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Theology
Theology
is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities, seminaries, and schools of divinity.[1]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Definition 3 History 4 In various religions

4.1 Abrahamic religions

4.1.1 Judaism 4.1.2 Christianity 4.1.3 Islam

4.2 Indian religions

4.2.1 Buddhism 4.2.2 Hinduism

5 Topics 6 As an academic discipline

6.1 Ministerial training 6.2 As an academic discipline in its own right 6.3 Religious studies

7 Criticism

7.1 Criticism by philosophers 7.2 Critics of theology as an academic discipline 7.3 General criticism

8 References 9 External links

Etymology[edit] Main article: History
History
of theology Theology
Theology
translates into English from the Greek theologia (θεολογία) which derived from Τheos (Θεός), meaning "God", and -logia (-λογία),[2] meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" (a word related to logos [λόγος], meaning "word, discourse, account, or reasoning") which had passed into Latin
Latin
as theologia and into French as théologie. The English equivalent "theology" (Theologie, Teologye) had evolved by 1362.[3] The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin
Latin
and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts. Definition[edit] Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
defined the Latin
Latin
equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity";[4] Richard Hooker defined "theology" in English as "the science of things divine".[5] The term can, however, be used for a variety of different disciplines or fields of study.[6] Theology
Theology
begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, supernatural, mental, or social realities, and that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences and/or historical records of such experiences as documented by others. The study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, and increasingly through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology
Theology
then aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, and to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives. Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument (experiential, philosophical, ethnographic, historical, and others) to help understand, explain, test, critique, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics. As in philosophy of ethics and case law, arguments often assume the existence of previously resolved questions, and develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations. The study of theology may help a theologian more deeply understand their own religious tradition,[7] another religious tradition,[8] or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology
Theology
may be used to propagate,[9] reform,[10] or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare,[11] challenge (e.g. biblical criticism), or oppose (e.g. irreligion) a religious tradition or world-view. Theology
Theology
might also help a theologian to address some present situation or need through a religious tradition,[12] or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world.[13] History[edit] Greek theologia (θεολογία) was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato
Plato
in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18.[14] Aristotle
Aristotle
divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike, physike and theologike, with the last corresponding roughly to metaphysics, which, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.[15] Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin
Latin
writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical (concerning the myths of the Greek gods), rational (philosophical analysis of the gods and of cosmology) and civil (concerning the rites and duties of public religious observance).[16] Theologos, closely related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the Book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, however, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a slightly different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy.[17] Some Latin
Latin
Christian authors, such as Tertullian
Tertullian
and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage,[18] though Augustine also used the term more simply to mean 'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'[4] In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, and teaching about, the essential nature of God.[19] The Latin
Latin
author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality (as opposed to physica, which deals with corporeal, moving realities).[20] Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin
Latin
usage.[21] In scholastic Latin
Latin
sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or (more precisely) the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition (the latter often as represented in Peter Lombard's Sentences, a book of extracts from the Church Fathers).[22] In the Renaissance, especially with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" (theologia poetica) and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority. It is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching, that the term passed into English in the fourteenth century,[23] although it could also be used in the narrower sense found in Boethius
Boethius
and the Greek patristic authors, to mean rational study of the essential nature of God
God
– a discourse now sometimes called Theology
Theology
Proper.[24] From the 17th century onwards, it also became possible to use the term theology to refer to study of religious ideas and teachings that are not specifically Christian (e.g., in the term natural theology which denoted theology based on reasoning from natural facts independent of specifically Christian revelation,[25]) or that are specific to another religion (see below). "Theology" can also now be used in a derived sense to mean "a system of theoretical principles; an (impractical or rigid) ideology".[26] In various religions[edit] The term theology has been deemed by some as only appropriate to the study of religions that worship a supposed deity (a theos), i.e. more widely than monotheism; and presuppose a belief in the ability to speak and reason about this deity (in logia). They suggest the term is less appropriate in religious contexts that are organized differently (religions without a single deity, or that deny that such subjects can be studied logically). ("Hierology" has been proposed as an alternative, more generic term.[27]) Abrahamic religions[edit] Judaism[edit]

Sculpture of the Jewish theologian Maimonides

In Jewish theology, the historical absence of political authority has meant that most theological reflection has happened within the context of the Jewish community and synagogue, rather than within specialized academic institutions, including though Rabbinical discussion of Jewish law and Jewish Biblical commentaries.[28] Historically it has been very active, and highly significant for Christian and Islamic theology and well as for Judaism. Christianity[edit]

Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
was the greatest Christian theologian of the Middle Ages.

Christian theology
Christian theology
is the study of Christian belief and practice. Such study concentrates primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament and the New Testament as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis and argument. Theology
Theology
might be undertaken to help the theologian better understand Christian tenets, to make comparisons between Christianity
Christianity
and other traditions, to defend Christianity
Christianity
against objections and criticism, to facilitate reforms in the Christian church, to assist in the propagation of Christianity, to draw on the resources of the Christian tradition to address some present situation or need, or for a variety of other reasons. Islam[edit]

Allamah Sayyid Abul A'la Maududi
Abul A'la Maududi
was the most influential Islamic theologian of the 20th century.[29]

Islamic theological discussion that parallels Christian theological discussion is named "Kalam"; the Islamic analogue of Christian theological discussion would more properly be the investigation and elaboration of Sharia
Sharia
or Fiqh. " Kalam
Kalam
... does not hold the leading place in Muslim thought that theology does in Christianity. To find an equivalent for 'theology' in the Christian sense it is necessary to have recourse to several disciplines, and to the usul al-fiqh as much as to kalam." (L. Gardet)[30] Indian religions[edit] Buddhism[edit] Some academic inquiries within Buddhism, dedicated to the investigation of a Buddhist understanding of the world, prefer the designation Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
to the term Buddhist theology, since Buddhism
Buddhism
lacks the same conception of a theos. Jose Ignacio Cabezon, who argues that the use of "theology" is appropriate, can only do so, he says, because "I take theology not to be restricted to discourse on God
God
... I take 'theology' not to be restricted to its etymological meaning. In that latter sense, Buddhism
Buddhism
is of course atheological, rejecting as it does the notion of God."[31] Hinduism[edit] Within Hindu philosophy, there is a tradition of philosophical speculation on the nature of the universe, of God
God
(termed "Brahman", Paramatma and Bhagavan
Bhagavan
in some schools of Hindu thought) and of the Atman (soul). The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word for the various schools of Hindu philosophy is Darshana
Darshana
(meaning "view" or "viewpoint"). Vaishnava theology has been a subject of study for many devotees, philosophers and scholars in India
India
for centuries. A large part of its study lies in classifying and organizing the manifestations of thousands of gods and their aspects. In recent decades also has been taken on by a number of academic institutions in Europe, such as the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies and Bhaktivedanta College.[32] See also: Krishnology Topics[edit] Further information: Outline of theology As an academic discipline[edit] The history of the study of theology in institutions of higher education is as old as the history of such institutions themselves. For instance, Taxila
Taxila
was an early centre of Vedic learning, possible from the 6th century BC or earlier;[33] the Platonic Academy
Platonic Academy
founded in Athens in the 4th century BC seems to have included theological themes in its subject matter;[34] the Chinese Taixue delivered Confucian teaching from the 2nd century BC;[35] the School of Nisibis was a centre of Christian learning from the 4th century AD;[36][37] Nalanda
Nalanda
in India
India
was a site of Buddhist higher learning from at least the 5th or 6th century AD;[38] and the Moroccan University of Al-Karaouine was a centre of Islamic learning from the 10th century,[39] as was Al-Azhar University
Al-Azhar University
in Cairo.[40] The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and perhaps from cathedral schools. It is possible, however, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception.[41] Later they were also founded by Kings (University of Naples Federico II, Charles University in Prague, Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
in Kraków) or municipal administrations (University of Cologne, University of Erfurt). In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools, usually when these schools were deemed to have become primarily sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries.[42] Christian theological learning was therefore a component in these institutions, as was the study of Church or Canon law: universities played an important role in training people for ecclesiastical offices, in helping the church pursue the clarification and defence of its teaching, and in supporting the legal rights of the church over against secular rulers.[43] At such universities, theological study was initially closely tied to the life of faith and of the church: it fed, and was fed by, practices of preaching, prayer and celebration of the Mass.[44] During the High Middle Ages, theology was therefore the ultimate subject at universities, being named "The Queen of the Sciences" and serving as the capstone to the Trivium and Quadrivium that young men were expected to study. This meant that the other subjects (including Philosophy) existed primarily to help with theological thought.[45] Christian theology's preeminent place in the university began to be challenged during the European Enlightenment, especially in Germany.[46] Other subjects gained in independence and prestige, and questions were raised about the place in institutions that were increasingly understood to be devoted to independent reason of a discipline that seemed to involve commitment to the authority of particular religious traditions.[47] Since the early nineteenth century, various different approaches have emerged in the West to theology as an academic discipline. Much of the debate concerning theology's place in the university or within a general higher education curriculum centres on whether theology's methods are appropriately theoretical and (broadly speaking) scientific or, on the other hand, whether theology requires a pre-commitment of faith by its practitioners, and whether such a commitment conflicts with academic freedom.[48] Ministerial training[edit] In some contexts, theology has been held to belong in institutions of higher education primarily as a form of professional training for Christian ministry. This was the basis on which Friedrich Schleiermacher, a liberal theologian, argued for the inclusion of theology in the new University of Berlin in 1810.[49] For instance, in Germany, theological faculties at state universities are typically tied to particular denominations, Protestant or Roman Catholic, and those faculties will offer denominationally-bound (konfessionsgebunden) degrees, and have denominationally bound public posts amongst their faculty; as well as contributing 'to the development and growth of Christian knowledge' they 'provide the academic training for the future clergy and teachers of religious instruction at German schools.'[50] In the United States, several prominent colleges and universities were started in order to train Christian ministers. Harvard,[51] Georgetown,[52] Boston University, Yale,[53] and Princeton[54] all had the theological training of clergy as a primary purpose at their foundation. Seminaries and bible colleges have continued this alliance between the academic study of theology and training for Christian ministry. There are, for instance, numerous prominent US examples, including Catholic Theological Union in Chicago,[55] The Graduate Theological Union
Graduate Theological Union
in Berkeley,[56] Criswell College
Criswell College
in Dallas,[57] The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville,[58] Trinity
Trinity
Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois,[59] Dallas Theological Seminary,[60] North Texas Collegiate Institute in Farmers Branch, Texas[61] and the Assemblies of God
God
Theological Seminary in Springfield, Missouri. As an academic discipline in its own right[edit] In some contexts, scholars pursue theology as an academic discipline without formal affiliation to any particular church (though members of staff may well have affiliations to churches), and without focussing on ministerial training. This applies, for instance, to many university departments in the United Kingdom, including the Faculties of Divinity
Divinity
at the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
and University of Oxford, the Department of Theology
Theology
and Religion
Religion
at the University of Exeter, and the Department of Theology
Theology
and Religious Studies at the University of Leeds.[62] Traditional academic prizes, such as the University of Aberdeen's Lumsden and Sachs Fellowship, tend to acknowledge performance in theology (or divinity as it is known at Aberdeen) and in religious studies. Religious studies[edit] In some contemporary contexts, a distinction is made between theology, which is seen as involving some level of commitment to the claims of the religious tradition being studied, and religious studies, which by contrast is normally seen as requiring that the question of the truth or falsehood of the religious traditions studied be kept outside its field. Religious studies
Religious studies
involves the study of historical or contemporary practices or of those traditions' ideas using intellectual tools and frameworks that are not themselves specifically tied to any religious tradition and that are normally understood to be neutral or secular.[63] In contexts where 'religious studies' in this sense is the focus, the primary forms of study are likely to include:

Anthropology of religion Comparative religion History
History
of religions Philosophy
Philosophy
of religion Psychology of religion Sociology of religion

Sometimes, theology and religious studies are seen as being in tension,[64] and at other times, they are held to coexist without serious tension.[65] Occasionally it is denied that there is as clear a boundary between them.[66] Criticism[edit] See also: Criticism of religion There is an ancient tradition of skepticism about theology, followed by a more modern rise in secularist and atheist criticism. Criticism by philosophers[edit] Whether or not reasoned discussion about the divine is possible has long been a point of contention. Protagoras, as early as the fifth century BC, who is reputed to have been exiled from Athens because of his agnosticism about the existence of the gods, said that "Concerning the gods I cannot know either that they exist or that they do not exist, or what form they might have, for there is much to prevent one's knowing: the obscurity of the subject and the shortness of man's life."[67] Lord Bolingbroke, an English politician and political philosopher wrote in his political works his views on theology, " Theology
Theology
is in fault not religion. Theology
Theology
is a science that may justly be compared to the Box of Pandora. Many good things lie uppermost in it; but many evil lie under them, and scatter plagues and desolation throughout the world."[68] Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
the American revolutionary, wrote in his two part work The Age of Reason, "The study of theology, as it stands in Christian churches, is the study of nothing; it is founded on nothing; it rests on no principles; it proceeds by no authorities; it has no data; it can demonstrate nothing; and it admits of no conclusion. Not anything can be studied as a science, without our being in possession of the principles upon which it is founded; and as this is the case with Christian theology, it is therefore the study of nothing."[69] Ludwig Feuerbach, the atheist philosopher sought to dissolve theology in his work Principles of the Philosophy
Philosophy
of the Future: "The task of the modern era was the realization and humanization of God
God
– the transformation and dissolution of theology into anthropology."[70] This mirrored his earlier work The Essence of Christianity
The Essence of Christianity
(pub. 1841), for which he was banned from teaching in Germany, in which he had said that theology was a "web of contradictions and delusions".[71] A.J. Ayer
A.J. Ayer
the former logical-positivist, sought to show in his essay " Critique of Ethics and Theology" that all statements about the divine are nonsensical and any divine-attribute is unprovable. He wrote: "It is now generally admitted, at any rate by philosophers, that the existence of a being having the attributes which define the god of any non-animistic religion cannot be demonstratively proved... [A]ll utterances about the nature of God
God
are nonsensical."[72] Walter Kaufmann the philosopher, in his essay "Against Theology", sought to differentiate theology from religion in general. "Theology, of course, is not religion; and a great deal of religion is emphatically anti-theological... An attack on theology, therefore, should not be taken as necessarily involving an attack on religion. Religion
Religion
can be, and often has been, untheological or even anti-theological." However, Kaufmann found that " Christianity
Christianity
is inescapably a theological religion".[73] Critics of theology as an academic discipline[edit] Critics dating back to the 18th century have questioned the suitability of theology as an academic discipline and in the 21st century criticism continues.[74] General criticism[edit] Charles Bradlaugh
Charles Bradlaugh
believed theology prevented human beings achieving liberty.[75] Bradlaugh noted theologians of his time stated that modern scientific research contradicted sacred scriptures therefore the scriptures must be wrong.[76] Robert G. Ingersoll
Robert G. Ingersoll
stated that when theologians had power the majority of people lived in hovels while a privileged few had palaces and cathedrals. In Ingersoll's opinion science rather than theology improved people's lives. Ingersoll maintained further that trained theologians reason no better than a person who assumes the devil must exist because pictures resemble the devil so exactly.[77] Mark Twain
Mark Twain
stated that several mutually incompatible religions claimed to be the true religion and that people cut the throats of others for following a different theology.[78] In 1993, Richard Dawkins wrote, "The achievements of theologians don't do anything, don't affect anything, don't achieve anything, don't even mean anything. What makes you think that 'theology' is a subject at all?"[79] References[edit]

^ "theology". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-11.  ^ The accusative plural of the neuter noun λόγιον; cf. Walter Bauer, William F. Arndt, F. Wilbur Gingrich, Frederick W. Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, 2nd ed., (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1979), 476. For examples of λόγια in the New Testament, cf. Acts 7:38; Romans 3:2; 1 Peter 4:11. ^ Langland, Piers Plowman
Piers Plowman
A ix 136 ^ a b City of God
God
Book VIII. i. "de divinitate rationem sive sermonem" Archived 4 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "''Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity'', 3.8.11" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-11.  ^ McGrath, Alister. 1998. Historical Theology: An Introduction to the History
History
of Christian Thought. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. pp. 1–8. ^ See, e.g., Daniel L. Migliore, Faith
Faith
Seeking Understanding: An Introduction to Christian Theology
Theology
2nd ed.(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004) ^ See, e.g., Michael S. Kogan, 'Toward a Jewish Theology
Theology
of Christianity' in The Journal of Ecumenical Studies 32.1 (Winter 1995), 89–106; available online at [1] Archived 15 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ See, e.g., Duncan Dormor et al (eds), Anglicanism, the Answer to Modernity (London: Continuum, 2003) ^ See, e.g., John Shelby Spong, Why Christianity
Christianity
Must Change or Die (New York: Harper Collins, 2001) ^ See, e.g., David Burrell, Freedom and Creation in Three Traditions (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994) ^ See, e.g., Timothy Gorringe, Crime, Changing Society and the Churches Series (London:SPCK, 2004) ^ See e.g., Anne Hunt Overzee's gloss upon the view of Ricœur (1913–2005) as to the role and work of 'theologian': "Paul Ricœur speaks of the theologian as a hermeneut, whose task is to interpret the multivalent, rich metaphors arising from the symbolic bases of tradition so that the symbols may 'speak' once again to our existential situation." Anne Hunt Overzee The body divine: the symbol of the body in the works of Teilhard de Chardin and Rāmānuja, Cambridge studies in religious traditions 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), ISBN 0-521-38516-4, ISBN 978-0-521-38516-9, p.4; Source: [2] (accessed: Monday 5 April 2010) ^ Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon''. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book Epsilon. Archived 16 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ As cited by Augustine, City of God, Book 6, ch.5. ^ This title appears quite late in the manuscript tradition for the Book of Revelation: the two earliest citations provided in David Aune's Word Biblical Commentary 52: Revelation
Revelation
1–5 (Dallas: Word Books, 1997) are both 11th century – Gregory 325/Hoskier 9 and Gregory 1006/Hoskier 215; the title was however in circulation by the 6th century – see Allen Brent ‘John as theologos: the imperial mysteries and the Apocalypse’, Journal for the Study of the New Testament 75 (1999), 87–102. ^ See Augustine, City of God, Book 6, ch.5. and Tertullian, Ad Nationes, Book 2, ch.1. ^ Gregory of Nazianzus
Gregory of Nazianzus
uses the word in this sense in his fourth-century Theological Orations; after his death, he was called "the Theologian" at the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
and thereafter in Eastern Orthodoxy—either because his Orationswere seen as crucial examples of this kind of theology, or in the sense that he was (like the author of the Book of Revelation) seen as one who was an inspired preacher of the words of God. (It is unlikely to mean, as claimed in the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers introduction to his Theological Orations, that he was a defender of the divinity of Christ the Word.) See John McGukin, Saint Gregory of Nazianzus: An Intellectual Biography (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2001), p.278. ^ "Boethius, On the Holy Trinity" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-11.  ^ G.R. Evans, Old Arts and New Theology: The Beginnings of Theology
Theology
as an Academic Discipline
Discipline
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980), 31–32. ^ See the title of Peter Abelard's Theologia Christiana, and, perhaps most famously, of Thomas Aquinas' Summa Theologica ^ See the 'note' in the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
entry for 'theology'. ^ See, for example, Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology, vol. 1, part 1 (1871). ^ Oxford English Dictionary, sense 1 ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1989 edition, 'Theology' sense 1(d), and 'Theological' sense A.3; the earliest reference given is from the 1959 Times Literary Supplement 5 June 329/4: "The 'theological' approach to Soviet Marxism ... proves in the long run unsatisfactory." ^ E.g., by Count E. Goblet d'Alviella in 1908; see Alan H. Jones, Independence and Exegesis: The Study of Early Christianity
Christianity
in the Work of Alfred Loisy (1857–1940), Charles Guignebert (1857 [i.e. 1867]–1939), and Maurice Goguel (1880–1955) (Mohr Siebeck, 1983), p.194. ^ Randi Rashkover, 'A Call for Jewish Theology', Crosscurrents, Winter 1999, starts by saying, "Frequently the claim is made that, unlike Christianity, Judaism
Judaism
is a tradition of deeds and maintains no strict theological tradition. Judaism's fundamental beliefs are inextricable from their halakhic observance (that set of laws revealed to Jews by God), embedded and presupposed by that way of life as it is lived and learned." ^ Lerman, Eran (October 1981). "Maududi's Concept of Islam". Middle Eastern Studies. JSTOR. 17 (4): 492–509. doi:10.1080/00263208108700487. JSTOR 4282856. it is hard to exaggerate the importance of its [Pakistan's] current drift toward's Maududi's version of Islam  ^ L. Gardet, 'Ilm al-kalam' in The Encyclopedia of Islam, ed. P.J. Bearman et al (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 1999). ^ Jose Ignacio Cabezon, 'Buddhist Theology
Theology
in the Academy' in Roger Jackson and John J. Makransky's Buddhist Theology: Critical Reflections by Contemporary Buddhist Scholars (London: Routledge, 1999), pp. 25–52. ^ See Anna S. King, 'For Love of Krishna: Forty Years of Chanting' in Graham Dwyer and Richard J. Cole, The Hare Krishna Movement: Forty Years of Chant and Change (London/New York: I.B. Tauris, 2006), pp. 134–167: p. 163, which describes developments in both institutions, and speaks of Hare Krishna devotees 'studying Vaishnava theology and practice in mainstream universities.' ^ Timothy Reagan, Non-Western Educational Traditions: Alternative Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice, 3rd edition (Lawrence Erlbaum: 2004), p.185 and Sunna Chitnis, 'Higher Education' in Veena Das (ed), The Oxford India
India
Companion to Sociology and Social Anthropology (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 1032–1056: p.1036 suggest an early date; a more cautious appraisal is given in Hartmut Scharfe, Education in Ancient India
India
(Leiden: Brill, 2002), pp. 140–142. ^ John Dillon, The Heirs of Plato: A Study in the Old Academy, 347–274BC (Oxford: OUP, 2003) ^ Xinzhong Yao, An Introduction to Confucianism
Confucianism
(Cambridge: CUP, 2000), p.50. ^ Becker, Adam H. (2006). The Fear of God
God
and the Beginning of Wisdom: The School of Nisibis and the Development of Scholastic Culture in Late Antique Mesopotamia. University of Pennsylvania Press.  ^ "The School of Nisibis". Nestorian.org. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.  ^ Hartmut Scharfe, Education in Ancient India
India
(Leiden: Brill, 2002), p.149. ^ The Al-Qarawiyyin mosque was founded in 859 AD, but 'While instruction at the mosque must have begun almost from the beginning, it is only ... by the end of the tenth-century that its reputation as a center of learning in both religious and secular sciences ... must have begun to wax.' Y. G-M. Lulat, A History
History
of African Higher Education from Antiquity to the Present: A Critical Synthesis (Greenwood, 2005), p.71 ^ Andrew Beattie, Cairo: A Cultural History
History
(New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p.101. ^ Gordon Leff, Paris and Oxford Universities in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. An Institutional and Intellectual History, Wiley, 1968. ^ Johnson, P. (2000). The Renaissance : a short history. Modern Library chronicles (Modern Library ed.). New York: Modern Library, p. 9. ^ Walter Rüegg, “Themes” in Walter Rüegg, A History
History
of the University in Europe, vol.1, ed. H. de Ridder-Symoens, Universities in the Middle Ages (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 3–34: pp. 15–16. ^ See Gavin D'Costa, Theology
Theology
in the Public Square: Church, Academy and Nation (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005), ch.1. ^ Thomas Albert Howard, Protestant Theology
Theology
and the Making of the Modern German University (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p.56: '[P]hilosophy, the scientia scientarum in one sense, was, in another, portrayed as the humble "handmaid of theology".' ^ See Thomas Albert Howard, Protestant Theology
Theology
and the Making of the Modern German University (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006): ^ See Thomas Albert Howard's work already cited, and his discussion of, for instance, Immanuel Kant's Conflict of the Faculties (1798), and J.G. Fichte's Deduzierter Plan einer zu Berlin errichtenden höheren Lehranstalt (1807). ^ See Thomas Albert Howard, Protestant Theology
Theology
and the Making of the Modern German University (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006); Hans W. Frei, Types of Christian Theology, ed. William C. Placher and George Hunsinger (New Haven, CT: Yale
Yale
University Press, 1992); Gavin D'Costa, Theology
Theology
in the Public Square: Church, Academy and Nation (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005); James W. McClendon, Systematic Theology
Theology
3: Witness (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 2000), ch.10: ' Theology
Theology
and the University'. ^ Friedrich Schleiermacher, Brief Outline of Theology
Theology
as a Field of Study, 2nd edition, tr. Terrence N. Tice (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 1990); Thomas Albert Howard, Protestant Theology
Theology
and the Making of the Modern German University (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), ch.14. ^ Reinhard G. Kratz, 'Academic Theology
Theology
in Germany', Religion
Religion
32.2 (2002): pp.113–116. ^ 'The primary purpose of Harvard
Harvard
College was, accordingly, the training of clergy.' But 'the school served a dual purpose, training men for other professions as well.' George M. Marsden, The Soul
Soul
of the American University: From Protestant Establishment to Established Nonbelief (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), p.41. ^ Georgetown was a Jesuit institution founded in significant part to provide a pool of educated Catholics some of whom who could go on to full seminary training for the priesthood. See Robert Emmett Curran, Leo J. O'Donovan, The Bicentennial History
History
of Georgetown University: From Academy to University 1789–1889 (Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 1961), Part One. ^ Yale's original 1701 charter speaks of the purpose being 'Sincere Regard & Zeal for upholding & Propagating of the Christian Protestant Religion
Religion
by a succession of Learned & Orthodox' and that 'Youth may be instructed in the Arts and Sciences (and) through the blessing of Almighty God
God
may be fitted for Publick employment both in Church and Civil State.' 'The Charter of the Collegiate School, October 1701' in Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Documentary History
History
of Yale University, Under the Original Charter of the Collegiate School of Connecticut 1701–1745 (New Haven, CT: Yale
Yale
University Press, 1916); available online at [1] ^ At Princeton, one of the founders (probably Ebeneezer Pemberton) wrote in c.1750, 'Though our great Intention was to erect a seminary for educating Ministers of the Gospel, yet we hope it will be useful in other learned professions – Ornaments of the State as Well as the Church. Therefore we propose to make the plan of Education as extensive as our Circumstances will admit.' Quoted in Alexander Leitch, A Princeton Companion ( Princeton University
Princeton University
Press, 1978). ^ "The CTU Story". Catholic Theological Union. Archived from the original on March 7, 2013. Retrieved March 16, 2013. lay men and women, religious sisters and brothers, and seminarians have studied alongside one another, preparing to serve God's people  ^ See 'About the GTU' at The Graduate Theological Union
Graduate Theological Union
website (Retrieved 29 August 2009): 'dedicated to educating students for teaching, research, ministry, and service.' ^ "The Criswell Vision". Criswell College. Archived from the original on April 26, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2009. Criswell College
Criswell College
exists to serve the churches of our Lord Jesus Christ by developing God-called men and women in the Word (intellectually and academically) and by the Word (professionally and spiritually) for authentic ministry leadership  ^ "Mission Statement". Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved August 29, 2009. the mission of The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary is ... to be a servant of the churches of the Southern Baptist Convention by training, educating, and preparing ministers of the gospel for more faithful service  ^ "About Trinity
Trinity
Evangelical Divinity
Divinity
School". Trinity
Trinity
Evangelical Divinity
Divinity
School. Archived from the original on August 30, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2009. Trinity
Trinity
Evangelical Divinity
Divinity
School (TEDS) is a learning community dedicated to the development of servant leaders for the global church, leaders who are spiritually, biblically, and theologically prepared to engage contemporary culture for the sake of Christ's kingdom  ^ See 'About DTS' at the Dallas Theological Seminary website (Retrieved 29 August 2009): 'At Dallas, the scholarly study of biblical and related subjects is inseparably fused with the cultivation of the spiritual life. All this is designed to prepare students to communicate the Word of God
God
in the power of the Spirit
Spirit
of God.' ^ ".::North Texas Collegiate Institute ::". .::North Texas Collegiate Institute ::.  ^ See the 'Why Study Theology?' Archived 9 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. page at the University of Exeter
University of Exeter
(Retrieved 1 September 2009), and the 'About us' page at the University of Leeds. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 August 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-01.  ^ See, for example, Donald Wiebe, The Politics of Religious Studies: The Continuing Conflict with Theology
Theology
in the Academy (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000). ^ See K.L. Knoll, 'The Ethics of Being a Theologian', Chronicle of Higher Education, 27 July 2009. ^ See David Ford, ' Theology
Theology
and Religious Studies for a Multifaith and Secular Society' in D.L. Bird and Simon G. Smith (eds), Theology
Theology
and Religious Studies in Higher Education (London: Continuum, 2009). ^ Timothy Fitzgerald, The Ideology of Religious Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). ^ Protagoras, fr.4, from On the Gods, tr. Michael J. O'Brien in The Older Sophists, ed. Rosamund Kent Sprague (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1972), 20, emphasis added. Cf. Carol Poster, " Protagoras
Protagoras
(fl. 5th C. BCE)" in The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy; accessed: 6 October 2008. ^ The philosophical works of Lord Bolingbroke Volume 3, p. 396 ^ Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason, from "The Life and Major Writings of Thomas Paine", ed. Philip S. Foner, (New York, The Citadel Press, 1945) p. 601. ^ Ludwig Feuerbach, Principles of the Philosophy
Philosophy
of the Future, trans. Manfred H. Vogel, (Indianapolis, Hackett Publishing Company, 1986) p5 ^ Ludwig Feuerbach, The Essence of Christianity, trans. George Eliot, (Amherst, New York, Prometheus Books, 1989) Preface, XVI. ^ A.J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic, (New York, Dover Publications, 1936) pp. 114–115. ^ Walter Kaufmann, The Faith
Faith
of a Heretic, (Garden City, New York, Anchor Books, 1963) pp. 114, 127–128, 130. ^ Gerard Loughlin. " Theology
Theology
in the university". Cco.cambridge.org. Retrieved 2012-11-11.  ^ " Charles Bradlaugh
Charles Bradlaugh
(1833-1891)". Positiveatheism.org. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 2012-11-11.  ^ "Humanity's Gain from Unbelief". Positiveatheism.org. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-11.  ^ "Robert Green Ingersoll". Positiveatheism.org. 11 August 1954. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 11 November 2012.  ^ "Directory of Mark Twain's maxims, quotations, and various opinions". Twainquotes.com. 1902-11-28. Retrieved 2012-11-11.  ^ "Letter: Scientific versus theological knowledge". 20 March 1993. 

External links[edit]

Library resources about Theology

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Look up theology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

At Wikiversity, you can learn more and teach others about Theology
Theology
at the School of Theology.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Theology

"Theology" on Encyclopædia Britannica Chattopadhyay, Subhasis. "Reflections on Hindu Theology" in Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India
India
120(12):664-672 (2014). ISSN 0032-6178. Edited by Swami Narasimhananda.

v t e

Theology: Outline

Conceptions of God

Theism

Forms

Deism Dystheism Henotheism Hermeticism Kathenotheism Nontheism Monolatry Monotheism Mysticism Panentheism Pandeism Pantheism Polydeism Polytheism Spiritualism Theopanism

Concepts

Deity Divinity Gender of God
God
and gods

Male deity Goddess

Numen

Singular god theologies

By faith

Abrahamic religions

Judaism Christianity Islam

the Bahá'í Faith Buddhism Hinduism Jainism Sikhism Zoroastrianism

Concepts

Absolute Brahman Emanationism Logos Supreme Being

God
God
as

the Devil Sustainer Time

Trinitarianism

Athanasian Creed Comma Johanneum Consubstantiality Homoousian Homoiousian Hypostasis Perichoresis Shield of the Trinity Trinitarian formula Trinity Trinity
Trinity
of the Church Fathers Trinitarian Universalism

Eschatology

Afterlife Apocalypticism Buddhist Christian Heaven Hindu Islamic Jewish Taoist Zoroastrian

Feminist

Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Mormonism Goddesses

Other concepts

The All Aristotelian view Attributes of God
God
in Christianity / in Islam Binitarianism Demiurge Divine
Divine
simplicity Divine
Divine
presence Egotheism Exotheology Holocaust Godhead in Christianity

Latter Day Saints

Great Architect of the Universe Great Spirit Apophatic theology Olelbis Open theism Personal god Phenomenological definition Philo's view Process Tian Unmoved mover

Names of God
God
in

Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism

By Faith

Christian

History Outline Biblical canon Glossary Christology Cosmology Ecclesiology Ethics Hamartiology Messianism Nestorianism Philosophy Practical Sophiology Soteriology

Hindu

Ayyavazhi
Ayyavazhi
theology Krishnology

Islamic

Oneness of God Prophets Holy Scriptures Angels Predestination Last Judgment

Jewish

Abrahamic prophecy Aggadah Denominations Kabbalah Philosophy

v t e

Philosophy
Philosophy
of religion

Concepts in religion

Afterlife Euthyphro dilemma Faith Intelligent design Miracle Problem of evil Religious belief Soul Spirit Theodicy Theological veto

Conceptions of God

Aristotelian view Brahman Demiurge Divine
Divine
simplicity Egoism Holy Spirit Misotheism Pandeism Personal god Process theology Supreme Being Unmoved mover

God
God
in

Abrahamic religions Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism Mormonism Sikhism Bahá'í Faith Wicca

Existence of God

For

Beauty Christological Consciousness Cosmological

Kalam Contingency

Degree Desire Experience Fine-tuning of the Universe Love Miracles Morality Necessary existent Ontological Pascal's Wager Proper basis Reason Teleological

Natural law Watchmaker analogy

Transcendental

Against

747 gambit Atheist's Wager Evil Free will Hell Inconsistent revelations Nonbelief Noncognitivism Occam's razor Omnipotence Poor design Russell's teapot

Theology

Acosmism Agnosticism Animism Antireligion Atheism Creationism Dharmism Deism Demonology Divine
Divine
command theory Dualism Esotericism Exclusivism Existentialism

Christian Agnostic Atheistic

Feminist theology

Thealogy Womanist theology

Fideism Fundamentalism Gnosticism Henotheism Humanism

Religious Secular Christian

Inclusivism Theories about religions Monism Monotheism Mysticism Naturalism

Metaphysical Religious Humanistic

New Age Nondualism Nontheism Pandeism Panentheism Pantheism Perennialism Polytheism Possibilianism Process theology Religious skepticism Spiritualism Shamanism Taoic Theism Transcendentalism more...

Religious language

Eschatological verification Language-game Logical positivism Apophatic theology Verificationism

Problem of evil

Augustinian theodicy Best of all possible worlds Euthyphro dilemma Inconsistent triad Irenaean theodicy Natural evil Theodicy

Philosophers of religion

(by date active)

Ancient and Medieval

Anselm of Canterbury Augustine of Hippo Avicenna Averroes Boethius Erasmus Gaunilo of Marmoutiers Pico della Mirandola Heraclitus King James VI and I Marcion of Sinope Thomas Aquinas Maimonides

Enlightenment

Augustin Calmet René Descartes Blaise Pascal Baruch Spinoza Nicolas Malebranche Gottfried W Leibniz William Wollaston Thomas Chubb David Hume Baron d'Holbach Immanuel Kant Johann G Herder

1800 1850

Friedrich Schleiermacher Karl C F Krause Georg W F Hegel

William Whewell Ludwig Feuerbach Søren Kierkegaard Karl Marx Albrecht Ritschl Afrikan Spir

1880 1900

Ernst Haeckel W. K. Clifford Friedrich Nietzsche Harald Høffding William James

Vladimir Solovyov Ernst Troeltsch Rudolf Otto Lev Shestov Sergei Bulgakov Pavel Florensky Ernst Cassirer Joseph Maréchal

1920 postwar

George Santayana Bertrand Russell Martin Buber René Guénon Paul Tillich Karl Barth Emil Brunner Rudolf Bultmann Gabriel Marcel Reinhold Niebuhr

Charles Hartshorne Mircea Eliade Frithjof Schuon J L Mackie Walter Kaufmann Martin Lings Peter Geach George I Mavrodes William Alston Antony Flew

1970 1990 2010

William L Rowe Dewi Z Phillips Alvin Plantinga Anthony Kenny Nicholas Wolterstorff Richard Swinburne Robert Merrihew Adams

Peter van Inwagen Daniel Dennett Loyal Rue Jean-Luc Marion William Lane Craig Ali Akbar Rashad

Alexander Pruss

Related topics

Criticism of religion Ethics in religion Exegesis History
History
of religions Religion Religious language Religious philosophy Relationship between religion and science Political science of religion Faith
Faith
and rationality more...

Portal Category

v t e

Religion

Major religious groups
Major religious groups
and religious denominations

Abrahamic

Judaism

Orthodox

Haredi Hasidic Modern

Conservative Reform Karaite Reconstructionist Renewal Humanistic Haymanot

Christianity

Catholicism

Eastern Catholic Churches

Eastern Christianity

Church of the East

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Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy

Ethiopian Orthodoxy

Independent Catholicism

Old Catholicism

Protestantism

Adventism Anabaptism Anglicanism Baptists Calvinism

Presbyterianism Congregationalism Continental Reformed

Lutheranism Methodism Pentecostalism Evangelicalism

Nontrinitarianism

Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Jesuism

Nondenominational

Islam

Sunni

Hanafi Maliki Hanbali Shafi'i

Shia

Twelver Isma'ilism Zaidiyyah

Ahmadi Ibadi Non-denominational Quranism Zahirism Salafism

Wahhabism Ahl al-Hadith

Mahdavia European Islam Nation of Islam

Others

Bábism

Azáli Bábism Bahá'í Faith

Druze Mandaeism Rastafari Samaritanism

Dharmic

Hinduism

Vaishnavism Shaktism Shaivism Ayyavazhi Smartism Balinese

Buddhism

Mahayana

Chan

Zen Thiền Seon

Pure Land Nichiren Madhyamaka Tiantai

Theravada Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Newar Bon

Navayana

Others

Dravidian Jainism

Digambara Śvētāmbara

Sikhism Gurung shamanism Bon
Bon
Lamaism Kirant Mundhum

Persian

Manichaeism Yazdânism

Yazidism Ishikism Ali-Illahism Yarsanism

Zoroastrianism

European

Armenian Baltic

Dievturība Druwi Romuva

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Druidry

Germanic Hellenism Italo-Roman Romanian Slavic

Uralic

Finnish Hungarian Uralic

Mari Mordvin Udmurt

Central and Northern Asian

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East Asian

Benzhuism Bimoism Bon Cheondoism Confucianism Dongbaism Faism Hmongism Jeungsanism Luoism Meishanism Mileism Muism Neo-Confucianism Ryukyuan religion Shenism Shigongism Shinto Taoism Tenrikyo Wuism Yiguandao

Southeast Asian

Burmese Satsana Phi Malaysian Indonesian

Marapu Kaharingan Kebatinan

Philippine Vietnamese

Caodaism Đạo Mẫu Hoahaoism

African

Traditional

Akan Akamba Baluba Bantu Berber Bushongo Cushitic Dinka Efik Fon and Ewe Guanche Igbo Isoko Lotuko Lozi Lugbara Maasai Mbuti San Serer Tumbuka Waaq Yoruba Zulu

Diasporic

Candomblé Kumina Obeah Quimbanda Palo Santería Umbanda Vodou Voodoo Winti

Other groups

Bathouism Bongthingism Donyi-Polo Kiratism Sanamahism Sarnaism Aboriginal Australian Native American Mesoamerican Hawaiian Polynesian

Recent

Discordianism Eckankar Jediism New Age New Thought Pastafarianism Raëlism Satanism Scientology Thelema Unitarian Universalism Wicca

Historical religions

Prehistoric

Paleolithic

Near East

Arabian Egyptian Mesopotamian Semitic

Canaanite Yahwism

Indo-European

Asia

Proto-Indo-Iranian Armenian Ossetian Vedic Zoroastrianism

Mithraism Zurvanism

Gnosticism

Manichaeism

Europe

Celtic Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Greek

Gnosticism Neoplatonism

Manichaeism Balkan Roman Slavic

Topics

Aspects

Apostasy / Disaffiliation Behaviour Beliefs Clergy Conversion Deities Entheogens Ethnic religion Denomination Faith Fire Folk religion God Meditation Monasticism

monk nun

Mysticism Mythology Nature Ordination Orthodoxy Orthopraxy Prayer Prophesy Religious experience Ritual

liturgy sacrifice

Spirituality Supernatural Symbols Truth Water Worship

Theism

Animism Deism Dualism Henotheism Monotheism Nontheism Panentheism Pantheism Polytheism Transtheism

Religious studies

Anthropology Cognitive science Comparative Development Evolutionary origin Evolutionary psychology History Philosophy Neurotheology Psychology Sociology Theology Theories Women

Religion
Religion
and society

Agriculture Business Clergy

monasticism ordination

Conversion

evangelism missionary proselytism

Education Fanaticism Freedom

pluralism syncretism toleration universalism

Fundamentalism Growth Happiness Homosexuality Minorities National church National religiosity levels Religiocentrism Political science Populations Schism Science State Theocracy Vegetarianism Video games Violence

persecution terrorism war

Wealth

Secularism
Secularism
and irreligion

Antireligion Deism Agnosticism Atheism Criticism LaVeyan Satanism Deconstruction Humanistic Judaism Irreligion by country Objectivism Secular humanism Secular theology Secularization Separation of church and state Unaffiliated

Overviews and lists

Index Outline Timeline Abrahamic prophets Deification Deities Founders Mass gatherings New religious movements Organizations Religions and spiritual traditions Scholars

Category Portal

Authority control

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