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The United States
United States
Ambassador to France
France
is the official representative of the President of the United States
President of the United States
to the head of state of France. There has been a U.S. Ambassador to France
France
since the American Revolution. The United States
United States
sent its first envoys to France
France
in 1776, towards the end of the four-centuries-old Bourbon dynasty. The American diplomatic relationship with France
France
has continued throughout that country's five republican regimes, two periods of French empire, the Bourbon Restoration, and its July Monarchy. After the Battle of France, the United States
United States
maintained diplomatic relations with Vichy France
France
until France
France
severed them on the date Operation Torch
Operation Torch
was launched in November 1942; the Embassy was reopened December 1944.[1] for the narrative history see France– United States
United States
relations.

Contents

1 List of United States
United States
Chiefs of Mission in Paris

1.1 Ministers to the Court of Versailles (1778–1792) 1.2 Ministers to the First Republic (1792–1804) 1.3 Ministers to the First Empire (1804–1815) 1.4 Ministers to France 1.5 Ambassadors to the Third Republic 1.6 Ambassadors to the Fourth Republic 1.7 Ambassadors to the Fifth Republic

2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links

List of United States
United States
Chiefs of Mission in Paris[edit] Ministers to the Court of Versailles (1778–1792)[edit] Relations between the United States
United States
and the French Court of Versailles were established in 1778 with the signing of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce (United States–France). As a republic, the United States maintained relations with France
France
at the second-highest diplomatic rank of Minister. The position was formally known as the Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States
United States
of America at the Court of Versailles.

Name State Appointment Presentation Termination Notes

Franklin, BenjaminBenjamin Franklin Pennsylvania 000000001778-09-14-0000September 14, 1778 000000001779-03-23-0000March 23, 1779 000000001785-05-17-0000May 17, 1785

Jefferson, ThomasThomas Jefferson Virginia 000000001785-03-10-0000March 10, 1785 000000001785-05-17-0000May 17, 1785 000000001789-09-26-0000September 26, 1789

Short, WilliamWilliam Short Virginia 000000001790-04-20-0000April 20, 1790 000000001790-06-14-0000June 14, 1790 000000001792-05-15-0000May 15, 1792

Morris, GouverneurGouverneur Morris New York 000000001792-01-12-0000January 12, 1792 000000001792-06-03-0000June 3, 1792 000000001794-04-09-0000April 9, 1794 Remained as Minister after the First Republic was proclaimed. Mission terminated when the French government requested his recall.

Ministers to the First Republic (1792–1804)[edit]

Name State Appointment Presentation Termination Notes

Monroe, JamesJames Monroe Virginia 000000001794-05-28-0000May 28, 1794 000000001794-08-15-0000August 15, 1794 000000001796-12-09-0000December 9, 1796

Pinckney, Charles CotesworthCharles Cotesworth Pinckney South Carolina 000000001796-09-09-0000September 9, 1796 Not presented 000000001797-02-05-0000February 5, 1797

Diplomatic relations were broken in 1796 due to French anger at U.S. neutrality in the War of the First Coalition. After the Directory refused to accept Charles Cotesworth Pinckney's credentials, a commission was appointed to negotiate with the French Republic. The members of the commission — Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry — were all accredited with the rank of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.[2] French officials demanded a bribe before they would commence negotiations, scuttling the mission in the XYZ Affair. Hostilities culminated in the outbreak of the Quasi-War between the U.S. and France. Diplomatic relations were restored with the Convention of 1800.

Name State Appointment Presentation Termination Notes

Livingston, Robert R.Robert R. Livingston New York 000000001801-10-02-0000October 2, 1801 000000001801-12-06-0000December 6, 1801 000000001804-11-18-0000November 18, 1804 Remained as Minister after Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed emperor.

Ministers to the First Empire (1804–1815)[edit]

Name State Appointment Presentation Termination Notes

Armstrong, JohnJohn Armstrong New York 000000001804-06-30-0000June 30, 1804 000000001804-11-18-0000November 18, 1804 000000001810-09-14-0000September 14, 1810

Russell, JonathanJonathan Russell Massachusetts 000000001810-09-14-0000September 14, 1810 (Became chargé d'affaires ad interim) Not credentialed 000000001811-11-17-0000November 17, 1811 Commissioned as chargé d'affaires en pied, but received no letter of credence. Although Russell remained a chargé d'affaires ad interim, the U.S. Department of State regards him as a Chief of Mission.[3]

Barlow, JoelJoel Barlow District of Columbia 000000001811-02-27-0000February 27, 1811 000000001811-11-17-0000November 17, 1811 000000001812-12-26-0000December 26, 1812 Died in Żarnowiec during the French retreat from Moscow.

Crawford, William H.William H. Crawford Georgia 000000001813-04-09-0000April 9, 1813 000000001813-12-14-0000December 14, 1813 000000001815-04-26-0000April 26, 1815 to 000000001815-04-30-0000April 30, 1815 Reaccredited to the Court of Versailles.

Ministers to France[edit] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

William H. Crawford
William H. Crawford
was reaccredited to the Court of Versailles after the Restoration. Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
July 16, 1816 – May 16, 1823 James Brown: 1824–1829 William C. Rives: 1829–1833 Levett Harris: April 1833 – September 1833 Edward Livingston: 1833–1836 Lewis Cass: 1836–1842 William Rufus King: 1844–1846 Richard Rush: 1847–1848 Richard Rush: 1848–1849 William Cabell Rives: 1849–1853 John Y. Mason: 1853–1859 Charles J. Faulkner: 1860–1861 William L. Dayton: 1861–1864 John Bigelow: 1864–1866 John Adams Dix: 1866–1869 Elihu B. Washburne: 1869–1877 Edward F. Noyes: 1877–1881 Levi P. Morton: 1881–1885 Robert Milligan McLane: 1885–1889 Whitelaw Reid: 1889–1892 T. Jefferson Coolidge: 1893–1893

Ambassadors to the Third Republic[edit]

James Biddle Eustis: 1893–1897[4] Horace Porter: 1897–1905 Robert Sanderson McCormick: 1905–1907 Henry White: 1907–1909 Robert Bacon: 1909–1912 Myron T. Herrick: 1912–1914 William Graves Sharp: 1914–1919 Hugh Campbell Wallace: 1919–1921 Myron T. Herrick: 1921–1929 Walter E. Edge: 1929–1933 Jesse Isidor Straus: 1933–1936 William C. Bullitt: 1936–1940 William D. Leahy: 1941–1942

After Leahy left, S. Pinkney Tuck served as interim Chargé d'affaires until France
France
severed diplomatic relations with the U.S. on November 8, 1942, the date of Operation Torch

Ambassadors to the Fourth Republic[edit]

Jefferson Caffery: December 30, 1944 – 1949

The Embassy in Paris had been opened to the public December 1, 1944, with Ambassador Caffery in charge pending presentation of his letter of credence.

David K. E. Bruce: 1949–1952 James C. Dunn: 1952–1953 C. Douglas Dillon: 1953–1957 Amory Houghton: 1957–1961 James M. Gavin: 1961–1962

Ambassadors to the Fifth Republic[edit]

R. Sargent Shriver

Charles E. Bohlen: 1962–1968 Robert Sargent Shriver, Jr.: 1968–1970 Arthur K. Watson: 1970–1972 John N. Irwin, II: 1973–1974 Kenneth Rush: 1974–1977 Arthur A. Hartman: 1977–1981 Evan Griffith Galbraith: 1981–1985 Joe M. Rodgers: 1985–1989 Walter Curley: 1989–1993 Pamela Harriman: 1993–1997 Felix Rohatyn: 1997–2000 Howard H. Leach: 2001–2005 Craig Roberts Stapleton: 2005–2009 Charles Rivkin: 2009–2013[5][6]

Mark A. Taplin (Ad interim): 2013–2014[7]

Jane D. Hartley: 2014–2017

Uzra Zeya (Chargé d'affaires): 2017 Brent Hardt (Chargé d'affaires): 2017

Jamie D. McCourt: 2017-Present

See also[edit]

Government of the United States
United States
portal Paris portal

List of French ambassadors to the United States Embassy of the United States, Paris France
France
United States
United States
relations Foreign relations of France Ambassadors of the United States

References[edit]

^ David McCullough, The Greater Journey: Americans in Paris, Simon & Schuster, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4165-7176-6 ^ Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth; Gerry, Elbridge; Marshall, John (1798). Authentic Copies of the Correspondence of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry, Esqrs. Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Republic of France: As Presented to Both Houses of Congress, April 3, 1798, by His Excellency John Adams. J. Derrett. p. 62. The undersigned Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary of the United States
United States
of America to the French Republic, had the honour of announcing to you officially, on the 6th of October, their arrival at Paris, and of presenting to you on the 8th, a copy of their letters of credence.  ^ "Chiefs of Mission for France". Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State.  ^ "Ambassadors and Chiefs of Mission – FAQs – About Us – Office of the Historian".  ^ Knowlton, Brian (August 16, 2009). "New U.S. Envoy Takes Up Post". The New York Times. Retrieved August 31, 2009.  ^ "Ambassador Charles Rivkin
Charles Rivkin
permanently departed post on Tuesday, November 19, 2013 following his nomination by President Obama to serve as Assistant Secretary of the State Department's Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs". Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.  ^ "Our Charge D'Affairs Ad Interim". US Embassy to France. Retrieved May 2, 2014. 

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States
United States
Department of State website http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm (Background Notes). Further reading[edit]

Willson, Beckles. America's Ambassadors to France
France
(1777-1927): A Narrative of Franco-American Diplomatic Relations (1928).

External links[edit]

United States
United States
Embassy in Paris official site United States
United States
Department of State: France United States
United States
Department of State: Chiefs of Mission for France United States
United States
Department of State: Background notes on France Interview with 1984 U.S. Ambassador to France
France
from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives

v t e

Ambassadors of the United States

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v t e

Benjamin Franklin

January 6, 1706 – April 17, 1790 President of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(1785–1788), Ambassador to France (1779–1785) Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
(1775–1776)

Founding of the United States

Join, or Die
Join, or Die
(1754 political cartoon) Albany Plan
Albany Plan
of Union

Albany Congress

Hutchinson Letters Affair Committee of Secret Correspondence Committee of Five Declaration of Independence Model Treaty

Franco-American alliance Treaty of Amity and Commerce Treaty of Alliance

Staten Island Peace Conference Treaty of Paris, 1783 Delegate, 1787 Constitutional Convention Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Provincial Assembly Postmaster General Founding Fathers

Inventions, other events

Franklin's electrostatic machine Bifocals Franklin stove Glass armonica Gulf Stream exploration, naming, and chart Lightning rod Kite experiment Pay it forward Associators

111th Infantry Regiment

Junto club American Philosophical Society Library Company of Philadelphia Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Hospital Academy and College of Philadelphia

University of Pennsylvania

Philadelphia Contributionship Union Fire Company Early American currency Fugio Cent United States
United States
Postal Service President, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Abolition Society Master, Les Neuf Sœurs Other social contributions and studies Gravesite

Writings

Silence Dogood
Silence Dogood
letters (1722) A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain (1725) The Busy-Body
The Busy-Body
letters (1729) Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Gazette (1729–1790) Poor Richard's Almanack
Poor Richard's Almanack
(1732–1758) The Drinker's Dictionary (1737) "Advice to a Friend on Choosing a Mistress" (1745) "The Speech of Polly Baker" (1747) Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc. (1751) Experiments and Observations on Electricity
Experiments and Observations on Electricity
(1751) Birch letters (1755) The Way to Wealth
The Way to Wealth
(1758) Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Chronicle (1767) Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One (1773) Proposed alliance with the Iroquois (1775) A Letter To A Royal Academy (1781) Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America (1784) The Morals of Chess (1786) An Address to the Public (1789) A Plan for Improving the Condition of the Free Blacks (1789) The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(1771–90, pub. 1791) Bagatelles and Satires
Bagatelles and Satires
(pub. 1845) Franklin as a journalist

Legacy

Franklin Court Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
House Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Institute of Technology Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
National Memorial Franklin Institute Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Medal Depicted in The Apotheosis of Washington Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
statue, Washington D.C. In popular culture

Ben and Me (1953 short) Ben Franklin in Paris
Ben Franklin in Paris
(1964 musical play) 1776 (1969 musical 1972 film) Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(1974 miniseries) Liberty! (1997 documentary series) Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
(2002 animated series) Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
(2002 documentary series) John Adams (2008 miniseries) Sons of Liberty (2015 miniseries) Sons of Ben (supporters group for the Philadelphia Union soccer club

Refunding Certificate Franklin half dollar One-hundred dollar bill Washington-Franklin stamps

other stamps

Cities, counties, schools named for Franklin Franklin Field State of Franklin Ships named USS Franklin Ben Franklin effect

Related

Age of Enlightenment American Enlightenment The New-England Courant The American Museum magazine American Revolution

patriots

Syng inkstand

Family

Deborah Read
Deborah Read
(wife) Sarah Franklin Bache
Sarah Franklin Bache
(daughter) Francis Franklin (son) William Franklin
William Franklin
(son) Richard Bache Jr. (grandson) Benjamin F. Bache (grandson) Louis F. Bache (grandson) William Franklin
William Franklin
(grandson) Andrew Harwood (great-grandson) Alexander Bache (great-grandson) Josiah Franklin (father) Jane Mecom (sister) James Franklin (brother) Mary Morrell Folger (grandmother) Peter Folger (grandfather) Richard Bache
Richard Bache
(son-in-law) Ann Smith Franklin (si