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Coordinates: 16°10′N 107°50′E / 16.167°N 107.833°E / 16.167; 107.833

Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam  (Vietnamese)

Flag

Emblem

Motto: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc "Independence – Freedom – Happiness"

Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca[a] (English: "Army March")

Location of  Vietnam  (green) in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]

Capital Hanoi 21°2′N 105°51′E / 21.033°N 105.850°E / 21.033; 105.850

Largest city Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City

Official language and national language Vietnamese

Ethnic groups

85.7% Vietnamese[b]

53 minorities

1.9% Tay 1.8% Tai 1.5% Mường 1.5% Khmer 1.2% Hmong 1.1% Nùng 1% Hoa 4.3% Others

Religion

73.2% Folk or Irreligious 12.2% Buddhism 8.3% Christianity 4.8% Caodaism 1.4% Hoahaoism 0.1% Other religions[2]

Demonym Vietnamese

Government Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist republic

• President

Trần Đại Quang

• Prime Minister

Nguyễn Xuân Phúc

• Chairwoman of National Assembly

Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân

Legislature National Assembly

Formation

• Independence from France

2 September 1945

• Geneva Accords

21 July 1954

• Reunification

2 July 1976[3]

• Admitted to the United Nations

20 September 1977

•  ASEAN
ASEAN
Declaration

28 July 1995

• Current constitution

28 November 2013[c]

Area

• Total

331,230.8[4] km2 (127,888.9 sq mi) (65th)

• Water (%)

6.4[5]

Population

• 2016 estimate

94,569,072[6] (14th)

• Density

276.03/km2 (714.9/sq mi) (46th)

GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate

• Total

$697.752 billion[7] (35th)

• Per capita

$7,378[7] (128th)

GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate

• Total

$234.688 billion[7] (47th)

• Per capita

$2,481[7] (129th)

Gini (2014) 37.6[8] medium

HDI (2015)  0.683[9] medium · 115th

Currency đồng (₫) (VND)

Time zone (UTC+7)

Date format dd/mm/yyyy

Drives on the right

Calling code +84

ISO 3166 code VN

Internet
Internet
TLD .vn

Vietnam
Vietnam
(UK: /ˌvjɛtˈnæm, -ˈnɑːm/, US: /ˌviːətˈnɑːm, -ˈnæm/ ( listen);[10] Vietnamese: Việt Nam pronounced [vîət nāːm] ( listen)), officially the Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam
Vietnam
(Vietnamese: Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam ( listen)), is the easternmost country on the Indochina
Indochina
Peninsula in Southeast Asia. With an estimated 94.6 million inhabitants as of 2016[update], it is the world's 14th-most-populous country, and the ninth-most-populous Asian country. Vietnam
Vietnam
is bordered by China
China
to the north, Laos
Laos
to the northwest, Cambodia
Cambodia
to the southwest, Thailand
Thailand
across the Gulf of Thailand
Thailand
to the southwest, and the Philippines, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia
Indonesia
across the South China
China
Sea to the east and southeast.[d] Its capital city has been Hanoi
Hanoi
since the reunification of North and South Vietnam
South Vietnam
in 1976, with Ho Chi Minh City as the most populous city. The northern part of Vietnam
Vietnam
was part of Imperial China
China
for over a millennium, from 111 BC to AD 939. An independent Vietnamese state was formed in 939, following a Vietnamese victory in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River. Successive Vietnamese imperial dynasties flourished as the nation expanded geographically and politically into Southeast Asia, until the Indochina
Indochina
Peninsula was colonized by the French in the mid-19th century. Following a Japanese occupation in the 1940s, the Vietnamese fought French rule in the First Indochina
Indochina
War. On 2 September 1945 President Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
declared Vietnam's independence from France under the new name of the Democratic Republic
Republic
of Vietnam. In 1954, the Vietnamese declared victory in Dien Bien Phu which took place between March and May 1954 and culminated in a major French defeat. Thereafter, Vietnam
Vietnam
was divided politically into two rival states, North Vietnam
North Vietnam
(officially the Democratic Republic
Republic
of Vietnam), and South Vietnam
South Vietnam
(officially the Republic
Republic
of Vietnam). Conflict between the two sides intensified in what is known as the Vietnam
Vietnam
War, with heavy intervention by the United States
United States
on the side of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1973. The war ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975. Vietnam
Vietnam
was then unified under a Communist
Communist
government but remained impoverished and politically isolated. In 1986, the Communist
Communist
Party of Vietnam
Vietnam
initiated a series of economic and political reforms which began Vietnam's path towards integration into the world economy.[12] By 2000, it had established diplomatic relations with all nations. Since 2000, Vietnam's economic growth rate has been among the highest in the world,[12] and, in 2011, it had the highest Global Growth Generators Index among 11 major economies.[13] Its successful economic reforms resulted in its joining the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
in 2007. It is also a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
and the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Dynastic Vietnam 2.3 French Indochina 2.4 First Indochina
Indochina
War 2.5 Vietnam
Vietnam
War 2.6 Reunification and reforms

3 Politics

3.1 Legislature 3.2 Executive 3.3 Judiciary 3.4 Foreign relations 3.5 Military 3.6 Administrative subdivisions

4 Geography

4.1 Climate 4.2 Ecology and biodiversity

5 Economy

5.1 Trade 5.2 Transport

5.2.1 Air 5.2.2 Road 5.2.3 Rail 5.2.4 Water

5.3 Water supply and sanitation

6 Science and technology

6.1 History 6.2 Scientific accomplishments 6.3 Scientific input and output 6.4 Policy developments

7 Demographics

7.1 Ethnicity 7.2 Languages 7.3 Religion

8 Education 9 Health 10 Culture

10.1 Media 10.2 Music 10.3 Literature 10.4 Festivals 10.5 Tourism 10.6 Clothing 10.7 Sport 10.8 Cuisine

11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Sources 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology Main article: Names of Vietnam The name Việt Nam (Vietnamese pronunciation: [viə̀t naːm]) is a variation of Nam Việt (Chinese: 南越; pinyin: Nányuè; literally "Southern Việt"), a name that can be traced back to the Triệu Dynasty
Triệu Dynasty
of the 2nd century BC.[14] The word Việt originated as a shortened form of Bách Việt (Chinese: 百越; pinyin: Bǎiyuè), a group of people then living in southern China
China
and Vietnam.[15] The form "Vietnam" (越南) is first recorded in the 16th-century oracular poem Sấm Trạng Trình. The name has also been found on 12 steles carved in the 16th and 17th centuries, including one at Bao Lam Pagoda in Haiphong
Haiphong
that dates to 1558.[16] In 1802, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh
Nguyễn Phúc Ánh
established the Nguyễn dynasty, and in the second year, he asked the Qing Emperor Jiaqing
Jiaqing
to confer him the title 'King of Nam Viet/Nanyue' (南越 in Chinese), but the Grand Secretariat of Qing dynasty pointed out that the name Nam Viet/Nanyue includes regions of Guangxi
Guangxi
and Guangdong
Guangdong
in China. Between 1804 and 1813, the name was used officially by Emperor Gia Long.[e] It was revived in the early 20th century by Phan Bội Châu's History of the Loss of Vietnam, and later by the Vietnamese Nationalist Party.[17] The country was usually called Annam until 1945, when both the imperial government in Huế
Huế
and the Viet Minh government in Hanoi
Hanoi
adopted Việt Nam.[18] History Main article: History of Vietnam Prehistory Main article: Đông Sơn culture

A Đông Sơn bronze drum, circa 800 BC.

Archaeological excavations have revealed the existence of humans in what is now Vietnam
Vietnam
as early as the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age. Homo erectus fossils dating to around 500,000 BC have been found in caves in Lạng Sơn and Nghệ An
Nghệ An
provinces in northern Vietnam.[19] The oldest Homo sapiens fossils from mainland Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
are of Middle Pleistocene provenance, and include isolated tooth fragments from Tham Om and Hang Hum.[20] Teeth attributed to Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
from the Late Pleistocene have also been found at Dong Can,[21] and from the Early Holocene
Holocene
at Mai Da Dieu,[21] Lang Gao[22] and Lang Cuom.[23] By about 1000 BC, the development of wet-rice cultivation and bronze casting in the Ma River
Ma River
and Red River floodplains led to the flourishing of the Đông Sơn culture, notable for its elaborate bronze Đông Sơn drums. At this time, the early Vietnamese kingdoms of Văn Lang
Văn Lang
and Âu Lạc appeared, and the culture's influence spread to other parts of Southeast Asia, including Maritime Southeast Asia, throughout the first millennium BC.[24][25][26] Dynastic Vietnam The Hồng Bàng dynasty
Hồng Bàng dynasty
of the Hùng kings
Hùng kings
is considered the first Vietnamese state, known in Vietnamese as Văn Lang. In 257 BC, the last Hùng king was defeated by Thục Phán, who consolidated the Lạc Việt
Lạc Việt
and Âu Việt tribes to form the Âu Lạc, proclaiming himself An Dương Vương. In 207 BC, a Chinese general named Zhao Tuo defeated An Dương Vương
An Dương Vương
and consolidated Âu Lạc into Nanyue. However, Nanyue
Nanyue
was itself incorporated into the empire of the Chinese Han dynasty
Han dynasty
in 111 BC after the Han– Nanyue
Nanyue
War.

Map of Vietnam
Vietnam
showing the conquest of the south (the Nam tiến), 1069–1757   900 AD   1100 AD   1475 AD   1650 AD   1760 AD

For the next thousand years, what is now northern Vietnam
Vietnam
remained mostly under Chinese rule.[27] Early independence movements, such as those of the Trưng Sisters
Trưng Sisters
and Lady Triệu, were only temporarily successful, though the region gained a longer period of independence as Vạn Xuân under the Anterior Lý dynasty
Anterior Lý dynasty
between AD 544 and 602.[28] By the early 10th century, Vietnam
Vietnam
had gained autonomy, but not sovereignty, under the Khúc family. In AD 938, the Vietnamese lord Ngô Quyền
Ngô Quyền
defeated the forces of the Chinese Southern Han
Southern Han
state at Bạch Đằng River and achieved full independence for Vietnam
Vietnam
after a millennium of Chinese domination.[29] Renamed as Đại Việt (Great Viet), the nation enjoyed a golden era under the Lý and Trần dynasties. During the rule of the Trần Dynasty, Đại Việt repelled three Mongol invasions.[30] Meanwhile, Buddhism
Buddhism
flourished and became the state religion. Following the 1406–7 Ming–Hồ War which overthrew the Hồ dynasty, Vietnamese independence was briefly interrupted by the Chinese Ming dynasty, but was restored by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Lê dynasty. The Vietnamese dynasties reached their zenith in the Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông
Lê Thánh Tông
(1460–1497). Between the 11th and 18th centuries, Vietnam
Vietnam
expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến ("southward expansion"),[31] eventually conquering the kingdom of Champa
Champa
and part of the Khmer Empire.[32][33] From the 16th century onwards, civil strife and frequent political infighting engulfed much of Vietnam. First, the Chinese-supported Mạc dynasty
Mạc dynasty
challenged the Lê dynasty's power. After the Mạc dynasty was defeated, the Lê dynasty
Lê dynasty
was nominally reinstalled, but actual power was divided between the northern Trịnh lords
Trịnh lords
and the southern Nguyễn lords, who engaged in a civil war for more than four decades before a truce was called in the 1670s. During this time, the Nguyễn expanded southern Vietnam
Vietnam
into the Mekong Delta, annexing the Central Highlands and the Khmer lands in the Mekong Delta. The division of the country ended a century later when the Tây Sơn brothers established a new dynasty. However, their rule did not last long, and they were defeated by the remnants of the Nguyễn lords, led by Nguyễn Ánh and aided by the French.[34] Nguyễn Ánh unified Vietnam, and established the Nguyễn dynasty, ruling under the name Gia Long. French Indochina Main articles: Cochinchina Campaign, Sino-French War, Tonkin campaign, French Indochina, and Empire of Vietnam

French Indochina
Indochina
in 1913.

Vietnam's independence was gradually eroded by France – aided by large Catholic militias – in a series of military conquests between 1859 and 1885. In 1862, the southern third of the country became the French colony of Cochinchina. By 1884, the entire country had come under French rule, with the Central and Northern parts of Vietnam separated in the two protectorates of Annam and Tonkin. The three Vietnameses entities were formally integrated into the union of French Indochina
Indochina
in 1887. The French administration imposed significant political and cultural changes on Vietnamese society. A Western-style system of modern education was developed, and Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
was propagated widely. Most French settlers in Indochina
Indochina
were concentrated in Cochinchina, particularly in the region of Saigon.[35] The royalist Cần Vương movement
Cần Vương movement
rebelled against French rule and was defeated in the 1890s after a decade of resistance. Guerrillas of the Cần Vương movement murdered around a third of Vietnam's Christian population during this period.[36] Developing a plantation economy to promote the export of tobacco, indigo, tea and coffee, the French largely ignored increasing calls for Vietnamese self-government and civil rights. A nationalist political movement soon emerged, with leaders such as Phan Bội Châu, Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Đình Phùng, Emperor Hàm Nghi
Hàm Nghi
and Ho Chi Minh fighting or calling for independence. However, the 1930 Yên Bái mutiny of the Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng
Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng
was suppressed easily.[37] The French maintained full control of their colonies until World War II, when the war in the Pacific led to the Japanese invasion of French Indochina
Indochina
in 1940. Afterwards, the Japanese Empire was allowed to station its troops in Vietnam
Vietnam
while permitting the pro-Vichy French colonial administration to continue. Japan
Japan
exploited Vietnam's natural resources to support its military campaigns, culminating in a full-scale takeover of the country in March 1945 and the Vietnamese Famine of 1945, which caused up to two million deaths.[38] First Indochina
Indochina
War Main articles: First Indochina
Indochina
War; Democratic Republic
Republic
of Vietnam; State of Vietnam; State of Vietnam
State of Vietnam
referendum, 1955; and Operation Passage to Freedom

Situation of the First Indochina
Indochina
War at the end of 1954. Legend:   Areas under Viet Minh
Viet Minh
control   Areas under French control    Viet Minh
Viet Minh
guerilla encampment/fighting

In 1941, the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
– a communist and nationalist liberation movement – emerged under the Vietnamese revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh, who sought independence for Vietnam
Vietnam
from France and the end of the Japanese occupation. Following the military defeat of Japan
Japan
and the fall of its puppet Empire of Vietnam
Empire of Vietnam
in August 1945, the Viet Minh occupied Hanoi
Hanoi
and proclaimed a provisional government, which asserted national independence on 2 September. In the same year, the Provisional Government
Government
of the French Republic
Republic
sent the French Far East Expeditionary Corps to restore colonial rule, and the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
began a guerrilla campaign against the French in late 1946.[39] The resulting First Indochina
Indochina
War lasted until July 1954.[40] The defeat of French and Vietnamese loyalists in the 1954 Battle of Dien Bien Phu allowed Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
to negotiate a ceasefire from a favorable position at the subsequent Geneva Conference. The colonial administration was ended and French Indochina
Indochina
was dissolved under the Geneva Accords of 1954 into three countries: Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Kingdoms of Cambodia
Cambodia
and Laos. Vietnam
Vietnam
was further divided into North and South administrative regions at the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone, approximately along the 17th parallel north, pending elections scheduled for July 1956.[f] A 300-day period of free movement was permitted, during which almost a million northerners, mainly Catholics, moved south, fearing persecution by the communists. The partition of Vietnam
Vietnam
was not intended to be permanent by the Geneva Accords, which stipulated that Vietnam
Vietnam
would be reunited after elections in 1956.[44] However, in 1955, the State of Vietnam's Prime Minister, Ngô Đình Diệm, toppled Bảo Đại in a fraudulent referendum organised by his brother Ngô Đình Nhu, and proclaimed himself president of the Republic
Republic
of Vietnam.[45] At that point the internationally recognized State of Vietnam
State of Vietnam
effectively ceased to exist and was replaced by the Republic
Republic
of Vietnam
Vietnam
in the south and Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Vietnam
Vietnam
in the north. Vietnam
Vietnam
War Main article: Vietnam
Vietnam
War See also: Role of the United States
United States
in the Vietnam
Vietnam
War

US helicopter spraying chemical defoliants (probably Agent Orange) over the Mekong Delta, 1969.

The pro- Hanoi
Hanoi
Viet Cong
Viet Cong
began a guerrilla campaign in the late 1950s to overthrow Diệm's government.[46] Between 1953 and 1956, the North Vietnamese government instituted various agrarian reforms, including "rent reduction" and "land reform," which resulted in significant political oppression. During the land reform, testimony from North Vietnamese witnesses suggested a ratio of one execution for every 160 village residents, which extrapolated nationwide would indicate nearly 100,000 executions. Because the campaign was concentrated mainly in the Red River Delta area, a lower estimate of 50,000 executions became widely accepted by scholars at the time.[47][48][49][50] However, declassified documents from the Vietnamese and Hungarian archives indicate that the number of executions was much lower than reported at the time, although likely greater than 13,500.[51] In the South, Diệm countered North Vietnamese subversion (including the assassination of over 450 South Vietnamese officials in 1956) by detaining tens of thousands of suspected communists in "political reeducation centers." This was a ruthless program that incarcerated many non-communists, although it was also successful at curtailing communist activity in the country, if only for a time. The North Vietnamese government claimed that 2,148 individuals were killed in the process by November 1957.[52] In 1960 and 1962, the Soviet Union and North Vietnam
North Vietnam
signed treaties providing for further Soviet military support. In 1963, Buddhist discontent with Diệm's regime erupted into mass demonstrations, leading to a violent government crackdown.[53] This led to the collapse of Diệm's relationship with the United States, and ultimately to the 1963 coup in which Diệm and Nhu were assassinated.[54] The Diệm era was followed by more than a dozen successive military governments, before the pairing of Air Marshal Nguyễn Cao Kỳ
Nguyễn Cao Kỳ
and General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
took control in mid-1965. Thieu gradually outmaneuvered Ky and cemented his grip on power in fraudulent elections in 1967 and 1971.[55] Under this political instability, the communists began to gain ground. To support South Vietnam's struggle against the communist insurgency, the United States
United States
began increasing its contribution of military advisers, using the 1964 Tonkin Gulf incident
Tonkin Gulf incident
as a pretext for such intervention. US forces became involved in ground combat operations in 1965, and at their peak they numbered more than 500,000.[56][57] The US also engaged in a sustained aerial bombing campaign. Meanwhile, China
China
and the Soviet Union provided North Vietnam
North Vietnam
with significant material aid and 15,000 combat advisers.[58][59] Communist
Communist
forces supplying the Viet Cong
Viet Cong
carried supplies along the Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
trail, which passed through Laos.[60] The communists attacked South Vietnamese targets during the 1968 Tet Offensive. Although the campaign failed militarily, it shocked the American establishment, and turned US public opinion against the war.[61][62] During the offensive, communist troops massacred over 3,000 civilians at Hue.[63] Facing an increasing casualty count, rising domestic opposition to the war, and growing international condemnation, the US began withdrawing from ground combat roles in the early 1970s. This process also entailed an unsuccessful effort to strengthen and stabilize South Vietnam.[64] Following the Paris Peace Accords
Paris Peace Accords
of 27 January 1973, all American combat troops were withdrawn by 29 March 1973. In December 1974, North Vietnam
Vietnam
captured the province of Phước Long and started a full-scale offensive, culminating in the Fall of Saigon
Saigon
on 30 April 1975.[65] South Vietnam
South Vietnam
was briefly ruled by a provisional government while under military occupation by North Vietnam. On 2 July 1976, North and South Vietnam
South Vietnam
were merged to form the Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam.[3] The war left Vietnam
Vietnam
devastated, with the total death toll standing at between 966,000 and 3.8 million.[38][66][67] Reunification and reforms Main article: Đổi Mới See also: Reeducation camp and Vietnamese boat people

The Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
Mausoleum in Hanoi.

In the aftermath of the war, under Lê Duẩn's administration, there were no mass executions of South Vietnamese who had collaborated with the U.S. or the Saigon
Saigon
government, confounding Western fears.[68] However, up to 300,000 South Vietnamese were sent to reeducation camps, where many endured torture, starvation, and disease while being forced to perform hard labor.[69] The government embarked on a mass campaign of collectivization of farms and factories.[70] This caused[dubious – discuss] economic chaos and resulted in triple-digit inflation, while national reconstruction efforts progressed slowly. In 1978, the Vietnamese military invaded Cambodia to remove from power the Khmer Rouge, who had been attacking Vietnamese border villages.[71] Vietnam
Vietnam
was victorious, installing a government in Cambodia
Cambodia
which ruled until 1989.[72] This action worsened relations with the Chinese, who launched a brief incursion into northern Vietnam
Vietnam
in 1979.[73] This conflict caused Vietnam
Vietnam
to rely even more heavily on Soviet economic and military aid. At the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam
Communist Party of Vietnam
in December 1986, reformist politicians replaced the "old guard" government with new leadership.[74][75] The reformers were led by 71-year-old Nguyễn Văn Linh, who became the party's new general secretary.[74][75] Linh and the reformers implemented a series of free-market reforms – known as Đổi Mới ("Renovation") – which carefully managed the transition from a planned economy to a "socialist-oriented market economy".[76][77] Though the authority of the state remained unchallenged under Đổi Mới, the government encouraged private ownership of farms and factories, economic deregulation and foreign investment, while maintaining control over strategic industries.[77] The Vietnamese economy subsequently achieved strong growth in agricultural and industrial production, construction, exports and foreign investment. These reforms have also caused a rise in income inequality and gender disparities.[78][79][80] Politics Main articles: Politics of Vietnam
Politics of Vietnam
and Military of Vietnam

Trần Đại Quang President Nguyễn Phú Trọng General Secretary Nguyễn Xuân Phúc Prime Minister Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân Chairperson of the National Assembly of Vietnam

The Presidential Palace in Hanoi, formerly the Palace of The Governor-General of French Indochina.

The Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam, along with China, Cuba, and Laos, is one of the world's four remaining one-party socialist states officially espousing communism. Its current state constitution, 2013 Constitution, asserts the central role of the Communist
Communist
Party of Vietnam
Vietnam
in all organs of politics and society. The General Secretary of the Communist
Communist
Party performs numerous key administrative functions, controlling the party's national organization. President performs executive functions and state appointments, as well as setting policy. Only political organizations affiliated with or endorsed by the Communist
Communist
Party are permitted to contest elections in Vietnam. These include the Vietnamese Fatherland Front
Vietnamese Fatherland Front
and worker and trade unionist parties. Although the state remains officially committed to socialism as its defining creed, its economic policies have grown increasingly capitalist,[81] with The Economist
The Economist
characterizing its leadership as "ardently capitalist communists".[82] Legislature The National Assembly of Vietnam
National Assembly of Vietnam
is the unicameral legislature of the state, composed of 498 members. Headed by a Chairman, it is superior to both the executive and judicial branches, with all government ministers being appointed from members of the National Assembly. Executive The President of Vietnam
President of Vietnam
is the elected head of state and the commander-in-chief of the military, serving as the Chairman of the Council of Supreme Defense and Security, holds the second highest office in Vietnam. The Prime Minister of Vietnam
Prime Minister of Vietnam
is the head of government, presiding over a council of ministers composed of five deputy prime ministers and the heads of 26 ministries and commissions. Judiciary The Supreme People's Court of Vietnam, headed by a Chief Justice, is the country's highest court of appeal, though it is also answerable to the National Assembly. Beneath the Supreme People's Court stand the provincial municipal courts and numerous local courts. Military courts possess special jurisdiction in matters of national security. Vietnam maintains the death penalty for numerous offences; as of February 2014, there are around 700 inmates on death row in Vietnam.[83] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Vietnam

U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson
Rex Tillerson
accompanies U.S. President Donald Trump
Donald Trump
to a commercial deals signing ceremony with Vietnamese President Tran Dai Quang
Tran Dai Quang
at the Presidential Palace in Hanoi, on November 12, 2017.

Vietnamese President Trần Đại Quang
Trần Đại Quang
with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 19 November 2016

Throughout its history, Vietnam's key foreign relationship has been with its largest neighbour and one-time imperial master, China. Vietnam's sovereign principles and insistence on cultural independence have been laid down in numerous documents over the centuries, such as the 11th-century patriotic poem Nam quốc sơn hà and the 1428 proclamation of independence Bình Ngô đại cáo. Though China
China
and Vietnam
Vietnam
are now formally at peace, significant territorial tensions in the South China
China
Sea remain between the two countries.[84] Currently, the formal mission statement of Vietnamese foreign policy is to: "Implement consistently the foreign policy line of independence, self-reliance, peace, cooperation and development; the foreign policy of openness and diversification and multi-lateralization of international relations. Proactively and actively engage in international economic integration while expanding international cooperation in other fields."[85] Vietnam
Vietnam
furthermore declares itself to be "a friend and reliable partner of all countries in the international community, actively taking part in international and regional cooperation processes."[85] Key steps had been taken by Vietnam
Vietnam
to restore diplomatic ties with key countries, Full diplomatic relations were restored with New Zealand who opened its embassy in Hanoi
Hanoi
in 1995, while Vietnam established an embassy in Wellington in 2003. Pakistan
Pakistan
reopened its embassy in Hanoi
Hanoi
in October 2000. Vietnam
Vietnam
also reopened its embassy in Islamabad in December 2005 and trade office in Karachi in November 2005. United States– Vietnam
Vietnam
relations improved in August 1995, both nations upgraded their Liaison Offices opened during January 1995 to embassy status. As diplomatic ties between the nations grew, the United States
United States
opened a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City, and Vietnam
Vietnam
opened a consulate in San Francisco. By December 2007, Vietnam
Vietnam
had established diplomatic relations with 172 countries, including the United States, which normalized relations in 1995.[86][87] Vietnam
Vietnam
holds membership of 63 international organizations, including the United Nations, ASEAN, NAM, Francophonie and WTO. It also maintains relations with over 650 non-government organizations.[88] In May 2016, US President Obama
President Obama
further normalized relations with Vietnam
Vietnam
after he announced the lifting of an arms embargo on sales of lethal arms to Vietnam.[89] Military Main article: Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Armed Forces

Vietnamese troops on one of the disputed Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
in 2009.

The Vietnam People's Armed Forces
Vietnam People's Armed Forces
consists of the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Army, the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Public Security and the Vietnam
Vietnam
Civil Defense Force. The Vietnam People's Army
Vietnam People's Army
(VPA) is the official name for the active military services of Vietnam, and is subdivided into the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Ground Forces, the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Navy, the Vietnam
Vietnam
People's Air Force, the Vietnam Border Defense Force
Vietnam Border Defense Force
and the Vietnam
Vietnam
Coast Guard. The VPA has an active manpower of around 450,000, but its total strength, including paramilitary forces, may be as high as 5,000,000.[90] In 2011, Vietnam's military expenditure totalled approximately US$2.48 billion, equivalent to around 2.5% of its 2010 GDP.[91] Administrative subdivisions Main articles: Provinces of Vietnam, Municipalities of Vietnam, and Districts of Vietnam Vietnam
Vietnam
is divided into 58 provinces (Vietnamese: tỉnh, from the Chinese 省, shěng). There are also five municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc trung ương), which are administratively on the same level as provinces. A clickable map of Vietnam
Vietnam
exhibiting its 58 provinces and 5 centrally controlled municipalities.

Red River Delta

Bắc Ninh Hà Nam Hải Dương Hưng Yên Nam Định Ninh Bình Thái Bình Vĩnh Phúc Hanoi
Hanoi
(municipality) Hai Phong
Hai Phong
(municipality)

Northeast

Bắc Giang Bắc Kạn Cao Bằng Hà Giang Lạng Sơn Lào Cai Phú Thọ Quảng Ninh Thái Nguyên Tuyên Quang Yên Bái

Northwest

Điện Biên Hòa Bình Lai Châu Sơn La

North Central Coast

Hà Tĩnh Nghệ An Quảng Bình Quảng Trị Thanh Hóa Thừa Thiên–Huế

Central Highlands

Đắk Lắk Đắk Nông Gia Lai Kon Tum Lâm Đồng

South Central Coast

Bình Định Bình Thuận Khánh Hòa Ninh Thuận Phú Yên Quảng Nam Quảng Ngãi Da Nang
Da Nang
(municipality)

Southeast

Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Bình Dương Bình Phước Đồng Nai Tây Ninh Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
(municipality)

Mekong Delta

An Giang Bạc Liêu Bến Tre Cà Mau Đồng Tháp Hậu Giang Kiên Giang Long An Sóc Trăng Tiền Giang Trà Vinh Vĩnh Long Cần Thơ
Cần Thơ
(municipality)

The provinces are subdivided into provincial municipalities (thành phố trực thuộc tỉnh), townships (thị xã) and counties (huyện), which are in turn subdivided into towns (thị trấn) or communes (xã). The centrally controlled municipalities are subdivided into districts (quận) and counties, which are further subdivided into wards (phường). Geography Main article: Geography of Vietnam

A panorama of Vietnam's Hạ Long Bay, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Topographic map of Vietnam.

Vietnam
Vietnam
map of Köppen climate classification.

Vietnam
Vietnam
is located on the eastern Indochina
Indochina
Peninsula between the latitudes 8° and 24°N, and the longitudes 102° and 110°E. It covers a total area of approximately 331,210 km2 (127,881 sq mi),[5] making it almost the size of Germany. The combined length of the country's land boundaries is 4,639 km (2,883 mi), and its coastline is 3,444 km (2,140 mi) long.[5] At its narrowest point in the central Quảng Bình Province, the country is as little as 50 kilometres (31 mi) across, though it widens to around 600 kilometres (370 mi) in the north. Vietnam's land is mostly hilly and densely forested, with level land covering no more than 20%. Mountains account for 40% of the country's land area, and tropical forests cover around 42%. The northern part of the country consists mostly of highlands and the Red River Delta. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai
Lào Cai
Province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam, standing 3,143 m (10,312 ft) high. Southern Vietnam
Vietnam
is divided into coastal lowlands, the mountains of the Annamite Range, and extensive forests. Comprising five relatively flat plateaus of basalt soil, the highlands account for 16% of the country's arable land and 22% of its total forested land. The soil in much of southern Vietnam
Vietnam
is relatively poor in nutrients. The Red River Delta in the North, a flat, roughly triangular region covering 15,000 km2 (5,792 sq mi),[92] is smaller but more intensely developed and more densely populated than the Mekong River Delta in the South. Once an inlet of the Gulf of Tonkin, it has been filled in over the millennia by riverine alluvial deposits. The delta, covering about 40,000 km2 (15,444 sq mi), is a low-level plain no more than 3 meters (9.8 ft) above sea level at any point. It is criss-crossed by a maze of rivers and canals, which carry so much sediment that the delta advances 60 to 80 meters (196.9 to 262.5 ft) into the sea every year. Climate Main article: Climate of Vietnam

Mai Châu village in northern Vietnam, featuring a humid subtropical climate.

Because of differences in latitude and the marked variety in topographical relief, the climate tends to vary considerably from place to place. During the winter or dry season, extending roughly from November to April, the monsoon winds usually blow from the northeast along the Chinese coast and across the Gulf of Tonkin, picking up considerable moisture. Consequently, the winter season in most parts of the country is dry only by comparison with the rainy or summer season. The average annual temperature is generally higher in the plains than in the mountains, and higher in the south than in the north. Temperatures vary less in the southern plains around Ho Chi Minh City and the Mekong Delta, ranging between 21 and 28 °C (69.8 and 82.4 °F) over the course of the year. Seasonal variations in the mountains and plateaus and in the north are much more dramatic, with temperatures varying from 5 °C (41.0 °F) in December and January to 37 °C (98.6 °F) in July and August. Ecology and biodiversity See also: Environmental issues in Vietnam Vietnam
Vietnam
has two World Natural Heritage Sites – Hạ Long Bay
Hạ Long Bay
and Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park – and six biosphere reserves, including Cần Giờ Mangrove Forest, Cát Tiên, Cát Bà, Kiên Giang, the Red River Delta, and Western Nghệ An.

The saola, one of the world's rarest mammals, is native to Vietnam.

Vietnam
Vietnam
lies in the Indomalaya ecozone. According to the 2005 National Environmental Present Condition Report.[93] Vietnam
Vietnam
is one of twenty-five countries considered to possess a uniquely high level of biodiversity. It is ranked 16th worldwide in biological diversity, being home to approximately 16% of the world's species. 15,986 species of flora have been identified in the country, of which 10% are endemic, while Vietnam's fauna include 307 nematode species, 200 oligochaeta, 145 acarina, 113 springtails, 7,750 insects, 260 reptiles, 120 amphibians, 840 birds and 310 mammals, of which 100 birds and 78 mammals are endemic.[93] Vietnam
Vietnam
is furthermore home to 1,438 species of freshwater microalgae, constituting 9.6% of all microalgae species, as well as 794 aquatic invertebrates and 2,458 species of sea fish.[93] In recent years, 13 genera, 222 species, and 30 taxa of flora have been newly described in Vietnam.[93] Six new mammal species, including the saola, giant muntjac and Tonkin snub-nosed monkey
Tonkin snub-nosed monkey
have also been discovered, along with one new bird species, the endangered Edwards's pheasant.[94] In the late 1980s, a small population of Javan rhinoceros
Javan rhinoceros
was found in Cát Tiên National Park. However, the last individual of the species in Vietnam
Vietnam
was reportedly shot in 2010.[95] In agricultural genetic diversity, Vietnam
Vietnam
is one of the world's twelve original cultivar centers. The Vietnam
Vietnam
National Cultivar
Cultivar
Gene Bank preserves 12,300 cultivars of 115 species.[93] The Vietnamese government spent US$49.07 million on the preservation of biodiversity in 2004 alone, and has established 126 conservation areas, including 28 national parks.[93]

Economy Main article: Economy of Vietnam

Hanoi's Keangnam Hanoi
Hanoi
Landmark Tower, the tallest building in Vietnam.

In 2012, Vietnam's nominal GDP reached US$138 billion, with a nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
of $1,527.[7] According to a December 2005 forecast by Goldman Sachs, the Vietnamese economy will become the world's 21st-largest by 2025, with an estimated nominal GDP of $436 billion and a nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
of $4,357.[96] According to a 2008 forecast by PricewaterhouseCoopers, Vietnam
Vietnam
may be the fastest-growing of the world's emerging economies by 2025, with a potential growth rate of almost 10% per annum in real dollar terms.[97] In 2012, HSBC predicted that Vietnam's total GDP would surpass those of Norway, Singapore
Singapore
and Portugal by 2050.[98] Vietnam
Vietnam
has been for much of its history a predominantly agricultural civilization based on wet rice cultivation. There is also an industry for bauxite mining in Vietnam, an important material for the production of aluminum. The Vietnamese economy is shaped primarily by the Vietnamese Communist
Communist
Party in Five Year Plans made through the plenary sessions of the Central Committee and national congresses.

Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
skyline.

The collectivization of farms, factories and capital goods was carried out as components in establishing central planning, with millions of people working in state enterprises. Vietnam's economy has been plagued with inefficiency and corruption in state-owned enterprises, poor quality and underproduction, and restrictions on economic activity. It also suffered from the post-war trade embargo instituted by the United States
United States
and most of Europe. These problems were compounded by the erosion of the Soviet bloc, which included Vietnam's main trading partners, in the late 1980s. In 1986, the Sixth National Congress of the Communist
Communist
Party introduced socialist-oriented market economic reforms as part of the Đổi Mới reform program. Private ownership was encouraged in industries, commerce and agriculture; and state enterprises were restructured to operate under market constraints.[99] Thanks largely to these reforms, Vietnam
Vietnam
achieved around 8% annual GDP growth between 1990 and 1997, and the economy continued to grow at an annual rate of around 7% from 2000 to 2005, making Vietnam
Vietnam
one of the world's fastest growing economies. Growth remained strong even in the face of the late-2000s global recession, holding at 6.8% in 2010, but Vietnam's year-on-year inflation rate hit 11.8% in December 2010, according to a GSO estimate. The Vietnamese đồng
Vietnamese đồng
was devalued three times in 2010 alone.[100]

Terraced rice fields in a valley in Sa Pa.

Manufacturing, information technology and high-tech industries now form a large and fast-growing part of the national economy. Though Vietnam
Vietnam
is a relative newcomer to the oil industry, it is currently the third-largest oil producer in Southeast Asia, with a total 2011 output of 318,000 barrels per day (50,600 m3/d).[101] In 2010, Vietnam
Vietnam
was ranked as the 8th largest crude petroleum producers in the Asia
Asia
and Pacific region.[102] Like its Chinese neighbours, Vietnam continues to make use of centrally planned economic five-year plans. Deep poverty, defined as the percentage of the population living on less than $1 per day, has declined significantly in Vietnam, and the relative poverty rate is now less than that of China, India, and the Philippines.[103] This decline in the poverty rate can be attributed to equitable economic policies aimed at improving living standards and preventing the rise of inequality; these policies have included egalitarian land distribution during the initial stages of the Đổi Mới program, investment in poorer remote areas, and subsidising of education and healthcare.[104] According to the IMF, the unemployment rate in Vietnam
Vietnam
stood at 4.46% in 2012.[7] Trade

Saigon
Saigon
Trade Center, one of the first skyscrapers to be built in Ho Chi Minh City after the Doi Moi reforms.

Since the early 2000s, Vietnam
Vietnam
has applied sequenced trade liberalisation, a two-track approach opening some sectors of the economy to international markets while protecting others.[104][105] In July 2006, Vietnam
Vietnam
updated its intellectual property legislation to comply with TRIPS. Viet Nam has become increasingly integrated into the world economy, particularly since its efforts to liberalize the economy enabled it to join the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
in 2007.[106] The manufacturing and service sectors each account for 40% of GDP. However, almost half the labour force (48%) is still employed in agriculture. One million workers a year, out of a total of 51.3 million in 2010, are projected to continue leaving agriculture for the other economic sectors in the foreseeable future.[107][106] Viet Nam is now one of Asia's most open economies: two-way trade was valued at around 160% of GDP in 2006, more than twice the contemporary ratio for China
China
and over four times the ratio for India.[108] Vietnam's chief trading partners include China, Japan, Australia, the ASEAN
ASEAN
countries, the United States
United States
and Western Europe. Vietnam's Customs office reported in July 2013 that the total value of international merchandise trade for the first half of 2013 was US$124 billion, which was 15.7% higher than the same period in 2012. Mobile phones and their parts were both imported and exported in large numbers, while in the natural resources market, crude oil was a top-ranking export and high levels of iron and steel were imported during this period. The U.S. was the country that purchased the highest amount of Vietnam's exports, while Chinese goods were the most popular Vietnamese import.[109] As a result of several land reform measures, Vietnam
Vietnam
has become a major exporter of agricultural products. It is now the world's largest producer of cashew nuts, with a one-third global share; the largest producer of black pepper, accounting for one-third of the world's market; and the second-largest rice exporter in the world, after Thailand. Vietnam
Vietnam
is the world's second largest exporter of coffee.[110] Vietnam
Vietnam
has the highest proportion of land use for permanent crops – 6.93% – of any nation in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Other primary exports include tea, rubber, and fishery products. However, agriculture's share of Vietnam's GDP has fallen in recent decades, declining from 42% in 1989 to 20% in 2006, as production in other sectors of the economy has risen. In manufacturing, Viet Nam is expected to lose some of its current comparative advantage in low wages in the near future. It will need to compensate for this loss with productivity gains, if it is to sustain high growth rates: GDP per capita
GDP per capita
almost doubled between 2008 and 2013. High-tech exports from Viet Nam grew dramatically during 2008–2013, particularly with respect to office computers and electronic communications equipment – only Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia exported more of the latter. Viet Nam will need to adopt strategies which enhance the technical capacity and skills among local firms that are, as yet, only weakly integrated with global production chains, such as by fostering the transfer of technology and skills from large multinational firms to smaller-scale domestic firms.[106] In 2014 Vietnam
Vietnam
negotiated a free trade agreement with the European Union, giving the country access to the EU's Generalized System of Preferences. This provides preferential access to European markets for developing countries through reduced tariffs.[111] Viet Nam is a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), which formed a common market in late 2015 called the ASEAN Economic Community.[106]

Transport Main article: Transport in Vietnam Much of Vietnam's modern transport network was originally developed under French rule to facilitate the transportation of raw materials, and was reconstructed and extensively modernized following the Vietnam War. Air Main article: Air transport in Vietnam

Vietnam Airlines
Vietnam Airlines
Airbus A350.

Tan Son Nhat International Airport
Tan Son Nhat International Airport
in Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City, one of the busiest airport in Vietnam.

Vietnam
Vietnam
operates 21 major civil airports, including three international gateways: Noi Bai
Noi Bai
in Hanoi, Da Nang
Da Nang
International Airport in Da Nang, and Tan Son Nhat
Tan Son Nhat
in Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City. Tan Son Nhat is the nation's largest airport, handling 75% of international passenger traffic. According to a state-approved plan, Vietnam
Vietnam
will have 10 international airports by 2015 – besides the aforementioned three, these include Vinh
Vinh
International Airport, Phu Bai International Airport, Cam Ranh
Cam Ranh
International Airport, Phu Quoc International Airport, Cat Bi International Airport, Cần Thơ
Cần Thơ
International Airport and Long Thanh International Airport. The planned Long Thanh International Airport will have an annual service capacity of 100 million passengers once it becomes fully operational in 2020. Vietnam
Vietnam
Airlines, the state-owned national airline, maintains a fleet of 69 passenger aircraft,[112][113] and aims to operate 150 by 2020. Several private airlines are also in operation in Vietnam, including Air Mekong, Jetstar Pacific
Jetstar Pacific
Airlines, VASCO and VietJet Air. Road

A section of the North–South Expressway linking Cầu Giẽ and Ninh Bình.

Vietnam's road system includes national roads administered at the central level, provincial roads managed at the provincial level, district roads managed at the district level, urban roads managed by cities and towns, and commune roads managed at the commune level. Bicycles, motor scooters and motorcycles remain the most popular forms of road transport in Vietnam's urban areas, although the number of privately owned automobiles is also on the rise, especially in the larger cities. Public buses operated by private companies are the main mode of long-distance travel for much of the population. Road safety is a serious issue in Vietnam
Vietnam
– on average, 30 people are killed in traffic accidents every day.[114] Traffic congestion is a growing problem in Hanoi
Hanoi
and Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City, as the cities' roads struggle to cope with the boom in automobile use. Rail Main article: Rail transport in Vietnam

A rail crossing near My Son.

Vietnam's primary cross-country rail service is the Reunification Express, which runs from Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
to Hanoi, covering a distance of nearly 2,000 kilometres. From Hanoi, railway lines branch out to the northeast, north and west; the eastbound line runs from Hanoi
Hanoi
to Hạ Long Bay, the northbound line from Hanoi
Hanoi
to Thái Nguyên, and the northeast line from Hanoi
Hanoi
to Lào Cai. In 2009, Vietnam
Vietnam
and Japan
Japan
signed a deal to build a high-speed railway using Japanese technology; numerous Vietnamese engineers were later sent to Japan
Japan
to receive training in the operation and maintenance of high-speed trains. The railway will be a 1,630-km-long[115] express route, serving a total of 26 stations, including Hanoi
Hanoi
and the Thu Thiem terminus in Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City.[116] Using Japan's Shinkansen technology,[117] the line will support trains travelling at a maximum speed of 360 kilometres (220 mi) per hour. The high-speed lines linking Hanoi
Hanoi
to Vinh, Nha Trang
Nha Trang
and Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
will be laid by 2015. From 2015 to 2020, construction will begin on the routes between Vinh
Vinh
and Nha Trang
Nha Trang
and between Hanoi
Hanoi
and the northern provinces of Lào Cai
Lào Cai
and Lạng Sơn. Water As a coastal country, Vietnam
Vietnam
has many major sea ports, including Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City, Hong Gai, Qui Nhơn, Vũng Tàu Cua Lo
Cua Lo
and Nha Trang. Further inland, the country's extensive network of rivers play a key role in rural transportation, with over 17,700 kilometres (11,000 mi) of navigable waterways carrying ferries, barges and water taxis.[118][119] In addition, the Mekong Delta
Mekong Delta
and Red River Delta are vital to Vietnam's social and economic welfare – most of the country's population lives along or near these river deltas, and the major cities of Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
and Hanoi
Hanoi
are situated near the Mekong and Red River deltas, respectively. Further out in the South China
China
Sea, Vietnam
Vietnam
currently controls the majority of the disputed Spratly Islands, which are the source of longstanding disagreements with China and other nearby nations.[120]

Water supply and sanitation Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Vietnam Water supply and sanitation in Vietnam
Water supply and sanitation in Vietnam
is characterized by challenges and achievements. Among the achievements is a substantial increase in access to water supply and sanitation between 1990 and 2010, nearly universal metering, and increased investment in wastewater treatment since 2007. Among the challenges are continued widespread water pollution, poor service quality, low access to improved sanitation in rural areas, poor sustainability of rural water systems, insufficient cost recovery for urban sanitation, and the declining availability of foreign grant and soft loan funding as the Vietnamese economy grows and donors shift to loan financing. The government also promotes increased cost recovery through tariff revenues and has created autonomous water utilities at the provincial level, but the policy has had mixed success as tariff levels remain low and some utilities have engaged in activities outside their mandate. Science and technology See also: Science and technology in Vietnam History

The TOPIO
TOPIO
3.0 humanoid robot.

Vietnamese scholars developed many academic fields during the dynastic era, most notably social sciences and the humanities. Vietnam
Vietnam
has a millennium-deep legacy of analytical histories, such as the Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư of Ngô Sĩ Liên. Vietnamese monks led by the abdicated Emperor Trần Nhân Tông
Trần Nhân Tông
developed the Trúc Lâm Zen branch of philosophy in the 13th century. Arithmetics and geometry have been widely taught in Vietnam
Vietnam
since the 15th century, using the textbook Đại thành toán pháp by Lương Thế Vinh
Vinh
as a basis. Lương Thế Vinh
Vinh
introduced Vietnam
Vietnam
to the notion of zero, while Mạc Hiển Tích used the term số ẩn (en: "unknown/secret/hidden number") to refer to negative numbers. Vietnamese scholars furthermore produced numerous encyclopedias, such as Lê Quý Đôn's Vân đài loại ngữ. Scientific accomplishments In recent times, Vietnamese scientists have made many significant contributions in various fields of study, most notably in mathematics. Hoàng Tụy pioneered the applied mathematics field of global optimization in the 20th century, while Ngô Bảo Châu
Ngô Bảo Châu
won the 2010 Fields Medal
Fields Medal
for his proof of fundamental lemma in the theory of automorphic forms. Vietnam
Vietnam
is currently working to develop an indigenous space program, and plans to construct the US$600 million Vietnam
Vietnam
Space Center by 2018.[121] Vietnam
Vietnam
has also made significant advances in the development of robots, such as the TOPIO
TOPIO
humanoid model.[122] In 2010, Vietnam's total state spending on science and technology equalled around 0.45% of its GDP.[123] Scientific input and output According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Viet Nam devoted 0.19% of GDP to research and development in 2011.[106] Between 2005 and 2014, the number of scientific publications recorded in Thomson Reuters' Web of Science increased at a rate well above the average for Southeast Asia, albeit from a modest starting point. Publications focus mainly on life sciences (22%), physics (13%) and engineering (13%), which is consistent with recent advances in the production of diagnostic equipment and shipbuilding. Almost 77% of all papers published between 2008 and 2014 had at least one international co-author.[106] Policy developments

This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. (September 2017)

The autonomy which Vietnamese research centres have enjoyed since the mid-1990s has enabled many of them to operate as quasi-private organizations, providing services such as consulting and technology development. Some have ‘spun off’ from the larger institutions to form their own semi-private enterprises, fostering the transfer of public sector S&T personnel to these semi-private establishments. One comparatively new university, Ton Duc Thang (est. 1997), has already set up 13 centres for technology transfer and services that together produce 15% of university revenue. Many of these research centres serve as valuable intermediaries bridging public research institutions, universities and firms.[106] In addition, Viet Nam’s Law on Higher Education (2012) offers university administrators greater autonomy and there are reports that growing numbers of academic staff are also serving as advisors to NGOs and private firms.[106] The Strategy for Science and Technology Development for 2011–2020, adopted in 2012, builds upon this trend by promoting public–private partnerships and seeking to transform ‘public S&T organisations into self-managed and accountable mechanisms as stipulated by law’. The main emphasis is on overall planning and priority-setting, with a view to enhancing innovation capability, particularly in industrial sectors. Although the Strategy omits to fix any targets for funding, it nevertheless sets broad policy directions and priority areas for investment, including:[106]

research in mathematics and physics; investigation of climate change and natural disasters; development of operating systems for computers, tablets and mobile devices; biotechnology applied particularly to agriculture, forestry, fisheries and medicine; and environmental protection.

The new Strategy foresees the development of a network of organizations to support consultancy services in the field of innovation and the development of intellectual property. The Strategy also seeks to promote greater international scientific co-operation, with a plan to establish a network of Vietnamese scientists overseas and to initiate a network of ‘outstanding research centres’ linking key national science institutions with partners abroad.[106] The planned removal of restrictions on the cross-border movement of people and services by the ASEAN
ASEAN
Economic Community is expected to spur cooperation in science and technology. The greater mobility of skilled personnel should be a boon for the region and enhance the role of the ASEAN
ASEAN
University Network, which counted 30 members in 2016.[106] Viet Nam has also devised a set of national development strategies for selected sectors of the economy, many of which involve science and technology. Examples are the Sustainable Development Strategy (April 2012) and the Mechanical Engineering Industry Development Strategy (2006), together with Vision 2020 (2006). Spanning the period 2011–2020, these dual strategies call for a highly skilled human resource base, a strong R&D investment policy, fiscal policies to encourage technological upgrading in the private sector and private-sector investment and regulations to steer investment towards sustainable development.[106] Demographics

Hmong women in traditional dress in Sa Pa, northern Vietnam.

Main article: Demographics of Vietnam As of 2016[update], the population of Vietnam
Vietnam
as standing at approximately 94.6 million people. The population had grown significantly from the 1979 census, which showed the total population of reunified Vietnam
Vietnam
to be 52.7 million.[124] In 2012, the country's population was estimated at approximately 90.3 million.[7] Ethnicity Main articles: Vietnamese people
Vietnamese people
and Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
in Vietnam According to the 2009 census, the dominant Viet or Kinh ethnic group constituted nearly 73.6 million people, or 85.8% of the population. The Kinh population is concentrated mainly in the alluvial deltas and coastal plains of the country. A largely homogeneous social and ethnic group, the Kinh possess significant political and economic influence over the country. However, Vietnam
Vietnam
is also home to 54 ethnic minority groups, including the Hmong, Dao, Tay, Thai, and Nùng. Many ethnic minorities – such as the Muong, who are closely related to the Kinh – dwell in the highlands, which cover two-thirds of Vietnam's territory. Before the Vietnam
Vietnam
War, the population of the Central Highlands was almost exclusively Degar
Degar
(including over 40 tribal groups); however, Ngô Đình Diệm's South Vietnamese government enacted a program of resettling Kinh in indigenous areas.[125] The Hoa (ethnic Chinese)[126] and Khmer Krom
Khmer Krom
people are mainly lowlanders. As Sino-Vietnamese relations
Sino-Vietnamese relations
soured in 1978 and 1979, some 450,000 Hoa left Vietnam.[127]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Vietnam 2015 estimate

Rank Name Province Pop.

Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
City

Hà Nội 1 Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
City Municipalities of Vietnam 8,244,400

Hải Phòng

Cần Thơ

2 Hà Nội Municipalities of Vietnam 7,379,300

3 Hải Phòng Municipalities of Vietnam 1,946,000

4 Cần Thơ Municipalities of Vietnam 1,238,300

5 Biên Hòa Đồng Nai 1,104,495

6 Đà Nẵng Municipalities of Vietnam 1,007,700

7 Nha Trang Khánh Hòa 393,218

8 Buôn Ma Thuột Đắk Lắk 350,000

9 Huế Thừa Thiên-Huế 337,554

10 Vinh Nghệ An 330,000

Languages Main article: Vietnamese language The official national language of Vietnam
Vietnam
is Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt), a tonal Mon– Khmer language
Khmer language
which is spoken by the majority of the population. In its early history, Vietnamese writing used Chinese characters. In the 13th century, the Vietnamese developed their own set of characters, referred to as Chữ nôm. The folk epic Truyện Kiều ("The Tale of Kieu", originally known as Đoạn trường tân thanh) by Nguyễn Du
Nguyễn Du
was written in Chữ nôm. Quốc ngữ, the romanized Vietnamese alphabet used for spoken Vietnamese, was developed in the 17th century by the Jesuit
Jesuit
Alexandre de Rhodes and several other Catholic missionaries.[128] Quốc ngữ
Quốc ngữ
became widely popular and brought literacy to the Vietnamese masses during the French colonial period.[128] Vietnam's minority groups speak a variety of languages, including Tày, Mường, Cham, Khmer, Chinese, Nùng, and H'Mông. The Montagnard peoples of the Central Highlands also speak a number of distinct languages.[129] A number of sign languages have developed in the cities. The French language, a legacy of colonial rule, is spoken by many educated Vietnamese as a second language, especially among the older generation and those educated in the former South Vietnam, where it was a principal language in administration, education and commerce; Vietnam
Vietnam
remains a full member of the Francophonie, and education has revived some interest in the language.[130][131] Russian – and to a much lesser extent German, Czech and Polish – are known among some Vietnamese whose families had ties with the Soviet bloc during the Cold War. In recent years, as Vietnam's contacts with Western nations have increased, English has become more popular as a second language. The study of English is now obligatory in most schools, either alongside or in many cases, replacing French.[132] Japanese and Korean have also grown in popularity as Vietnam's links with other East Asian nations have strengthened. Religion Main article: Religion in Vietnam

Religion in Vietnam
Religion in Vietnam
(2014)[2]    Vietnamese folk religion
Vietnamese folk religion
or not religious population (73.2%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(12.2%)   Catholicism (6.8%)    Caodaism
Caodaism
(4.8%)    Protestantism
Protestantism
(1.5%)   Hoahaoism (1.4%)   Others (0.1%)

Hanoi's One Pillar Pagoda, a historic Buddhist temple.

According to an analysis by the Pew Research Center, in 2010 about 45.3% of the Vietnamese adhere to indigenous religions, 16.4% to Buddhism, 8.2% to Christianity, 0.4% to other faiths, and 29.6% of the population isn't religious.[133] According to the General Statistics Office of Vietnam's report for 1 April 2009, 6.8 million (or 7.9% of the total population) are practicing Buddhists, 5.7 million (6.6%) are Catholics, 1.4 million (1.7%) are adherents of Hòa Hảo, 0.8 million (0.9%) practise Caodaism, and 0.7 million (0.9%) are Protestants. In total, 15,651,467 Vietnamese (18.2%) are formally registered in a religion.[134] According to the 2009 census, while over 10 million people have taken refuge in the Three Jewels
Three Jewels
of Buddhism,[135][136] the vast majority of Vietnamese people
Vietnamese people
practice ancestor worship in some form. According to a 2007 report, 81% of the Vietnamese people
Vietnamese people
do not believe in a God.[137] About 8% of the population are Christians, totalling around six million Roman Catholics and fewer than one million Protestants. Christianity
Christianity
was first introduced to Vietnam
Vietnam
by Portuguese and Dutch traders in the 16th and 17th centuries, and was further propagated by French missionaries in the 19th and 20th centuries, and to a lesser extent, by American Protestant
Protestant
missionaries during the Vietnam
Vietnam
War, largely among the Montagnards of South Vietnam. The largest Protestant
Protestant
churches are the Evangelical Church of Vietnam and the Montagnard Evangelical Church. Two-thirds of Vietnam's Protestants are reportedly members of ethnic minorities.[138] Although a small religious minority, Protestantism
Protestantism
is claimed to be the country's fastest-growing religion, expanding at a rate of 600% in the previous decade.[139]

The main Cao Đài
Cao Đài
temple in the city of Tây Ninh.

The Vietnamese government is widely seen as suspicious of Roman Catholicism. This mistrust originated during the 19th century, when some Catholics collaborated with the French colonists in conquering and ruling the country and in helping French attempts to install Catholic emperors, such as in the Lê Văn Khôi revolt
Lê Văn Khôi revolt
of 1833.[140] Furthermore, the Catholic Church's strongly anti-communist stance has made it an enemy of the Vietnamese state. The Vatican Church is officially banned, and only government-controlled Catholic organisations are permitted. However, the Vatican has attempted to negotiate the opening of diplomatic relations with Vietnam
Vietnam
in recent years.[141] Several other minority faiths exist in Vietnam. A significant number of people are adherents of Caodaism, an indigenous folk religion which has structured itself on the model of the Catholic Church. Sunni and Cham Bani Islam is primarily practiced by the ethnic Cham minority, though there are also a few ethnic Vietnamese adherents in the southwest. In total, there are approximately 70,000 Muslims in Vietnam,[142] while around 50,000 Hindus and a small number of Baha'is are also in evidence. The Vietnamese government rejects allegations that it does not allow religious freedom. The state's official position on religion is that all citizens are free to their belief, and that all religions are equal before the law.[143] Nevertheless, only government-approved religious organisations are allowed; for example, the South Vietnam-founded Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam
Vietnam
is banned in favour of a communist-approved body.[144] Education Main article: Education in Vietnam

Vietnam
Vietnam
National University in Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City.

Viet Nam has an extensive state-controlled network of schools, colleges and universities, and a growing number of privately run and partially privatised institutions. General education in Vietnam
Vietnam
is divided into five categories: kindergarten, elementary schools, middle schools, high schools, and universities. A large number of public schools have been constructed across the country to raise the national literacy rate, which stood at 90.3% in 2008.[145] A large number of Viet Nam's most acclaimed universities are based in Hanoi
Hanoi
and Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City. Facing serious crises, Vietnam's education system is under a holistic program of reform launched by the government. Education is not free; therefore, some poor families may have trouble paying tuition for their children without some form of public or private assistance. Regardless, school enrollment is among the highest in the world,[146][147] and the number of colleges and universities increased dramatically in the 2000s, from 178 in 2000 to 299 in 2005. Since 1995, enrolment in higher education has grown tenfold to well over 2 million in 2012. By 2014, there were 419 institutions of higher education.[148] A number of foreign universities operate private campuses in Viet Nam, including Harvard University (USA) and the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Australia). The government’s strong commitment to education, in general, and higher education, in particular (respectively 6.3% and 1.05% of GDP in 2012), has fostered significant growth in higher education but this will need to be sustained to retain academics. Reform is under way. A law passed in 2012 gives university administrators greater autonomy, although the Ministry of Education retains responsibility for quality assurance. Health Main article: Health in Vietnam

Bạch Mai Hospital in Hanoi.

In 2009, Vietnam's national life expectancy stood at 76 years for women and 72 for men,[149] and the infant mortality rate was 12 per 1,000 live births.[150] By 2009, 85% of the population had access to improved water sources.[149] However, malnutrition is still common in the rural provinces.[151] In 2001, government spending on health care corresponded to just 0.9% of Vietnam's gross domestic product (GDP), with state subsidies covering only about 20% of health care expenses.[152] In 1954, North Vietnam
North Vietnam
established a public health system that reached down to the hamlet level.[153] After the national reunification in 1975, a nationwide health service was established. In the late 1980s, the quality of healthcare declined to some degree as a result of budgetary constraints, a shift of responsibility to the provinces, and the introduction of charges. Inadequate funding has also contributed to a shortage of nurses, midwives, and hospital beds; in 2000, Vietnam had only 250,000 hospital beds, or 14.8 beds per 10,000 people, according to the World Bank.[152] Since the early 2000s, Vietnam
Vietnam
has made significant progress in combating malaria, with the malaria mortality rate falling to about 5% of its 1990s equivalent by 2005, after the country introduced improved antimalarial drugs and treatment. However, tuberculosis cases are on the rise, with 57 deaths per day reported in May 2004. With an intensified vaccination program, better hygiene, and foreign assistance, Vietnam
Vietnam
hopes to reduce sharply the number of TB cases and annual new TB infections.[152] As of September 2005, Vietnam
Vietnam
had diagnosed 101,291 HIV
HIV
cases, of which 16,528 progressed to AIDS, and 9,554 died. However, the actual number of HIV-positive individuals is estimated to be much higher. On average, 40–50 new infections are reported every day in Vietnam. As of 2007[update], 0.5% of the population is estimated to be infected with HIV, and this figure has remained stable since 2005.[154] In June 2004, the United States
United States
announced that Vietnam
Vietnam
would be one of 15 nations to receive funding as part of a US$15 billion global AIDS relief plan.[152] Culture Main article: Culture of Vietnam See also: Vietnamese art, theatre, dance, literature, and List of Vietnamese traditional games

The Municipal Theatre in Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City.

Vietnam's culture has developed over the centuries from indigenous ancient Đông Sơn culture
Đông Sơn culture
with wet rice agriculture as its economic base. Some elements of the national culture have Chinese origins, drawing on elements of Confucianism
Confucianism
and Taoism
Taoism
in its traditional political system and philosophy. Vietnamese society is structured around làng (ancestral villages); all Vietnamese mark a common ancestral anniversary on the tenth day of the third lunar month.[155] The influences of immigrant peoples – such as the Cantonese, Hakka, Hokkien
Hokkien
and Hainan
Hainan
cultures – can also be seen, while the national religion of Buddhism
Buddhism
is strongly entwined with popular culture. In recent centuries, the influences of Western cultures, most notably France and the United States, have become evident in Vietnam. The traditional focuses of Vietnamese culture are humanity (nhân nghĩa) and harmony (hòa); family and community values are highly regarded. Vietnam
Vietnam
reveres a number of key cultural symbols, such as the Vietnamese dragon, which is derived from crocodile and snake imagery; Vietnam's National Father, Lạc Long Quân, is depicted as a holy dragon. The lạc – a holy bird representing Vietnam's National Mother, Âu Cơ
Âu Cơ
– is another prominent symbol, while turtle and horse images are also revered.[156] In the modern era, the cultural life of Vietnam
Vietnam
has been deeply influenced by government-controlled media and cultural programs. For many decades, foreign cultural influences – especially those of Western origin – were shunned. However, since the 1990s, Vietnam
Vietnam
has seen a greater exposure to Southeast Asian, European and American culture and media.[157] Media Main article: Media of Vietnam Vietnam's media sector is regulated by the government in accordance with the 2004 Law on Publication.[158] It is generally perceived that Vietnam's media sector is controlled by the government to follow the official Communist
Communist
Party line, though some newspapers are relatively outspoken.[159] The Voice of Vietnam
Voice of Vietnam
is the official state-run national radio broadcasting service, broadcasting internationally via shortwave using rented transmitters in other countries, and providing broadcasts from its website. Vietnam Television
Vietnam Television
is the national television broadcasting company. Since 1997, Vietnam
Vietnam
has extensively regulated public Internet
Internet
access, using both legal and technical means. The resulting lockdown is widely referred to as the "Bamboo Firewall".[160] The collaborative project OpenNet Initiative classifies Vietnam's level of online political censorship to be "pervasive",[161] while Reporters Without Borders considers Vietnam
Vietnam
to be one of 15 global "internet enemies".[162] Though the government of Vietnam
Vietnam
claims to safeguard the country against obscene or sexually explicit content through its blocking efforts, many politically and religiously sensitive websites are also banned.[163] Music

The Vietnamese dan bau a monochord zither instrument.

Traditional Vietnamese music
Vietnamese music
varies between the country's northern and southern regions. Northern classical music is Vietnam's oldest musical form, and is traditionally more formal. The origins of Vietnamese classical music can be traced to the Mongol invasions of the 13th century, when the Vietnamese captured a Chinese opera
Chinese opera
troupe.[164] Throughout its history, Vietnamese has been most heavily impacted by the Chinese musical tradition, as an integral part, along with Korea, Mongolia
Mongolia
and Japan.[165] Nhã nhạc
Nhã nhạc
is the most popular form of imperial court music. Chèo
Chèo
is a form of generally satirical musical theatre. Xẩm
Xẩm
or Hát xẩm ( Xẩm
Xẩm
singing) is a type of Vietnamese folk music. Quan họ
Quan họ
(alternate singing) is popular in Hà Bắc (divided into Bắc Ninh
Bắc Ninh
and Bắc Giang Provinces) and across Vietnam. Hát chầu văn or hát văn is a spiritual form of music used to invoke spirits during ceremonies. Nhạc dân tộc cải biên is a modern form of Vietnamese folk music which arose in the 1950s. Ca trù
Ca trù
(also hát ả đào) is a popular folk music. "Hò" can not be thought of as the southern style of Quan họ. There are a range of traditional instruments, including the Đàn bầu
Đàn bầu
(a monochord zither), the Đàn gáo
Đàn gáo
(a two-stringed fiddle with coconut body), and the Đàn nguyệt (a two-stringed fretted moon lute). Literature

The Temple of Literature in Hanoi.

Vietnamese literature
Vietnamese literature
has a centuries-deep history. The country has a rich tradition of folk literature, based on the typical 6–to-8-verse poetic form named ca dao, which usually focuses on village ancestors and heroes.[166] Written literature has been found dating back to the 10th-century Ngô dynasty, with notable ancient authors including Nguyễn Trãi, Trần Hưng Đạo, Nguyễn Du
Nguyễn Du
and Nguyễn Đình Chiểu. Some literary genres play an important role in theatrical performance, such as hát nói in ca trù.[167] Some poetic unions have also been formed in Vietnam, such as the Tao Đàn. Vietnamese literature has in recent times been influenced by Western styles, with the first literary transformation movement – Thơ Mới – emerging in 1932.[168] Festivals Main article: List of festivals in Vietnam

A traditional Tết
Tết
(Lunar New Year) tree.

Vietnam
Vietnam
has a plethora of festivals based on the lunar calendar, the most important being the Tết
Tết
New Year celebration. Traditional Vietnamese weddings remain widely popular, and are often celebrated by expatriate Vietnamese in Western countries. Tourism Main article: Tourism in Vietnam

Hội An's Ancient Town, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Vietnam
Vietnam
has become a major tourist destination since the 1990s, assisted by significant state and private investment, particularly in coastal regions.[169] About 3.77 million international tourists visited Vietnam
Vietnam
in 2009 alone.[170] Popular tourist destinations include the former imperial capital of Hué, the World Heritage Sites of Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park, Hội An
Hội An
and Mỹ Sơn, coastal regions such as Nha Trang, the caves of Hạ Long Bay
Hạ Long Bay
and the Marble Mountains. Numerous tourist projects are under construction, such as the Bình Dương
Bình Dương
tourist complex, which possesses the largest artificial sea in Southeast Asia.[171] On 14 February 2011, Joe Jackson, the father of American pop star Michael Jackson, attended a ground breaking ceremony for what will be Southeast Asia's largest entertainment complex, a five-star hotel and amusement park called Happyland. The US$2 billion project, which has been designed to accommodate 14 million tourists annually, is located in southern Long An Province, near Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City. It was expected that the complex would be completed in 2014.[172] As of 2017, Happyland has yet to open.[173] Clothing The áo dài, a formal dress, is worn for special occasions such as weddings and religious festivals. White áo dài is the required uniform for girls in many high schools across Vietnam. Áo dài
Áo dài
was once worn by both genders, but today it is mostly the preserve of women, although men do wear it to some occasions, such as traditional weddings.[174] Other examples of traditional Vietnamese clothing include the áo tứ thân, a four-piece woman's dress; the áo ngũ, a form of the thân in 5-piece form, mostly worn in the north of the country; the yếm, a woman's undergarment; the áo bà ba, rural working "pyjamas" for men and women;[175] the áo gấm, a formal brocade tunic for government receptions; and the áo the, a variant of the áo gấm worn by grooms at weddings. Traditional headwear includes the standard conical nón lá and the "lampshade-like" nón quai thao. Sport See also: Vietnam at the Olympics
Vietnam at the Olympics
and Sport in Vietnam The Vovinam
Vovinam
and Bình Định martial arts are widespread in Vietnam,[176] while soccer is the country's most popular team sport.[177] Its national team won the ASEAN
ASEAN
Football Championship in 2008. Other Western sports, such as badminton, tennis, volleyball, ping-pong and chess, are also widely popular. Vietnam
Vietnam
has participated in the Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
since 1952, when it competed as the State of Vietnam. After the partition of the country in 1954, only South Vietnam
South Vietnam
competed in the Games, sending athletes to the 1956 and 1972 Olympics. Since the reunification of Vietnam
Vietnam
in 1976, it has competed as the Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam, attending every Summer Olympics from 1988 onwards. The present Vietnam Olympic Committee was formed in 1976 and recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1979.[178] As of 2014[update], Vietnam
Vietnam
has never participated in the Winter Olympics. In 2016, Vietnam
Vietnam
participated in the Rio Olympics, where they won their first gold medal.[179] Cuisine Main article: Vietnamese cuisine

Pho, one of the most popular Vietnamese dishes.

Vietnamese cuisine
Vietnamese cuisine
traditionally features a combination of five fundamental taste "elements" (Vietnamese: ngũ vị): spicy (metal), sour (wood), bitter (fire), salty (water) and sweet (earth).[180] Common ingredients include fish sauce, shrimp paste, soy sauce, rice, fresh herbs, fruits and vegetables. Vietnamese recipes use lemongrass, ginger, mint, Vietnamese mint, long coriander, Saigon
Saigon
cinnamon, bird's eye chili, lime and basil leaves.[181] Traditional Vietnamese cooking is known for its fresh ingredients, minimal use of oil, and reliance on herbs and vegetables, and is considered one of the healthiest cuisines worldwide.[182] In northern Vietnam, local foods are often less spicy than southern dishes, as the colder northern climate limits the production and availability of spices. Black pepper
Black pepper
is used in place of chilis to produce spicy flavors. The use of such meats as pork, beef, and chicken was relatively limited in the past, and as a result freshwater fish, crustaceans – particularly crabs – and mollusks became widely used. Fish sauce, soy sauce, prawn sauce, and limes are among the main flavoring ingredients. Many signature Vietnamese dishes, such as bún riêu and bánh cuốn, originated in the north and were carried to central and southern Vietnam
Vietnam
by migrants.[183] See also

Asia
Asia
portal Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
portal Vietnam
Vietnam
portal

Book: Vietnam

Index of Vietnam-related articles Outline of Vietnam

Notes

^ Only the first verse of the "Army March" is recognized as the official national anthem of the Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam. ^ Also called Kinh people[1] ^ In effect since 1 January 2014 ^ The South China
China
Sea is referred to in Vietnam
Vietnam
as the East Sea (Biển Đông).[11] ^ At first, Gia Long
Gia Long
requested the name Nam Việt, but the Jiaqing Emperor refused.[14] ^ Neither the United States
United States
government nor Ngô Đình Diệm's State of Vietnam
Vietnam
signed anything at the 1954 Geneva Conference. The non-communist Vietnamese delegation objected strenuously to any division of Vietnam; however, the French accepted the Viet Minh proposal[41] that Vietnam
Vietnam
be united by elections under the supervision of "local commissions".[42] The United States, with the support of South Vietnam
South Vietnam
and the United Kingdom, countered with the "American Plan,"[43] which provided for United Nations-supervised unification elections. The plan, however, was rejected by Soviet and other communist delegations.[43]

References

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Sources

Woods, L. Shelton (2002). Vietnam: a global studies handbook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-416-1.  Yue-Hashimoto, Oi-kan (1972). Phonology of Cantonese. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-08442-0.  Tonnesson, Stein; Antlov, Hans (1996). Asian Forms of the Nation. Routledge. ISBN 0700704426. 

This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA IGO 3.0 UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030, 713–714, UNESCO, UNESCO Publishing. To learn how to add open-license text to articles, please see:Adding open license text to. For information on reusing text from, please see the terms of use.

Further reading

Herring, George C. (2001). America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950–1975 (4th edition). K. W. Taylor. A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press 2013. Jahn, G. C. (2006). "The dream is not yet over". In Fredenburg P., Hill B. (eds.): Sharing rice for peace and prosperity in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Victoria, Australia: Sid Harta Publishers. pp. 237–240. Karrnow, Stanley (1997). Vietnam: A History (2nd edition). Penguin. ISBN 0-14-026547-3. Kiernan, Ben (2017). Viet Nam: A History from Earliest Times to the Present. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190627300.  McMahon, Robert J. (1995). Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War: Documents and Essays. Tucker, Spencer (ed.) (1998). Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia
of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War. 3-volume reference set; also one-volume abridged edition (2001).

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