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The Vedic period
Vedic period
or Vedic age (c. 1500 – c. 600 BCE) is the period in the history of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
intervening between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilization, and a second urbanisation which began in c. 600 BCE. It gets its name from the Vedas, which are liturgical texts containing details of life during this period that have been interpreted to be historical[1] and constitute the primary sources for understanding the period. The Vedas
Vedas
were composed and orally transmitted by speakers of an Old Indo-Aryan language who had migrated into the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
early in this period. The associated Vedic culture was tribal and pastoral until c. 1200 or 1100 BCE, and centred in the Punjab. It then spread eastward to the Ganges
Ganges
Plain, becoming more agricultural and settled. The Vedic period
Vedic period
saw the emergence of a hierarchy of social classes and coalesce into Janapada (monarchical, state-level polities).[2][3] Archaeological cultures identified with phases of Vedic material culture include the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture, the Gandhara Grave culture, the Black and red ware culture and the Painted Grey Ware
Painted Grey Ware
culture.[4] The end of the Vedic period
Vedic period
witnessed the rise of Mahajanapada
Mahajanapada
(large, urbanised states) as well as shramana movements (including Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism) which challenged the Vedic orthodoxy.[5] Around the beginning of the Common Era, the Vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of the so-called " Hindu
Hindu
synthesis".[6]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Early Vedic Period (c. 1500 – c. 1200 BCE) 1.3 Later Vedic period
Vedic period
(c. 1100 – c. 500 BCE) 1.4 Towards urbanisation

2 Culture

2.1 Society 2.2 Political organisation 2.3 Economy 2.4 Religion 2.5 Literature

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References

5.1 Citations 5.2 Bibliography

6 Further reading

History[edit] Origins[edit] See also: Indo-European migrations, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-Aryan migration, and Indigenous Aryans The commonly accepted period of earlier Vedic age is dated back to the second millennium BCE.[7] After the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation, which ended c. 1900 BCE,[8][9] groups of Indo-Aryan peoples migrated into north-western India and started to inhabit the northern Indus Valley.[10] The Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
were a branch of the Indo-Iranians, which—according to the most widespread hypothesis—have originated in the Andronovo culture[11] in the Bactria- Margiana
Margiana
era, in present northern Afghanistan.[12][note 1]

Archaeological cultures associated with Indo-Iranian migrations (after EIEC). The Andronovo, BMAC
BMAC
and Yaz cultures have often been associated with Indo-Iranian migrations. The GGC, Cemetery H, Copper Hoard and PGW cultures are candidates for cultures associated with Indo-Aryan movements.

Some writers and archaeologists have opposed the notion of a migration of Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
into India.[19] Edwin Bryant and Laurie Patton used the term "Indo-Aryan Controversy" for an oversight of the Indo-Aryan Migration theory, and some of its opponents.[20] These ideas are outside the academic mainstream. Mallory and Adams note that two types of models "enjoy significant international currency" as to the Indo-European homeland, namely the Anatolian hypothesis, and a migration out of the Eurasian steppes.[21] According to Upinder Singh, "The original homeland of the Indo-Europeans and Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
is the subject of continuing debate among philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists and others. The dominant view is that the Indo-Aryams came to the subcontinent as immigrants. Another view, advocated mainly by some Indian scholars, is that they were indigenous to the subcontinent."[22] The knowledge about the Aryans comes mostly from the Rigveda-samhita,[23] i. e. the oldest layer of the Vedas, which was composed c. 1500–1200 BCE.[24][25][12] They brought with them their distinctive religious traditions and practices.[26] The Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era were closely related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion,[27] and the Indo-Iranian religion.[28] According to Anthony, the Old Indic religion probably emerged among Indo-European immigrants in the contact zone between the Zeravshan River
Zeravshan River
(present-day Uzbekistan) and (present-day) Iran.[29] It was "a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo-European elements",[29] which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices"[30] from the Bactria–Margiana Culture.[30][note 2] Early Vedic Period (c. 1500 – c. 1200 BCE)[edit] See also: Rigvedic tribes

Cremation urn of the Gandhara grave culture
Gandhara grave culture
(c. 1200 BCE), associated with Vedic material culture

The Rigveda
Rigveda
contains accounts of conflicts between the Aryas and the Dasas and Dasyus. It describes Dasas and Dasyus as people who do not perform sacrifices (akratu) or obey the commandments of gods (avrata). Their speech is described as mridhra which could variously mean soft, uncouth, hostile, scornful or abusive. Other adjectives which describe their physical appearance are subject to many interpretations. However, some modern scholars such as Asko Parpola
Asko Parpola
connect the Dasas and Dasyus to Iranian tribes Dahae and Dahyu and believe that Dasas and Dasyus were early Indo-Aryan immigrants who arrived into the subcontinent before the Vedic Aryans.[32][33] Accounts of military conflicts between the various tribes of Vedic Aryans are also described in the Rigveda. Most notable of such conflicts was the Battle of Ten Kings, which took place on the banks of the river Parushni (modern day Ravi).[note 3] The battle was fought between the tribe Bharatas, led by their chief Sudas, against a confederation of ten tribes.[36] The Bharatas lived around the upper regions of the river Saraswati, while the Purus, their western neighbours, lived along the lower regions of Saraswati. The other tribes dwelt north-west of the Bharatas in the region of Punjab.[37] Division of the waters of Ravi could have been a reason for the war.[38][unreliable source?] The confederation of tribes tried to inundate the Bharatas by opening the embankments of Ravi, yet Sudas emerged victorious in the Battle of Ten Kings.[39] Purukutsa, the chief of the Purus, was killed in the battle and the Bharatas and the Purus merged into a new tribe, the Kuru, after the war.[37] Later Vedic period
Vedic period
(c. 1100 – c. 500 BCE)[edit]

Pottery of the Painted Grey Ware culture
Painted Grey Ware culture
(c. 1000-600 BCE), associated with Vedic material culture

After the 12th century BCE, as the Rigveda
Rigveda
had taken its final form, the Vedic society transitioned from semi-nomadic life to settled agriculture. Vedic culture extended into the western Ganges
Ganges
Plain.[40] Possession of horses remained an important priority of Vedic leaders and a remnant of the nomadic lifestyle,[41] resulting in trade routes beyond the Hindu
Hindu
Kush to maintain this supply as horses needed for cavalry and sacrifice could not be bred in India.[42] The Gangetic plains had remained out of bounds to the Vedic tribes because of thick forest cover. After 1000 BCE, the use of iron axes and ploughs became widespread and the jungles could be cleared with ease. This enabled the Vedic Aryans to settle at the western Gangetic plains.[43] Many of the old tribes coalesced to form larger political units.[44] The Vedic religion was further developed when the Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
migrated into the Ganges Plain
Ganges Plain
after c. 1100 BCE and became settled farmers,[45][46][47] further syncretising with the native cultures of northern India.[48] In this period the varna system emerged, state Kulke and Rothermund, which in this stage of Indian history were a "hierarchical order of estates which reflected a division of labor among various social classes". The Vedic period
Vedic period
estates were four: Brahmin
Brahmin
priests and warrior nobility stood on top, free peasants and traders were the third, and slaves, labourers and artisans, many belonging to the indigenous people, were the fourth..[49][50][51] This was a period where agriculture, metal, and commodity production, as well as trade, greatly expanded,[52] and the Vedic era texts including the early Upanishads
Upanishads
and many Sutras important to later Hindu
Hindu
culture were completed.[53]

Modern replica of utensils and falcon shaped altar used for Agnicayana, an elaborate shrauta ritual originating from the Kuru Kingdom,[45] around 1000 BCE.

The Kuru Kingdom, the earliest Vedic "state", was formed by a "super-tribe" which joined several tribes in a new unit. To govern this state, Vedic hymns were collected and transcribed, and new rituals were developed, which formed the now orthodox Shrauta rituals.[54] Two key figures in this process of the development of the Kuru state were the king Parikshit
Parikshit
and his successor Janamejaya, transforming this realm into the dominant political and cultural power of northern Iron Age
Iron Age
India.[45] The most well-known of the new religious sacrifices that arose in this period were the Ashvamedha
Ashvamedha
(horse sacrifice).[55] This sacrifice involved setting a consecrated horse free to roam the kingdoms for a year. The horse was followed by a chosen band of warriors. The kingdoms and chiefdoms in which the horse wandered had to pay homage or prepare to battle the king to whom the horse belonged. This sacrifice put considerable pressure on inter-state relations in this era.[55] This period saw also the beginning of the social stratification by the use of varna, the division of Vedic society in Kshatriya, Brahmins, Vaishya
Vaishya
and Shudra.[54] The Kuru kingdom declined after its defeat by the non-Vedic Salva tribe, and the political centre of Vedic culture shifted east, into the Panchala
Panchala
kingdom on the Ganges.[45] Later, the kingdom of Videha emerged as a political centre farther to the East, in what is today northern Bihar
Bihar
of India and south eastern Nepal, reaching its prominence under the king Janaka, whose court provided patronage for Brahmin
Brahmin
sages and philosophers such as Yajnavalkya, Uddalaka Aruni, and Gargi Vachaknavi.[4] Towards urbanisation[edit] By the 6th century BCE, the political units consolidated into large kingdoms called Mahajanapadas. The process of urbanisation had begun in these kingdoms and commerce and travel, even over regions separated by large distances became easy.[56] Anga, door step of modern-day West Bengal, a small kingdom to the east of Magadha, formed the eastern boundary of the Vedic culture.[57] Yadavas
Yadavas
expanded towards the south and settled in Mathura. To the south of their kingdom was Vatsa
Vatsa
which was governed from its capital Kausambi. The Narmada River
Narmada River
and parts of North Western Deccan formed the southern limits.[58][59] The newly formed states struggled for supremacy and started displaying imperial ambitions.[60] The end of Vedic India is marked by linguistic, cultural and political changes. The grammar of Pāṇini
Pāṇini
marks a final apex in the codification of Sutra texts, and at the same time the beginning of Classical Sanskrit.[61] The invasion of Darius I
Darius I
of the Indus valley in the early 6th century BCE marks the beginning of outside influence, continued in the kingdoms of the Indo-Greeks.[62] Meanwhile, within India, the shramana movements (including Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism) challenged the authority and orthodoxy of Vedic scriptures and ritual.[5] Culture[edit]

Ancient history

Preceded by Prehistory

Ancient Near East

Egyptian Old Kingdom Sumer Uruk Ur Jiroft culture Ebla Mari Minoan Crete Oxus civilisation Akkadian Empire Gutian dynasty Lullubi Guti Neo-Sumerian Empire Egyptian Middle Kingdom Yamhad Qatna First Dynasty of Isin Old Assyrian Empire Old Babylonian Empire Hattians Hurrians Amurru kingdom Apum Isuwa Nuhašše Kurda Ṭābetu Tepe Sialk Teppe Hasanlu Shahr-e Sukhteh Tureng Tepe Godin Tepe Marlik Kizzuwatna Tepe Hissar Eshnunna Egyptian New Kingdom Hittite Empire Kassite dynasty Amorites Arameans Kingdom of Edom Kingdom of Moab Kingdom of Ammon Awan dynasty Shimashki Dynasty Chaldea Mitanni
Mitanni
Empire Troy Alashiya Ugarit Nuragic civilization Mycenaean Greece Middle Assyrian Empire Second Dynasty of Isin Elam Ellipi Kingdom of Kummuh Gurgum Phrygia Lydia Canaan Tyre Sidon Phoenicia Israel and Judah Arzawa Neo-Assyrian Empire Kushite Empire Kingdom of Kush Hyksos Punt Syro-Hittite states Hayasa-Azzi Georgia Etruscan League Roman Kingdom Urartu Mannaeans Cimmerians Colchis Zikirti Musasir Neo-Babylonian Empire Median Empire

Classical antiquity

Achaemenid Empire Carthaginian Empire Delian League Bosporan Kingdom Kingdom of Pontus Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Kingdom of Armenia Magna Graecia Macedonian Empire Odrysian kingdom Parthian Empire Peloponnesian League Ptolemaic Kingdom Roman Empire Roman Republic Sassanid Empire Hephthalite Empire Lakhmids Ghassanids Kingdom of Aksum Seleucid Empire Scythians Antigonid dynasty Palmyra Nabataean Kingdom

East Asia

Erlitou Shang dynasty Zhou dynasty Spring and Autumn period Warring States period Qin dynasty Gojoseon Jin (Korean state) Nanyue Han dynasty Three Kingdoms of Korea Silla Three Kingdoms of China Jin dynasty Northern and Southern dynasties Sui dynasty Japan

South Asia

Indus Valley Vedic period Kuru Kingdom Mahajanapada Magadha Kingdom Nanda Empire Maurya Empire Satavahana Indo-Greek Kingdom Indo-Scythian Kingdom Early Cholas Kushan Empire Vakataka Pallava Gupta Empire

Mesoamerica

Olmec Epi- Olmec
Olmec
culture Zapotec civilization Maya civilization Tikal Calakmul Palenque Teotihuacan Toltec Empire League of Mayapan Cuzcatlan Mixtec Tepanec Tarascan state Aztec Empire

Andes

Norte Chico Valdivia Kotosh Casma/Sechin culture Chiripa Cupisnique Chavín Moche Nazca Tiwanaku Empire Wari Empire Chimú culture Chincha Chachapoya Muisca Confederation Inca Empire Mapuche

Mississippi

Adena Hopewell Mississippian Fort Ancient Huron Confederacy Three Fires Confederacy Mi'kmaq
Mi'kmaq
Confederacy Iroquois
Iroquois
Confederacy

West Africa

Dhar Tichitt Djenné-Djenno Nok Bura culture Ghana Empire Mossi Kingdoms Kingdom of Nri Benin Empire Oyo Empire Ghana Empire Kanem–Bornu Empire Almoravid dynasty Sosso Empire Mali Empire Empire of Great Fulo Jolof Empire Hausa Kingdoms Gao Empire Songhai Empire

See also

History of the world

Ancient maritime history Protohistory Axial Age Iron Age Historiography Ancient literature Ancient warfare Cradle of civilization

Followed by the Postclassical Era

v t e

Society[edit] Vedic society was relatively egalitarian in the sense that a distinct hierarchy of socio-economic classes or castes was absent.[63][64] However, political hierarchy was determined by rank, where rajan stood at the top and dasi at the bottom.[64] The words Brahamana and Kshatriya
Kshatriya
occur in various family books of the Rigveda, but they are not associated with the term varna. The words Vaishya
Vaishya
and Shudra
Shudra
are absent. Verses of the Rigveda, such as 3.44-45, indicate the absence of strict social hierarchy and the existence of social mobility:[32]

O, Indra, fond of soma, would you make me the protector of people, or would you make me a king, would you make me a sage who has drunk soma, would you impart to me endless wealth.

The Vedic household was patriarchal and patrilineal. The institution of marriage was important and different types of marriages— monogamy, polygyny and polyandry are mentioned in the Rigveda. Both women sages and female gods were known to Vedic Aryans. However, hymns attributable to female sages are few and female gods were not as important as male ones. Women could choose their husbands and could remarry if their husbands died or disappeared.[64] While the wife enjoyed a respectable position, she was subordinate to her husband.[65] People consumed milk, milk products, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Meat eating is mentioned, however, cows are labelled aghnya (not to be killed). Clothes of cotton, wool and animal skin were worn.[64] Soma and sura were popular drinks in the Vedic society, of which soma was sanctified by religion. Flute (vana), lute (vina), harp, cymbals, and drums were the musical instruments played and a heptatonic scale was used.[65] Dancing, dramas, chariot racing, and gambling were other popular pastimes.[64] The emergence of monarchical states in the later Vedic age, led to a distancing of the rajan from the people and the emergence of a varna hierarchy. The society was divided into four social groups— Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. The later Vedic texts fixed social boundaries, roles, status and ritual purity for each of the groups. The Shatapatha Brahmana
Shatapatha Brahmana
associates the Brahmana with purity of parentage, good conduct, glory, teaching or protecting people; Kshatriya
Kshatriya
with strength, fame, ruling, and warfare; Vaishya with material prosperity and production-related activities such as cattle rearing and agriculture; Shudras with the service of the higher varnas. The effects of Rajasuya
Rajasuya
sacrifice depended on the varna of the sacrificer. Rajasuya
Rajasuya
endowed Brahmana with lustre, Kshatriya
Kshatriya
with valour, Vaishya
Vaishya
with procreative power and Shudra
Shudra
with stability. The hierarchy of the top three varnas is ambiguous in the later Vedic texts. Panchavamsha Brahmana and verse 13.8.3.11 of the Shatapatha Brahmana place Kshatriya
Kshatriya
over Brahmana and Vaishya, whereas, verse 1.1.4.12 places Brahmana and Vaishya
Vaishya
over the Kshatriya
Kshatriya
and Shudra. The Purusha sukta
Purusha sukta
visualised the four varnas as hierarchical, but inter-related parts of an organic whole.[66] Despite the increasing social stratification in the later Vedic times, hymns like Rigveda IX.112, suggest some amount of social mobility: "I am a reciter of hymns, my father a physician, and my mother grinds (corn) with stones. We desire to obtain wealth in various actions."[67][68] Household became an important unit in the later Vedic age. The variety of households of the Vedic era gave way to an idealised household which was headed by a grihapati. The relations between husband and wife, father and son were hierarchically organised and the women were relegated to subordinate and docile roles. Polygyny was more common than polyandry and texts like Tattiriya Samhita
Samhita
indicate taboos around menstruating women. Various professions women took to are mentioned in the later Vedic texts. Women tended to cattle, milked cows, carded wool; were weavers, dyers, and corn grinders. Women warriors such as Vishphala, who lost a leg in battle, are mentioned. Two female philosophers are mentioned in the Upanishads.[69] Patrick Olivelle, in his translation of the Upanishads, writes that "the fact that these women are introduced without any attempt to justify or to explain how women could be engaged in theological matters suggests the relatively high social and religious position of at least women of some social strata during this period."[70] Political organisation[edit]

Vedic weaponry

Ancient Indian Antennae sword; Metalwork, 1500–500 BCE.

Ancient Indian Ax Blade, 1500–1000 BCE.

Early Vedic Aryans were organised into tribes rather than kingdoms. The chief of a tribe was called a rajan. The autonomy of the rajan was restricted by the tribal councils called sabha and samiti. The two bodies were, in part, responsible for the governance of the tribe. The rajan could not accede to the throne without their approval. The distinction between the two bodies is not clear. Arthur Llewellyn Basham, a noted historian and indologist, theorises that sabha was a meeting of great men in the tribe, whereas, samiti was a meeting of all free tribesmen. Some tribes had no hereditary chiefs and were directly governed by the tribal councils. Rajan had a rudimentary court which was attended by courtiers (sabhasad) and chiefs of septs (gramani). The main responsibility of the rajan was to protect the tribe. He was aided by several functionaries, including the purohita (chaplain), the senani (army chief), dutas (envoys) and spash (spies).[71] Purohita performed ceremonies and spells for success in war and prosperity in peace.[72] In the later Vedic period, the tribes had consolidated into small kingdoms, which had a capital and a rudimentary administrative system.[73] To aid in governing these new states, the kings and their Brahmin
Brahmin
priests arranged Vedic hymns into collections and developed a new set of rituals (the now orthodox shrauta rituals) to strengthen the emerging social hierarchy.[45] The rajan was seen as the custodian of social order and the protector of rashtra (polity). Hereditary kingship started emerging and competitions like chariot races, cattle raids, and games of dice, which previously decided who was worthy of becoming a king, became nominal. Rituals in this era exalted the status of the king over his people. He was occasionally referred to as samrat (supreme ruler). The rajan's increasing political power enabled him to gain greater control over the productive resources. The voluntary gift offering (bali) became compulsory tribute; however, there was no organised system of taxation. Sabha and samiti are still mentioned in later Vedic texts, though, with the increasing power of the king, their influence declined.[74] By the end of the later Vedic age, different kinds of political systems such as monarchical states (rajya), oligarchical states (gana or sangha), and tribal principalities had emerged in India.[74] According to Michael Witzel's analysis of the Kuru Kingdom, it can be characterized as the earliest Vedic "state", during the Middle Vedic Period.[45][75] However, Robert Bellah
Robert Bellah
observes that it is difficult to "pin down" whether the Kurus were a true "state" or a complex chiefdom, as the Kuru kings notably never adopted royal titles higher than "rājan," which means "chief" rather than "king" in the Vedic context.[76] The Middle Vedic Period is also characterized by a lack of cities; Bellah compares this to early state formation in ancient Hawai'i and "very early Egypt," which were "territorial states" rather than "city-states," and thus "it was the court, not the city, that provided the center, and the court was often peripatetic."[77] Romila Thapar characterizes Vedic-era state formation as being in a condition of "arrested development," because local chiefs were relatively autonomous, and because surplus wealth that could have been directed towards state-building was instead used for the increasingly grandiose rituals that also served to structure social relations.[78] The period of the Upanishads, the final phase of the Vedic era, was approximately contemporaneous with a new wave of state formations, linked to the beginning of urbanization in the Ganges
Ganges
Valley: along with the growth of population and trade networks, these social and economic changes put pressure on older ways of life, setting the stage for the Upanishads
Upanishads
and the subsequent sramana movements,[79] and the end of the Vedic Period, which was followed by the Mahajanapada
Mahajanapada
period. According to George Erdosy, archaeological data for the period of period from 1000 to 600 BCE shows a two-tiered settlement pattern in the Ganges
Ganges
Valley, with some "modest central places," suggestive of the existence of simple chiefdoms, with the Kurukshetra District itself displaying a more complex (albeit not yet urbanized) three-tiered hierarchy.[80] Subsequently (after 600 BCE) there are four tiers of site sizes, including large towns and fortified cities, consistent with an urbanized state-level society.[81] Economy[edit]

Ceramic goblet from Navdatoli, Malwa, 1300 BCE.

Economy in the Vedic period
Vedic period
was sustained by a combination of pastoralism and agriculture.[65] There are references, in the Rigveda, to the leveling of fields, seed processing, and storage of grains in large jars. War booty was also a major source of wealth.[64] Economic exchanges were conducted by gift giving, particularly to kings (bali) and priests (dana), and barter using cattle as a unit of currency. While gold is mentioned in some hymns, there is no indication of the use of coins. Metallurgy is not mentioned in the Rigveda, but the word ayas and instruments made from it such as razors, bangles, axes are mentioned. One verse mentions purification of ayas. Some scholars believe that ayas refers to iron and the words dham and karmara refer to iron-welders.[82] However, philological evidence indicates that ayas in the Rigveda
Rigveda
refers only to copper and bronze, while iron or śyāma ayas, literally "black metal", first is mentioned in the post-Rigvedic Atharvaveda,[4][45] and therefore the Early Vedic Period was a Bronze Age culture whereas the Late Vedic Period was an Iron Age culture.[citation needed] The transition of Vedic society from semi-nomadic life to settled agriculture in the later Vedic age led to an increase in trade and competition for resources.[83] Agriculture dominated the economic activity along the Ganges
Ganges
valley during this period.[84] Agricultural operations grew in complexity and usage of iron implements (krishna–ayas or shyama–ayas, literally black metal or dark metal) increased. Crops of wheat, rice, and barley were cultivated. Surplus production helped to support the centralised kingdoms that were emerging at this time.[45] New crafts and occupations such as carpentry, leather work, tanning, pottery, astrology, jewellery, dying, and winemaking arose.[85] Apart from copper, bronze, and gold, later Vedic texts also mention tin, lead, and silver.[86] Panis in some hymns refers to merchants, in others to stingy people who hid their wealth and did not perform Vedic sacrifices. Some scholars suggest that Panis were semitic traders, but the evidence for this is slim.[37] Professions of warriors, priests, cattle-rearers, farmers, hunters, barbers, vintners and crafts of chariot-making, cart-making, carpentry, metal working, tanning, making of bows, sewing, weaving, making mats of grass and reed are mentioned in the hymns of the Rigveda. Some of these might have needed full-time specialists.[82] There are references to boats and oceans. Book X of the Rigveda
Rigveda
refers to both eastern and western oceans. Individual property ownership did not exist and clans as a whole enjoyed rights over lands and herds. Enslavement (dasa, dasi) in the course of war or as a result of non-payment of debt is mentioned. However, slaves worked in households rather than production-related activities.[64] Religion[edit] Main article: Historical Vedic religion

A steel engraving from the 1850s, which depicts the creative activities of Prajapati, a Vedic deity who presides over procreation and protection of life.

The Vedic forms of Hinduism
Hinduism
are one of the precursors to modern Hinduism.[87] Texts considered to date to the Vedic period
Vedic period
are mainly the four Vedas, but the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and the older Upanishads as well as the oldest Shrautasutras are also considered to be Vedic. The Vedas
Vedas
record the liturgy connected with the rituals and sacrifices performed by the 16 or 17 Shrauta
Shrauta
priests and the purohitas.[citation needed] The rishis, the composers of the hymns of the Rigveda, were considered inspired poets and seers (in post-Vedic times understood as "hearers" of an eternally existing Veda, Śrauta
Śrauta
means "what is heard"). The mode of worship was the performance of sacrifices (Yajna) which included the chanting of Rigvedic verses (see Vedic chant), singing of Samans and 'mumbling' of sacrificial mantras (Yajus). Yajna
Yajna
involved sacrifice and sublimation of the havana sámagri (herbal preparations) in the fire accompanied by the chanting of the Vedic mantras. The sublime meaning of the word yajna is derived from the Sanskrit verb yaj, which has a three-fold meaning of worship of deities (devapujana), unity (saògatikaraña) and charity (dána).[88] An essential element was the sacrificial fire—the divine Agni—into which oblations were poured, as everything offered into the fire was believed to reach God. People prayed for abundance of rain, cattle, sons, long life and gaining 'heaven'. Vedic people
Vedic people
believed in the transmigration of the soul, and the peepul tree and cow were sanctified by the time of the Atharvaveda.[89] Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
espoused later like Dharma, Karma etc. trace their root to the Vedas.[90] The main deities of the Vedic pantheon were Indra, Agni
Agni
(the sacrificial fire), and Soma and some deities of social order such as Mitra–Varuna, Aryaman, Bhaga and Amsa, further nature deities such as Surya
Surya
(the Sun), Vayu
Vayu
(the wind), and Prithivi (the earth). Goddesses included Ushas
Ushas
(the dawn), Prithvi, and Aditi
Aditi
(the mother of the Aditya gods or sometimes the cow). Rivers, especially Saraswati, were also considered goddesses. Deities were not viewed as all-powerful. The relationship between humans and the deity was one of transaction, with Agni
Agni
(the sacrificial fire) taking the role of messenger between the two. Strong traces of a common Indo-Iranian religion remain visible, especially in the Soma cult and the fire worship, both of which are preserved in Zoroastrianism. Ethics in the Vedas
Vedas
are based on the concepts of Satya
Satya
and Rta. Satya is the principle of integration rooted in the Absolute.[91] Whereas, Ṛta is the expression of Satya, which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it.[92] Conformity with Ṛta would enable progress whereas its violation would lead to punishment. Vedic religion evolved into the Hindu
Hindu
paths of Yoga
Yoga
and Vedanta, a religious path considering itself the 'essence' of the Vedas, interpreting the Vedic pantheon as a unitary view of the universe with 'God' (Brahman) seen as immanent and transcendent in the forms of Ishvara
Ishvara
and Brahman. These post-Vedic systems of thought, along with later texts like the Upanishads, and epics, namely Gita
Gita
of Mahabharat, have been fully preserved and form the basis of modern Hinduism. The ritualistic traditions of Vedic religion are preserved in the conservative Śrauta
Śrauta
tradition. Literature[edit] Main article: Vedas

An early 19th-century manuscript of Rigveda
Rigveda
(padapatha) in Devanagari. The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red.

The reconstruction of the history of Vedic India is based on text-internal details, but can be correlated to relevant archaeological details. Linguistically, the Vedic texts could be classified in five chronological strata:[4]

Rigvedic text: The Rigveda
Rigveda
is by far the most archaic of the Vedic texts preserved, and it retains many common Indo-Iranian elements, both in language and in content, that are not present in any other Vedic texts. Its time span likely corresponds to the Late Harappan culture, Gandhara Grave culture
Gandhara Grave culture
and Ochre Coloured Pottery culture. Mantra
Mantra
language texts: This period includes both the mantra and prose language of the Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda
(Paippalada and Shaunakiya), the Rigveda Khilani, the Samaveda
Samaveda
Samhita
Samhita
(containing some 75 mantras not in the Rigveda), and the mantras of the Yajurveda. Many of these texts are largely derived from the Rigveda, but have undergone certain changes, both by linguistic change and by reinterpretation. Conspicuous changes include change of vishva "all" by sarva, and the spread of the kuru- verbal stem (for Rigvedic krno-). This is the time of the early Iron Age in north-western India, corresponding to the Black and Red Ware (BRW) and Painted Grey Ware
Painted Grey Ware
(PGW) cultures, and the early Kuru Kingdom, dating from c. the 12th to 11th century BCE. Samhita
Samhita
prose texts: This period marks the beginning of the collection and codification of a Vedic canon. An important linguistic change is the complete loss of the injunctive. The Brahmana part ('commentary' on mantras and ritual) of the Black Yajurveda
Yajurveda
(MS, KS, TS) belongs to this period. Archaeologically, the Painted Grey Ware
Painted Grey Ware
(PGW) culture from c. 1000 or 900 BCE corresponds to the Kuru Kingdom
Kuru Kingdom
and the subsequent eastward shift of the political centre from the Kurus to the Panchalas on the Ganges. Brahmana prose texts: The Brahmanas
Brahmanas
proper of the four Vedas
Vedas
belong to this period, as well as the Aranyakas, the oldest of the Upanishads (BAU, ChU, JUB) and the oldest Shrautasutras (BSS, VadhSS). In the east, Videha
Videha
(N. Bihar
Bihar
and Nepal) is established as the third main political centre of the Vedic period. Sutra language texts: This is the last stratum of Vedic Sanskrit leading up to c. 500 BCE, comprising the bulk of the Śrauta
Śrauta
and Grhya Sutras, and some Upanishads
Upanishads
(e.g. KathU, MaitrU).

See also[edit]

History of India Historical Vedic religion Indus Valley Civilisation Vedanga Indigenous Aryans

Notes[edit]

^ The roots of this culture seem to go further back to the Sintashta culture, with funeral sacrifices which show close parallels to the sacrificial funeral rites of the Rigveda.[13] Around 1800–1600 BCE, the Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
are believed to have split off from the Iranians[14] whereupon they were defeated and split into two groups by the Iranians,[15] who dominated the Central Eurasian steppe zone[16] and "chased them to the extremities of Central Eurasia."[16] One of these Indo-Aryan groups would found the Mitanni
Mitanni
kingdom in northern Syria (c. 1500–1300 BCE).[12] The other group were the Vedic people, who were pursued by the Iranians "across Iran into India."[17] For an overview of the current relevant research, see:

Michael Witzel (2001), "Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts", in Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies (EJVS), vol. 7–3, pp. 1–93. Shereen Ratnagar (2008), "The Aryan homeland debate in India", in P. L. Kohl, M. Kozelsky and N. Ben-Yehuda (edd.), Selective remembrances: archaeology in the construction, commemoration, and consecration of national pasts, pp. 349–378. Suraj Bhan (2002), "Aryanization of the Indus Civilization" in K. N. Panikkar, T. J. Byres and U. Patnaik (edd.), The Making of History, pp. 41–55. [18]

^ At least 383 non-Indo-European words were borrowed from this culture, including the god Indra
Indra
and the ritual drink Soma, which according to Anthony was "probably borrowed from the BMAC religion."[31] "Many of the qualities of Indo-Iranian god of might/victory, Verethraghna, were transferred to the adopted god Indra, who became the central deity of the developing Old Indic culture. Indra
Indra
was the subject of 250 hymns, a quarter of the Rigveda. He was associated more than any other deity with Soma, a stimulant drug (perhaps derived from Ephedra) probably borrowed from the BMAC religion. His rise to prominence was a peculiar trait of the Old Indic speakers." ^ According to Erdosy, this battle provided a prototype for the epic Mahabharata,[34] Hiltebeitel calls this idea a "particularly baffling fancy."[35]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ McClish, Mark; Olivelle, Patrick (2012), "Introduction", in M. McClish; P. Olivelle, The Arthasastra: Selections from the Classic Indian Work on Statecraft, Hackett Publishing, p. xxiv, ISBN 1-60384-903-3 : "Although the Vedas
Vedas
are essentially liturgical documents and increasingly mystical reflections on Vedic ritual, they are sufficiently rich and extensive to give us some understanding of what life was like at the time. The earliest of the Vedas, the Ṛgveda Saṃhitā, contains 1,028 hymns, some of which may be as old as 1500 BCE. Because the Vedic texts are the primary way in which we can understand the period between the fall of the IVC (ca 1700) and the second wave of urbanization (600 BCE), we call the intervening era of South Asian history the 'Vedic Period.'" ^ Witzel 1995, p. 3-5. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 49-52. ^ a b c d Witzel 1989. ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 82. ^ Hiltebeitel 2002. ^ Pletcher, Kenneth (2010). The History of India. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 60.  ^ Witzel 1995, p. 3. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 41. ^ Floodl 1995, p. 30, 33-35. ^ Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007, p. 410-411. ^ a b c Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007, p. 454. ^ Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007, p. 375, 408–411. ^ Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007, p. 408. ^ Beckwith, 2009 & 33, 35. ^ a b Beckwith, 2009 & 33. ^ Beckwith, 2009 & 34. ^ Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007. ^ Bryant 2001. ^ Bryant & Patton 2005, p. 342. ^ Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 460-461. ^ & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, p. 186. ^ Flood 1996, p. 31. ^ Flood 1996, p. 37. ^ Witzel 1995, p. 4. ^ Flood 1996, p. 30. ^ Woodard, Roger D. (18 August 2006). Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult. University of Illinois Press. pp. 242–. ISBN 978-0-252-09295-4.  ^ Beckwith 2009. ^ a b Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007, p. 462. ^ a b Beckwith 2009, p. 32. ^ Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007, p. 454 f.. ^ a b & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, p. 192. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, p. 38. ^ Erdosy 1995, p. 335. ^ Hiltebeitel 2001, p. 2, note 12. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 187.  ^ a b c Basham, The Wonder that was India 2008, p. 32. ^ Reddy 2011, p. 103. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, pp. 37–38. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 48-53. ^ Tignor, Robert L. (2014). Worlds together, worlds apart : a history of the world from the beginnings of humankind to the present (fourth ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393922073. OCLC 854609153.  ^ Kaushik, Roy (2013). Military manpower, armies and warfare in South Asia. London: Pickering & Chatto. ISBN 9781848932920. OCLC 827268432.  ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, pp. 39–40. ^ & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, p. 200. ^ a b c d e f g h Witzel 1995. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 48-51, 61-93. ^ Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 8-10. ^ Samuel 2010. ^ Avari, Burjor (2016). India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Subcontinent from C. 7000 BCE to CE 1200. Routledge. p. 89.  ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, pp. 39-41. ^ Sharma, Ram Sharan (1990), Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down to Circa A.D. 600, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., p. 33, ISBN 978-81-208-0706-8  ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, pp. 41–43. ^ Witzel 1995, p. 2-8. ^ a b Samuel 2010, p. 48-56. ^ a b Basham, The Wonder that was India 2008, p. 42. ^ Olivelle 1998, pp. xxviii–xxix. ^ Basham 208, p. 40. ^ Basham 208, p. 41. ^ Majumdar 1998, p. 65. ^ Majumdar 1998, p. 66. ^ Fortson 2011, p. 208. ^ Sen 1999, pp. 117–120. ^ Staal 2008, p. 54. ^ a b c d e f g & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, p. 191. ^ a b c Basham, The Wonder that was India 2008, p. 35. ^ & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, pp. 201–203. ^ & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, p. 204. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxvi. ^ & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, pp. 204–206. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxxvi. ^ Majumdar 1977, p. 45. ^ Basham, The Wonder that was India 2008, pp. 33–34. ^ Basham, The Wonder that was India 2008, p. 41. ^ a b & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, pp. 200–201. ^ Witzel's study is furthermore cited by Alf Hiltebeitel, Dharma: Its Early History in Law, Religion, and Narrative, Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 57 (online); Proferes, Theodore (2003), "Kuru kings, Tura Kavaseya and the -tvaya Gerund", in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. 66 (2), pp. 210–219 (online). ^ Bellah, Robert N. Religion in Human Evolution (Harvard University Press, 2011), p. 491 f. (online). ^ Bellah 2011, 697-98: citing the terminology of Bruce Trigger, Understanding Early Civilizations (online). ^ Cited by Bellah 2011, p. 698 f. (online). ^ Bellah 2011, p. 509, citing Patrick Olivelle's introductory remarks to his translation of the Upanishads
Upanishads
(online). ^ Erdosy, George. "The prelude to urbanization: ethnicity and the rise of Late Vedic chiefdoms," in The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States, ed. F. R. Allchin (Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 75–98 (online). ^ Erdosy, George. "City states of North India and Pakistan at the time of the Buddha," in The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States, ed. F. R. Allchin (Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 99–122 (online). ^ a b & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, p. 190. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, p. 40. ^ Olivelle, 1998 & xxvii. ^ & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, pp. 198–199. ^ Basham, The Wonder that was India 2008, pp. 42–43. ^ Stephanie W. Jamison and Michael Witzel in Arvind Sharma, editor, The Study of Hinduism. University of South Carolina Press, 2003, page 65: "... to call this period Vedic Hinduism
Hinduism
is a contradiction in terms since Vedic religion is very different from what we generally call Hindu
Hindu
religion - at least as much as Old Hebrew religion is from mediaeval and modern Christian religion. However, Vedic religion is treatable as a predecessor of Hinduism." ^ Nigal, S.G. Axiological Approach to the Vedas. Northern Book Centre, 1986. P. 81. ISBN 81-85119-18-X. ^ Singhal, K. C; Gupta, Roshan. The Ancient History of India, Vedic Period: A New Interpretation. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. ISBN 8126902868. P. 150-151. ^ *Day, Terence P. (1982). The Conception of Punishment in Early Indian Literature. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. P. 42-45. ISBN 0-919812-15-5. ^ Krishnananda. Swami. A Short History of Religious and Philosophic Thought in India, Divine Life Society. p. 21 ^ Holdrege (2004:215). Panikkar (2001:350-351) remarks: "Ṛta is the ultimate foundation of everything; it is "the supreme", although this is not to be understood in a static sense. [...] It is the expression of the primordial dynamism that is inherent in everything...."

Bibliography[edit]

Anthony, David W. (2007), The Horse, the Wheel and Language. How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, Princeton: Princeton University Press  Basham, A. L. (2008) [first published 1954 by Sidgwick and Jackson], The Wonder that was India: A survey of the history and culture of the Indian sub-continent before the coming of the Muslims, Scholarly Publishing Office, University of Michigan, ISBN 978-1-59740-599-7  Bryant, Edwin (2001), The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate, New York: Oxford University Press  Bryant, Edwin; Patton, Laurie, eds. (2005), Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History, Routledge  Erdosy, George (1995), The Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, Walter de Gruyter  Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Flood, Gavin (2003), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Malden, MA: Blackwell, ISBN 1-4051-3251-5  Fortson, Benjamin W. (2011), Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-1-4443-5968-8  Griswold, Hervey De Witt (1971), The Religion of the Ṛigveda, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 978-81-208-0745-7  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2001), Rethinking the Mahabharata: A Reader's Guide to the Education of the Dharma King, University of Chicago Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Kak, Subhash (2005), "Vedic astronomy and early Indian chronology", in Bryant, Edwin; Patton, Laurie, Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History, Routledge  Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (1998), A History of India, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-32920-0  Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (1977), Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 978-81-208-0436-4  Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006), The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World, Oxford University Press  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Olivelle, Patrick (1998), Upanis̥ads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-283576-5  Reddy, K. Krishna (2011), Indian History, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, ISBN 978-0-07-132923-1  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press  Sen, S. N. (1999), Ancient Indian History And Civilization, New Age International, ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0  Singh, Upinder (2008), A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson Education India, ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0  Staal, Frits (2008), Discovering the Vedas: Origins, Mantras, Rituals, Insights, Penguin Books India, ISBN 978-0-14-309986-4  Winternitz, Moriz; Sarma, Vuppala Srinivasa (1981), A history of Indian literature: Introduction, Veda, epics, purānas and tantras, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 978-81-208-0264-3  Witzel, Michael (1989), "Tracing the Vedic dialects", Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. Caillat, Paris, 97–265.  Witzel, Michael (1995), "Early Sanskritization. Origins and Development of the Kuru State." (PDF), Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, 1 (4): 1–26 

Further reading[edit]

Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, The Arctic Home in the Vedas, Messrs Tilak Bros., 1903. R. C. Majumdar and A. D. Pusalker, eds. The History and Culture of the Indian People. Volume I, The Vedic age. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay 1951. R. C. Majumdar et al. An Advanced History of India