition. Many war memorials often take the form of a traditional monument or statue, while others consist of entire buildings, often containing a museum, while yet others are simple plaques. War memorials can take a variety of other forms, including, but not limited to, commemorative gardens, eternal flames, urban plazas, fountains and/or pools of water, military equipment, and parks. War memorials often serve as a meeting place for commemorative services. As such, they are often found near the centre of town, or contained in a park or plaza to allow easy public access. Many war memorials bear plaques listing the names of those that died in battle. Sometimes these lists can be very long. Some war memorials are dedicated to a specific battle, while others are more general in nature and bear inscriptions listing various theatres of war. Many war memorials have epitaphs relating to the unit, battle or war they commemorate. For example, an epitaph which adorns numerous memorials in Commonwealth countries is "The Ode" by Laurence Binyon:

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old. Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning We will remember them.

The Memorial Arch
Memorial Arch
at the Royal Military College of Canada, which remembers ex-cadets who died on military service includes lines of Rupert Brooke's poem, The Dead:

Blow out, you bugles, over the rich Dead. There are none of these so lonely and poor of old, But dying has made us rarer gifts than gold.

In the years following the end of World War 1 a heated debate occurred in the United States as to whether memorials should be the standard sort that were created after the Civil War or a more progressive sort of "living memorials." These consisted of bridges, parks, libraries, playgrounds, community centers, civic auditoriums and athletic fields.[5] Examples include Soldier Field
Soldier Field
and Veterans Stadium.

Tank
Tank
Monument[edit] A tank monument or armoured memorial is a tank withdrawn from military service and displayed to commemorate a battle or a military unit. Obsolete tanks may also be displayed as gate guards outside military bases. There are several examples in the Ardennes, which was the location of major armoured offensives in WW2 such as the Battle
Battle
of Sedan and the Battle
Battle
of the Bulge. In the Ardennes
Ardennes
area these include:[6]

an Achilles tank destroyer in La Roche a Panther tank
Panther tank
in the village Celles a Sherman tank
Sherman tank
in the town square of Bastogne a Tiger II
Tiger II
tank in the village of La Gleize

A plinth-mounted T-35/85 tank commemorates the soldiers of the 5th Guards Tank
Tank
Army, at Znamianka
Znamianka
in Ukraine.[7] In cemeteries[edit] Many cemeteries tended by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
have an identical war memorial called the Cross of Sacrifice
Cross of Sacrifice
designed by Sir Reginald Blomfield
Reginald Blomfield
that varies in height from 18 ft to 32 ft depending on the size of the cemetery. If there are one thousand or more burials, a Commonwealth cemetery will contain a Stone of Remembrance, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens
Edwin Lutyens
with words from the Wisdom of Sirach: "Their name liveth for evermore"; all the Stones of Remembrance are 11 ft 6 ins long and 5 ft high with three steps leading up to them. Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery
has a Canadian Cross of Sacrifice
Cross of Sacrifice
with the names of all the citizens of the USA who lost their lives fighting in the Canadian forces during the Korean War
Korean War
and two World Wars. Controversy[edit] War memorials can sometimes be politically controversial. A notable case is that of the Yasukuni Shrine
Yasukuni Shrine
in Japan, where a number of convicted World War II
World War II
war criminals are interred. Chinese and Korean representatives have often protested against the visits of Japanese politicians to the shrine. The visits have in the past led to severe diplomatic conflicts between the nations, and Japanese businesses were attacked in China after a visit by former Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi
Junichiro Koizumi
to the shrine was widely reported and criticized in Chinese and Korean media.[8] In a similar case, former German chancellor Helmut Kohl
Helmut Kohl
was criticised by writers Günter Grass
Günter Grass
and Elie Wiesel
Elie Wiesel
for visiting the war cemetery at Bitburg (in the company of Ronald Reagan) which also contained the bodies of SS troops.[9] Unlike the case of the Yasukuni Shrine, there was no element of intentional disregard of international opinion involved, as is often claimed for the politician visits to the Japanese shrine. Soviet World War II
World War II
memorials included quotes of Joseph Stalin's texts, frequently replaced after his death. Such memorials were often constructed in city centres and now are sometimes regarded as symbols of Soviet occupation and removed, which in turn may spark protests (see Bronze Soldier of Tallinn). The Fusiliers' memorial arch to the Royal Dublin Fusiliers
Royal Dublin Fusiliers
who fought in the Boer War, erected at 1907 in St. Stephen's Green, Dublin, was called "Traitors' Gate" by the Redmondites and later Irish Republicans, from whose point of view Irish soldiers going off to fight the British Empire's wars were traitors to Ireland. The sharpness of the controversy gradually faded, and while the term "Traitors' Gate" is still in occasional colloquial use in Dublin daily life, it has mostly lost its pejorative meaning. In Australia, in 1981, historian Henry Reynolds raised the issue of whether war memorials should be erected to Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians
who had died fighting against British invaders on their lands.

How, then, do we deal with the Aboriginal dead? White Australians frequently say that 'all that' should be forgotten. But it will not be. It cannot be. Black memories are too deeply, too recently scarred. And forgetfulness is a strange prescription coming from a community which has revered the fallen warrior and emblazoned the phrase 'Lest We Forget' on monuments throughout the land. [...] [D]o we make room for the Aboriginal dead on our memorials, cenotaphs, boards of honour and even in the pantheon of national heroes? If we are to continue to celebrate the sacrifice of men and women who died for their country can we deny admission to fallen tribesmen? There is much in their story that Australians have traditionally admired. They were ever the underdogs, were always outgunned, yet frequently faced death without flinching. If they did not die for Australia as such they fell defending their homelands, their sacred sites, their way of life. What is more the blacks bled on their own soil and not half a world away furthering the strategic objectives of a distant Motherland whose influence must increasingly be seen as of transient importance in the history of the continent.[10]

Reynolds' suggestion proved controversial.[11] Occasional memorials have been erected to commemorate Aboriginal people's resistance to colonisation, or to commemorate white massacres of Indigenous Australians. These memorials have often generated controversy. For example, a 1984 memorial to the Kalkadoon people's "resistance against the paramilitary force of European settlers and the Queensland Native Mounted Police" was "frequently shot at" and "eventually blown up".[12] With the advent of long war, some memorials are constructed before the conflict is over, leaving space for extra names of the dead. For instance, the Northwood Gratitude and Honor Memorial in Irvine, CA, memorializes an ongoing pair of US wars, and has space to inscribe the names of approximately 8,000 fallen servicemembers,[13] while the UK National Memorial Arboretum
National Memorial Arboretum
near Lichfield
Lichfield
in England hosts the UK's National Armed Forces Memorial
Armed Forces Memorial
which displays the names of the more than 16,000 people who have already died on active service in the UK armed forces since World War Two, with more space available for future fatalities. Notable examples[edit] Africa[edit]

Egypt

Unknown Soldier Memorial (Egypt) Port Said Martyrs Memorial

Mauritius

Monument aux Morts / War Memorial (Curepipe)

Americas[edit]

Brazil

Monument to the dead of World War II Monument to the Expeditionary

Canada

List of Canada war memorials

Falkland Islands

1982 Liberation Memorial

United States

The Hiker (Kitson)
The Hiker (Kitson)
and The Hiker (Newman) Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Iron Mike Korean War
Korean War
Veterans Memorial Liberation (Holocaust memorial) Liberty Memorial List of memorials to the Grand Army of the Republic List of monuments and memorials of the Confederate States of America List of monuments of the Gettysburg Battlefield List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials National Cemetery Navy – Merchant Marine Memorial Northwood Gratitude and Honor Memorial[14] Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials Soldier Field Spirit of the American Doughboy Spirit of the American Navy Tomb of the Unknowns United States Marine Corps War Memorial United States Navy Memorial Veterans Stadium Vietnam Veterans Memorial Vietnam Women's Memorial War Memorial Building, Baltimore, Maryland
Maryland
(originally for WWI, later rededicated for others) World War I
World War I
Memorial World War II
World War II
Memorial

Memorial Coliseums in the United States

Memorial Coliseum, Lexington, Kentucky Memorial Coliseum, Corpus Christi, Texas Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Portland, Oregon Allen County War Memorial Coliseum, Fort Wayne, Indiana Coleman Coliseum, Tuscaloosa, Alabama Beard–Eaves–Memorial Coliseum, Auburn, Alabama Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles, California Lawrence Joel Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Winston-Salem, North Carolina Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Jacksonville, Florida Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena, Jacksonville, Florida Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Phoenix, Arizona Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Coliseum, Evansville, Indiana Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Uniondale, New York New Haven Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New Haven, Connecticut Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Marion, Ohio

Asia[edit]

Bangladesh

Jatiyo Smriti Soudho, Savar, in Bangladesh

China

Monument to the People's Heroes
Monument to the People's Heroes
(Beijing) Hong Kong

The Cenotaph
Cenotaph
(Hong Kong)

India

Amar Jawan Jyoti
Amar Jawan Jyoti
(to commemorate the dead and unknown soldiers of the Indian Armed Forces
Indian Armed Forces
who sacrificed their lives defending India) India Gate
India Gate
(Dedicated to the soldiers of the British Indian army)

Iraq

Al-Shaheed Monument

Israel

National Memorial Hall (Mount Herzl)
National Memorial Hall (Mount Herzl)
(site of Israel's national cemetery and other memorial facilities) Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
(located on the Mount of Remembrance in Jerusalem, dedicated to gentiles who, at personal risk and without a financial or evangelistic motive, chose to save Jews from genocide) Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations
Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations
(dedicated to honor those gentiles who during the Holocaust of World War 2 risked their lives to save Jews) Yom Hazikaron
Yom Hazikaron
( lit. "The Day of Remembrance" dedicated for the Fallen Soldiers of Israel and Victims of Terrorism) Victims of Acts of Terror Memorial Israeli casualties of war memorials :

1948 War Memorial for the Defenders of Jerusalem in the War of Independence Memorial for the Defenders of the Old City of Jerusalem Davidka memorial Memorial for the Defenders of the Old City of Jerusalem Beit Lid memorial Ashdod Port memorial Avivim school bus memorial Avshalom Feinberg
Avshalom Feinberg
memorial Hill 69 memorial Jaffa Road bombing memorial Mahal memorial Ma'alot memorial Six Day War
Six Day War
memorial Coastal Road memorial Maxim restaurant massacre memorial Be'erot Izhak memorial Bus suicide bombing memorial in Tel Aviv Haganah
Haganah
memorial Second Lebanon War memorial War of Independence memorial Dolphinarium massacre memorial Combat Engineering Corps
Combat Engineering Corps
memorial Druze soldiers memorial in Daliyat Al-Karmel Olei Hagardom
Olei Hagardom
memorial Fatality victims of Palestinian rocket attacks memorial Beersheba suicide terror attack memorial Fallen Israeli policemen memorial Memorial for the fallen soldiers of the Israeli Engineering Corp Convoy of the Lamed-Heh memorial Kiryat Anavim military cemetery Independence War Memorial in Kibbutz Malkia Yad La-Shiryon
Yad La-Shiryon
(lit. The Armored Corps Memorial Site and Museum at Latrun)

Japan

Yasukuni Shrine Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery

Lebanon

Mleeta museum

Malaysia

Tugu Negara
Tugu Negara
(National Monument)

Myanmar

Taukkyan War Cemetery
Taukkyan War Cemetery
(British Commonwealth "Burma")

Singapore

Kranji Memorial

South Korea

The War Memorial Museum Gapyeong Canada Monument

Thailand

Victory Monument

Europe[edit]

Austria

Soviet war memorial (Vienna)

Belarus

Brest Fortress
Brest Fortress
(Brest) Khatyn massacre

Belgium

Menin Gate Memorial
Menin Gate Memorial
(Ypres) Saint Julien Memorial
Saint Julien Memorial
(Langemark) Island of Ireland Peace Park
Island of Ireland Peace Park
(Messines) Lion's Mound
Lion's Mound
(Waterloo)

Estonia

Independence War Victory Column
Independence War Victory Column
(Tallinn)

France

Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial
Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial
Park Douaumont Ossuary Verdun Welsh Memorial at Mametz Wood Notre Dame de Lorette Verdun Memorial Villers–Bretonneux Australian National Memorial
Villers–Bretonneux Australian National Memorial
(Australian World War I Memorial) Vimy Ridge Memorial (Canadian World War I
World War I
Memorial) Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme
Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme
(British World War I Memorial) Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial
Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial
(USA World War II
World War II
Memorial)

see also Monuments aux Morts

Germany

Tannenberg memorial Völkerschlachtdenkmal Befreiungshalle Hermannsdenkmal Soviet War Memorial (Treptower Park) Neue Wache
Neue Wache
Berlin Prussian National Monument for the Liberation Wars Aegidienkirche, Hanover, church ruined in World War II, with a Hiroshima peace bell

Ireland

Garden of Remembrance "all those who gave their lives in the cause of Irish Freedom" (1798–1921) Irish National War Memorial Gardens
Irish National War Memorial Gardens
"to the memory of the 49,400 Irish soldiers who gave their lives in the Great War, 1914–1918"

Italy

Sacrario militare di Redipuglia Sacrario militare di Asiago Sacrario militare di Pocol Sacrario militare di Oslavia Sacrario militare del Pasubio Sacrario militare del Montello Sacrario militare del Monte Grappa Sacrario militare dei Caduti Oltremare
Sacrario militare dei Caduti Oltremare
di Bari

Latvia

Freedom Monument

Malta

Malta Memorial War Memorial

Netherlands

National Monument (Amsterdam) Netherlands American Cemetery Groesbeek Memorial, Canadian War Cemetery Liberty Monument Welberg(Welberg (Steenbergen))

Romania

Mausoleum of Mărăşeşti Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

Russia

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
(Moscow) Piskarevskoye Memorial Cemetery
Piskarevskoye Memorial Cemetery
(Siege of Leningrad) Poklonnaya Hill
Poklonnaya Hill
( Battle
Battle
of Moscow) Mamayev Kurgan
Mamayev Kurgan
( Battle
Battle
of Stalingrad)

Slovenia

Tomb of National Heroes (Ljubljana) Vojko's Plaque Monument to the Victims of All Wars List of World War II
World War II
monuments and memorials in Slovenia Monuments to the Slovene Partisans

Spain

Fossar de les Moreres Valle de los Caídos
Valle de los Caídos
(Valley of the Fallen)

Switzerland

Lion Monument

Turkey

Monument of Liberty, Istanbul Aviation Martyrs' Monument Balkan Wars Memorial Cemetery in Edirne Çanakkale Martyrs' Memorial 57th Infantry Regiment Memorial Respect to Mehmetçik Monument Atatürk and Şerife Bacı Monument Victory Monument (Ankara) Cyprus Memorial Forest in Silifke

UK

Animals in War Memorial The National Armed Forces Memorial
Armed Forces Memorial
in Alrewas, Staffordshire The Cenotaph, Whitehall, London The Cenotaph, Belfast Commando Memorial, Spean Bridge, Highland Great Eastern Railway War Memorial, at Liverpool Street station (to the east) Great Western Railway War Memorial, at Paddington station (to the west) Hall of Memory, Birmingham Lewis War Memorial, Stornoway, Western Isles London, Brighton and South Coast Railway War Memorial, at London Bridge station (to the south east) Battle
Battle
of Maiwand, Reading Midland Railway War Memorial, in Derby War memorials in Monmouth, Wales National Firefighters Memorial North Eastern Railway War Memorial, in York Northern Ireland War Memorial Scottish National War Memorial, Edinburgh Castle, City of Edinburgh Scottish War Memorials Shot at Dawn Memorial The Unknown Warrior
The Unknown Warrior
in Westminster Abbey Welsh National War Memorial, Cardiff Women of World War II, London

Oceania[edit]

Australia

ANZAC War Memorial
ANZAC War Memorial
(Sydney) Australian War Memorial
Australian War Memorial
(Canberra) Fremantle War Memorial
Fremantle War Memorial
(Fremantle) Great Ocean Road
Great Ocean Road
(Victoria) Hobart Cenotaph
Cenotaph
(Hobart) State War Memorial (Perth) National War Memorial (Adelaide) Shrine of Remembrance
Shrine of Remembrance
(Brisbane) Shrine of Remembrance
Shrine of Remembrance
(Melbourne) Mount Macedon Memorial Cross
Mount Macedon Memorial Cross
(Mount Macedon)

New Zealand

Auckland War Memorial Museum National War Memorial (Wellington)

See also[edit]

Alexander Carrick
Alexander Carrick
(Scottish sculptor responsible for several Scottish war memorials) Avenue of Honour Cenotaph Commemorative plaque Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
(memorials specifically dedicated to unknown soldiers) Tropaeum Traiani, in Romania UK National Inventory of War Memorials
UK National Inventory of War Memorials
(online database listing all war memorials in the UK) War Memorials Trust
War Memorials Trust
(UK charity that gives free advice about and grants towards war memorial conservation) War grave War Memorial Stadium (for list of stadiums so named in the United States)

References[edit]

^ "History of the College". All Soul's College, Univefrsity of Oxford. Retrieved 29 May 2016.  ^ Varley, Karine. Under the Shadow of Defeat: The War of 1870-71 in French Memory. Palgrave 2008. ^ Coëpel, Philippe (1997). Que maudite soit la guerre. Bricqueboscq: Editions des champs. p. 204. ISBN 2-910138-08-9.  ^ For pictures of the pacifist memorials at Gentioux-Pigerolles
Gentioux-Pigerolles
and at Équeurdreville-Hainneville
Équeurdreville-Hainneville
and elsewhere see fr:Monument aux morts pacifiste ^ Piehler, G. Kurt ‘’Remembering War the American Way’’, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., 1995 pp. 105–109 ^ " Ardennes
Ardennes
Area Battlefield", World War II, Dorling Kindersley, 2010, p. 318, ISBN 9781405335201  ^ "Шукач - dombrovskii_a посетил(а) "5-я гвардейская танковая армия. Памятник освободителям Знаменки."". www.shukach.com. Retrieved 31 March 2018.  ^ Japan: Chinese foreign minister on fence-mending visit – Radio Australia program transcript, date unknown ^ Reagan Joins Kohl in Brief Memorial at Bitburg Graves – New York Times, Monday 6 May 1985 ^ Reynolds, Henry, The Other Side of the Frontier: Aboriginal resistance to the European invasion of Australia, 1981, ISBN 0-86840-892-1, p.202 ^ Reynolds, Henry, Why Weren't We Told?, 1999, ISBN 0-14-027842-7, chapter 12: "Lest We Forget", pp.169–184 ^ ibid, pp.177–8 ^ "northwood_memorial.jpg (image)". 3.bp.blogspot.com. Retrieved 31 March 2018.  ^ " Northwood Gratitude and Honor Memorial > Home". www.northwoodmemorial.com. Retrieved 31 March 2018. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to War memorials.

General:

Sites of Memory (Historical markers, memorials, monuments, and cemeteries worldwide)

France:

Mémorial pacifist in French Queutchny1418 (As of 26 April 2014, more than 5240 Pictures of 1914–1918 memorials)(in French) Mémorial-GenWeb (French war memorials (photos and inscriptions), in French)

Germany:

German war memorials (photos and inscriptions), in German Remembering The Reich (German World War II
World War II
and Holocaust memorials, private travel blog entry)

Ireland:

Irish War Memorials, (An inventory of war memorials in Ireland)

Japan:

Kamikaze Images - Monuments, (monuments for WWII Special
Special
Attack Forces including Kamikaze Corps)

United Kingdom:

Architecture (from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
website) War Memorials Trust
War Memorials Trust
(charity working to protect and conserve the estimated 65,000 War Memorials in the UK) UK War Memorials Register (the comprehensive national register of over 68,000 UK war memorials and the names of over 900,000 of the individuals they commemorate) Scottish War Memorials
Scottish War Memorials
Project (public access forum recording all of Scotland's War Memorials) Charity recording North East War Memorials including names and images. [1]

United States:

United States Navy Memorial
United States Navy Memorial
(including Navy Log and naval history information) Vietnam Unit Memorial Monument, (Coronado California)

Authority control

GN