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Coordinates: 51°30′36″N 0°04′37″W / 51.51°N 0.077°W / 51.51; -0.077

Trinity
Trinity
House, London (January 2007)

A meeting at Trinity
Trinity
House circa 1808

The Corporation of Trinity
Trinity
House of Deptford
Deptford
Strond,[1] known as Trinity
Trinity
House (formally The Master Wardens and Assistants of the Guild Fraternity or Brotherhood of the most glorious and undivided Trinity and of St. Clement in the Parish of Deptford
Deptford
Strond in the County of Kent), is a private corporation governed under a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
(rather than a non-departmental public body). Trinity
Trinity
House has three core functions: it is the official General Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Authority for England, Wales, the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and Gibraltar, responsible for the provision and maintenance of navigational aids, such as lighthouses, lightvessels, buoys, and maritime radio/satellite communication systems. Trinity
Trinity
House is also an official deep sea pilotage authority, providing expert navigators for ships trading in Northern European waters. It is also a maritime charity, dispersing funds for the welfare of retired seamen, the training of young cadets and the promotion of safety at sea; for the financial year ending in March 2013 it spent approximately £6.5 million[2] in furtherance of its charitable objectives. Funding for the work of the lighthouse service comes from "light dues" levied on commercial vessels calling at ports in the British Isles, based on the net registered tonnage of the vessel. The rate is set by the Department of Transport, and annually reviewed.[3] Funding for the maritime charity is generated separately. The corporation was founded in 1514. Its first master was Thomas Spert (later Sir), sailing master of Henry VIII's flagship Mary Rose
Mary Rose
and of Henry Grace à Dieu.

Contents

1 Master of the Corporation 2 Governance 3 Headquarters of the Corporation 4 History 5 Operational responsibilities and role of the corporation 6 Assets

6.1 Lighthouses 6.2 Ships 6.3 Boats 6.4 Property 6.5 Other assets

7 Ensign 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Master of the Corporation[edit] The Master of the Corporation (now an honorary title) is the Princess Royal. Previous Masters of Trinity
Trinity
House have included Sir Thomas Spert, master of the warship Henry Grace a Dieu under Henry VIII; the diarist Samuel Pepys, William Pitt the Younger, Duke of Wellington, and Admiral William Penn
William Penn
(father of William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania). Other prominent individuals in Britain, often connected with commercial shipping or the Admiralty, have been associated with Trinity
Trinity
House, including Winston Churchill. He gained his status as an Elder Brother of Trinity
Trinity
House as a result of his position as First Lord of the Admiralty before and during World War I.[4] Often, especially on naval-related forays during the Second World War, Churchill was seen in Trinity
Trinity
House cap or uniform. Winston Churchill also had a Trinity
Trinity
House vessel (THV) named after him, THV Winston Churchill.[5] Governance[edit]

Elder Brethren during Trafalgar 200

Trinity
Trinity
House is ruled by a court of thirty-one Elder Brethren, presided over by a Master. These are appointed from 300 Younger Brethren who act as advisors and perform other duties as needed. The Younger Brethren are appointed from lay people with maritime experience, mainly naval officers and ships' masters, but also harbourmasters, pilots, yachtsmen, and anyone with useful experience.[6] Headquarters of the Corporation[edit] The headquarters of the corporation is the present Trinity
Trinity
House, which was designed by architect Samuel Wyatt
Samuel Wyatt
and built in 1796. It has a suite of five state rooms with views over Trinity
Trinity
Square, the Tower of London and the River Thames. History[edit] The Corporation came into being in 1514 by Royal Charter
Royal Charter
granted by Henry VIII under the name "The Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Guild, Fraternity, or Brotherhood of the most glorious and undivided Trinity, and of St. Clement in the Parish of Deptford-Strond in the County of Kent."[7] The charter came as a result of a petition put forward on 19 March 1513 by a guild of Deptford-based mariners. They were troubled by the poor conduct of unregulated pilots on the Thames and asked the king for licence to regulate pilotage. The first Master was Thomas Spert
Thomas Spert
(later Sir), sailing master of Henry’s flagship Mary Rose
Mary Rose
and the Henry Grace à Dieu. The name of the guild derives from the Holy Trinity
Trinity
and St. Clement, the patron saint of mariners. As John Whormby, a Clerk to the Corporation, wrote in 1746, their general business was:[8]

to improve the art and science of mariners; to examine into the qualifications, and regulate the conduct of those who take upon them the charge of conducting ships; to preserve good order, and (when desired) to compose differences in marine affairs, and, in general, to consult the conservation, good estate, wholesome government, maintenance and increase of navigation and sea-faring men; and to relieve decayed seamen and their relatives.

In 1566, Queen Elizabeth I's Seamarks Act enabled Trinity
Trinity
House:

at their wills and pleasures, and at their costs, [to] make, erect, and set up such, and so many beacons, marks, and signs for the sea… whereby the dangers may be avoided and escaped, and ships the better come into their ports without peril.

The John Sebastian, Trinity
Trinity
House L.V. No 55 (1886 built as a batch order of three, LB54, LV55 and LV59) in Bathurst Basin

With the increasing number of ships lost along the Newcastle to London coal route, Trinity
Trinity
House established the Lowestoft Lighthouse
Lighthouse
in 1609, a pair of wooden towers with candle illuminants. Until the late 18th century, candle, coal, or wood fires were used as lighthouse illuminants, improved in 1782 with the circular-wick oil-burning Argand lamp, the first ‘catoptric’ mirrored reflector in 1777, and Fresnel’s ‘dioptric’ lens system in 1823. The Nore
Nore
lightship was established as the world's first floating light in 1732. In 1836, Trinity
Trinity
House accepted powers to levy out the last private lighthouse owners and began refurbishing and upgrading its lighthouse estate. In 1803, the Corporation established the Blackwall Depot as a buoy workshop, and six district depots were later established at Harwich, Great Yarmouth, East Cowes, Penzance, Holyhead and Swansea. In December 2002, Trinity
Trinity
House announced that the Great Yarmouth, Penzance and East Cowes depots would close. Today, Trinity
Trinity
House's operational headquarters is in Harwich, supported by depots in Swansea and a flight operations base at St Just in Cornwall. Its operations are also supported by three vessels; the two large tenders THV Patricia and THV Galatea, and the Rapid Intervention Vessel THV Alert. A small secretariat is based at Tower Hill. During the First World War, the Corporation served a number of functions: it buoyed shipping lanes and naval operations, moved lightvessels, and laid hundreds of buoys. During the Second World War, Trinity
Trinity
House kept sea lanes marked and lighted for Allied convoys. The Pilotage Service guided ships to their ports under hazardous conditions; at the time of the Dunkirk evacuation, a number of pilots helped in piloting vessels to and from the beaches. Trinity
Trinity
House laid 73 lighted buoys and two lightvessels to indicate a safe route for the D-Day
D-Day
landings, with Trinity
Trinity
House pilots responsible for all commercial vessels and many of the service vessels. In the month following D-Day, nearly 3,000 vessels were handled by 88 river pilots and nearly 2,000 ships by 115 sea pilots working day and night. On the night of 29 December 1940, Trinity
Trinity
House was destroyed by the most severe of the air attacks on London; the interiors were completely gutted and many archives and treasures were lost. The restored house was reopened by HM Queen Elizabeth on 21 October 1953. In 1969, Trinity
Trinity
House initiated the debut of helicopter reliefs to and from offshore lighthouses, succeeding the boat reliefs. These had been susceptible to being delayed by months during inclement weather. Trinity
Trinity
House played a major part in the design of the IALA Maritime Buoyage System, laying the first buoy off Dover, watched over by representatives of 16 nations on 15 April 1977. By the 1960s, Trinity
Trinity
House licensed about 500 pilots, of whom about 350 were in the London District, handling an estimated 60% of the nation’s piloted tonnage. The 1987 Pilotage Act authorized Trinity House to pass its District Pilotage responsibilities to various local harbour authorities, becoming instead a licensing authority for deep sea pilotage. The completion of the lighthouse automation programme came with a ceremony held at the North Foreland
North Foreland
Lighthouse
Lighthouse
on 26 November 1998, attended by the last six keepers and Master HRH The Duke of Edinburgh. On 9 June 1989, the last manned lightvessel was towed from the Channel lightvessel station to Harwich. As a charitable body, the Corporation has owned a number of properties for benevolent purposes, chief among them the estate at Newington (now rebranded as Trinity
Trinity
Village) and almshouses at Deptford, Mile End, and Walmer; the latter estate was built in 1958 and is in use by the corporation today. In 2011, HRH Princess Royal succeeded HRH The Duke of Edinburgh as Master. Her Royal Highness was aboard Trinity
Trinity
House Motor Boat No.1 during the Diamond Jubilee procession. In 2014, the Royal Mint
Royal Mint
issued a two pound coin commemorating the 500th anniversary of the granting of Trinity
Trinity
House's Royal Charter.[9] Operational responsibilities and role of the corporation[edit]

Trinity
Trinity
House, Harwich

Trinity
Trinity
House has three main functions:

It is the General Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Authority for England, Wales, the Channel Islands and Gibraltar, responsible for a range of general aids to navigation, 'signs of the sea', from lighthouses to radar beacons. It is a charitable organisation dedicated to the safety, welfare and training of mariners. It is a Deep Sea Pilotage Authority, licensing expert navigators to act as deep sea pilots for ships trading in Northern European waters.

The Corporation also inspects buoys provided by local harbour authorities. It no longer provides local pilots for entering ports. Contrary to popular belief, Trinity
Trinity
House is not (and never has been) part of HM Coastguard, although it does work closely with the Maritime and Coastguard Agency. Trinity
Trinity
House's activities as a lighthouse authority are financed from "light dues" levied on commercial shipping calling at ports in the United Kingdom. Assets[edit]

The surviving one of a pair of experimental lighthouses at Trinity Buoy
Buoy
Wharf, used by Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
and later used for training (closed 1988)

Trinity
Trinity
House Flag on Portland Bill Lighthouse, Dorset

Lighthouses in England Lightvessels in the United Kingdom

Lighthouses[edit] Trinity
Trinity
House maintains 65[10] lighthouses ranging from isolated rock towers like the Eddystone to mainland towers like Southwold lighthouse. All Trinity
Trinity
House lighthouses have been automated since November 1998, when the UK's last manned lighthouse, North Foreland
North Foreland
in Kent, was converted to automatic operation. Lighthouse
Lighthouse
automation began as long ago as 1910, thanks to an invention of Gustaf Dalén. His sun valve was fitted in a number of lighthouses powered by acetylene gas. The vital component was a black metal rod, which was suspended vertically and connected to the gas supply. As it absorbed the sun's heat, the rod expanded downwards, cutting off the gas during the day.[citation needed] Automation in the modern context began in the early 1980s, made possible firstly by the construction of lantern-top helipads at remote rock lighthouses, to enable the rapid transfer of technicians to a lighthouse in the event of a breakdown, and secondly, by the development of remote control technology, which enables all lighthouses and lightvessels to be monitored and controlled from the Trinity
Trinity
House Operations and Planning Centre, in Harwich, Essex.[11] The other General Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Authorities in other parts of the British Isles:

Commissioners of Irish Lights — Ireland ( Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and Republic of Ireland) Northern Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Board (formerly known as Commissioners for Northern Lights) — Scotland and the Isle of Man

Ships[edit]

THV Patricia at Harwich
Harwich
on 6 September 2007

THV Patricia, off Cowes, Isle of Wight (September 2017)

THV Alert entering Harwich
Harwich
Harbour on 6 September 2009

Trinity
Trinity
House operates three vessels around the coast of England, Wales
Wales
and the Channel Islands.[12]

THV Patricia (1982) is an 86.3m Multi Functional Tender. She carries out maintenance work on navigation aids, towing, wreck location and marking. She has a helicopter-landing pad, a 20 tonne main crane and 28 tonne bollard pull and towing winch. THV Alert (2006) is a 39.3 m Rapid Intervention Vessel, able to respond rapidly to maritime incidents on the southeast coast of England. She is capable of buoy handling, wreck marking and towing. Fitted with multibeam and side scan hydrographic surveying capability and DP1 dynamic positioning, Alert can be utilised as a research platform with a large working deck. THV Galatea
THV Galatea
(2007) is an 84m Multi Functional Tender with a helicopter-landing pad. Fitted with a range of high specification survey equipment and a 30 tonne capacity crane, azimuthing propellers, two 750 kW bow thrusters and DP2 dynamic positioning, Galatea replaced the 1987-built THV Mermaid.

Boats[edit] Trinity
Trinity
House operates a number of small boats, mostly functioning as ship's tenders to the vessels in the section above. The historic right of Trinity
Trinity
House to escort the Sovereign when travelling by ship in territorial waters is still exercised on ceremonial occasions. On the River Thames
River Thames
and inland waterways the duty is carried out by the vessel Trinity
Trinity
House No 1 Boat.[13] The name is in practice a designation of any boat assigned to this duty, rather than the name of a specific vessel, and at present a tender of THV Galatea
THV Galatea
is used for such ceremonial duties.[14] However, for the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant on 3 June 2012, this boat had the name "T.H. No 1 Boat" painted onto the bow (left and right sides) whilst carrying the Master (HRH the Princess Royal) in the jubilee flotilla.[15] On 8 November 2014, Trinity
Trinity
House entered a float into the annual Lord Mayor's Show in the City of London, consisting of a heavy low-loader lorry, with the Trinity
Trinity
House No 1 Boat mounted on the low-loader trailer as an exhibit. Property[edit] In addition to the maritime assets, the Corporation of Trinity
Trinity
House also owns two listed estates: one of predominantly residential buildings at Trinity
Trinity
Village in Borough, London;[16] and a working farm at Goxhill, Lincolnshire.[17] The rents from these properties form a substantial part of the corporation's income.[18] Other assets[edit] Amongst other significant assets, Trinity
Trinity
House operates a helicopter capable of landing on lighthouse and ship landing pads. Since May 2011, the aircraft in principal use has been an MD Helicopters MD Explorer 902. The aircraft is operated by Trinity
Trinity
House and liveried for Trinity
Trinity
House, but is owned by Police Aviation Services (PAS) and operated under lease. The terms of the arrangement also provide for a reserve aircraft.[19]

Ensign of Trinity
Trinity
House

Ensign[edit] The Ensign of Trinity
Trinity
House is a British Red Ensign
Red Ensign
defaced with the shield of the coat of arms (a St George's Cross
St George's Cross
with a sailing ship in each quarter). The Master and Deputy Master each have their own flags.[20] See also[edit]

Her Majesty's Coastguard Northern Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Board IALA – The International Association of Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Authorities List of oldest companies Two other institutions, with a similar history and longevity, are licensed for the examination and licensing of deep-sea pilots in England:

Hull Trinity
Trinity
House Newcastle-upon-Tyne Trinity
Trinity
House

Trinity
Trinity
House National Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Museum

Notes[edit]

^ "Legal Notices". Trinity
Trinity
House. Archived from the original on 16 December 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2015.  ^ "Charities we Support". Trinity
Trinity
House. Retrieved 28 April 2015.  ^ "Funding". Retrieved 28 April 2015.  ^ "Churchill Trinity
Trinity
House History". trinityhousehistory.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2017-11-04.  ^ "THV Winston Churchill". Ship Spotting. Retrieved 28 April 2015.  ^ "Quarterdeck" (PDF). McBooks Press. March 2007. pp. 8–9. Retrieved 2007-08-06.  ^ "Current Royal Charters 1685–1978" (PDF). Trinity
Trinity
House. February 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-12.  ^ Whormby, John (1746). An Account of the Corporation of Trinity
Trinity
House of Deptford
Deptford
Strond and of Sea Marks in General. Private press. pp. 1–2. ^ "The Royal Mint
Royal Mint
announces coins for 2014". Royal Mint. 6 January 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2015.  ^ " Lighthouse
Lighthouse
List". Trinity
Trinity
House. Retrieved 28 April 2015.  ^ The Last Raid: The Commandos, Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and Final Nazi Raid ISBN 978-0-75096879-9 ch. 7 (Operation Dryad) ^ "Commercial Services". Trinity
Trinity
House. Retrieved 2008-08-02.  ^ "HM The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Celebrations". Trinity
Trinity
House. 2012. Archived from the original on 3 June 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2012.  ^ The designation 'Tender to THV Galatea' is clearly visible beneath the Royal Standard in this photograph Archived 3 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Bartram, Graham. "A Visual Guide to the Flags Used in the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant" (PDF). The Flag Institute. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2012.  ^ " Trinity
Trinity
Village". Trinity
Trinity
Village. Retrieved 28 April 2015. / ^ " Trinity
Trinity
House History". Retrieved 28 April 2015.  ^ Trinity
Trinity
House. "Annual Report and Accounts for the year ended 31 March 2014" (PDF). p. 43. Retrieved 28 April 2015.  ^ Robinson, Simon (Winter 2011). "New Helicopter
Helicopter
— New Ways of Working". Horizon. pp. 18–19. Retrieved 4 June 2012.  ^ " Trinity
Trinity
House". World Flag Database & Graham Bartram. Retrieved 28 April 2015. 

References[edit]

The Corporation of the Hull Trinity
Trinity
House, established 1369. The Newcastle Trinity
Trinity
House. europilots.org.uk "A fortnight in Egypt at the opening of the Suez Canal," London : Smith and Ebbs, 1869. Written by Captain Sir Frederick Arrow [Deputy Master of Trinity
Trinity
House]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trinity
Trinity
House.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Trinity
Trinity
House.

Trinity
Trinity
House official website Photos of vessels English Lightships International Association of Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Authorities History of Trinity
Trinity
House 1685 Royal Charter
Royal Charter
of Trinity
Trinity
House Trinity
Trinity
Hospital, Mile End – Survey of London, Monograph 1 James Alexander Riach, The Captain's Log: From Conway and Clan Line to Trinity
Trinity
House. With an Introduction by Glen Murray and Afterword by Alan Riach (The Grimsay Press, 2013).

v t e

Lighthouses of Trinity
Trinity
House

England

Anvil Point Bamburgh Beachy Head Berry Head Bishop Rock Bull Point Coquet Cromer Crow Point Dungeness Eddystone Farne Flamborough Godrevy Guile Point East Hartland Point Heugh Hill Hilbre Island Hurst Point Lizard Longships Longstone Lowestoft Lundy North Lundy South Lynmouth Foreland Nab Tower Needles North Foreland Pendeen Peninnis Portland Bill Round Island Royal Sovereign St Anthony's St Bees St Catherines Southwold Start Point Tater Du Trevose Head Whitby Wolf Rock

Wales

Bardsey Caldey Island Flatholm Holyhead Monkstone Mumbles Nash Point Point Lynas St Anns Head St Tudwal's Skerries Skokholm Smalls South Bishop South Stack Strumble Head Trwyn Du

Channel Islands
Channel Islands
& Gibraltar

Alderney Casquets Europa Point Les