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Toronto
Toronto
(/təˈrɒntoʊ/ ( listen) tə-RON-toh, locally  [təˈɹɑnoʊ] (help·info)), officially the City of Toronto, is the capital of the Canadian province of Ontario. It is located within the Golden Horseshoe
Golden Horseshoe
in Southern Ontario
Ontario
on the northern shore of Lake Ontario. With 2,731,571 residents in 2016, it is the largest city in Canada
Canada
and fourth-largest city in North America by population. Also in 2016, the Toronto
Toronto
census metropolitan area (CMA), the majority of which is within the Greater Toronto Area
Greater Toronto Area
(GTA), had a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada’s most populous CMA. A global city, Toronto
Toronto
is a centre of business, finance, arts, and culture, and is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world.[10][11][12] Indigenous peoples have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, and urban forest, for more than 10,000 years.[13] After the broadly disputed Toronto
Toronto
Purchase, when the Mississaugas surrendered the area to the British Crown,[14] the British established the town of York in 1793 and later designated it as the capital of Upper Canada.[15] During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York
Battle of York
and suffered heavy damage by U.S. troops.[16] York was renamed and incorporated as the city of Toronto
Toronto
in 1834, and became the capital of the province of Ontario
Ontario
during Canadian Confederation in 1867.[17] The city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2 (243.3 sq mi). The diverse population of Toronto
Toronto
reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada,[18][19] with over 50 percent of residents belonging to a visible minority population group,[20] and over 200 distinct ethnic origins represented among its inhabitants.[21] While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city.[22] Toronto
Toronto
is a prominent centre for music,[23] theatre,[24] motion picture production,[25] and television production,[26] and is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets.[27] Its varied cultural institutions,[28] which include numerous museums and galleries, festivals and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, and sports activities,[29] attract over 25 million tourists each year.[30][31] Toronto
Toronto
is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings,[32] in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower.[33] The city is home to the Toronto
Toronto
Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks,[34] and the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations.[35] Its economy is highly diversified with strengths in technology, design, financial services, life sciences, education, arts, fashion, business services, environmental innovation, food services, and tourism.[36][37][38]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Before 1800 1.2 1800–1899 1.3 Since 1900

2 Geography

2.1 Topography 2.2 Climate

3 Cityscape

3.1 Architecture 3.2 Neighbourhoods

3.2.1 Old Toronto 3.2.2 Suburbs 3.2.3 Industrial

3.3 Public spaces

4 Culture

4.1 Media 4.2 Tourism 4.3 Sports

4.3.1 Professional sports 4.3.2 Events

5 Economy 6 Demographics

6.1 Ethnicity 6.2 Religion 6.3 Language

7 Government 8 Crime 9 Education 10 Infrastructure

10.1 Health and medicine 10.2 Transportation

10.2.1 Public transportation 10.2.2 Airports 10.2.3 Intercity transportation 10.2.4 Road system

11 Notable people 12 International relations 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References

15.1 Bibliography

16 Further reading 17 External links

History Main articles: History of Toronto, Name of Toronto, and Amalgamation of Toronto Before 1800 When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois,[39] who by then had displaced the Wyandot (Huron) people who had occupied the region for centuries before c. 1500.[40] The name Toronto
Toronto
is likely derived from the Iroquois
Iroquois
word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water".[41] This refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" also appears in a French lexicon of the Huron language in 1632,[42] and appeared on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, and several rivers.[43] A portage route from Lake Ontario
Ontario
to Lake Huron running through this point, the Toronto
Toronto
Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon
Teiaiagon
on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississaugas
Mississaugas
had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto
Toronto
area at the end of the Beaver Wars.[44]

In the 17th century, the area was a crucial point for travel, with the Humber and Rouge River providing a shortcut to the upper Great Lakes. These routes were known as the Toronto
Toronto
Passage.

French traders founded Fort Rouillé
Fort Rouillé
on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it in 1759 due to the turbulence of the Seven Years' War.[45] During the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario. The new province of Upper Canada
Canada
was in the process of creation and needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto
Toronto
Purchase with the Mississaugas
Mississaugas
of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres (1000 km2) of land in the Toronto
Toronto
area.[46] Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto.[43] In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe
John Graves Simcoe
established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase
Toronto Purchase
lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada
Canada
capital from Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake) to York,[47] believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States.[48] The York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sandbar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street (in the "Old Town" area). 1800–1899 In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York
Battle of York
ended in the town's capture and plunder by U.S. forces.[49] The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation. The sacking of York was a primary motivation for the Burning of Washington
Burning of Washington
by British troops later in the war.

American forces attacked York in 1813. The Americans subsequently plundered the town, and set fire to the legislative buildings.

York was incorporated as the City of Toronto
Toronto
on March 6, 1834, reverting to its original native name. Reformist politician William Lyon Mackenzie became the first Mayor of Toronto
Mayor of Toronto
and led the unsuccessful Upper Canada
Canada
Rebellion of 1837 against the British colonial government. Toronto's population of only 9,000 included escaped African American slaves, some of whom were brought by the Loyalists, including Mohawk leader Joseph Brant.[50] Torontonians integrated people of colour into their society. In the 1840s, an eating house at Frederick and King Streets, a place of mercantile prosperity in early Toronto, was operated by a man of colour named Bloxom.[51] Slavery was banned outright in Upper Canada
Canada
(and throughout the British Empire) in 1834.[52]

View of Toronto
Toronto
in 1854. Toronto
Toronto
became a major destination for immigrants to Canada
Canada
in the second half of the 19th century.

As a major destination for immigrants to Canada, the city grew rapidly through the remainder of the 19th century. The first significant population influx occurred when the Great Irish Famine brought a large number of Irish to the city, some of them transient, and most of them Catholic. By 1851, the Irish-born population had become the largest single ethnic group in the city. Smaller numbers of Protestant Irish immigrants were welcomed by the existing Scottish and English population, giving the Orange Order
Orange Order
significant and long-lasting influence over Toronto
Toronto
society. For brief periods Toronto
Toronto
was twice the capital of the united Province of Canada: first from 1849 to 1852, following unrest in Montreal, and later 1856–1858, after which Quebec
Quebec
became the capital until 1866 (one year before Canadian Confederation). Since then, the capital of Canada
Canada
has remained Ottawa, Ontario.[53] Toronto
Toronto
became the capital of the province of Ontario
Ontario
after its official creation in 1867, the seat of government located at the Ontario
Ontario
Legislature located at Queen's Park. Because of its provincial capital status, the city was also the location of Government House, the residence of the viceregal representative of the Crown in right of Ontario. Long before the Royal Military College of Canada
Canada
was established in 1876, there were proposals for military colleges in Canada. Staffed by British Regulars, adult male students underwent a three-month long military course at the School of Military Instruction in Toronto. Established by Militia General Order in 1864, the school enabled officers of militia or candidates for commission or promotion in the Militia to learn military duties, drill and discipline, to command a company at Battalion Drill, to drill a company at Company Drill, the internal economy of a company, and the duties of a company's officer.[54] The school was retained at Confederation, in 1867. In 1868, Schools of cavalry and artillery instruction were formed in Toronto.[55]

The Gooderham and Worts
Gooderham and Worts
buildings c. 19th century. The distillery became the world's largest whiskey factory by the 1860s.

In the 19th century, an extensive sewage system was built, and streets became illuminated with gas lighting as a regular service. Long-distance railway lines were constructed, including a route completed in 1854 linking Toronto
Toronto
with the Upper Great Lakes. The Grand Trunk Railway
Grand Trunk Railway
and the Northern Railway of Canada
Canada
joined in the building of the first Union Station in downtown. The advent of the railway dramatically increased the numbers of immigrants arriving, commerce and industry, as had the Lake Ontario
Ontario
steamers and schooners entering port before. These enabled Toronto
Toronto
to become a major gateway linking the world to the interior of the North American continent. Toronto
Toronto
became the largest alcohol distillation (in particular, spirits) centre in North America; the Gooderham and Worts
Gooderham and Worts
Distillery operations became the world's largest whiskey factory by the 1860s. A preserved section of this once dominant local industry remains in the Distillery District. The harbour allowed for sure access to grain and sugar imports used in processing. Expanding port and rail facilities brought in northern timber for export and imported Pennsylvania coal. Industry dominated the waterfront for the next 100 years.

Initially a horse-drawn system, Toronto's streetcar system eventually transitioned to electric-powered streetcars in 1892.

Horse-drawn streetcars gave way to electric streetcars in 1891, when the city granted the operation of the transit franchise to the Toronto Railway Company. The public transit system passed into public ownership in 1921 as the Toronto
Toronto
Transportation Commission, later renamed the Toronto
Toronto
Transit Commission. The system now has the third-highest ridership of any city public transportation system in North America.[56] Since 1900 The Great Toronto
Toronto
Fire of 1904 destroyed a large section of downtown Toronto, but the city was quickly rebuilt. The fire caused more than $10 million in damage, and resulted in more stringent fire safety laws and expansion of the city's fire department.

By 1934 the Toronto Stock Exchange
Toronto Stock Exchange
emerged as the country's largest stock exchange.

The city received new immigrant groups beginning in the late 19th century into the early 20th century, particularly Germans, French, Italians, and Jews from various parts of Eastern Europe. They were soon followed by Chinese, Russians, Poles, and immigrants from other Eastern European nations. As the Irish before them, many of these new migrants lived in overcrowded shanty-type slums, such as "the Ward" which was centred on Bay Street, now the heart of the country's financial district. Despite its fast-paced growth, by the 1920s, Toronto's population and economic importance in Canada
Canada
remained second to the much longer established Montreal, Quebec. However, by 1934, the Toronto Stock Exchange
Toronto Stock Exchange
had become the largest in the country. Following the Second World War, refugees from war-torn Europe and Chinese job-seekers arrived, as well as construction labourers, particularly from Italy
Italy
and Portugal. Following the elimination of racially based immigration policies by the late 1960s, immigration began from all parts of the world. Toronto's population grew to more than one million in 1951 when large-scale suburbanization began, and doubled to two million by 1971. By the 1980s, Toronto
Toronto
had surpassed Montreal
Montreal
as Canada's most populous city and the chief economic hub. During this time, in part owing to the political uncertainty raised by the resurgence of the Quebec
Quebec
sovereignty movement, many national and multinational corporations moved their head offices from Montreal
Montreal
to Toronto
Toronto
and Western Canadian cities.[57]

Construction of First Canadian Place, the operational headquarters of the Bank of Montreal, in 1975. The 1970s saw several Canadian financial institutions move to Toronto.

In 1954, the City of Toronto
Toronto
and 12 surrounding municipalities were federated into a regional government known as Metropolitan Toronto.[58] The postwar boom had resulted in rapid suburban development and it was believed that a coordinated land use strategy and shared services would provide greater efficiency for the region. The metropolitan government began to manage services that crossed municipal boundaries, including highways, police services, water and public transit. In that year, a half-century after the Great Fire of 1904, disaster struck the city again when Hurricane Hazel
Hurricane Hazel
brought intense winds and flash flooding. In the Toronto
Toronto
area, 81 people were killed, nearly 1,900 families were left homeless, and the hurricane caused more than $25 million in damage.[59] In 1967, the seven smallest municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto were merged into their larger neighbours, resulting in a six-municipality configuration that included the former City of Toronto
Toronto
and the surrounding municipalities of East York, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, and York.[60] In 1998, the Conservative provincial government led by Mike Harris dissolved the metropolitan government despite vigorous opposition from the component municipalities and overwhelming rejection in a municipal plebiscite. All six municipalities were amalgamated into a single municipality, creating the current City of Toronto, the successor of the old City of Toronto. North York
North York
mayor Mel Lastman became the first "megacity" mayor and the 62nd Mayor of Toronto. John Tory
John Tory
is the current mayor. On March 6, 2009, the city celebrated the 175th anniversary of its inception as the City of Toronto
Toronto
in 1834. Toronto
Toronto
hosted the 4th G20 summit during June 26–27, 2010. This included the largest security operation in Canadian history and, following large-scale protests and rioting, resulted in the largest mass arrest (more than a thousand people) in Canadian history.[61] On July 8, 2013, severe flash flooding hit Toronto
Toronto
after an afternoon of slow moving, intense thunderstorms. Toronto
Toronto
Hydro estimated that 450,000 people were without power after the storm and Toronto
Toronto
Pearson International Airport reported that 126 mm (5 in) of rain had fallen over five hours, more than during Hurricane Hazel.[62] Within six months, December 20, 2013, Toronto
Toronto
was brought to a halt by the worst ice storm in the city's history rivaling the severity of the 1998 Ice Storm. Toronto
Toronto
went on to host WorldPride
WorldPride
in June 2014[63] and the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
in 2015.[64] Geography Main article: Geography of Toronto Toronto
Toronto
covers an area of 630 square kilometres (243 sq mi),[65] with a maximum north-south distance of 21 kilometres (13 mi) and a maximum east-west distance of 43 km (27 mi). It has a 46-kilometre (29 mi) long waterfront shoreline, on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. The Toronto Islands and Port Lands
Port Lands
extend out into the lake, allowing for a somewhat sheltered Toronto Harbour
Toronto Harbour
south of the downtown core.[66] The city's borders are formed by Lake Ontario
Ontario
to the south, Etobicoke Creek and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue
Steeles Avenue
to the north and the Rouge River and the Toronto-Pickering Townline to the east. Topography See also: Toronto
Toronto
ravine system

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Initially acting as a barrier towards development, the Toronto
Toronto
ravine system has since been adopted as a central piece of Toronto's landscape.

The city is mostly flat or gentle hills and the land gently slopes upward away from the lake. The flat land is interrupted by numerous ravines cut by numerous creeks and the valleys of the three rivers in Toronto: the Humber River in the west end and the Don River east of downtown at opposite ends of Toronto
Toronto
Harbour, and the Rouge River at the city's eastern limits. Most of the ravines and valley lands in Toronto
Toronto
today are parklands, and recreational trails are laid out along the ravines and valleys. The original town was laid out in a grid plan on the flat plain north of the harbour, and this plan was extended outwards as the city grew. The width and depth of several of the ravines and valleys are such that several grid streets such as Finch Avenue, Leslie Street, Lawrence Avenue, and St. Clair Avenue, terminate on one side of a ravine or valley and continue on the other side. Toronto
Toronto
has many bridges spanning the ravines. Large bridges such as the Prince Edward Viaduct
Prince Edward Viaduct
were built to span wide river valleys. Despite its deep ravines, Toronto
Toronto
is not remarkably hilly, but its elevation does increase steadily away from the lake. Elevation differences range from 75 metres (246 ft) above sea level at the Lake Ontario
Ontario
shore to 209 m (686 ft) ASL near the York University grounds in the city's north end at the intersection of Keele Street
Keele Street
and Steeles Avenue.[67] There are occasional hilly areas; in particular, midtown Toronto
Toronto
has a number of sharply sloping hills. Lake Ontario
Ontario
remains occasionally visible from the peaks of these ridges as far north as Eglinton Avenue, 7 to 8 kilometres (4.3 to 5.0 mi) inland.

The Scarborough Bluffs
Scarborough Bluffs
is an escarpment in the city, formed during the last glacial period.

The other major geographical feature of Toronto
Toronto
is its escarpments. During the last ice age, the lower part of Toronto
Toronto
was beneath Glacial Lake Iroquois. Today, a series of escarpments mark the lake's former boundary, known as the " Iroquois
Iroquois
Shoreline". The escarpments are most prominent from Victoria Park Avenue
Victoria Park Avenue
to the mouth of Highland Creek where they form the Scarborough Bluffs. Other observable sections include the area near St. Clair Avenue
St. Clair Avenue
West between Bathurst Street and the Don River, and north of Davenport Road
Davenport Road
from Caledonia to Spadina Road; the Casa Loma
Casa Loma
grounds sit above this escarpment. The geography of the lake shore is greatly changed since the first settlement of Toronto. Much of the land on the north shore of the harbour is landfill, filled in during the late 19th century. Until then, the lakefront docks (then known as wharves) were set back farther inland than today. Much of the adjacent Port Lands
Port Lands
on the east side of the harbour was a wetland filled in early in the 20th century. The shoreline from the harbour west to the Humber River has been extended into the lake. Further west, landfill has been used to create extensions of land such as Humber Bay Park. The Toronto Islands
Toronto Islands
were a natural peninsula until a storm in 1858 severed their connection to the mainland,[68] creating a channel to the harbour. The peninsula was formed by longshore drift taking the sediments deposited along the Scarborough Bluffs
Scarborough Bluffs
shore and transporting them to the Islands area. The other source of sediment for the Port Lands
Port Lands
wetland and the peninsula was the deposition of the Don River, which carved a wide valley through the sedimentary land of Toronto
Toronto
and deposited it in the harbour, which is quite shallow. The harbour and the channel of the Don River have been dredged numerous times for shipping. The lower section of the Don River was straightened and channelled in the 19th century. The former mouth drained into a wetland; today the Don drains into the harbour through a concrete waterway, the Keating Channel. Climate The city of Toronto
Toronto
has a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa), with warm, humid summers and cold winters.[69] The city experiences four distinct seasons, with considerable variance in length.[70] Some parts of the north and east of the city such as Scarborough and the suburbs, have a climate classified as humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb). As a result of the rapid passage of weather systems (such as high- and low-pressure systems), the weather is variable from day to day in all seasons.[70] Owing to urbanization and its proximity to water, Toronto
Toronto
has a fairly low diurnal temperature range. The denser urban scape makes for warmer nights year around; the average nighttime temperature is about 3.0 °C (5.40 °F) warmer in the city than in rural areas in all months.[71] However, it can be noticeably cooler on many spring and early summer afternoons under the influence of a lake breeze since Lake Ontario
Ontario
is cool, relative to the air during these seasons.[71] These lake breezes mostly occur in summer, bringing relief on hot days.[71] Other low-scale maritime effects on the climate include lake-effect snow, fog, and delaying of spring- and fall-like conditions, known as seasonal lag.[71]

Winters in Toronto
Toronto
are typically cold with frequent snowfall.

Winters are cold with frequent snow.[72] During the winter months, temperatures are usually below 0 °C (32 °F).[72] Toronto winters sometimes feature cold snaps when maximum temperatures remain below −10 °C (14 °F), often made to feel colder by wind chill. Occasionally, they can drop below −25 °C (−13 °F).[72] Snowstorms, sometimes mixed with ice and rain, can disrupt work and travel schedules, while accumulating snow can fall anytime from November until mid-April. However, mild stretches also occur in most winters, melting accumulated snow. The summer months are characterized by very warm temperatures.[72] Daytime temperatures are usually above 20 °C (68 °F), and often rise above 30 °C (86 °F).[72] However, they can occasionally surpass 35 °C (95 °F) accompanied by high humidity. Spring and autumn are transitional seasons with generally mild or cool temperatures with alternating dry and wet periods.[71] Daytime temperatures average around 10 to 12 °C (50 to 54 °F) during these seasons.[72] Precipitation
Precipitation
is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but summer is usually the wettest season, the bulk falling during thunderstorms. There can be periods of dry weather, but drought-like conditions are rare.[citation needed] The average yearly precipitation is about 831 mm (32.7 in), with an average annual snowfall of about 122 cm (48 in).[73] Toronto
Toronto
experiences an average of 2,066 sunshine hours, or 45% of daylight hours, varying between a low of 28% in December to 60% in July.[73] According to the classification applied by Natural Resources Canada, Toronto
Toronto
is located in plant hardiness zones 5b to 7a.[74][75]

Climate data for Toronto
Toronto
(The Annex), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1840–present[a]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.1 (61) 19.1 (66.4) 26.7 (80.1) 32.2 (90) 34.4 (93.9) 36.7 (98.1) 40.6 (105.1) 38.9 (102) 37.8 (100) 30.8 (87.4) 23.9 (75) 19.9 (67.8) 40.6 (105.1)

Average high °C (°F) −0.7 (30.7) 0.4 (32.7) 4.7 (40.5) 11.5 (52.7) 18.4 (65.1) 23.8 (74.8) 26.6 (79.9) 25.5 (77.9) 21.0 (69.8) 14.0 (57.2) 7.5 (45.5) 2.1 (35.8) 12.9 (55.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) −3.7 (25.3) −2.6 (27.3) 1.4 (34.5) 7.9 (46.2) 14.1 (57.4) 19.4 (66.9) 22.3 (72.1) 21.5 (70.7) 17.2 (63) 10.7 (51.3) 4.9 (40.8) −0.5 (31.1) 9.4 (48.9)

Average low °C (°F) −6.7 (19.9) −5.6 (21.9) −1.9 (28.6) 4.1 (39.4) 9.9 (49.8) 14.9 (58.8) 18.0 (64.4) 17.4 (63.3) 13.4 (56.1) 7.4 (45.3) 2.3 (36.1) −3.1 (26.4) 5.9 (42.6)

Record low °C (°F) −32.8 (−27) −31.7 (−25.1) −26.7 (−16.1) −15.0 (5) −3.9 (25) −2.2 (28) 3.9 (39) 4.4 (39.9) −2.2 (28) −8.9 (16) −20.6 (−5.1) −30.0 (−22) −32.8 (−27)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 61.5 (2.421) 55.4 (2.181) 53.7 (2.114) 68.0 (2.677) 82.0 (3.228) 70.9 (2.791) 63.9 (2.516) 81.1 (3.193) 84.7 (3.335) 64.4 (2.535) 84.1 (3.311) 61.5 (2.421) 831.1 (32.72)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 29.1 (1.146) 29.7 (1.169) 33.6 (1.323) 61.1 (2.406) 82.0 (3.228) 70.9 (2.791) 63.9 (2.516) 81.1 (3.193) 84.7 (3.335) 64.3 (2.531) 75.4 (2.969) 38.2 (1.504) 714.0 (28.11)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 37.2 (14.65) 27.0 (10.63) 19.8 (7.8) 5.0 (1.97) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.1 (0.04) 8.3 (3.27) 24.1 (9.49) 121.5 (47.83)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 15.4 11.6 12.6 12.6 12.7 11.0 10.4 10.2 11.1 11.7 13.0 13.2 145.5

Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 5.4 4.8 7.9 11.2 12.7 11.0 10.4 10.2 11.1 11.7 10.9 7.0 114.1

Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 12.0 8.7 6.5 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.08 3.1 8.4 40.9

Mean monthly sunshine hours 85.9 111.3 161.0 180.0 227.7 259.6 279.6 245.6 194.4 154.3 88.9 78.1 2,066.3

Percent possible sunshine 29.7 37.7 43.6 44.8 50.0 56.3 59.8 56.7 51.7 45.1 30.5 28.0 44.5

Source: Environment Canada
Canada
[73][80][81]

Cityscape

360-degree panorama of Toronto
Toronto
as seen from the CN Tower
CN Tower
in 2008. Lake Ontario
Ontario
and the Toronto Islands
Toronto Islands
is in the centre background.

Architecture Main article: Architecture of Toronto See also: List of tallest buildings in Toronto, Doors Open Toronto, and List of oldest buildings and structures in Toronto

The Royal Ontario
Ontario
Museum was originally designed in a Romanesque Revival style, although other styles were since been added to the building. Architecture in Toronto
Toronto
has been called a "mix of periods and styles".

Lawrence Richards, a member of the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Toronto, has said: " Toronto
Toronto
is a new, brash, rag-tag place—a big mix of periods and styles."[82] Toronto's buildings vary in design and age with many structures dating back to the early-19th-century, while other prominent buildings were just newly built in the first decade of the 21st century. Bay-and-gable
Bay-and-gable
houses, mainly found in Old Toronto, are a distinct architectural feature of the city. Defining the Toronto
Toronto
skyline is the CN Tower, a telecommunications and tourism hub. Completed in 1976 at a height of 553.33 metres (1,815 ft 5 in), it was the world's tallest[83] freestanding structure until 2007 when it was surpassed by Burj Khalifa.[84] Toronto
Toronto
is a city of high-rises, having 1,800 buildings over 30 metres (98 ft).[85] Through the 1960s and 1970s, significant pieces of Toronto's architectural heritage were demolished to make way for redevelopment or parking. In contrast, since the 2000s, Toronto
Toronto
has experienced a period of architectural revival, with several buildings by world-renowned architects having opened during the late 2000s. Daniel Libeskind's Royal Ontario
Ontario
Museum addition, Frank Gehry's remake of the Art Gallery of Ontario, and Will Alsop's distinctive Ontario
Ontario
College of Art & Design expansion are among the city's new showpieces.[86] The historic Distillery District, located on the eastern edge of downtown has been redeveloped into a pedestrian-oriented arts, culture and entertainment neighbourhood.[87] Neighbourhoods See also: List of neighbourhoods in Toronto
List of neighbourhoods in Toronto
and History of neighbourhoods in Toronto

Map of Toronto
Toronto
with major traffic routes. Also shown are the boundaries of six former municipalities, which form the current City of Toronto

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Toronto
Toronto
encompasses a geographical area formerly administered by many separate municipalities. These municipalities have each developed a distinct history and identity over the years, and their names remain in common use among Torontonians. Former municipalities include East York, Etobicoke, Forest Hill, Mimico, North York, Parkdale, Scarborough, Swansea, Weston and York. Throughout the city there exist hundreds of small neighbourhoods and some larger neighbourhoods covering a few square kilometres. The many residential communities of Toronto
Toronto
express a character distinct from that of the skyscrapers in the commercial core. Victorian and Edwardian-era residential buildings can be found in enclaves such as Rosedale, Cabbagetown, The Annex, and Yorkville. The Wychwood Park
Wychwood Park
neighbourhood, historically significant for the architecture of its homes, and for being one of Toronto's earliest planned communities, was designated as an Ontario
Ontario
Heritage Conservation district in 1985.[88] The Casa Loma
Casa Loma
neighbourhood is named after "Casa Loma", a castle built in 1911 by Sir Henry Pellat, complete with gardens, turrets, stables, an elevator, secret passages, and a bowling alley.[89] Spadina House
Spadina House
is a 19th-century manor that is now a museum.[90] Old Toronto

Skyline of Downtown Toronto
Downtown Toronto
from the Toronto Islands
Toronto Islands
in 2017.

The pre-amalgamation City of Toronto
Toronto
covers the area generally known as downtown, but also older neighbourhoods to the east, west, and north of downtown. It includes the core of Toronto
Toronto
and remains the most densely populated part of the city. The Financial District contains the First Canadian Place, Toronto-Dominion Centre, Scotia Plaza, Royal Bank Plaza, Commerce Court
Commerce Court
and Brookfield Place. This area includes, among others, the neighbourhoods of St. James Town, Garden District, St. Lawrence, Corktown, and Church and Wellesley. From that point, the Toronto
Toronto
skyline extends northward along Yonge Street.

Victorian-era Bay-and-gable
Bay-and-gable
houses are a distinct architectural style of residence that is ubiquitous throughout the older neighborhoods of Toronto.

Old Toronto
Old Toronto
is also home to many historically wealthy residential enclaves, such as Yorkville, Rosedale, The Annex, Forest Hill, Lawrence Park, Lytton Park, Deer Park, Moore Park, and Casa Loma, most stretching away from downtown to the north. East and west of downtown, neighbourhoods such as Kensington Market, Chinatown, Leslieville, Cabbagetown and Riverdale are home to bustling commercial and cultural areas as well as communities of artists with studio lofts, with many middle- and upper-class professionals. Other neighbourhoods in the central city retain an ethnic identity, including two smaller Chinatowns, the Greektown area, Little Italy, Portugal
Portugal
Village, and Little India, along with others. Suburbs The inner suburbs are contained within the former municipalities of York and East York. These are mature and traditionally working-class areas, consisting primarily of post–World War I small, single-family homes and small apartment blocks. Neighbourhoods such as Crescent Town, Thorncliffe Park, Weston, and Oakwood–Vaughan
Oakwood–Vaughan
consist mainly of high-rise apartments, which are home to many new immigrant families. During the 2000s, many neighbourhoods have become ethnically diverse and have undergone gentrification as a result of increasing population, and a housing boom during the late 1990s and first two decades of the 21st century. The first neighbourhoods affected were Leaside
Leaside
and North Toronto, gradually progressing into the western neighbourhoods in York. Some of the area's housing is in the process of being replaced or remodelled.

In an attempt to curb suburban sprawl, many suburban neighbourhoods in Toronto
Toronto
encouraged high density populations by mixing housing lots with apartment buildings far from the downtown core.

The outer suburbs comprising the former municipalities of Etobicoke (west), Scarborough (east) and North York
North York
(north) largely retain the grid plan laid before post-war development. Sections were long established and quickly growing towns before the suburban housing boom began and the emergence of metropolitan government, existing towns or villages such as Mimico, Islington and New Toronto
New Toronto
in Etobicoke; Willowdale, Newtonbrook
Newtonbrook
and Downsview
Downsview
in North York; Agincourt, Wexford and West Hill in Scarborough where suburban development boomed around or between these and other towns beginning in the late 1940s. Upscale neighbourhoods were built such as the Bridle Path in North York, the area surrounding the Scarborough Bluffs
Scarborough Bluffs
in Guildwood, and most of central Etobicoke, such as Humber Valley Village, and The Kingsway. One of largest and earliest "planned communities" was Don Mills, parts of which were first built in the 1950s.[91] Phased development, mixing single-detached housing with higher-density apartment blocks, became more popular as a suburban model of development. Over the late 20th century and early 21st century, North York City Centre, Etobicoke
Etobicoke
City Centre and Scarborough City Centre have emerged as secondary business districts outside Downtown Toronto. High-rise development in these areas has given the former municipalities distinguishable skylines of their own with high-density transit corridors serving them. Industrial

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The Distillery District
Distillery District
holds the largest collection of preserved Victorian industrial architecture in North America.

In the 1800s, a thriving industrial area developed around Toronto Harbour and lower Don River mouth, linked by rail and water to Canada and the United States. Examples included the Gooderham and Worts Distillery, Canadian Malting Company, the Toronto
Toronto
Rolling Mills, the Union Stockyards and the Davies pork processing facility (the inspiration for the "Hogtown" nickname). This industrial area expanded west along the harbour and rail lines and was supplemented by the infilling of the marshlands on the east side of the harbour to create the Port Lands. A garment industry developed along lower Spadina Avenue, the "Fashion District". Beginning in the late 19th century, industrial areas were set up on the outskirts, such as West Toronto/The Junction, where the Stockyards relocated in 1903.[92] The Great Fire of 1904 destroyed a large amount of industry in the downtown. Some of the companies moved west along King Street, some as far west as Dufferin Street; where the large Massey-Harris
Massey-Harris
farm equipment manufacturing complex was located.[93] Over time, pockets of industrial land mostly followed rail lines and later highway corridors as the city grew outwards. This trend continues to this day, the largest factories and distribution warehouses are located in the suburban environs of Peel and York Regions; but also within the current city: Etobicoke
Etobicoke
(concentrated around Pearson Airport), North York, and Scarborough.

The West Don Lands
West Don Lands
is one of many former industrial sites in the downtown area that has undergone redevelopment.

Many of Toronto's former industrial sites close to (or in) Downtown have been redeveloped including parts of the Toronto
Toronto
waterfront, the rail yards west of downtown, and Liberty Village, the Massey-Harris district and large-scale development is underway in the West Don Lands. The Gooderham & Worts Distillery produced spirits until 1990, and is preserved today as the "Distillery District," the largest and best-preserved collection of Victorian industrial architecture in North America.[94] Some industry remains in the area, including the Redpath Sugar Refinery. Similar areas that still retain their industrial character, but are now largely residential are the Fashion District, Corktown, and parts of South Riverdale and Leslieville. Toronto
Toronto
still has some active older industrial areas, such as Brockton Village, Mimico
Mimico
and New Toronto. In the west end of Old Toronto
Old Toronto
and York, the Weston/ Mount Dennis
Mount Dennis
and The Junction
The Junction
areas still contain factories, meat-packing facilities and rail yards close to medium-density residential, although the Junction's Union Stockyards moved out of Toronto
Toronto
in 1994.[92] The "brownfield" industrial area of the Port Lands, on the east side of the harbour, is one area planned for redevelopment.[95] Formerly a marsh that was filled in to create industrial space, it was never intensely developed, its land unsuitable for large-scale development, because of flooding and unstable soil.[96] It still contains numerous industrial uses, such as the Portlands Energy Centre
Portlands Energy Centre
power plant, some port facilities, some movie and TV production studios, a concrete processing facility and various low-density industrial facilities. The Waterfront Toronto
Waterfront Toronto
agency has developed plans for a naturalized mouth to the Don River and to create a flood barrier around the Don, making more of the land on the harbour suitable for higher-value residential and commercial development.[97] A former chemicals plant site along the Don River is slated to become a large commercial complex and transportation hub.[98] Public spaces See also: List of Toronto
Toronto
parks

Nathan Phillips Square
Nathan Phillips Square
is the city's main square. The square includes a reflecting pool that is converted into an ice rink during the winter.

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Toronto
Toronto
has a diverse array of public spaces, from city squares to public parks overlooking ravines. Nathan Phillips Square
Nathan Phillips Square
is the city's main square in downtown, and forms the entrance to City Hall. Yonge-Dundas Square, near City Hall, has also gained attention in recent years as one of the busiest gathering spots in the city. Other squares include Harbourfront Square, on the Toronto
Toronto
waterfront, and the civic squares at the former city halls of the defunct Metropolitan Toronto, most notably Mel Lastman Square in North York. The Toronto Public Space Committee is an advocacy group concerned with the city's public spaces. In recent years, Nathan Phillips Square
Nathan Phillips Square
has been refurbished with new facilities, and the central waterfront along Queen's Quay West has been updated recently with a new street architecture and a new square next to Harbourfront Centre. In the winter, Nathan Phillips Square, Harbourfront Centre, and Mel Lastman Square feature popular rinks for public ice-skating. Etobicoke's Colonel Sam Smith Trail opened in 2011 and is Toronto's first skating trail. Centennial Park and Earl Bales Park offer outdoor skiing and snowboarding slopes with a chairlift, rental facilities, and lessons. Several parks have marked cross-country skiing trails.

Rouge National Urban Park
Rouge National Urban Park
is a national park located in the eastern portion of the city.

There are many large downtown parks, which include Allan Gardens, Christie Pits, Grange Park, Little Norway Park, Moss Park, Queen's Park, Riverdale Park and Trinity Bellwoods Park. An almost hidden park is the compact Cloud Gardens,[99] which has both open areas and a glassed-in greenhouse, near Queen and Yonge. South of downtown are two large parks on the waterfront: Tommy Thompson Park on the Leslie Street Spit, which has a nature preserve, is open on weekends; and the Toronto
Toronto
Islands, accessible from downtown by ferry. Large parks in the outer areas managed by the city include High Park, Humber Bay Park, Centennial Park, Downsview
Downsview
Park, Guild Park and Gardens, and Morningside Park. Toronto
Toronto
also operates several public golf courses. Most ravine lands and river bank floodplains in Toronto are public parklands. After Hurricane Hazel
Hurricane Hazel
in 1954, construction of buildings on floodplains was outlawed, and private lands were bought for conservation. In 1999, Downsview
Downsview
Park, a former military base in North York, initiated an international design competition to realize its vision of creating Canada's first urban park. The winner, "Tree City", was announced in May 2000. Approximately 8,000 hectares (20,000 acres), or 12.5 percent of Toronto's land base is maintained parkland.[100] Morningside Park is the largest park managed by the city, which is 241.46 hectares (596.7 acres) in size.[100] In addition to public parks managed by the municipal government, parts of Rouge National Urban Park, the largest urban park in North America, is located in the eastern portion of Toronto. Managed by Parks Canada, the national park is centred around the Rouge River, and encompasses several municipalities in the Greater Toronto
Toronto
Area.[101] Culture Main article: Culture in Toronto See also: Recreation in Toronto, Annual events in Toronto, and List of cinemas in Toronto

Opened in 1907, the Royal Alexandra Theatre
Royal Alexandra Theatre
is the oldest continuously operating theatre in North America. Toronto
Toronto
is the third largest centre for English-language theatre, behind only London, and New York.

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Toronto
Toronto
theatre and performing arts scene has more than fifty ballet and dance companies, six opera companies, two symphony orchestras and a host of theatres. The city is home to the National Ballet of Canada, the Canadian Opera Company, the Toronto
Toronto
Symphony Orchestra, the Canadian Electronic Ensemble, and the Canadian Stage Company. Notable performance venues include the Four Seasons Centre
Four Seasons Centre
for the Performing Arts, Roy Thomson Hall, the Princess of Wales Theatre, the Royal Alexandra Theatre, Massey Hall, the Toronto
Toronto
Centre for the Arts, the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres
Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres
and the Sony Centre for the Performing Arts (originally the "O'Keefe Centre" and formerly the "Hummingbird Centre"). Ontario
Ontario
Place features the world's first permanent IMAX
IMAX
movie theatre, the Cinesphere,[102] as well as the Budweiser Stage, an open-air venue for music concerts. In spring 2012, Ontario
Ontario
Place closed after a decline in attendance over the years. Although the Molson Amphitheatre and harbour still operate, the park and Cinesphere
Cinesphere
are no longer in use. There are ongoing plans to revitalise Ontario
Ontario
Place.[103]

Caribana
Caribana
is a festival celebrating Caribbean culture and traditions. Held each summer in the city, it is North America's largest street festival.

Each summer, the Canadian Stage Company presents an outdoor Shakespeare production in Toronto's High Park
High Park
called "Dream in High Park". Canada's Walk of Fame
Canada's Walk of Fame
acknowledges the achievements of successful Canadians, with a series of stars on designated blocks of sidewalks along King Street and Simcoe Street. The production of domestic and foreign film and television is a major local industry. Toronto
Toronto
as of 2011[update] ranks as the third largest production centre for film and television after Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and New York City,[104] sharing the nickname "Hollywood North" with Vancouver.[105][106][107] The Toronto International Film Festival
Toronto International Film Festival
is an annual event celebrating the international film industry. Another prestigious film festival is the Toronto
Toronto
Student Film Festival, that screens the works of students ages 12–18 from many different countries across the globe. Toronto's Caribana
Caribana
(formerly known as Scotiabank Caribbean Carnival) takes place from mid-July to early August of every summer.[108] Primarily based on the Trinidad and Tobago Carnival, the first Caribana
Caribana
took place in 1967 when the city's Caribbean community celebrated Canada's Centennial. More than forty years later, it has grown to attract one million people to Toronto's Lake Shore Boulevard annually. Tourism for the festival is in the hundred thousands, and each year, the event generates over $400 million in revenue into Ontario's economy.[109] One of the largest events in the city, Pride Week takes place in late June, and is one of the largest LGBT
LGBT
festivals in the world. Media Main article: Media in Toronto Toronto
Toronto
is Canada's largest media market,[110] and has four conventional dailies, two alt-weeklies, and three free commuter papers in a greater metropolitan area of about 6 million inhabitants. The Toronto Star
Toronto Star
and the Toronto Sun
Toronto Sun
are the prominent daily city newspapers, while national dailies The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail
and the National Post are also headquartered in the city. The Toronto
Toronto
Star, The Globe and Mail, and National Post
National Post
are broadsheet newspapers. Metro and 24 Hours are distributed as free commuter newspapers. Several magazines and local newspapers cover Toronto, including Now and Toronto
Toronto
Life, while numerous magazines are produced in Toronto, such as Canadian Business, Chatelaine, Flare and Maclean's. Toronto
Toronto
contains the headquarters of the major English-language Canadian television networks CBC, CTV, City, Global, The Sports Network (TSN) and Sportsnet. Much (formerly MuchMusic), M3 (formerly MuchMore) and MTV Canada
Canada
are the main music television channels based in the city, though they no longer primarily show music videos as a result of channel drift. Tourism

The Art Gallery of Ontario
Ontario
is an art museum and the second most visited museum in Toronto
Toronto
after the Royal Ontario
Ontario
Museum.

Main articles: Tourism in Toronto
Tourism in Toronto
and Attractions in Toronto

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The Royal Ontario
Ontario
Museum is a museum of world culture and natural history. The Toronto
Toronto
Zoo,[111][112] is home to over 5,000 animals representing over 460 distinct species. The Art Gallery of Ontario contains a large collection of Canadian, European, African and contemporary artwork, and also plays host to exhibits from museums and galleries all over the world. The Gardiner Museum
Gardiner Museum
of ceramic art is the only museum in Canada
Canada
entirely devoted to ceramics, and the Museum's collection contains more than 2,900 ceramic works from Asia, the Americas, and Europe. The city also hosts the Ontario
Ontario
Science Centre, the Bata Shoe Museum, and Textile Museum of Canada.

The Hockey Hall of Fame
Hockey Hall of Fame
is a museum dedicated to ice hockey, as well as a Hall of Fame.

Other prominent art galleries and museums include the Design Exchange, the Museum of Inuit Art, the TIFF Bell Lightbox, the Museum of Contemporary Art Toronto
Toronto
Canada, the Institute for Contemporary Culture, the Toronto
Toronto
Sculpture Garden, the CBC Museum, the Redpath Sugar Museum, the University of Toronto
University of Toronto
Art Centre, Hart House, the TD Gallery of Inuit Art and the Aga Khan Museum. The city also runs its own museums, which include the Spadina House. The Don Valley Brick Works
Don Valley Brick Works
is a former industrial site that opened in 1889, and was partly restored as a park and heritage site in 1996, with further restoration and reuse being completed in stages since then. The Canadian National Exhibition
Canadian National Exhibition
("The Ex") is held annually at Exhibition Place, and it is the oldest annual fair in the world. The Ex has an average attendance of 1.25 million.[113] City shopping areas include the Yorkville neighbourhood, Queen West, Harbourfront, the Entertainment District, the Financial District, and the St. Lawrence Market neighbourhood. The Eaton Centre is Toronto's most popular tourist attraction with over 52 million visitors annually.[114] Greektown on the Danforth is home to the annual "Taste of the Danforth" festival which attracts over one million people in 2½ days.[115] Toronto
Toronto
is also home to Casa Loma, the former estate of Sir Henry Pellatt, a prominent Toronto
Toronto
financier, industrialist and military man. Other notable neighbourhoods and attractions include The Beaches, the Toronto
Toronto
Islands, Kensington Market, Fort York, and the Hockey Hall of Fame. Sports Main articles: Toronto
Toronto
sports, Amateur sport in Toronto, and List of sports teams in Toronto

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Toronto
Toronto
is represented in six major league sports, with teams in the National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, Canadian Football League, Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
and Canadian Women's Hockey League. It was formerly represented in a seventh, the USL W-League, until that announced on November 6, 2015 that it would cease operation ahead of 2016 season.[116][117] The city's major sports venues include the Air Canada
Canada
Centre, Rogers Centre (formerly SkyDome), Ricoh Coliseum, and BMO Field. Professional sports

Mural of the Toronto
Toronto
Maple Leafs, at College subway station. The Maple Leafs are a professional ice hockey club with the NHL.

Toronto
Toronto
is home to the Toronto
Toronto
Maple Leafs, one of the National Hockey League's Original Six
Original Six
clubs, and has also served as home to the Hockey Hall of Fame since 1958. The city had a rich history of ice hockey championships. Along with the Maple Leafs' 13 Stanley Cup
Stanley Cup
titles, the Toronto Marlboros
Toronto Marlboros
and St. Michael's College School-based Ontario Hockey League teams, combined, have won a record 12 Memorial Cup titles. The Toronto Marlies
Toronto Marlies
of the American Hockey League
American Hockey League
also play in Toronto
Toronto
at Ricoh Coliseum
Ricoh Coliseum
and are the farm team for the Maple Leafs. The city is home to the Toronto Blue Jays
Toronto Blue Jays
professional baseball team of Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
(MLB). The team has won two World Series titles (1992, 1993). The Blue Jays play their home games at the Rogers Centre, in the downtown core. Toronto
Toronto
has a long history of minor-league professional baseball dating back to the 1800s, culminating in the Toronto Maple Leafs
Toronto Maple Leafs
baseball team, whose owner first proposed a MLB team for Toronto.

The Toronto Blue Jays
Toronto Blue Jays
host the Detroit Tigers
Detroit Tigers
at the Rogers Centre.

The Toronto Raptors
Toronto Raptors
entered the National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
(NBA) in 1995, and have since earned seven playoff spots and three Atlantic Division titles in 20 seasons. The Raptors are the only NBA team with their own television channel, NBA TV Canada. They and the Maple Leafs play their home games at the Air Canada
Canada
Centre. In 2016, Toronto hosted the 65th NBA All-Star game, the first to be held outside the United States.[118] The city is represented in the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
by the Toronto Argonauts, who have won 16 Grey Cup
Grey Cup
titles. Toronto
Toronto
played host to the 95th Grey Cup
Grey Cup
in 2007, the first held in the city since 1992. Later in 2012, while hosting and participating in the 100th Grey Cup, they won the game to the delight of the home fans. Toronto
Toronto
is represented in Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
by the Toronto
Toronto
FC, who have won four Canadian Championship
Canadian Championship
titles. They share BMO Field
BMO Field
with the Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts. Toronto
Toronto
has a high level of participation in soccer across the city at several smaller stadiums and fields. Toronto FC entered the league as an expansion team.

BMO Field
BMO Field
is an outdoor stadium that is home to the CFL's Toronto Argonauts and MLS's Toronto
Toronto
FC.

The Toronto Rock
Toronto Rock
are the city's National Lacrosse League
National Lacrosse League
team. They won five Champion's Cup
Champion's Cup
titles in seven years in the late 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century, appearing in an NLL record five straight championship games from 1999 to 2003, and are currently first all-time in the number of Champion's Cups won. The Rock share the Air Canada
Canada
Centre with the Maple Leafs and the Raptors. Toronto
Toronto
has hosted several National Football League
National Football League
exhibition games at the Rogers Centre. Ted Rogers leased the Buffalo Bills
Buffalo Bills
from Ralph Wilson for the purposes of having the Bills play eight home games in the city between 2008 and 2013. Toronto
Toronto
was home to the International Bowl, an NCAA sanctioned post-season football game that pitted a Mid-American Conference
Mid-American Conference
team against a Big East Conference team. From 2007 to 2010, the game was played at Rogers Centre
Rogers Centre
annually in January. The Toronto Wolfpack
Toronto Wolfpack
became Canada's first professional rugby league team and the world's first transatlantic professional sports team when they began play in the Rugby Football League's League One competition in 2017.[119] Toronto
Toronto
is home to the Toronto
Toronto
Rush, a semi-professional ultimate team that competes in the American Ultimate Disc League
American Ultimate Disc League
(AUDL).[120][121] Ultimate (disc), in Canada, has its beginning roots in Toronto, with 3300 players competing annually in the Toronto
Toronto
Ultimate Club (League).[122] Events Toronto, along with Montreal, hosts an annual tennis tournament called the Canadian Open (not to be confused with the identically named golf tournament) between the months of July and August. In odd-numbered years, the men's tournament is held in Montreal, while the women's tournament is held in Toronto, and vice versa in even-numbered years.

Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
attending the 2010 Queen's Plate
Queen's Plate
at Woodbine Racetrack in Toronto.

The city hosts the annual Honda Indy Toronto
Honda Indy Toronto
car race, part of the IndyCar Series
IndyCar Series
schedule, held on a street circuit at Exhibition Place. It was known previously as the Champ Car's Molson Indy Toronto
Toronto
from 1986 to 2007. Both thoroughbred and standardbred horse racing events are conducted at Woodbine Racetrack in Rexdale. Toronto
Toronto
hosted the 2015 Pan American Games
Pan American Games
in July 2015, and the 2015 Parapan American Games in August 2015. It beat the cities of Lima, Peru
Peru
and Bogotá, Colombia, to win the rights to stage the games.[123] The games were the largest multi-sport event ever to be held in Canada (in terms of athletes competing), double the size of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia.[124] Toronto
Toronto
was a candidate city for the 1996 and 2008 Summer Olympics, which were awarded to Atlanta
Atlanta
and Beijing
Beijing
respectively.[125] Historic sports clubs of Toronto
Toronto
include the Granite Club (established in 1836), the Royal Canadian Yacht Club
Royal Canadian Yacht Club
(established in 1852), the Toronto
Toronto
Cricket Skating and Curling Club (established before 1827), the Argonaut Rowing Club (established in 1872), the Toronto
Toronto
Lawn Tennis
Tennis
Club (established in 1881), and the Badminton and Racquet Club (established in 1924).

Professional and amateur sports teams in Toronto

Club League Sport Venue Established Championships

Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts CFL Football BMO Field 1873 17 (Last in 2017)

Toronto
Toronto
Maple Leafs NHL Ice hockey Air Canada
Canada
Centre 1917 13 (Last in 1967)

Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays MLB Baseball Rogers Centre 1977 2 (Last in 1993)

Toronto
Toronto
Raptors NBA Basketball Air Canada
Canada
Centre 1995 0

Toronto
Toronto
FC MLS Soccer BMO Field 2007 1 (Last in 2017)

Toronto
Toronto
Wolfpack Championship Rugby league Lamport Stadium 2017 1 (in 2017 League 1)

Toronto
Toronto
Maple Leafs IBL Baseball Christie Pits 1969 8

Toronto
Toronto
Rock NLL Box lacrosse Air Canada
Canada
Centre 1998 6 (last in 2011)

Toronto
Toronto
Marlies AHL Ice hockey Ricoh Coliseum 2005 0

Toronto
Toronto
Furies CWHL Women's ice hockey MasterCard Centre 2007 1

Toronto
Toronto
Lady Lynx USL Women's soccer Centennial Park Stadium 2005 0

Toronto
Toronto
Eagles AFLO Australian Football Humber College
Humber College
North 1989 12

Toronto
Toronto
Rush AUDL Ultimate Frisbee Varsity Stadium 2013 1

Economy Main article: Economy of Toronto

A view of the Financial District from Commerce Court. The district acts as the city's central business district.

Toronto
Toronto
is an international centre for business and finance. Generally considered the financial capital of Canada, Toronto
Toronto
has a high concentration of banks and brokerage firms on Bay Street, in the Financial District. The Toronto Stock Exchange
Toronto Stock Exchange
is the world's seventh-largest stock exchange by market capitalization.[126] The five largest financial institutions of Canada, collectively known as the Big Five, have national offices in Toronto.[36] The city is an important centre for the media, publishing, telecommunication, information technology and film production industries; it is home to Bell Media, Rogers Communications, and Torstar. Other prominent Canadian corporations in the Greater Toronto Area include Magna International, Celestica, Manulife, Sun Life Financial, the Hudson's Bay Company, and major hotel companies and operators, such as Four Seasons Hotels and Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. Although much of the region's manufacturing activities take place outside the city limits, Toronto
Toronto
continues to be a wholesale and distribution point for the industrial sector. The city's strategic position along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor
Quebec City–Windsor Corridor
and its road and rail connections help support the nearby production of motor vehicles, iron, steel, food, machinery, chemicals and paper. The completion of the Saint Lawrence Seaway
Saint Lawrence Seaway
in 1959 gave ships access to the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean. Toronto's unemployment rate was 6.7% as of July 2016.[127] According to the website Numbeo, Toronto's cost of living plus rent index was second highest in Canada
Canada
(of 31 cities).[128] The local purchasing power was the sixth lowest in Canada, mid-2017.[129] The average monthly social assistance caseload for January to October 2014 was 92,771. The number of seniors living in poverty increased from 10.5% in 2011 to 12.1% in 2014. Toronto’s 2013 child poverty rate was 28.6%, the highest among large Canadian cities of 500,000 or more residents.[130] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Toronto

View of Chinatown on Spadina Avenue. According to the 2016 census, more than half of the city's population belonged to a visible minority group.

The city's population grew by 4% (96,073 residents) between 1996 and 2001, 1% (21,787 residents) between 2001 and 2006, 4.3% (111,779 residents) between 2006 and 2011, and 4.5% (116,511) between 2011 and 2016.[131] In 2016, persons aged 14 years and under made up 14.5% of the population, and those aged 65 years and over made up 15.6%.[131] The median age was 39.3 years.[131] The city's gender population is 48% male and 52% female.[131] Women outnumber men in all age groups 15 and older.[131] In 2016, foreign-born persons made up 47.5% of the population,[20] compared to 49.9% in 2006.[132] According to the United Nations Development Programme, Toronto
Toronto
has the second-highest percentage of constant foreign-born population among world cities, after Miami, Florida. While Miami's foreign-born population has traditionally consisted primarily of Cubans and other Latin Americans, no single nationality or culture dominates Toronto's immigrant population, placing it among the most diverse cities in the world.[132] In 2010, it was estimated that over 100,000 immigrants arrive in the Greater Toronto
Toronto
Area annually.[133] Ethnicity In 2016, the three most commonly reported ethnic origins overall were Chinese (332,830 or 12.5%), English (331,890 or 12.3%) and Canadian (323,175 or 12.0%).[20] Common regions of ethnic origin were European (47.9%), Asian (including middle-Eastern - 40.1%), African (5.5%), Latin/Central/South American (4.2%), and North American aboriginal (1.2%).[20] In 2016, 51.5% of the residents of the city proper belonged to a visible minority group, compared to 49.1% in 2011,[20][134] and 13.6% in 1981.[135] The largest visible minority groups were South Asian (338,960 or 12.6%), Chinese (332,830 or 12.5%), and Black (239,850 or 8.9%).[20] Visible minorities are projected to increase to 63% of the city's population by 2031.[136] This diversity is reflected in Toronto's ethnic neighbourhoods, which include Chinatown, Corso Italia, Greektown, Kensington Market (alternative/counterculture), Koreatown, Little India, Little Italy, Little Jamaica, Little Portugal
Portugal
and Roncesvalles (Polish community).[137] Religion

Religion in Toronto
Toronto
(2011)

Religion

Christian

54.1%

No religion

24.2%

Muslim

8.2%

Hindu

5.6%

Jewish

3.8%

Buddhist

2.7%

Sikh

0.8%

Other

0.6%

In 2011, the most commonly reported religion in Toronto
Toronto
was Christianity, adhered to by 54.1% of the population. A plurality, 28.2%, of the city's population was Catholic, followed by Protestants (11.9%), Christian Orthodox (4.3%), and members of other Christian denominations (9.7%). With the city's significant number of Methodist Christians, Toronto
Toronto
was historically referred to as the Methodist Rome.[138] Other religions significantly practised in the city are Islam
Islam
(8.2%), Hinduism
Hinduism
(5.6%), Judaism
Judaism
(3.8%), Buddhism
Buddhism
(2.7%), and Sikhism
Sikhism
(0.8%). Those with no religious affiliation made up 24.2% of Toronto's population.[134] Language While English is the predominant language spoken by Torontonians, many other languages have considerable numbers of local speakers.[139] The varieties of Chinese and Italian are the second and third most widely spoken languages at work.[140][141] Despite Canada's official bilingualism, while 9.7% of Ontario's Francophones live in Toronto, only 0.6% of the population reported French as a singular language spoken most often at home; meanwhile 64% reported speaking predominantly English only and 28.3% primarily used a non-official language; 7.1% reported commonly speaking multiple languages at home.[142][143] The city's 9-1-1
9-1-1
emergency services are equipped to respond in over 150 languages.[144] Government Main article: Municipal government of Toronto Further information: Politics of Toronto and Public services in Toronto

Map of Toronto's 44 municipal electoral wards.

Toronto
Toronto
is a single-tier municipality governed by a mayor–council system. The structure of the municipal government is stipulated by the City of Toronto
Toronto
Act. The Mayor of Toronto
Mayor of Toronto
is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive of the city. The Toronto
Toronto
City Council is a unicameral legislative body, comprising 44 councillors representing geographical wards throughout the city.[145] The mayor and members of the city council serve four-year terms without term limits. (Until the 2006 municipal election, the mayor and city councillors served three-year terms.) However, on November 18, 2013, council voted to modify the city's government by transferring many executive powers from the mayor to the deputy mayor, and itself.[146]

Toronto City Hall
Toronto City Hall
acts as the seat of the municipal government of Toronto.

As of 2016, the city council has twelve standing committees, each consisting of a Chairman, (some have a vice-chair), and a number of councillors.[147] The Mayor names the committee chairs and the remaining membership of the committees is appointed by City Council. An executive committee is formed by the chairs of each of standing committee, along with the mayor, the deputy mayor and four other councillors. Councillors are also appointed to oversee the Toronto Transit Commission and the Toronto
Toronto
Police Services Board. The city has four community councils that consider local matters. City Council has delegated final decision-making authority on local, routine matters, while others—like planning and zoning issues—are recommended to the city council. Each city councillor serves as a member of a community council.[147] There are about 40 subcommittees and advisory committees appointed by the city council. These bodies are made up of city councillors and private citizen volunteers. Examples include the Pedestrian Committee, Waste Diversion Task Force 2010, and the Task Force to Bring Back the Don.[148] The City of Toronto
Toronto
had an approved operating budget of CA$10.5 billion in 2017 and a 10-year capital budget and plan of CA$26.5 billion.[149] The city's revenues include subsidies from the Government of Canada
Canada
and the Government of Ontario, 33% from property tax, 6% from the land transfer tax and the rest from other tax revenues and user fees.[150] The City's largest operating expenditures are the Toronto Transit Commission
Toronto Transit Commission
at CA$1.955 billion (19%), and the Toronto
Toronto
Police Service, CA$1.131 billion (9%).[150] Crime Main article: Crime in Toronto See also: Crime in Canada
Canada
and Gun politics in Canada

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2016)

The low crime rate in Toronto
Toronto
has resulted in the city having a reputation as one of the safest major cities in North America.[151][152][153] For instance, in 2007, the homicide rate for Toronto
Toronto
was 3.3 per 100,000 people, compared with Atlanta
Atlanta
(19.7), Boston (10.3), Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(10.0), New York City
New York City
(6.3), Vancouver (3.1), and Montreal
Montreal
(2.6). Toronto's robbery rate also ranks low, with 207.1 robberies per 100,000 people, compared with Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(348.5), Vancouver
Vancouver
(266.2), New York City
New York City
(265.9), and Montreal (235.3).[154][155][156][157][158][159] Toronto
Toronto
has a comparable rate of car theft to various U.S. cities, although it is not among the highest in Canada.[151] Toronto
Toronto
recorded its largest number of homicides in 1991 with 89, a rate of 3.9 per 100,000.[160][161] In 2005, Toronto
Toronto
media coined the term "Year of the Gun", because of a record number of gun-related homicides, 52, out of 80 homicides in total.[153][162] The total number of homicides dropped to 70 in 2006, that year, nearly 2,000 people in Toronto
Toronto
were victims of a violent gun-related crime, about one-quarter of the national total.[163] 84 homicides were committed in 2007, roughly half of which involved guns. Gang-related incidents have also been on the rise; between the years of 1997 and 2005, over 300 gang-related homicides have occurred. As a result, the Ontario government developed an anti-gun strategy.[164] In 2011, Toronto's murder rate plummeted to 45 murders—nearly a 26% drop from the previous year. The 45 homicides were the lowest number the city has recorded since 1986.[165] While subsequent years did see a return to higher rates, the nearly flat line of 56 homicides in 2012 and 57 in both 2013 and 2014 continued to be a significant improvement over the previous decade; and the year of 2015 had 55 murders by year end. 2016 went to 73 for the first time in over 8 years. 2017 had a drop off of 12 murders to close the year at 61.[166] Education Main article: Education in Toronto

University College at the University of Toronto. University College is one of eleven colleges at the University of Toronto.

Toronto
Toronto
has a number of post-secondary academic institutions. The University of Toronto, established in 1827, is Canada's largest university and has two satellite campuses, one of which is located in the city's eastern district of Scarborough while the other is located in the neighbouring city of Mississauga. York University, Canada's third-largest university, founded in 1959, is located in the northwest part of the city. Toronto
Toronto
is also home to Ryerson University, OCAD University, and the University of Guelph-Humber. There are four diploma- and degree-granting colleges in Toronto. These are Seneca College, Humber College, Centennial College
Centennial College
and George Brown College. The city is also home to a satellite campus of the francophone Collège Boréal. The Royal Conservatory of Music, which includes the Glenn Gould School, is a school of music located downtown. The Canadian Film Centre is a film, television and new media training institute founded by filmmaker Norman Jewison. Tyndale University College and Seminary is a Christian post-secondary institution and Canada's largest seminary. The Toronto District School Board
Toronto District School Board
(TDSB) operates 588 public schools. Of these, 451 are elementary and 116 are secondary (high) schools.[167] Additionally, the Toronto
Toronto
Catholic District School Board manages the city's publicly funded Roman Catholic schools, while the Conseil scolaire Viamonde
Conseil scolaire Viamonde
and the Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir manage public and Roman Catholic French-language schools, respectively. There are also numerous private university-preparatory schools including the University of Toronto
University of Toronto
Schools, the Upper Canada College and Havergal College. The Toronto
Toronto
Public Library[168] consists of 100[169] branches with more than 11 million items in its collection.[170] Infrastructure Health and medicine Main article: Health in Toronto See also: List of hospitals in Toronto
List of hospitals in Toronto
and XVI International AIDS Conference, 2006

Toronto General Hospital
Toronto General Hospital
is a major teaching hospital located in downtown Toronto.

Toronto
Toronto
is home to 20 public hospitals, including: The Hospital for Sick Children, Mount Sinai Hospital, St. Michael's Hospital, North York General Hospital, Toronto
Toronto
General Hospital, Toronto
Toronto
Western Hospital, St. Joseph's Health Centre, Rouge Valley Health System, The Scarborough Hospital, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, many of which are affiliated with the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine. In 2007, Toronto
Toronto
was reported as having some of the longer average ER wait times in Ontario. Toronto
Toronto
hospitals at the time employed a system of triage to ensure life-threatening injuries receive rapid treatment.[171] After initial screening, initial assessments by physicians were completed within the waiting rooms themselves for greater efficiency, within a median of 1.2 hours. Tests, consultations, and initial treatments were also provided within waiting rooms. 50% of patients waited 4 hours before being transferred from the emergency room to another room.[171] The least-urgent 10% of cases wait over 12 hours.[171] The extended waiting-room times experienced by some patients were attributed to an overall shortage of acute care beds.[171]

Toronto's MaRS Discovery District
MaRS Discovery District
is a centre for research in biomedicine.

Toronto's Discovery District[172] is a centre of research in biomedicine. It is located on a 2.5-square-kilometre (620-acre) research park that is integrated into Toronto's downtown core. It is also home to the Medical and Related Sciences Centre (MaRS),[173] which was created in 2000 to capitalize on the research and innovation strength of the Province of Ontario. Another institute is the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (MCMM).[174] Toronto
Toronto
also has some specialized hospitals located outside of the downtown core. These hospitals include Baycrest
Baycrest
for geriatric care and Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital
Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital
for children with disabilities. Toronto
Toronto
is also host to a wide variety of health-focused non-profit organizations that work to address specific illnesses for Toronto, Ontario
Ontario
and Canadian residents. Organizations include Crohn's and Colitis Canada, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the Canadian Cancer Society, the Alzheimer Society of Canada, Alzheimer Society of Ontario
Ontario
and Alzheimer Society of Toronto, all situated in the same office at Yonge and Eglinton, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of Canada, the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, the Canadian Foundation for AIDS Research, Cystic Fibrosis Canada, the Canadian Mental Health Association, the ALS Society of Canada, and many others. These organizations work to help people within the GTA, Ontario
Ontario
or Canada
Canada
who are affected by these illnesses. As well, most engage in fundraising to promote research, services, and public awareness. Transportation

Union Station is a major commuter and inter-city transportation hub in downtown Toronto.

Main article: Transportation in Toronto Toronto
Toronto
is a central transportation hub for road, rail and air networks in Southern Ontario. There are many forms of transport in the city of Toronto, including highways and public transit. Toronto
Toronto
also has an extensive network of bicycle lanes and multi-use trails and paths. Public transportation Main article: Public transportation in Toronto Toronto's main public transportation system is operated by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC).[56] The backbone of its public transport network is the Toronto subway
Toronto subway
system, which includes three heavy-rail rapid transit lines spanning the city, including the U-shaped Line 1 and east-west Line 2. A light metro line also exists, exclusively serving the eastern district of Scarborough, but a discussion is underway to replace it with a heavy-rail line.

The Toronto Transit Commission
Toronto Transit Commission
operates largest and busiest streetcar system in North America.

The TTC also operates an extensive network of buses and streetcars, with the latter serving the downtown core, and buses providing service to many parts of the city not served by the sparse subway network. TTC buses and streetcars use the same fare system as the subway, and many subway stations offer a fare-paid area for transfers between rail and surface vehicles. There have been numerous plans to extend the subway and implement light-rail lines, but many efforts have been thwarted by budgetary concerns. Since July 2011, the only subway-related work is the Spadina subway (line 1) extension north of Sheppard West station
Sheppard West station
(formerly named Downsview) to Vaughan
Vaughan
Metropolitan Centre. By November 2011, construction on Line 5 Eglinton
Line 5 Eglinton
began. Line 5 is scheduled to finish by 2021.[175][176] In 2015, the Ontario
Ontario
government promised to fund Line 6 Finch West
Line 6 Finch West
(line 7) which is to be completed by 2021.[177] Toronto's public transit network also connects to other municipal networks such as York Region Transit, Viva, Durham Region Transit, and MiWay. The Government of Ontario
Ontario
also operates a commuter rail and bus transit system called GO Transit
GO Transit
in the Greater Toronto
Toronto
Area. GO Transit carries over 250,000 passengers every weekday (2013) and 57 million annually, with a majority of them travelling to or from Union Station.[178][179] GO Transit
GO Transit
is implementing RER (Regional Express Rail) into its system.[180] Airports

Interior view of Toronto
Toronto
Pearson International Airport's Terminal 1. Toronto
Toronto
Pearson serves as the international airport for the Greater Toronto
Toronto
Area.

Canada's busiest airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport
Toronto Pearson International Airport
(IATA: YYZ), straddles the city's western boundary with the suburban city of Mississauga. Limited commercial and passenger service to nearby destinations in Canada
Canada
and the USA is also offered from the Billy Bishop Toronto
Toronto
City Airport (IATA: YTZ) on the Toronto
Toronto
Islands, southwest of downtown. Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport
Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport
(IATA: YKZ) in Markham provides general aviation facilities. Toronto/ Downsview
Downsview
Airport (IATA: YZD), near the city's north end, is owned by de Havilland Canada
Canada
and serves the Bombardier Aerospace aircraft factory. The Union Pearson Express
Union Pearson Express
is a train service that provides a direct link between Pearson International and Union Station. It began carrying passengers in June 2015. Hamilton's John C. Munro International Airport (IATA: YHM) and Buffalo's Buffalo Niagara International Airport
Buffalo Niagara International Airport
(IATA: BUF) also serve as alternate airports for the Toronto
Toronto
area in addition to serving their respective cities. Intercity transportation Toronto
Toronto
Union Station serves as the hub for VIA Rail's intercity services in Central Canada, and includes services to various parts of Ontario, Corridor services to Montreal
Montreal
and national capital Ottawa, and long distance services to Vancouver
Vancouver
and New York City. The Toronto Coach Terminal
Toronto Coach Terminal
in downtown Toronto
Toronto
also serves as a hub for intercity bus services in Southern Ontario, served by multiple companies and providing a comprehensive network of services in Ontario and neighboring provinces and states. GO Transit
GO Transit
provides intercity bus services from Union Station Bus Terminal
Union Station Bus Terminal
and other bus terminals in the city to destinations within the GTA. Road system

Highway 401 is a 400-series highway
400-series highway
that passes west to east through Greater Toronto. The volume of vehicles that use Toronto's portion of Highway 401 makes it the busiest highway in North America.

The grid of major city streets was laid out by a concession road system, in which major arterial roads are 6,600 ft (2.0 km) apart (with some exceptions, particularly in Scarborough and Etobicoke, as they were originally separate townships). Major east-west arterial roads are generally parallel with the Lake Ontario shoreline, and major north-south arterial roads are roughly perpendicular to the shoreline, though slightly angled north of Eglinton Avenue. This arrangement is sometimes broken by geographical accidents, most notably the Don River ravines. Toronto's grid north is approximately 18.5° to the west of true north. There are a number of municipal expressways and provincial highways that serve Toronto
Toronto
and the Greater Toronto
Toronto
Area. In particular, Highway 401 bisects the city from west to east, bypassing the downtown core. It is the busiest road in North America,[181] and one of the busiest highways in the world.[182][183] Other provincial highways include Highway 400 which connects the city with Northern Ontario
Ontario
and beyond and Highway 404, an extension of the Don Valley Parkway
Don Valley Parkway
into the northern suburbs. The Queen Elizabeth Way
Queen Elizabeth Way
(QEW), North America's first divided intercity highway, terminates at Toronto's western boundary and connects Toronto
Toronto
to Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls
and Buffalo. The main municipal expressways in Toronto
Toronto
include the Gardiner Expressway, the Don Valley Parkway, and to some extent, Allen Road. Toronto's traffic congestion is one of the highest in North America, and is the second highest in Canada
Canada
after Vancouver, British Columbia.[184] Notable people Main article: List of people from Toronto International relations Main article: Sister cities of Toronto

Partnership cities[185]

Chongqing, China
China
(1986) Chicago, Illinois, United States
United States
(1991) Frankfurt, Germany
Germany
(1989) Lisbon, Portugal[186][187] Milan, Italy
Italy
(2003) São Paulo, Brazil[188][189]

Friendship cities[185]

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Vietnam
(2006) Kyiv, Ukraine
Ukraine
(1992) Quito, Ecuador
Ecuador
(2006) Sagamihara, Japan
Japan
(1991) Warsaw, Poland
Poland
(1990)

See also

Toronto
Toronto
portal Ontario
Ontario
portal Canada
Canada
portal

Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Megalopolis Largest cities in the Americas List of metropolitan areas in the Americas OPENCities Outline of Toronto
Outline of Toronto
(extensive topic list)

Notes

^ Maximum and minimum temperature data at The Annex
The Annex
was recorded by manned observers from March 1840 to June 2003 under the station name "TORONTO".[76][77] From July 2003 to present, climate data has been recorded by an automatic weather station under the name "TORONTO CITY".[78][79]

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FAQ Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Toronto
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Toronto
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Ontario
Moving Forward with Finch West Light Rail Transit Project". news.ontario.ca. Retrieved May 1, 2015.  ^ "Info to GO" (PDF). GO Transit. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2012. Retrieved May 24, 2011.  ^ Lewington, Jennifer; McLeod, Lori (November 2007). "Underground mall in store for Union Station makeover". Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved November 3, 2015.  ^ " Metrolinx
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Ontario
are the 400-series highways
400-series highways
in the southern part of the province. The most important of these is the 401, the busiest highway in North America, with average annual daily traffic (AADT) of more than 425,000 vehicles in 2004, and daily traffic sometimes exceeding 500,000 vehicles.  ^ " Ontario
Ontario
government investing $401 million to upgrade Highway 401". ogov.newswire.ca. Ontario
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Ministry of Transportation. August 6, 2002. Archived from the original on September 14, 2007. Retrieved March 18, 2007. Highway 401 is one of the busiest highways in the world and represents a vital link in Ontario's transportation infrastructure, carrying more than 400,000 vehicles per day through Toronto.  ^ Brian Gray (April 10, 2004). "GTA Economy Dinged by Every Crash on the 401 – North America's Busiest Freeway". Toronto
Toronto
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Toronto
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Lisbon
– Twinning of Cities and Towns]. Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses [National Association of Portuguese Municipalities] (in Portuguese). Retrieved August 23, 2013.  ^ "Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa" [ Lisbon
Lisbon
– Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship]. Camara Municipal de Lisboa (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013.  ^ "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal – No 14471" [Research Municipal Legislation – No 14471]. Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on October 18, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2013.  ^ Lei Municipal de São Paulo
São Paulo
14471 de 2007 WikiSource (in Portuguese)

Bibliography

Dinnie, Keith (2011). City Branding: Theory and Cases. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-24185-5.  Duffy, Hazel (2004). Competitive Cities: Succeeding in the Global Economy. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-203-36231-0.  Gibson, Sally (2008). Toronto's Distillery District: history by the lake. Cityscape Holdings Inc. and Dundee Distillery District
Distillery District
(GP) Commercial Inc. ISBN 978-0-9809905-0-8.  Hounsom, Eric Wilfrid (1970). Toronto
Toronto
in 1810. Toronto: Ryerson Press. ISBN 0-7700-0311-7.  Johansen Aase, Emily (2014). Cosmopolitanism
Cosmopolitanism
and Place: Spatial Forms in Contemporary Anglophone Literature. New York City, NY, USA: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-40266-0.  Johnson, James Keith; Wilson, Bruce G. (1989). Historical Essays on Upper Canada: New Perspectives. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN 0886290708.  Myrvold, Barbara; Fahey, Curtis (1997). The people of Scarborough : a history. Scarborough, Ont.: Scarborough Public Library Board. ISBN 9780968308608.  Robertson, John Ross (1894). Robertson's Landmarks of Toronto: A Collection of Historical Sketches of the Old Town of York from 1792 Until 1837, and of Toronto
Toronto
from 1834 to 1894. Toronto: J. Ross Robertson.  Schmalz, Peter S. (1991). The Ojibwa of Southern Ontario. Toronto: University of Toronto
University of Toronto
Press. ISBN 978-0802067784.  Williamson, R. F., ed. (2008). Toronto: An Illustrated History of its First 12,000 Years. Toronto, Ontario: James Lorimer. 

Further reading

Akler, Howard; Hood, Sarah (2003). Toronto: The Unknown City. Arsenal Pulp Press. ISBN 1-55152-146-6.  Careless, J.M.S. "Toronto". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation of Canada. Archived from the original on January 3, 2006. Retrieved December 3, 2005.  Careless, J. M. S (1984). Toronto
Toronto
to 1918: An Illustrated History. J. Lorimer and National Museum of Man. ISBN 0-88862-665-7.  "Ultimate Inline Skating Guide to Toronto
Toronto
v1.5" (Google Earth). 2007. Retrieved July 7, 2007.  Filey, Mike (2008). Toronto: the way we were. Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-55002-842-3.  Fulford, Robert (1995). Accidental city: the transformation of Toronto. Toronto: Macfarlane, Walter & Ross. ISBN 0-921912-91-9.  Also ISBN 1-55199-010-5 (paperback). Harris, Richard (October 7, 1999). Unplanned Suburbs: Toronto's American Tragedy, 1900 to 1950. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6282-3.  The novel "In the Skin of a Lion" by Michael Ondaatje
Michael Ondaatje
depicts Toronto in the 1920s, giving prominence to the construction of Toronto landmarks, such as the Prince Edward Viaduct
Prince Edward Viaduct
and the R. C. Harris Water Treatment Plant, and focusing on the lives of the immigrant workers. Phillips, Robert; Bram, Leon; Dickey, Norma (1971). Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. Vol. 23. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. ISBN 0-8343-0025-7.  Rayburn, Alan (2001). Naming Canada: stories about Canadian place names (2nd ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto
University of Toronto
Press. ISBN 0-8020-8293-9. 

Statistics Canada
Canada
(2003). "Toronto". Statistics Canada. 2002. 2001 Community Profiles. Statistics Canada
Canada
Catalogue no. 93F0053XIE. Retrieved December 3, 2005.  City of Toronto. "Toronto's Economic Profile". City of Toronto. Archived from the original on June 19, 2006. Retrieved May 30, 2006.  Whitzman, Carolyn (2009). Suburb, slum, urban village: transformations in Toronto's Parkdale neighbourhood, 1875–2002. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-1535-2. 

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 105856875 LCCN: n79079328 ISNI: 0000 0004 0409 3523 GND: 4060459-7 BNF: cb119381418 (d