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Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
(or Pain;[1] February 9, 1737 [O.S. January 29, 1736][Note 1] – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary. One of the Founding Fathers of the United States, he authored the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution
American Revolution
and inspired the rebels in 1776 to declare independence from Britain.[2] His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era rhetoric of transnational human rights.[3] Saul K. Padover described him as "a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, and a propagandist by inclination".[4] Born in Thetford
Thetford
in the English county of Norfolk, Paine migrated to the British American colonies in 1774 with the help of Benjamin Franklin, arriving just in time to participate in the American Revolution. Virtually every rebel read (or listened to a reading of) his powerful pamphlet Common Sense (1776), proportionally the all-time best-selling[5][6] American title, which crystallized the rebellious demand for independence from Great Britain. His The American Crisis (1776–1783) was a pro-revolutionary pamphlet series. Common Sense was so influential that John Adams
John Adams
said: "Without the pen of the author of Common Sense, the sword of Washington would have been raised in vain".[7] Paine lived in France
France
for most of the 1790s, becoming deeply involved in the French Revolution. He wrote Rights of Man
Rights of Man
(1791), in part a defense of the French Revolution
French Revolution
against its critics. His attacks on Irish conservative writer Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke
led to a trial and conviction in absentia in England
England
in 1792 for the crime of seditious libel. The British government of William Pitt the Younger, worried by the possibility that the French Revolution
French Revolution
might spread to England, had begun suppressing works that espoused radical philosophies. Paine's work, which advocated the right of the people to overthrow their government, was duly targeted, with a writ for his arrest issued in early 1792. Paine fled to France
France
in September where, rather immediately and despite not being able to speak French, he was elected to the French National Convention. The Girondists regarded him as an ally. Consequently, the Montagnards, especially Maximilien Robespierre, regarded him as an enemy. In December 1793, he was arrested and was taken to Luxembourg Prison in Paris. While in prison, he continued to work on The Age of Reason (1793–1794). Future President James Monroe
James Monroe
used his diplomatic connections to get Paine released in November 1794. He became notorious because of his pamphlets The Age of Reason, in which he advocated deism, promoted reason and free thought and argued against institutionalized religion in general and Christian doctrine in particular. He also published the pamphlet Agrarian Justice
Agrarian Justice
(1797), discussing the origins of property and introduced the concept of a guaranteed minimum income. In 1802, he returned to the U.S. where he died on June 8, 1809. Only six people attended his funeral as he had been ostracized for his ridicule of Christianity.[8]

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 American Revolution

2.1 Common Sense (1776) 2.2 The American Crisis
The American Crisis
(1776) 2.3 Foreign affairs

2.3.1 The Silas Deane
Silas Deane
affair

2.4 Funding the Revolution

3 Rights
Rights
of Man 4 The Age of Reason

4.1 Criticism of George Washington

5 Later years 6 Death 7 Ideas

7.1 Slavery 7.2 Agrarian Justice

8 Religious views 9 Legacy

9.1 Abraham Lincoln 9.2 Thomas Edison 9.3 South America 9.4 Memorials

10 In popular culture 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References

13.1 Bibliography 13.2 Fiction 13.3 Primary sources

14 External links

Early life and education Paine was born on January 29, 1736 (NS February 9, 1737),[Note 1] the son of Joseph Pain (or Paine) and Frances (née Cocke), in Thetford, Norfolk, England. Joseph was a Quaker
Quaker
and Frances an Anglican.[9] Born Thomas Pain, and despite claims that he changed his family name upon his emigration to America in 1774,[1] he was using Paine in 1769, while still in Lewes, Sussex.[10]

Old School at Thetford
Thetford
Grammar School, where Paine was educated

He attended Thetford
Thetford
Grammar School (1744–1749), at a time when there was no compulsory education.[11] At the age of 13, he was apprenticed to his stay-maker father. Paine researchers contend his father's occupation has been widely misinterpreted to mean that he made the stays in ladies' corsets, which likely was an insult later invented by his political foes.[citation needed] The father and apprentice son actually made the thick rope stays (also called stay ropes) used on sailing ships.[12][better source needed] [13] Thetford
Thetford
historically had maintained a brisk trade with the downriver, then major, port town of King's Lynn.[14][not in citation given] A connection to shipping and the sea explains why, in late adolescence, Thomas enlisted and briefly served as a privateer,[15][16][better source needed] before returning to Britain in 1759. There, he became a master stay-maker, establishing a shop in Sandwich, Kent.[17] On September 27, 1759, Thomas Paine married Mary Lambert. His business collapsed soon after. Mary became pregnant; and, after they moved to Margate, she went into early labor, in which she and their child died. In July 1761, Paine returned to Thetford
Thetford
to work as a supernumerary officer. In December 1762, he became an Excise Officer in Grantham, Lincolnshire; in August 1764, he was transferred to Alford, also in Lincolnshire, at a salary of £50 per annum. On August 27, 1765, he was dismissed as an Excise Officer for "claiming to have inspected goods he did not inspect". On July 31, 1766, he requested his reinstatement from the Board of Excise, which they granted the next day, upon vacancy. While awaiting that, he worked as a stay-maker. Again, he was making stay ropes for shipping, not stays for corsets.[18]

Thomas Paine's house in Lewes

In 1767, he was appointed to a position in Grampound, Cornwall. Later he asked to leave this post to await a vacancy, and he became a schoolteacher in London. On February 19, 1768, he was appointed to Lewes
Lewes
in Sussex, a town with a tradition of opposition to the monarchy and pro-republican sentiments since the revolutionary decades of the 17th century.[19] Here he lived above the 15th-century Bull House, the tobacco shop of Samuel Ollive and Esther Ollive. Paine first became involved in civic matters when he was based in Lewes. He appears in the Town Book as a member of the Court Leet, the governing body for the town. He was also a member of the parish vestry, an influential local church group whose responsibilities for parish business would include collecting taxes and tithes to distribute among the poor. On March 26, 1771, at age 34, he married Elizabeth Ollive, his landlord's daughter.[citation needed]

Plaque at the White Hart Hotel, Lewes, East Sussex, south east England

From 1772 to 1773, Paine joined excise officers asking Parliament for better pay and working conditions, publishing, in summer of 1772, The Case of the Officers of Excise, a 12-page article, and his first political work, spending the London winter distributing the 4,000 copies printed to the Parliament and others. In spring 1774, he was again dismissed from the excise service for being absent from his post without permission; his tobacco shop failed, too. On April 14, to avoid debtors' prison, he sold his household possessions to pay debts. On June 4, 1774, he formally separated from his wife Elizabeth and moved to London, where, in September, mathematician, Fellow of the Royal Society, and Commissioner of the Excise George Lewis Scott introduced him to Benjamin Franklin,[20] who suggested emigration to British colonial America, and gave him a letter of recommendation. In October, Paine emigrated to the American colonies, arriving in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
on November 30, 1774.[21] He barely survived the transatlantic voyage. The ship's water supplies were bad and typhoid fever killed five passengers. On arriving at Philadelphia, he was too sick to disembark. Benjamin Franklin's physician, there to welcome Paine to America, had him carried off ship; Paine took six weeks to recover. He became a citizen of Pennsylvania "by taking the oath of allegiance at a very early period".[22] In January 1775, he became editor of the Pennsylvania Magazine, a position he conducted with considerable ability. American Revolution

Common Sense, published in 1776

Common Sense (1776) Main article: Common Sense (pamphlet) Paine has a claim to the title The Father of the American Revolution,[23][24] which rests on his pamphlets, especially Common Sense, which crystallized sentiment for independence in 1776. It was published in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
on January 10, 1776, and signed anonymously "by an Englishman". It became an immediate success, quickly spreading 100,000 copies in three months to the two million residents of the 13 colonies. During the course of the American Revolution, a total of about 500,000 copies were sold, including unauthorized editions.[5][25] Paine's original title for the pamphlet was Plain Truth, but Paine's friend, pro-independence advocate Benjamin Rush, suggested Common Sense instead. The pamphlet came into circulation in January 1776, after the Revolution
Revolution
had started. It was passed around and often read aloud in taverns, contributing significantly to spreading the idea of republicanism, bolstering enthusiasm for separation from Britain, and encouraging recruitment for the Continental Army. Paine provided a new and convincing argument for independence by advocating a complete break with history. Common Sense is oriented to the future in a way that compels the reader to make an immediate choice. It offers a solution for Americans disgusted with and alarmed at the threat of tyranny.[26] Paine's attack on monarchy in Common Sense is essentially an attack on George III. Whereas colonial resentments were originally directed primarily against the king's ministers and Parliament, Paine laid the responsibility firmly at the king's door. Common Sense was the most widely read pamphlet of the American Revolution. It was a clarion call for unity against the corrupt British court, so as to realize America's providential role in providing an asylum for liberty. Written in a direct and lively style, it denounced the decaying despotisms of Europe and pilloried hereditary monarchy as an absurdity. At a time when many still hoped for reconciliation with Britain, Common Sense demonstrated to many the inevitability of separation.[27] Paine was not on the whole expressing original ideas in Common Sense, but rather employing rhetoric as a means to arouse resentment of the Crown. To achieve these ends, he pioneered a style of political writing suited to the democratic society he envisioned, with Common Sense serving as a primary example. Part of Paine's work was to render complex ideas intelligible to average readers of the day, with clear, concise writing unlike the formal, learned style favored by many of Paine's contemporaries.[28] Scholars have put forward various explanations to account for its success, including the historic moment, Paine's easy-to-understand style, his democratic ethos, and his use of psychology and ideology.[29] Common Sense was immensely popular in disseminating to a very wide audience ideas that were already in common use among the elite who comprised Congress and the leadership cadre of the emerging nation, who rarely cited Paine's arguments in their public calls for independence.[30] The pamphlet probably had little direct influence on the Continental Congress' decision to issue a Declaration of Independence, since that body was more concerned with how declaring independence would affect the war effort.[31] Paine's great contribution was in initiating a public debate about independence which had previously been rather muted. One distinctive idea in Common Sense is Paine's beliefs regarding the peaceful nature of republics; his views were an early and strong conception of what scholars would come to call the democratic peace theory.[32] Loyalists vigorously attacked Common Sense; one attack, titled Plain Truth (1776), by Marylander James Chalmers, said Paine was a political quack[33] and warned that without monarchy, the government would "degenerate into democracy".[34] Even some American revolutionaries objected to Common Sense; late in life John Adams
John Adams
called it a "crapulous mass". Adams disagreed with the type of radical democracy promoted by Paine (that men who did not own property should still be allowed to vote and hold public office) and published Thoughts on Government in 1776 to advocate a more conservative approach to republicanism. Sophia Rosenfeld argues that Paine was highly innovative in his use of the commonplace notion of "common sense". He synthesized various philosophical and political uses of the term in a way that permanently impacted American political thought. He used two ideas from Scottish Common Sense Realism: that ordinary people can indeed make sound judgments on major political issues, and that there exists a body of popular wisdom that is readily apparent to anyone. Paine also used a notion of "common sense" favored by philosophes in the Continental Enlightenment. They held that common sense could refute the claims of traditional institutions. Thus, Paine used "common sense" as a weapon to delegitimize the monarchy and overturn prevailing conventional wisdom. Rosenfeld concludes that the phenomenal appeal of his pamphlet resulted from his synthesis of popular and elite elements in the independence movement.[35] According to historian Robert Middlekauff, Common Sense became immensely popular mainly because Paine appealed to widespread convictions. Monarchy, he said, was preposterous and it had a heathenish origin. It was an institution of the devil. Paine pointed to the Old Testament, where almost all kings had seduced the Israelites to worship idols instead of God. Paine also denounced aristocracy, which together with monarchy were "two ancient tyrannies." They violated the laws of nature, human reason, and the "universal order of things," which began with God. That was, Middlekauff says, exactly what most Americans wanted to hear. He calls the Revolutionary generation "the children of the twice-born".[36] because in their childhood they had experienced the Great Awakening, which, for the first time, had tied Americans together, transcending denominational and ethnic boundaries and giving them a sense of patriotism.[37][38] The American Crisis
The American Crisis
(1776) In late 1776, Paine published The American Crisis
The American Crisis
pamphlet series to inspire the Americans in their battles against the British army. He juxtaposed the conflict between the good American devoted to civic virtue and the selfish provincial man.[39] To inspire his soldiers, General George Washington
George Washington
had The American Crisis, first Crisis pamphlet, read aloud to them.[40] It begins:

These are the times that try men's souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like Hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is dearness only that gives every thing its value. Heaven knows how to put a proper price upon its goods; and it would be strange indeed if so celestial an article as freedom should not be highly rated.

Foreign affairs In 1777, Paine became secretary of the Congressional Committee on Foreign Affairs. The following year, he alluded to secret negotiation underway with France
France
in his pamphlets. His enemies denounced his indiscretions. There was scandal; together with Paine's conflict with Robert Morris and Silas Deane
Silas Deane
it led to Paine's expulsion from the Committee in 1779.[41] However, in 1781, he accompanied John Laurens
John Laurens
on his mission to France. Eventually, after much pleading from Paine, New York State recognized his political services by presenting him with an estate at New Rochelle, New York
New Rochelle, New York
and Paine received money from Pennsylvania and from Congress at Washington's suggestion. During the Revolutionary War, Paine served as an aide-de-camp to the important general, Nathanael Greene.[42] The Silas Deane
Silas Deane
affair In what may have been an error, and perhaps even contributed to his resignation as the secretary to the Committee of Foreign Affairs, Paine was openly critical of Silas Deane, an American diplomat who had been appointed in March 1776 by the Congress to travel to France
France
in secret. Deane's goal was to influence the French government to finance the colonists in their fight for independence. Paine largely saw Deane as a war profiteer who had little respect for principle, having been under the employ of Robert Morris, one of the primary financiers of the American Revolution
American Revolution
and working with Pierre Beaumarchais, a French royal agent sent to the colonies by King Louis to investigate the Anglo-American conflict. Paine labelled Deane as unpatriotic, and demanded that there be a public investigation into Morris' financing of the Revolution, as he had contracted with his own company for around $500,000.[citation needed] Unfortunately, Paine's criticisms turned against him. Amongst his criticisms, he had written in the Pennsylvania Packet
Pennsylvania Packet
that France
France
had "prefaced [their] alliance by an early and generous friendship," referring to aid that had been provided to American colonies prior to the recognition of the Franco-American treaties. This was effectively an embarrassment to France, which potentially could have jeopardised the alliance. John Jay, the President of the Congress who had been a fervent supporter of Deane, immediately spoke out against Paine's comments. The controversy eventually became public, and Paine was then denounced as unpatriotic for criticising an American revolutionary. He was even physically assaulted twice in the street by Deane supporters. This much added stress took a large toll on Paine, who was generally of a sensitive character and he resigned as secretary to the Committee of Foreign Affairs in 1779.[43] Funding the Revolution Paine accompanied Col. John Laurens
John Laurens
to France
France
and is credited with initiating the mission.[44] It landed in France
France
in March 1781 and returned to America in August with 2.5 million livres in silver, as part of a "present" of 6 million and a loan of 10 million. The meetings with the French king were most likely conducted in the company and under the influence of Benjamin Franklin. Upon returning to the United States with this highly welcomed cargo, Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
and probably Col. Laurens, "positively objected" that General Washington should propose that Congress remunerate him for his services, for fear of setting "a bad precedent and an improper mode". Paine made influential acquaintances in Paris
Paris
and helped organize the Bank of North America to raise money to supply the army.[45] In 1785, he was given $3,000 by the U.S. Congress in recognition of his service to the nation.[46] Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
(father of Col. John Laurens) had been the ambassador to the Netherlands, but he was captured by the British on his return trip there. When he was later exchanged for the prisoner Lord Cornwallis (in late 1781), Paine proceeded to the Netherlands
Netherlands
to continue the loan negotiations. There remains some question as to the relationship of Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
and Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
to Robert Morris as the Superintendent of Finance and his business associate Thomas Willing who became the first president of the Bank of North America (in January 1782). They had accused Morris of profiteering in 1779 and Willing had voted against the Declaration of Independence. Although Morris did much to restore his reputation in 1780 and 1781, the credit for obtaining these critical loans to "organize" the Bank of North America for approval by Congress in December 1781 should go to Henry or John Laurens
John Laurens
and Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
more than to Robert Morris.[47]

In Fashion before Ease; —or,— A good Constitution sacrificed for a Fantastick Form (1793), James Gillray
James Gillray
caricatured Paine tightening the corset of Britannia
Britannia
and protruding from his coat pocket is a measuring tape inscribed " Rights
Rights
of Man"

Paine bought his only house in 1783 on the corner of Farnsworth Avenue and Church Streets in Bordentown City, New Jersey and he lived in it periodically until his death in 1809. This is the only place in the world where Paine purchased real estate. In 1787, a bridge of Paine's design was built across the Schuylkill River at Philadelphia. At this time his work on single-arch iron bridges led him back to Paris, France.[48] Because Paine had few friends when arriving in France
France
aside from Lafayette and Jefferson, he continued to correspond heavily with Benjamin Franklin, a long time friend and mentor. Franklin provided letters of introduction for Paine to use to gain associates and contacts in France.[49] Later that year, Paine returned to London from Paris. He then released a pamphlet on August 20 called Prospects on the Rubicon: or, an investigation into the Causes and Consequences of the Politics to be Agitated at the Meeting of Parliament. Tensions between England
England
and France
France
were increasing, and this pamphlet urged the British Ministry to reconsider the consequences of war with France. Paine sought to turn the public opinion against the war to create better relations between the countries, avoid the taxes of war upon the citizens, and not engage in a war he believed would ruin both nations.[50] Rights
Rights
of Man Main article: Rights
Rights
of Man See also: Revolution Controversy
Revolution Controversy
and Trial of Thomas Paine Back in London by 1787, Paine would become engrossed in the French Revolution
Revolution
after it began in 1789, and decided to travel to France
France
in 1790. Meanwhile, conservative intellectual Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke
launched a counterrevolutionary blast against the French Revolution, entitled Reflections on the Revolution in France
Reflections on the Revolution in France
(1790), which strongly appealed to the landed class, and sold 30,000 copies. Paine set out to refute it in his Rights of Man
Rights of Man
(1791). He wrote it not as a quick pamphlet, but as a long, abstract political tract of 90,000 words which tore apart monarchies and traditional social institutions. On January 31, 1791, he gave the manuscript to publisher Joseph Johnson. A visit by government agents dissuaded Johnson, so Paine gave the book to publisher J.S. Jordan, then went to Paris, per William Blake's advice. He charged three good friends, William Godwin, Thomas Brand Hollis, and Thomas Holcroft, with handling publication details. The book appeared on March 13, 1791 and sold nearly a million copies. It was "eagerly read by reformers, Protestant dissenters, democrats, London craftsman, and the skilled factory-hands of the new industrial north".[51] Undeterred by the government campaign to discredit him, Paine issued his Rights
Rights
of Man, Part the Second, Combining Principle and Practice in February 1792. It detailed a representative government with enumerated social programs to remedy the numbing poverty of commoners through progressive tax measures. Radically reduced in price to ensure unprecedented circulation, it was sensational in its impact and gave birth to reform societies. An indictment for seditious libel followed, for both publisher and author, while government agents followed Paine and instigated mobs, hate meetings, and burnings in effigy. A fierce pamphlet war also resulted, in which Paine was defended and assailed in dozens of works.[52] The authorities aimed, with ultimate success, to chase Paine out of Great Britain. He was then tried in absentia and found guilty, though never executed. The French translation of Rights of Man, Part II was published in April 1792. The translator, François Lanthenas, eliminated the dedication to Lafayette, as he believed Paine thought too highly of Lafayette, who was seen as a royalist sympathizer at the time.[53]

The Friends of the People caricatured by Isaac Cruikshank, November 15, 1792, Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley
and Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
are surrounded by incendiary items

In summer of 1792, he answered the sedition and libel charges thus: "If, to expose the fraud and imposition of monarchy ... to promote universal peace, civilization, and commerce, and to break the chains of political superstition, and raise degraded man to his proper rank; if these things be libellous ... let the name of libeller be engraved on my tomb".[54] Paine was an enthusiastic supporter of the French Revolution, and was granted honorary French citizenship alongside prominent contemporaries such as Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
and others. Paine's honorary citizenship was in recognition of the publishing of his Rights
Rights
of Man, Part II and the sensation it created within France.[55] Despite his inability to speak French, he was elected to the National Convention, representing the district of Pas-de-Calais.[56] A few weeks after being elected to the National Convention, Paine was selected as one of nine deputies to be part of the Convention's Constitutional Committee, who were charged to draft a suitable constitution for the French Republic.[57] He subsequentially participated in the Constitutional Committee in drafting the Girondin constitutional project. He voted for the French Republic, but argued against the execution of Louis XVI, saying that he should instead be exiled to the United States: firstly, because of the way royalist France
France
had come to the aid of the American Revolution; and secondly, because of a moral objection to capital punishment in general and to revenge killings in particular. However, Paine’s speech in defense of Louis XVI was interrupted by Jean-Paul Marat, who claimed that as a Quaker, Paine’s religious beliefs ran counter to inflicting capital punishment and thus he should be ineligible to vote. Marat interrupted a second time, stating that the translator was deceiving the convention by distorting the meanings of Paine’s words, prompting Paine to provide a copy of the speech as proof that he was being correctly translated.[58] Regarded as an ally of the Girondins, he was seen with increasing disfavor by the Montagnards, who were now in power; and in particular by Maximilien Robespierre. A decree was passed at the end of 1793 excluding foreigners from their places in the Convention (Anacharsis Cloots was also deprived of his place). Paine was arrested and imprisoned in December 1793.[citation needed] Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
wrote the second part of Rights of Man
Rights of Man
on a desk in Thomas 'Clio' Rickman's house, with whom he was staying in 1792 before he fled to France. This desk is currently on display in the People's History Museum in Manchester.[59] The Age of Reason Main article: The Age of Reason

Title page from the first English edition of Part I

Oil painting by Laurent Dabos, circa 1791

Paine was arrested in France
France
on December 28, 1793. Joel Barlow
Joel Barlow
was unsuccessful in securing Paine’s release by circulating a petition among American residents in Paris.[60] Sixteen American citizens were allowed to plead for Paine’s release to the Convention, yet President Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier
Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier
of the Committee of General Security refused to acknowledge Paine’s American citizenship, stating he was an Englishman and a citizen of a country at war with France.[61] Paine himself protested and claimed that he was a citizen of the U.S., which was an ally of Revolutionary France, rather than of Great Britain, which was by that time at war with France. However, Gouverneur Morris, the American minister to France, did not press his claim, and Paine later wrote that Morris had connived at his imprisonment. Paine narrowly escaped execution. A chalk mark was supposed to be left by the gaoler on the door of a cell to denote that the prisoner inside was due to be removed for execution. In Paine's case, the mark had accidentally been made on the inside of his door rather than the outside; this was due to the fact that the door of Paine's cell had been left open whilst the gaoler was making his rounds that day, since Paine had been receiving official visitors. But for this quirk of fate, Paine would have been executed the following morning. He kept his head and survived the few vital days needed to be spared by the fall of Robespierre on 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794).[62] Paine was released in November 1794 largely because of the work of the new American Minister to France, James Monroe,[63] who successfully argued the case for Paine's American citizenship.[64] In July 1795, he was re-admitted into the Convention, as were other surviving Girondins. Paine was one of only three députés to oppose the adoption of the new 1795 constitution because it eliminated universal suffrage, which had been proclaimed by the Montagnard Constitution of 1793.[65] In 1796, a bridge he designed was erected over the mouth of the Wear River at Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, England.[66] This bridge, the Sunderland arch, was after the same design as his Schuylkill River Bridge in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and it became the prototype for many subsequent voussoir arches made in iron and steel.[67][68] In addition to receiving a British patent for the single-span iron bridge, Paine developed a smokeless candle[69] and worked with inventor John Fitch in developing steam engines. In 1797, Paine lived in Paris
Paris
with Nicholas Bonneville and his wife. As well as Bonneville's other controversial guests, Paine aroused the suspicions of authorities. Bonneville hid the Royalist
Royalist
Antoine Joseph Barruel-Beauvert at his home. Beauvert had been outlawed following the coup of 18 Fructidor on September 4, 1797. Paine believed that the United States under President John Adams
John Adams
had betrayed revolutionary France.[70] Bonneville was then briefly jailed and his presses were confiscated, which meant financial ruin. In 1800, still under police surveillance, Bonneville took refuge with his father in Evreux. Paine stayed on with him, helping Bonneville with the burden of translating the "Covenant Sea". The same year, Paine purportedly had a meeting with Napoleon. Napoleon
Napoleon
claimed he slept with a copy of Rights of Man
Rights of Man
under his pillow and went so far as to say to Paine that "a statue of gold should be erected to you in every city in the universe".[71] Paine discussed with Napoleon
Napoleon
how best to invade England
England
and in December 1797 wrote two essays, one of which was pointedly named Observations on the Construction and Operation of Navies with a Plan for an Invasion of England
England
and the Final Overthrow of the English Government,[72] in which he promoted the idea to finance 1,000 gunboats to carry a French invading army across the English Channel. In 1804, Paine returned to the subject, writing To the People of England
England
on the Invasion of England
England
advocating the idea.[70] On noting Napoleon's progress towards dictatorship, he condemned him as "the completest charlatan that ever existed".[73] Paine remained in France
France
until 1802, returning to the United States only at President Jefferson's invitation. Criticism of George Washington Paine believed that U.S. President George Washington
George Washington
had conspired with Robespierre to imprison him. He had felt largely betrayed that Washington, who had been a lifelong friend, did nothing while Paine suffered in prison. While staying with Monroe, he planned to send Washington a letter of grievance on the former President's birthday. Monroe stopped the letter from being sent just in time and after Paine's criticism of the Jay Treaty
Jay Treaty
Monroe suggested that Paine reside somewhere else.[74] Still embittered by the perceived betrayal, Paine tried to ruin Washington's reputation by calling him a treacherous man who was unworthy of his fame as a military and political hero. He sent a stinging letter to Washington, in which he described him as an incompetent commander and a vain and ungrateful person. Paine never received a reply, so he contacted his lifelong publisher, the anti-Federalist Benjamin Bache to publish this Letter to George Washington in 1796. In this scathing publication, Paine wrote that "the world will be puzzled to decide whether you are an apostate or an impostor; whether you have abandoned good principles or whether you ever had any".[75] He further wrote that without the aid of France, Washington could not have succeeded in the Revolution
Revolution
and had "but little share in the glory of the final event". He also commented on Washington's poor character, saying that Washington had no sympathetic feelings and was a hypocrite.[76] Later years In 1802 or 1803, Paine left France
France
for the United States, paying passage also for Bonneville's wife Marguerite Brazier and their three sons, seven-year-old Benjamin, Louis and Thomas, to whom Paine was godfather. Paine returned to the United States in the early stages of the Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
and a time of great political partisanship. The Age of Reason
The Age of Reason
gave ample excuse for the religiously devout to dislike him and the Federalists attacked him for his ideas of government stated in Common Sense, for his association with the French Revolution
Revolution
and for his friendship with President Jefferson. Also still fresh in the minds of the public was his Letter to Washington, published six years before his return. This was compounded when his right to vote was denied in New Rochelle on the grounds that Gouverneur Morris
Gouverneur Morris
did not recognize him as an American and Washington had not aided him.[77] Brazier took care of Paine at the end of his life and buried him after his death on June 8, 1809. In his will, Paine left the bulk of his estate to Marguerite, including 100 acres (40.5 ha) of his farm so she could maintain and educate Benjamin and his brother Thomas. In 1814, the fall of Napoleon
Napoleon
finally allowed Bonneville to rejoin his wife in the United States where he remained for four years before returning to Paris
Paris
to open a bookshop. Death

Paine's death mask, in the People's History Museum
People's History Museum
in Manchester

On the morning of June 8, 1809, Paine died at the age of 72 at 59 Grove Street in Greenwich Village, New York City[78] Although the original building is no longer there, the present building has a plaque noting that Paine died at this location. After his death, Paine's body was brought to New Rochelle, but the Quakers would not allow it to be buried in their graveyard as per his last will, so his remains were buried under a walnut tree on his farm. In 1819, the English agrarian radical journalist William Cobbett, who in 1793 had published a hostile continuation[79] of Francis Oldys (George Chalmer)'s The Life of Thomas Paine,[80] dug up his bones and transported them back to England
England
with the intention to give Paine a heroic reburial on his native soil, but this never came to pass. The bones were still among Cobbett's effects when he died over twenty years later, but were later lost. There is no confirmed story about what happened to them after that, although various people have claimed throughout the years to own parts of Paine's remains, such as his skull and right hand.[81][82][83] At the time of his death, most American newspapers reprinted the obituary notice from the New York Evening Post
New York Evening Post
that was in turn quoting from The American Citizen,[84] which read in part: "He had lived long, did some good, and much harm". Only six mourners came to his funeral, two of whom were black, most likely freedmen. Many years later the writer and orator Robert G. Ingersoll
Robert G. Ingersoll
wrote:

Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
had passed the legendary limit of life. One by one most of his old friends and acquaintances had deserted him. Maligned on every side, execrated, shunned and abhorred – his virtues denounced as vices – his services forgotten – his character blackened, he preserved the poise and balance of his soul. He was a victim of the people, but his convictions remained unshaken. He was still a soldier in the army of freedom, and still tried to enlighten and civilize those who were impatiently waiting for his death. Even those who loved their enemies hated him, their friend – the friend of the whole world – with all their hearts. On the 8th of June 1809, death came – Death, almost his only friend. At his funeral no pomp, no pageantry, no civic procession, no military display. In a carriage, a woman and her son who had lived on the bounty of the dead – on horseback, a Quaker, the humanity of whose heart dominated the creed of his head – and, following on foot, two negroes filled with gratitude – constituted the funeral cortege of Thomas Paine.[85]

Ideas Biographer Eric Foner
Eric Foner
identifies a utopian thread in Paine's thought, writing: "Through this new language he communicated a new vision—a utopian image of an egalitarian, republican society".[86] Paine's utopianism combined civic republicanism, belief in the inevitability of scientific and social progress and commitment to free markets and liberty generally. The multiple sources of Paine's political theory all pointed to a society based on the common good and individualism. Paine expressed a redemptive futurism or political messianism.[87] Writing that his generation "would appear to the future as the Adam of a new world", Paine exemplified British utopianism.[88] Paine's natural justice beliefs may have been influenced by his Quaker father.[89] Later, his encounters with the Indigenous peoples of the Americas
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
made a deep impression. The ability of the Iroquois
Iroquois
to live in harmony with nature while achieving a democratic decision-making process helped him refine his thinking on how to organize society.[90]

Portrait of Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
by Matthew Pratt, 1785–1795

Slavery Paine is sometimes credited with writing "African Slavery in America", the first article proposing the emancipation of African-American slaves and the abolition of slavery. It was published on March 8, 1775 in the Postscript to the Pennsylvania Journal
Pennsylvania Journal
and Weekly Advertiser (also known as The Pennsylvania Magazine and American Museum).[91] Citing a lack of evidence that Paine was the author of this anonymously published essay, some scholars ( Eric Foner
Eric Foner
and Alfred Owen Aldridge) no longer consider this one of his works. By contrast, John Nichols speculates that his "fervent objections to slavery" led to his exclusion from power during the early years of the Republic.[92] Agrarian Justice His last pamphlet, Agrarian Justice, published in the winter of 1795, opposed to agrarian law and to agrarian monopoly and further developed his ideas in the Rights of Man
Rights of Man
about how land ownership separated the majority of people from their rightful, natural inheritance and means of independent survival. The U.S. Social Security Administration recognizes Agrarian Justice
Agrarian Justice
as the first American proposal for an old-age pension and basic income or citizen's dividend. Per Agrarian Justice:

In advocating the case of the persons thus dispossessed, it is a right, and not a charity ... [Government must] create a national fund, out of which there shall be paid to every person, when arrived at the age of twenty-one years, the sum of fifteen pounds sterling, as a compensation in part, for the loss of his or her natural inheritance, by the introduction of the system of landed property. And also, the sum of ten pounds per annum, during life, to every person now living, of the age of fifty years, and to all others as they shall arrive at that age.

Note that £10 and £15 would be worth about £800 and £1,200 ($1,200 and $2,000) when adjusted for inflation (2011 British pounds sterling).[93] Lamb argues that Paine's analysis of property rights marks a distinct contribution to political theory. His theory of property defends a libertarian concern with private ownership that shows an egalitarian commitment. Paine's new justification of property sets him apart from previous theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Samuel von Pufendorf
Samuel von Pufendorf
and John Locke. It demonstrates Paine's commitment to foundational liberal values of individual freedom and moral equality.[94] Religious views Before his arrest and imprisonment in France, knowing that he would probably be arrested and executed, following in the tradition of early eighteenth-century British deism Paine wrote the first part of The Age of Reason, an assault on organized "revealed" religion combining a compilation of the many inconsistencies he found in the Bible. About his own religious beliefs, Paine wrote in The Age of Reason:

I believe in one God, and no more; and I hope for happiness beyond this life.

I do not believe in the creed professed by the Jewish church, by the Roman church, by the Greek church, by the Turkish church, by the Protestant church, nor by any church that I know of. My own mind is my own church. All national institutions of churches, whether Jewish, Christian or Turkish, appear to me no other than human inventions, set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit.

Whenever we read the obscene stories, the voluptuous debaucheries, the cruel and tortuous executions, the unrelenting vindictiveness with which more than half the Bible is filled, it would be more consistent that we call it the word of a demon than the word of God. It is a history of wickedness that has served to corrupt and brutalize mankind; and, for my part, I sincerely detest it, as I detest everything that is cruel.[95]

Though there is no evidence Paine himself was a Freemason,[96] upon his return to America from France
France
he also penned "An Essay on the Origin of Free-Masonry" (1803–1805) about Freemasonry being derived from the religion of the ancient Druids.[97] In the essay, he stated: "The Christian religion is a parody on the worship of the sun, in which they put a man called Christ in the place of the sun, and pay him the adoration originally paid to the sun". Marguerite de Bonneville published the essay in 1810 after Paine's death, but she chose to omit certain passages from it that were critical of Christianity, most of which were restored in an 1818 printing.[98] While Paine never described himself as a deist,[98] he did write the following:

The opinions I have advanced ... are the effect of the most clear and long-established conviction that the Bible and the Testament are impositions upon the world, that the fall of man, the account of Jesus Christ being the Son of God, and of his dying to appease the wrath of God, and of salvation, by that strange means, are all fabulous inventions, dishonorable to the wisdom and power of the Almighty; that the only true religion is Deism, by which I then meant, and mean now, the belief of one God, and an imitation of his moral character, or the practice of what are called moral virtues – and that it was upon this only (so far as religion is concerned) that I rested all my hopes of happiness hereafter. So say I now – and so help me God.[47]

Legacy

In 1969, a Prominent Americans series
Prominent Americans series
stamp honoring Paine was issued.

Paine's writing greatly influenced his contemporaries and especially the American revolutionaries. His books provoked an upsurge in deism in the United States, but in the long term inspired philosophic and working-class radicals in the United Kingdom and United States. Liberals, libertarians, left-libertarians, feminists, democratic socialists, social democrats, anarchists, free thinkers and progressives often claim him as an intellectual ancestor. Paine's critique of institutionalized religion and advocacy of rational thinking influenced many British free thinkers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, such as William Cobbett, George Holyoake, Charles Bradlaugh, Christopher Hitchens
Christopher Hitchens
and Bertrand Russell. The quote "Lead, follow, or get out of the way" is widely but incorrectly attributed to Paine. This can be found nowhere in his published works. Abraham Lincoln When Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
was 26 years old in 1835, he wrote a defense of Paine's deism and a political associate, Samuel Hill, burned it to save Lincoln's political career.[99] Historian Roy Basler, the editor of Lincoln's papers, said Paine had a strong influence on Lincoln's style:

No other writer of the eighteenth century, with the exception of Jefferson, parallels more closely the temper or gist of Lincoln's later thought. In style, Paine above all others affords the variety of eloquence which, chastened and adapted to Lincoln's own mood, is revealed in Lincoln's formal writings.[100]

Thomas Edison The inventor Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
said:

I have always regarded Paine as one of the greatest of all Americans. Never have we had a sounder intelligence in this republic ... It was my good fortune to encounter Thomas Paine's works in my boyhood ... it was, indeed, a revelation to me to read that great thinker's views on political and theological subjects. Paine educated me, then, about many matters of which I had never before thought. I remember, very vividly, the flash of enlightenment that shone from Paine's writings, and I recall thinking, at that time, 'What a pity these works are not today the schoolbooks for all children!' My interest in Paine was not satisfied by my first reading of his works. I went back to them time and again, just as I have done since my boyhood days.[101]

South America In 1811, Venezuelan translator Manuel Garcia de Sena published a book in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
which consisted mostly of Spanish translations of several of Paine's most important works.[102] The book also included translations of the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the U.S. Constitution and the constitutions of five U.S. states.[102] It subsequently circulated widely in South America and through it Uruguayan national hero José Gervasio Artigas
José Gervasio Artigas
became familiar with and embraced Paine's ideas.[102] In turn, many of Artigas's writings drew directly from Paine's, including the Instructions of 1813, which Uruguayans consider to be one of their country's most important constitutional documents. It was one of the earliest writings to articulate a principled basis for an identity independent of Buenos Aires.[102] Memorials The first and longest-standing memorial to Paine is the carved and inscribed 12 foot marble column in New Rochelle, New York
New Rochelle, New York
organized and funded by publisher, educator and reformer Gilbert Vale (1791–1866) and raised in 1839 by the American sculptor and architect John Frazee – the Thomas Paine Monument
Thomas Paine Monument
(see image below).[103] New Rochelle is also the original site of Thomas Paine's Cottage, which along with a 320-acre (130 ha) farm were presented to Paine in 1784 by act of the New York State Legislature for his services in the American Revolution.[104] The same site is the home of the Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Memorial Museum. Thomas Edison helped to turn the first shovel of earth for the museum which serves as a museum to display both Paine relics as well as others of local historical interest. A large collection of books, pamphlets and pictures is contained in the Paine library, including many first editions of Paine's works as well as several original manuscripts. These holdings, the subject of a sell-off controversy, were temporarily relocated to the New-York Historical Society
New-York Historical Society
and have since been more permanently archived in the Iona College library nearby.[105] Paine was originally buried near the current location of his house and monument upon his death in 1809. The site is marked by a small headstone and burial plaque even though his remains were removed years later. In the twentieth century, Joseph Lewis, longtime president of the Freethinkers of America and an ardent Paine admirer, was instrumental in having larger-than-life-sized statues of Paine erected in each of the three countries with which the revolutionary writer was associated. The first, created by Mount Rushmore
Mount Rushmore
sculptor Gutzon Borglum, was erected in Paris
Paris
just before World War II
World War II
began, but not formally dedicated until 1948. It depicts Paine standing before the French National Convention
National Convention
to plead for the life of King Louis XVI. The second, sculpted in 1950 by Georg J. Lober, was erected near Paine's one time home in Morristown, New Jersey. It shows a seated Paine using a drum-head as a makeshift table. The third, sculpted by Sir Charles Wheeler, President of the Royal Academy, was erected in 1964 in Paine's birthplace, Thetford, England. With quill pen in his right hand and an inverted copy of The Rights of Man
Rights of Man
in his left, it occupies a prominent spot on King Street. Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
was ranked No. 34 in the 100 Greatest Britons
100 Greatest Britons
2002 extensive Nationwide poll conducted by the BBC.[106] A bronze plaque attached to the wall of Thetford's Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
hotel gives details of Paine's life. It was placed there in 1943 by voluntary contributions from U.S. airmen from a nearby bomber base. Texas folklorist and freethinker J. Frank Dobie, then teaching at Cambridge University, participated in the dedication ceremonies.[107] Bronx Community College
Bronx Community College
includes Paine in its Hall of Fame of Great Americans and there are statues of Paine in Morristown and Bordentown, New Jersey and in the Parc Montsouris, in Paris.[108][109] In Paris, there is a plaque in the street where he lived from 1797 to 1802 that says: "Thomas PAINE / 1737–1809 / Englishman by birth / American by adoption / French by decree". Yearly, between July 4 and 14, the Lewes
Lewes
Town Council in the United Kingdom celebrates the life and work of Paine.[110] In the early 1990s, largely through the efforts of citizen activist David Henley of Virginia, legislation (S.Con.Res 110 and H.R. 1628) was introduced in the 102nd Congress by ideological opposites Sen. Steve Symms (R-ID) and Rep. Nita Lowey
Nita Lowey
(D-NY). With over 100 formal letters of endorsement by United States and foreign historians, philosophers and organizations, including the Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
National Historical Society, the legislation garnered 78 original co-sponsors in the Senate and 230 original co-sponsors in the House of Representatives, and was consequently passed by both houses' unanimous consent. In October 1992, the legislation was signed into law (PL102-407 and PL102-459) by President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
authorizing the construction by using private funds of a memorial to Thomas Paine in "Area 1" of the grounds of the U.S. Capitol. As of January 2011[update], the memorial has not yet been built. The University of East Anglia's Norwich Business School is housed in the Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Study Centre on its Norwich campus in Paine's home county of Norfolk.[111] The Cookes House
Cookes House
is reputed to have been his home during the Second Continental Congress at York, Pennsylvania.[112]

John Frazee's Thomas Paine Monument
Thomas Paine Monument
in New Rochelle

Statue in Bordentown, New Jersey

Plaque honoring Paine at 10 rue de l'Odéon, Paris

Statue in Thetford, Norfolk, England, Paine's birthplace

Plaque on Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Hotel, Thetford

Commemorative plaque on the site of the former residence of Paine in Greenwich Village, New York City

In popular culture

The 1982 French-Italian film That Night in Varennes
That Night in Varennes
is about a fictional meeting of Casanova, Chevalier de Seingalt (played by Italian actor Marcello Mastroianni), Nicolas Edmé Restif de la Bretonne, Countess Sophie de la Borde and Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
(played by American actor Harvey Keitel) as they ride in a carriage a few hours behind the carriage carrying the King and Queen of France, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, on their attempt to escape from revolutionary France
France
in 1791. Jack Shepherd's stage play In Lambeth
Lambeth
dramatized a visit by Thomas Paine to the Lambeth
Lambeth
home of William and Catherine Blake in 1789. In 1995, English folk singer Graham Moore, from Dorset, wrote "Tom Paine's Bones" which he recorded on his album of the same name.[113][114] In 2001, the Scottish musician Dick Gaughan
Dick Gaughan
included the song on his album Outlaws and Dreamers. In 2005, the writer Trevor Griffiths published These are the Times: A Life of Thomas Paine, originally written as a screenplay for Richard Attenborough Productions. Although the film was not made, the play was broadcast as a two-part drama on BBC
BBC
Radio 4 in 2008,[115] with a repeat in 2012.[116] In 2009, Griffiths adapted the screenplay for a production entitled A New World at Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
theatre on London's South Bank.[117] In 2009, Paine's life was dramatized in the play Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Citizen of the World,[118] produced for the "Tom Paine 200 Celebrations" festival[119] in Thetford, the town of his birth. Paine's role in the foundation of the United States is depicted in a pseudo-biographical fashion in the educational animated series Liberty's Kids
Liberty's Kids
produced by DIC Entertainment. Paine is a character in the Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
song "As I Went Out One Morning", featured on Dylan's 1968 album, John Wesley Harding.

See also

Asset-based egalitarianism British philosophy Contributions to liberal theory Liberty List of American philosophers List of British philosophers List of civil rights leaders Society
Society
of the Friends of Truth

Notes

^ a b Conway, Moncure D. (1908). The Life of Thomas Paine. Volume 1. Cobbett, William, Illustrator. G. P. Putnam's Sons. p. 3. Retrieved October 2, 2013.  – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed.

References

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Vol. 1 (1908) pp. 26–27. ^ Daniel Wheeler's Life and Writings of Thomas Paine
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Archived September 29, 2006, at the Wayback Machine., Independence Hall Association. Accessed online November 4, 2006. ^ a b "Mark Philp, 'Paine, Thomas (1737–1809)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, May 2008, accessed July 26, 2008".  ^ O'Neill, Brendan (June 8, 2009). "Who was Thomas Paine?". BBC. Retrieved June 8, 2009.  ^ "Papers of James Monroe... from the original manuscripts in the Library of Congress".  ^ Craig Nelson. Thomas Paine. p. 299. ISBN 0-670-03788-5.  ^ Craig Nelson. Thomas Paine. p. 291. ISBN 0-670-03788-5.  ^ Paine, Thomas. "Letter to George Washington, July 30, 1796: "On Paine's Service to America"". Archived from the original on September 27, 2006. Retrieved November 4, 2006.  ^ Craig Nelson. Thomas Paine. pp. 292–94. ISBN 0-670-03788-5.  ^ Claeys, Gregory, 1989. Thomas Paine, Social and Political Thought. ^ "Thomas Paine". www.ushistory.org. Retrieved 2017-09-15.  ^ William Cobbett, The Life of Thomas Paine, Interspersed with Remarks and Reflections (London: J. Wright, 1797) ^ "Francis Oldys" [George Chalmers], The Life of Thomas Paine. One Penny-Worth of Truth, from Thomas Bull to His Brother John (London: Stockdale, 1791) ^ "The Paine Monument at Last Finds a Home". The New York Times. October 15, 1905. Retrieved February 23, 2008.  ^ Chen, David W. "Rehabilitating Thomas Paine, Bit by Bony Bit". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2008.  ^ Burrows, Edwin G. and Wallace, Mike. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999., p. 510. ^ "Paine's Obituary (click the "1809" link; it is 1/3 way down the 4th column)". New York Evening Post. June 10, 1809. Retrieved November 22, 2013.  ^ Robert Ingersoll (1892). Thomas Paine
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National Historical Association. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ Eric Foner
Eric Foner
(2005). Tom Paine and Revolutionary America. Oxford University Press, 2nd edition. pp. xxxii, 16. ISBN 9780195174861.  ^ Mark Jendrysik, "Tom Paine: Utopian?" Utopian Studies (2007) 18#2 pp. 139–57. ^ Gregory Claeys, ed. (2010). The Cambridge Companion to Utopian Literature. Cambridge University Press. pp. 11–12. ISBN 9781139828420. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Claeys p. 20. ^ Weatherford, Jack "Indian Givers How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World." 1988, p. 125. ^ Rodriguez, Junius P. (2007). Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 279.  ^ Nichols, John (January 20, 2009). "Obama's Vindication of Thomas Paine". The Nation.  ^ "Purchasing Power of British Pounds from 1264 to Present". Measuringworth.com. February 15, 1971. Retrieved December 26, 2011.  ^ Lamb, Robert. "Liberty, Equality, and the Boundaries of Ownership: Thomas Paine's Theory of Property
Property
Rights." Review of Politics (2010), 72#3 pp. 483–511. ^ Thomas Paine; et al. (1824). The Theological Works of Thomas Paine. R. Carlile. p. 31.  ^ Shai Afsai (Fall 2010). "Thomas Paine's Masonic Essay and the Question of His Membership in the Fraternity" (PDF). Philalethes 63 (4): 138–44. Retrieved March 5, 2011. As he was certainly not a Master Mason when he wrote the essay—and as there is no evidence he joined the fraternity after then—one may conclude, as have Mackey, Newton, and others, that Paine was not a Freemason. Still, though the 'pantheon of Masons' may not hold Thomas Paine, this influential and controversial man remains connected to Freemasonry, if only due to the close friendships he had with some in the fraternity, and to his having written an intriguing essay on its origins.  ^ Shai Afsai, "Thomas Paine's Masonic Essay and the Question of His Membership in the Fraternity." Philalethes 63:4 (Fall 2010), 140–141. ^ a b Afsai, Shai (2012). "Thomas Paine, Freemason
Freemason
or Deist?". Early America Review (Winter/Spring).  ^ Michael Burlingame, Abraham Lincoln: a life (2008), vol. 2, p. 83. ^ Roy P. Basler (ed.), Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings (1946), p. 6. ^ Thomas Edison, Introduction to The Life and Works of Thomas Paine, New York: Citadel Press, 1945, Vol. I, pp. vii–ix. Reproduced online on thomaspaine.org, accessed November 4, 2006. ^ a b c d John Street, Artigas and the Emancipation of Uruguay (London: Cambridge University Press, 1959), 178–86. ^ See Frederick S. Voss, John Frazee 1790–1852 Sculptor (Washington City and Boston: The National Portrait Gallery and The Boston Athenaeum, 1986), 46–47. ^ See Alfred Owen Aldridge, Man of Reason
Reason
(Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott Company, 1959), 103. ^ [1] Archived May 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " BBC
BBC
– 100 Great British Heroes". BBC
BBC
News. August 21, 2002. Retrieved December 26, 2011.  ^ J. Frank Dobie, A Texan in England. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1980, pp. 84–85. ^ "Photos of Tom Paine and Some of His Writings". Morristown.org. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved January 10, 2008.  ^ "Parc Montsouris". Paris
Paris
Walking Tours. Retrieved January 10, 2008.  ^ The Tom Paine Project Archived October 9, 2006, at the Wayback Machine., Lewes
Lewes
Town Council. Retrieved November 4, 2006. ^ " Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Study Centre – University of East Anglia
University of East Anglia
(UEA)". uea.ac.uk. Retrieved December 7, 2011.  ^ "National Historic Landmarks & National Register of Historic Places in Pennsylvania" (Searchable database). CRGIS: Cultural Resources Geographic Information System.  Note: This includes Register, Pennsylvania (March 1972). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form: Cookes House" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 14, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2011.  ^ Graham Moore. "Heart of Darkness". Archived from the original on February 2, 2016.  ^ "Graham Moore blogspot".  ^ " BBC
BBC
Radio 4 – Saturday Drama – Episodes by". Bbc.co.uk. August 2008. Retrieved May 7, 2014.  ^ " BBC
BBC
Radio 4 – Saturday Drama – Episodes by". Bbc.co.uk. August 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2014.  ^ http://www.shakespearesglobe.com/education/discovery-space/previous-productions/new-world[permanent dead link] ^ " Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
– "Citizen Of The World"". Keystage-company.co.uk. Retrieved May 7, 2014.  ^ Tom Paine Legacy Archived January 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., Programme for bicentenary celebrations.

Bibliography

Aldridge, A. Owen (1959). Man of Reason: The Life of Thomas Paine. Lippincott. . Regarded by British authorities as the standard biography. Aldridge, A. Owen (1984). Thomas Paine's American Ideology. University of Delaware Press.  Ayer, A. J. (1988). Thomas Paine. University of Chicago Press.  Bailyn, Bernard (1990). Bailyn, ed. Common Sense. Faces of Revolution: Personalities and Themes in the Struggle for American Independence. Alfred A. Knopf.  Bernstein, R. B. (1994). "Review Essay: Rediscovering Thomas Paine". New York Law
Law
School Law
Law
Review. . Valuable blend of historiographical essay and biographical/analytical treatment. Butler, Marilyn (1984). Burke Paine and Godwin and the Revolution Controversy.  Claeys, Gregory (1989). Thomas Paine, Social and Political Thought. London: Unwin Hyman. . Excellent analysis of Paine's thought. Conway, Moncure Daniel (1892). "The Life of Thomas Paine". G.P. Putnam's Sons. . Long hailed as the definitive biography, and still valuable. Ferguson, Robert A. (July 2000). "The Commonalities of Common Sense". William and Mary Quarterly. 57#3. JSTOR 2674263.  Foner, Eric (1976). Tom Paine and Revolutionary America. Oxford University Press. . The standard monograph treating Paine's thought and work with regard to America. Foner, Eric (2000). Thomas Paine. American National Biography Online.  Griffiths, Trevor (2005). These Are the Times: A Life of Thomas Paine. Spokesman Books.  Hawke, David Freeman (1974). Paine. Philadelphia.  Regarded by many American authorities as the standard biography. Hitchens, Christopher (2007). Thomas Paine's " Rights
Rights
of Man": A Biography. London: Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1843546283.  Kates, Gary (1989). "From Liberalism
Liberalism
to Radicalism: Tom Paine's Rights of Man". Journal of the History of Ideas.  Kaye, Harvey J. (2005). Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
and the Promise of America. Hill and Wang.  Keane, John (1995). Tom Paine: A Political Life. London: Bloomsbury. . One of the most valuable recent studies. Lamb, Robert (2010). "Liberty, Equality, and the Boundaries of Ownership: Thomas Paine's Theory of Property
Property
Rights". Review of Politics. 72 (3).  Larkin, Edward (2005). Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
and the Literature of Revolution. Cambridge University Press.  Lessay, Jean (1987). L'américain de la Convention, Thomas Paine: Professeur de révolutions [The National Convention's American, Thomas Paine, professor of revolution] (in French). Paris: Éditions Perrin. p. 241.  Levin, Yuval (2013). The Great Debate: Edmund Burke, Thomas Paine, and the Birth of Right and Left. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465062980. . Their debate over the French Revolution. Lewis, Joseph L. (1947). Thomas Paine: The Author of the Declaration of Independence. New York: Freethought
Freethought
Press Association.  Nelson, Craig (2006). Thomas Paine: Enlightenment, Revolution, and the Birth of Modern Nations. Viking. ISBN 0-670-03788-5.  Phillips, Mark (May 2008). "Paine, Thomas (1737–1809)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/21133.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Powell, David (1985). Tom Paine, The Greatest Exile. Hutchinson.  Russell, Bertrand (1934). "The Fate of Thomas Paine".  Solinger, Jason D. (November 2010). "Thomas Paine's Continental Mind". Early American Literature. 45 (3).  Vincent, Bernard (2005). The Transatlantic Republican: Thomas Paine and the age of revolutions.  Wilensky, Mark (2008). The Elementary Common Sense of Thomas Paine. An Interactive Adaptation for All Ages. Casemate. ISBN 978-1-932714-36-4.  Washburne, E. B. (May 1880). " Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
and the French Revolution". Scribner's Monthly. XX. 

Fiction

Fast, Howard (1946). Citizen Tom Paine.  (historical novel, though sometimes mistaken as biography).

Primary sources

Paine, Thomas (1896). Conway, Moncure Daniel, ed. The Writings of Thomas Paine, Volume 4. New York: G. P. Putnam's sons. p. 521. , E'book Foot, Michael; Kramnick, Isaac (1987). The Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Reader. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044496-3.  Paine, Thomas (1993). Foner, Eric, ed. Writings. Philadelphia: Library of America. . Authoritative and scholarly edition containing Common Sense, the essays comprising the American Crisis series, Rights of Man, The Age of Reason, Agrarian Justice, and selected briefer writings, with authoritative texts and careful annotation. Paine, Thomas (1944). Foner, Philip S., ed. The Complete Writings of Thomas Paine. Citadel Press.  A complete edition of Paine's writings, on the model of Eric Foner's edition for the Library of America, is badly needed. Until then Philip Foner's two-volume edition is a serviceable substitute. Volume I contains the major works, and volume II contains shorter writings, both published essays and a selection of letters, but confusingly organized; in addition, Foner's attributions of writings to Paine have come in for some criticism in that Foner may have included writings that Paine edited but did not write and omitted some writings that later scholars have attributed to Paine.

External links

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Germany

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Following the Townshend Acts
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(May 1769) Boston Pamphlet (1772) Sheffield Declaration
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(September 1774)

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French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man
Rights of Man
and of the Citizen (27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris
Paris
Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law
Law
of Suspects (17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law
Law
of 22 Prairial (10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist
Royalist
Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War
War
in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace
Peace
of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi- War
War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War
War
(12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society
Society
of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

v t e

Criticism of religion

By religion

Bahá'í Faith Buddhism Christianity

Catholic

Opus Dei

Jehovah's Witnesses Latter Day Saint movement Protestantism Seventh-day Adventist Unification Church Westboro Baptist Church

Hinduism Islam

Islamism Twelver Shia Islam Wahhabism

Jainism Judaism Monotheism New religious movement Scientology Sikhism Yazdânism Zoroastrianism

Religious texts

Bible Quran Hadiths Mormon sacred texts

Book of Mormon

Talmud

Religious figures

Aisha Charles Taze Russell Ellen White Jesus Moses Muhammad Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Saul

Religious violence

Buddhism Christianity

Mormonism

Judaism Islam Terrorism

Christian Hindu Islamic Jewish

Persecution

Christian thought on persecution and tolerance

War

In Islam In Judaism

Sectarian violence By country

India

Anti-Christian violence In Odisha

Nigeria Pakistan

Books

Atheist Manifesto Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon Christianity Unveiled God
God
in the Age of Science? God
God
Is Not Great God: The Failed Hypothesis Letter to a Christian Nation The Age of Reason The Blind Watchmaker The Caged Virgin The End of Faith The God
God
Delusion The Rage Against God Why I Am Not a Christian Why I Am Not a Muslim Books critical of Christianity Books critical of Islam

Movements

Agnosticism Antitheism Atheism Criticism of atheism Cārvāka New Atheism Nontheistic religions Parody religion

v t e

Hall of Fame for Great Americans

John Adams John Quincy Adams Jane Addams Louis Agassiz Susan B. Anthony John James Audubon George Bancroft Clara Barton Henry Ward Beecher Alexander Graham Bell Daniel Boone Edwin Booth Louis Brandeis Phillips Brooks William Cullen Bryant Luther Burbank Andrew Carnegie George Washington
George Washington
Carver William Ellery Channing Rufus Choate Henry Clay Grover Cleveland James Fenimore Cooper Peter Cooper Charlotte Cushman James Buchanan Eads Thomas Alva Edison Jonathan Edwards Ralph Waldo Emerson David Farragut Stephen Foster Benjamin Franklin Robert Fulton Josiah W. Gibbs William C. Gorgas Ulysses S. Grant Asa Gray Alexander Hamilton Nathaniel Hawthorne Joseph Henry Patrick Henry Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Mark Hopkins Elias Howe Washington Irving Andrew Jackson Thomas J. Jackson Thomas Jefferson John Paul Jones James Kent Sidney Lanier Robert E. Lee Abraham Lincoln Henry Wadsworth Longfellow James Russell Lowell Mary Lyon Edward MacDowell James Madison Horace Mann John Marshall Matthew Fontaine Maury Albert A. Michelson Maria Mitchell James Monroe Samuel F. B. Morse William T. G. Morton John Lothrop Motley Simon Newcomb Barack Obama Thomas Paine Alice Freeman Palmer Francis Parkman George Peabody William Penn Edgar Allan Poe Walter Reed Franklin D. Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Augustus Saint-Gaudens William Tecumseh Sherman John Philip Sousa Joseph Story Harriet Beecher Stowe Gilbert Stuart Sylvanus Thayer Henry David Thoreau Mark Twain Lillian Wald Booker T. Washington George Washington Daniel Webster George Westinghouse James McNeill Whistler Walt Whitman Eli Whitney John Greenleaf Whittier Emma Willard Frances E. Willard Roger Williams Woodrow Wilson Orville Wright Wilbur Wright

v t e

Basic income
Basic income
topics

Topics

Basic income
Basic income
models Basic income
Basic income
pilots Citizen's dividend Guaranteed minimum income Jobless recovery Negative income tax Real freedom Right to an adequate standard of living Technological unemployment

Organizations

Basic Income Earth Network Enhet Green Party of England
England
and Wales Pirate Party Germany Pirate Party of Finland ReCivitas Vivant

Advocates

Historic

C. H. Douglas Ailsa McKay Dennis Milner Thomas Paine Juliet Rhys-Williams Anthony Barber

Contemporary

Étienne Chouard Harry F. Dahms André Gorz Sepp Kusstatscher Guy Standing Eduardo Suplicy Philippe Van Parijs Claus Offe Katja Kipping Götz Werner Valter Mutt Annika Lillemets Osmo Soininvaara Li Andersson Susanne Wiest Birger Schlaug Christian Engström Yoland Bresson Björn Wahlroos

Regional projects

Alaska Permanent Fund Asignación Universal por Hijo Bolsa Família Iranian subsidy reform plan Omitara Quatinga Velho

By region

Brazil Canada Germany India Japan Netherlands Nordic countries United Kingdom Global

Works

Agrarian Justice
Agrarian Justice
(pamphlet) The Basic Income (documentary)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 4934659 LCCN: n79021666 ISNI: 0000 0001 0864 3658 GND: 118591215 SELIBR: 243115 SUDOC: 027056104 BNF: cb11918444q (data) BPN: 80660848 NLA: 35406134 NDL: 00452022 NKC: jn19990006333 BNE: XX1057