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The Proms, more formally known as the Henry Wood
Henry Wood
Promenade Concerts presented by the BBC, is an eight-week summer season of daily orchestral classical music concerts and other events held annually, predominantly in the Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
in central London, England, UK. Founded in 1895, seasons now consist of concerts in Albert Hall, chamber music concerts at Cadogan Hall, additional Proms in the Park events across the UK on the Last Night of the Proms, and associated educational and children's events. The season is a significant event in British culture. In classical music, Jiří Bělohlávek
Jiří Bělohlávek
described the Proms as "the world's largest and most democratic musical festival".[1] Prom is short for promenade concert, a term which originally referred to outdoor concerts in London's pleasure gardens, where the audience was free to stroll around while the orchestra was playing. In the context of the BBC
BBC
Proms, promming refers to the use of the standing areas inside the hall (the Arena and Gallery) for which ticket prices are much lower than for the seating. Proms concert-goers, particularly those who stand, are sometimes referred to as "Prommers" or "Promenaders". Prommers can buy full-season tickets instead for guaranteed entry to every concert in the season (until 20 minutes before the concert is due to start), although not the assurance of a particular standing position.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins and Sir Henry Wood 1.2 During World War II 1.3 Post-war 1.4 Since 1990

2 Proms seasons

2.1 2006 season 2.2 2007 season 2.3 2008 season 2.4 2009 season 2.5 2010 season 2.6 2011 season 2.7 2012 season 2.8 2013 season 2.9 2014 season 2.10 2015 season 2.11 2016 season 2.12 2017 season

3 Last Night of the Proms

3.1 Last Night conductors

4 Proms seasons 5 Proms Controllers 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit]

A promenade concert in the Royal Albert Hall, 2004. The bust of Sir Henry Wood
Henry Wood
can be seen in front of the organ.

Origins and Sir Henry Wood[edit] Promenade concerts had existed in London's pleasure gardens since the mid 18th century, and indoor proms became a feature of 19th century musical life in London
London
from 1838, notably under the direction of Louis Antoine Jullien and Sir Arthur Sullivan.[2] The annual series of Proms continuing today had their roots in that movement. They were inaugurated on 10 August 1895 in the Queen's Hall
Queen's Hall
in Langham Place by the impresario Robert Newman, who was fully experienced in running similar concerts at His Majesty's Theatre.[3] Newman wished to generate a wider audience for concert hall music by offering low ticket prices and an informal atmosphere, where eating, drinking and smoking were permitted to the promenaders. He stated his aim to Henry Wood in 1894[4] as follows:

I am going to run nightly concerts and train the public by easy stages. Popular at first, gradually raising the standard until I have created a public for classical and modern music.[5]

George Cathcart, an otolaryngologist, gave financial backing to Newman for the series (called "Mr Robert Newman's Promenade Concerts") on condition that Henry Wood
Henry Wood
be employed as the sole conductor.[6][7] Wood, aged 26, seized this opportunity and built the "Queen's Hall Orchestra" as the ensemble specially devoted to performing the promenade concerts.[8] Cathcart also stipulated (contrary to Newman's preference) the adoption of French or Open Diapason concert pitch, necessitating the acquisition of an entirely new set of wind instruments for the orchestra, and the re-tuning of the Queen's Hall organ. This coincided with the adoption of this lower pitch by other leading orchestras and concert series.[9] Although the concerts gained a popular following and reputation, Newman went bankrupt in 1902, and the banker Edgar Speyer
Edgar Speyer
took over the expense of funding them. Wood received a knighthood in 1911. In 1914 anti-German feeling led Speyer to surrender his role, and music publishers Chappell & Co. took control of the concerts.[10] Although Newman remained involved in artistic planning, it was Wood's name which became most closely associated with the Proms.[11] As conductor from the first concert (which opened with Wagner's Rienzi overture) in 1895, Sir Henry was largely responsible for building the repertoire heard as the series continued from year to year. While including many popular and less demanding works, in the first season there were substantial nights devoted to Beethoven or Schubert, and a programme of new works was given in the final week. Distinguished singers including Sims Reeves
Sims Reeves
and Signor Foli
Signor Foli
appeared. In the first two decades Wood firmly established the policy of introducing works by contemporary composers (both British and international) and of bringing fresh life to unperformed or under-performed works.[12] A bronze bust of Sir Henry Wood
Henry Wood
recovered from the ruins of the bombed-out Queen's Hall
Queen's Hall
in 1941, and now belonging to the Royal Academy of Music,[13] is still placed in front of the organ for the whole Promenade season. Though the concerts are now called the BBC Proms, and are headlined with the BBC
BBC
logo, the tickets are subtitled " BBC
BBC
Music presents the Henry Wood
Henry Wood
Promenade Concerts". In 1927, following Newman's sudden death in the previous year, the BBC – later based at Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
next to the hall – took over the running of the concerts. This arose because William Boosey, then managing director of Chappell & Co. (the Prom. proprietors), detested broadcasting and saw the BBC's far-reaching demands and intentions in the control of musical presentation as a danger to the future of public concerts altogether. He decided to disband the New Queen's Hall
Queen's Hall
Orchestra, which played for the last time at a Symphony concert on 19 March 1927. He found it more expedient to let the Queen's Hall
Queen's Hall
to the broadcasting powers, rather than to continue the Promenade concerts and other big series independently in an unequal competition with what was effectively the Government itself. So the Proms. were saved, but under a different kind of authority. The personnel of the New Queen's Hall
Queen's Hall
Orchestra effectively continued until 1930 as 'Sir Henry J. Wood and his Symphony Orchestra.'[14] When the BBC
BBC
Symphony Orchestra ( BBC
BBC
SO) was formed in 1930, it became the main orchestra for the concerts. At this time the season consisted of nights dedicated to particular composers; Mondays were Wagner, Fridays were Beethoven, with other major composers being featured on other days. There were no Sunday performances. During World War II[edit] With the outbreak of World War II
World War II
in 1939, the BBC
BBC
withdrew its support. However private sponsors stepped in to maintain the Proms, always under Sir Henry Wood's direction, until the Queen's Hall
Queen's Hall
was devastated beyond repair during an air raid in May 1941. (The site is now occupied by the St George's Hotel and BBC
BBC
Henry Wood
Henry Wood
House). The concerts then moved (until 1944) to their current home, the Royal Albert Hall, during the Promenade season presented by Keith Douglas in conjunction with the Royal Philharmonic Society
Royal Philharmonic Society
(of which he was Secretary).[15][16] The London
London
Symphony Orchestra had sometimes assisted in the series since (after 1927) the New Queen's Hall
Queen's Hall
Orchestra had ceased to function, and in 1942 Sir Henry Wood
Henry Wood
also invited the London Philharmonic Orchestra under its new leader Jean Pougnet to participate in this and subsequent seasons.[17] In this he was attempting to maintain vigour in the programme, under the renewal of its relationship with the BBC
BBC
as promoters. Sir Henry Wood
Henry Wood
continued his work with the Proms through vicissitudes with the BBC
BBC
until his death in 1944, the year of his Jubilee Season.[18] During that period Sir Adrian Boult, chief conductor of the BBC
BBC
Symphony Orchestra, and Basil Cameron also took on conducting duties for the series,[19] continuing them in 1944 when, under increased danger from bombing, they were moved again, this time to the Bedford Corn Exchange (home of the BBC
BBC
Symphony Orchestra since 1941) which hosted them until the end of the War. Post-war[edit] Sir Adrian Boult
Sir Adrian Boult
and Basil Cameron continued as conductors of the Promenade Concerts after the War, on their return to the Royal Albert Hall, until the advent of Malcolm Sargent as Proms chief conductor in 1947. Sargent held this post until 1966; his associate conductor from 1949 to 1959 was John Hollingsworth. Sargent was noted for his immaculate appearance (evening dress, carnation) and his witty addresses where he good-naturedly chided the noisy Prommers. Sir Malcolm championed choral music and classical and British composers, especially Samuel Coleridge-Taylor. The charity founded in his name, CLIC Sargent, continues to hold a special Promenade Concert each year shortly after the main season ends. CLIC Sargent, the Musicians' Benevolent Fund and further musical charities (chosen each year) also benefit from thousands of pounds in donations from Prommers after most concerts. When asking for donations, Prommers from the Arena regularly announce to the audience the running donations total at concert intervals through the season, or before the concert when there is no interval. After Wood's death, Julian Herbage acted as de facto principal administrator of the Proms for a number of years, as a freelance employee after his retirement from the BBC, with assistance from such staff as Edward Clark and Kenneth Wright.[20] During the tenure of William Glock as Controller of the Proms, from 1960 to 1973, the Proms repertory expanded both forwards in time, to encompass then contemporary and avant-garde composers such as Boulez, Berio, Carter, Dallapiccola, Peter Maxwell Davies, Gerhard, Henze, Ligeti, Lutosławski, Lutyens, Maw, Messiaen, Nono, Stockhausen, and Tippett, as well as backwards to include music by past composers such as Purcell, Cavalli, Monteverdi, Byrd, Palestrina, Dufay, Dunstaple, and Machaut, as well as less-often performed works of Johann Sebastian Bach and Joseph Haydn.[21] From the 1960s, the number of guest orchestras at the Proms also began to increase, with the first major international conductors (Leopold Stokowski, Georg Solti, and Carlo Maria Giulini) performing in 1963, and the first foreign orchestra, the Moscow Radio Symphony Orchestra, performing in 1966. Since that time, almost every major international orchestra, conductor and soloist has performed at the Proms. In 1970, Soft Machine's appearance led to press attention and comment as the first "pop" band to perform there. Since 1990[edit] The Proms
The Proms
continue today, and still present newly commissioned music alongside pieces more central to the repertoire and early music. Innovations continue, with pre-Prom talks, lunchtime chamber concerts, children's Proms, Proms in the Park either appearing, or being featured more heavily over the past few years. In the UK, all concerts are broadcast on BBC
BBC
Radio 3, an increasing number are televised on BBC
BBC
Four with some also shown on BBC
BBC
One and BBC
BBC
Two. The theme tune that used to be played at the beginning of each programme broadcast on television (until the 2011 season) was an extract from the end of the "Red" movement of Arthur Bliss's A Colour Symphony. It is also possible to hear the concerts live from the BBC
BBC
Proms website. The Last Night is also broadcast in many countries around the world. In 1996, a related series of eight lunchtime chamber concerts was started, taking place on Mondays during the Proms season. In their first year these were held in the Britten Hall of the Royal College of Music (just across Prince Consort Road
Prince Consort Road
from the Albert Hall). The following year they moved slightly further afield, to the Henry Cole Lecture Theatre at the Victoria and Albert Museum. In 2005, they moved further again, to the new Cadogan Hall, just off London's Sloane Square. These allow the Proms to include music which is not suitable for the vast spaces of the Albert Hall. From 1998 to 2007, the Blue Peter
Blue Peter
Prom, in partnership with long-running BBC
BBC
television programme Blue Peter, was an annual fixture.[22] Aimed at children and families, the Prom is informal, including audience participation, jokes, and popular classics.[23] High demand for tickets – which are among the lowest priced in the season – saw this Prom be split in 2004 into two Proms with identical content.[24] In 2008, the Blue Peter
Blue Peter
Prom was replaced with a Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Prom which was repeated in both the 2010 and 2013 seasons.[25] The 2004 season also featured the Hall's newly rebuilt pipe organ. It took two years to complete the task (2002–2004) and was the work of Noel Mander, Ltd., of London. It was the first complete restoration of the instrument since Harrison and Harrison's work in 1936. The tradition of Promming remains an important aspect of the festival, with over 1000 standing places available for each concert, either in the central arena (rather like the groundlings in the pit at Shakespeare's Globe) or high in the hall's gallery. Promming tickets cost the same for all concerts (still only £5 in 2015), providing a considerably cheaper option for the more popular events. Since the tickets cannot be bought in advance (although there are full-season tickets, first weekend and weekly passes available), they provide a way of attending otherwise sold-out concerts.[26][27] In 2010, the Proms Archive was introduced on the BBC
BBC
Proms webpage, to allow for a systematic searching of all works that have been performed and all artists who have appeared at The Proms
The Proms
since their inception. On 1 September 2011, a Prom given by the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra was severely affected by interruptions from pro-Palestinian protesters.[28] While the Palestine Solidarity Campaign
Palestine Solidarity Campaign
had urged a boycott, they denied being behind the disruption inside the Royal Albert Hall. For the first time ever, the BBC
BBC
took a Prom concert off the air.[29] Successive Controllers of The Proms
The Proms
after Glock have been Robert Ponsonby (1973–1985), John Drummond (1986–1995), Nicholas Kenyon (1996–2007), and Roger Wright (2007–2014). Edward Blakeman, editor of BBC
BBC
Radio 3, became interim Proms Director upon Wright's departure in July 2014.[30] In May 2015, the BBC
BBC
announced the appointment of David Pickard as the next Director of The Proms.[31][32] Proms seasons[edit]

Parts of this article (those related to Proms held since 2012) need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2014)

The Proms
The Proms
2005. Most people sit, while Promenaders stand in front of the orchestra. The Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
Organ is in the background.

2006 season[edit] The 2006 season (the 112th) marked the 250th birthday celebrations of Mozart and the centenary of Shostakovich's birth. New initiatives included four Saturday matinee concerts at the Cadogan Hall
Cadogan Hall
and the chance for audience members to get involved with The Voice, a collaborative piece performed in two Proms on 29 July. On 3 September 2006, a concert was cancelled due to a fire.[33] The season saw the launch of a venture called the Proms Family Orchestra in which children and their extended families can make music with BBC musicians.[34] 2007 season[edit] The 2007 season ran from 13 July to 8 September. Early press coverage focused heavily on the fact that musical theatre star Michael Ball would be the central performer in a concert on 27 August and a concert of British film music on 14 July. This led to media accusations of "dumbing down", despite Kenyon's defence of the programme.[35][36][37] Anniversaries marked in this Proms season included:

The 150th anniversary of the birth of Sir Edward Elgar The 100th anniversary of the death of Edvard Grieg The 50th anniversary of the death of Jean Sibelius 80 years since the first BBC
BBC
sponsorship of the Proms.

The series also included an additional series of four Saturday matinee concerts at Cadogan Hall. The 2007 season was Kenyon's last season as controller of the BBC
BBC
Proms, before he became managing director at the Barbican Centre.[38] Roger Wright became Controller of the Proms in October 2007, whilst retaining responsibility for BBC
BBC
Radio 3 and taking up a broader role controlling the BBC's classical music output across all media.[39] 2008 season[edit] The 2008 season ran from 18 July to 13 September 2008. The BBC released details of the season slightly earlier than usual, on 9 April 2008.[40] Composers whose anniversaries were marked include:

Ralph Vaughan Williams: 50th anniversary of his death Elliott Carter
Elliott Carter
and Olivier Messiaen: each in his centenary year Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov: centenary of his death Karlheinz Stockhausen, whose 80th birthday would have fallen during the season (he died on 5 December 2007).

The celebration of Stockhausen
Stockhausen
was centred on two large-scale concerts on 2 August 2008, and complementing Vaughan Williams's interest in folk music, the first Sunday was given over to a celebration of various aspects of British folk, including free events in Kensington Gardens and the Albert Hall, and ending with the first-ever céilidh in the Albert Hall itself.[41] Other changes included additional pre-Prom talks and events. For the first time, there was a related talk or event before every Prom, held in the Royal College of Music. The popular family-oriented Prom this year became the Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Prom, (in place of the Blue Peter
Blue Peter
Prom of recent years).[42] The Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Prom included a mini-episode of Doctor Who, "Music of the Spheres". Just over a month before the announcement, Margaret Hodge, a Minister of State at the Department for Culture, Media and Sport
Department for Culture, Media and Sport
suggested "that the Proms was one of several big cultural events that many people did not feel comfortable attending" and advocated an increase in multicultural works and an effort to broaden the audience. Her comments received wide criticism in the musical world and media as being a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of the Proms, with Gordon Brown even distancing himself from her remarks.[43] 2009 season[edit] In the 2009 season, which ran from 17 July to 12 September 2009, the total number of concerts reached 100 for the first time. The principal anniversary composers included:

George Frideric Handel
George Frideric Handel
(250th anniversary of his death) Joseph Haydn
Joseph Haydn
(200th anniversary of his death) Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
(200th anniversary of his birth) Henry Purcell
Purcell
(350th anniversary of his birth)

Other composer anniversaries noted in the 2009 Proms included:

Louis Andriessen
Louis Andriessen
(70th birthday) Harrison Birtwistle
Harrison Birtwistle
(75th birthday) John Casken (60th birthday) George Crumb (80th birthday) Frederick Delius
Frederick Delius
(75th anniversary of his death) Edward Elgar
Elgar
(75th anniversary of his death) Jonathan Harvey (70th birthday) Gustav Holst
Gustav Holst
(75th anniversary of his death) Albert Ketèlbey
Albert Ketèlbey
(50th anniversary of his death) Bohuslav Martinů
Bohuslav Martinů
(50th anniversary of his death) Peter Maxwell Davies
Peter Maxwell Davies
(75th birthday) Heitor Villa-Lobos
Heitor Villa-Lobos
(50th anniversary of his death)

The humorist and music impresario Gerard Hoffnung
Gerard Hoffnung
was also remembered with the performance in the Last Night of Malcolm Arnold's A Grand Grand Overture, which was commissioned for the first Hoffnung Music Festival.[34] The 2009 Proms featured Bollywood
Bollywood
music for the first time, as part of a day-long series of concerts and events also covering Indian classical music. Performers in the day included Ram Narayan, Rajan and Sajan Mishra, and Shaan.[44] Noted historical anniversaries covered in the 2009 Proms included the 75th anniversary of the MGM
MGM
film musical, and the 10th year of the West-Eastern Divan Orchestra.[45][46][47] There was a child-oriented Prom to mark the Darwin bicentenary as well as a Free Family Prom including the Proms Family Orchestra.[34] 2010 season[edit] The 2010 Proms season ran from 16 July to 11 September. The principal anniversary composers included:

Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
(200th anniversary of his birth) Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler
(150th anniversary of his birth) Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann
(200th anniversary of his birth) Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(80th birthday) Arvo Pärt
Arvo Pärt
(75th birthday) Rodgers and Hammerstein
Rodgers and Hammerstein
(50th anniversary of the death of Oscar Hammerstein II)

Other anniversaries of composers featured at The Proms
The Proms
included:

Thomas Arne
Thomas Arne
(300th anniversary of his birth) Wilhelm Friedemann Bach
Wilhelm Friedemann Bach
(300th anniversary of his birth) Samuel Barber
Samuel Barber
(100th anniversary of his birth) Alban Berg
Alban Berg
(125th anniversary of his birth) George Benjamin (50th birthday) James Dillon (60th birthday) Bayan Northcott (70th birthday) Gunther Schuller
Gunther Schuller
(85th birthday) Mark-Anthony Turnage (50th birthday) Hugo Wolf
Hugo Wolf
(150th anniversary of his birth)

In addition, Hubert Parry
Hubert Parry
and Alexander Scriabin
Alexander Scriabin
received particular focus.[48] One day was dedicated particularly to Sir Henry Wood, including a recreation of the 1910 Last Night.[49] For families, the Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Prom, first introduced in 2008, received new renditions hosted by the newest Doctor (Matt Smith) and his companions Amy Pond (Karen Gillan) and Rory Williams
Rory Williams
(Arthur Darvill).[50][51] The booking system was also revised with a new online system to allow ticket buyers to set up a personalised Proms plan in advance to speed up the booking process.[52] 2011 season[edit] The 2011 Proms season began on 15 July 2011 and ran until 10 September 2011. The principal anniversary composers included:

Percy Grainger
Percy Grainger
(50th anniversary of his death) Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
(200th anniversary of his birth; 125th anniversary of his death) Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler
(100th anniversary of his death) Tomás Luis de Victoria (400th anniversary of his death)

Other anniversaries of composers featured at The Proms
The Proms
included:

Richard Rodney Bennett (75th birthday) Marc-André Dalbavie (50th birthday) Marcel Dupré
Marcel Dupré
(125th anniversary of his birth) Henri Dutilleux
Henri Dutilleux
(95th birthday) Sofia Gubaidulina
Sofia Gubaidulina
(80th birthday) Bernard Herrmann
Bernard Herrmann
(100th anniversary of his birth) Stan Kenton
Stan Kenton
(100th anniversary of his birth) Colin Matthews (65th birthday) Steve Reich
Steve Reich
(75th birthday)

The music of Frank Bridge
Frank Bridge
also received a particular non-anniversary-related focus. Other notable performances included the first Proms performance of Havergal Brian's Symphony No. 1 ('The Gothic'), which was also the 6th live performance ever,[53] and subsequently released on a Hyperion commercial recording.[54] The 2011 Proms season also featured new works by Sally Beamish, Harrison Birtwistle, Peter Maxwell Davies, Pascal Dusapin, Graham Fitkin, Thomas Larcher, Kevin Volans, Judith Weir, and Stevie Wishart. The 2011 Proms also featured the first ever 'Comedy Prom' hosted by comedian and pianist Tim Minchin, as well as the debut of the Spaghetti Western Orchestra. No other 'Comedy Prom' has taken place to date. The children's prom of 2011 was based on the C BBC
BBC
television series 'Horrible Histories', and featured a number of songs from the show. 2012 season[edit] The 2012 Proms was the 188th season, began on 13 July 2012 and ran until 8 September 2012. Notable aspects of the season included the first Beethoven symphony cycle by a single orchestra at The Proms since 1942, with Daniel Barenboim
Daniel Barenboim
conducting the West-Eastern Divan Orchestra, and various works and concerts that highlighted the 2012 London
London
Olympic Games. Composer anniversaries included:

John Adams: 65th birthday John Cage: centenary Hugh Wood: 80th birthday

The season also noted the 70th anniversary of the BBC
BBC
programme Desert Island Discs. The season also featured the Proms debut of the São Paulo Symphony, the first South American orchestra ever to perform at The Proms. 2013 season[edit] The 2013 season celebrated several composer anniversaries:

Benjamin Britten: centenary Giuseppe Verdi: bicentenary Richard Wagner: bicentenary

The season featured concert performances of seven of his thirteen operas, including Der Ring des Nibelungen
Der Ring des Nibelungen
performed over the course of one week by the Staatskapelle Berlin, conducted by Daniel Barenboim, the first time the complete Ring cycle had been performed at The Proms in a single season.[55] BBC
BBC
Radio 3 also collaborated with BBC
BBC
Radio 2 and Radio 6. 2014 season[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2014)

The 2014 season had a number of pieces in commemoration of the 100 year anniversary of the outbreak of World War I, including the premier of the first violin concerto "1914" by Gabriel Prokofiev
Gabriel Prokofiev
and "Requiem Fragments" by John Tavener. Also performed were "War Elegy" by Ivor Gurney, and Benjamin Britten's "War Requiem". There were special proms for younger children (The Cbeebies
Cbeebies
prom), a staging of Kiss Me, Kate, and a concert inspired by the World War I-era War Horse, featuring puppets from the play. The late night proms season included performances by the Pet Shop Boys
Pet Shop Boys
and Paloma Faith. Composers having special attention included Sir Harrison Birtwistle, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies
Peter Maxwell Davies
(both celebrating their 80th birthdays in 2014), William Walton, and Richard Strauss.

A panorama of the 2015 season of The Proms, with the seats behind the orchestra half-and-half with choral members and audience.

2015 season[edit] Themes for the 2015 season included works by Carl Nielsen
Carl Nielsen
and Jean Sibelius, in commemoration of the 150th anniversaries of each composer. The Late Night Proms included collaborations with BBC
BBC
Asian Network (Prom 8), Radio 1 (Prom 16, featuring dance music hits from the past 20 years), Radio 6 Music (Prom 27) and Radio 1Xtra (Prom 37, which featured grime artists Stormzy, Wretch 32, Little Simz
Little Simz
and others). 2016 season[edit] The 2016 Proms season featured a new series of 'Proms at...' concerts which included performances at venues in London
London
besides the Royal Albert Hall and Cadogan Hall, specifically:

The Chapel, Old Royal Naval College, Greenwich Sam Wanamaker Playhouse, Shakespeare's Globe The Roundhouse, Camden Bold Tendencies Multi-Storey Car Park, Peckham

These concerts were offered in place of the previous Saturday Matinee concerts at Cadogan Hall. 2017 season[edit] The 2017 Proms season has featured a number of composer anniversaries:

John Adams: 70th birthday Philip Glass: 80th birthday John Williams: 85th birthday

The season has also continued the 'Proms at...' series, with the following concerts:

Stage@TheDock, Hull (the first Prom to be given outside of the London metropolitan area since 1930) Southwark Cathedral Bold Tendencies Multi-Storey Car Park, Peckham Wilton's Music Hall The Tanks at Tate Modern

In addition, Xian Zhang became the first female conductor ever to conduct the annual Prom which includes the Symphony No. 9 of Beethoven, on 30 July 2017.[56] The 2017 Proms season featured 7 female conductors,[57] the greatest number of female conductors in a single Proms season to date. Last Night of the Proms[edit]

The Last Night of the Proms celebrates British tradition with patriotic music of the United Kingdom.[58][59]

Many people's perception of the Proms is based on the Last Night, although this is very different from the other concerts. It usually takes place on the second Saturday in September, and is broadcast in the UK on BBC
BBC
Radio 3, and on television on BBC
BBC
Two (first half) and BBC
BBC
One (second half). The concert is traditionally in a lighter, 'winding-down' vein, with popular classics followed by a second half of British patriotic pieces. This sequence traditionally includes Edward Elgar's "Pomp & Circumstance March No. 1" (to part of which "Land of Hope and Glory" is sung) and Henry Wood's "Fantasia on British Sea Songs", followed by Thomas Arne's "Rule, Britannia!". The concert concludes with Hubert Parry's "Jerusalem", and the British national anthem, in recent years in an arrangement by Benjamin Britten. The repeat of the Elgar
Elgar
march at the Last Night can be traced to the spontaneous audience demand for a double encore after its premiere at a 1901 Proms concert.[60] The closing sequence of the second half became fully established in 1954 during Sargent's tenure as chief conductor.[61] The Prommers have made a tradition of singing "Auld Lang Syne" after the end of the concert, but this was not included in the programme until 2015. However, when James Loughran, a Scot, conducted the Last Night concert in the late 1970s and early 1980s he did include the piece within the programme. Tickets are highly sought after. Promming tickets are priced the same as for that season's concerts, but seated tickets are more expensive. To pre-book a seat, it is necessary to have bought tickets for at least five other concerts in the season, and an advance booking for the Last Night must include those five concerts. Tickets can only be purchased in an equivalent (or lower) price band to that bought previously. After the advance booking period, there is no requirement to have booked for additional concerts, but by then the Last Night is usually sold out, although returns may be available. For standing places, a full season pass automatically includes admission to the Last Night; day Prommers must present five ticket stubs from previous concerts to qualify for a standing Last Night ticket, either in the Arena or Gallery (prior to 2009, the requirement was for six other concerts). In recent years, some Arena standing tickets have been available for purchase on the day, with no requirement to have attended previous concerts. These are sold on a 'first-come first-served' basis to those prepared to queue.[62] In the post-war period, with the growing popularity of the Last Night, the only way to obtain tickets was through a postal ballot held well in advance. An annual ballot now exists for the chance to purchase a maximum of two tickets from a special allocation of 100 stalls seats.[62] Prommers with tickets are likely to queue up much earlier than usual (many overnight, and in past years, some slept outside the hall for up to three weeks to guard their place – although this is no longer permitted) to ensure a good place to stand; the resulting camaraderie adds to the atmosphere. Some attend in fancy dress, from dinner jackets to patriotic T-shirts. Many use the occasion for an exuberant display of Britishness. Union Flags are waved by the Prommers, especially during "Rule, Britannia!". Flags, balloons and party poppers are all welcomed – although John Drummond famously discouraged this 'extraneous noise' during his tenure as Director. Sir Henry Wood's bust is adorned with a laurel chaplet by representatives of the Promenaders, who often wipe an imaginary bead of sweat from his forehead or make some similar gentle visual joke. Since 2006, the cost of standing place tickets has remained at just £5.00. Many consider these to be the best tickets due to the atmosphere of standing in the hall for up to three hours, albeit with a twenty-minute interval. Another tradition is that near the end of the concert the conductor makes a speech thanking the musicians and audiences, mentioning the main themes of the season, noting the cumulative donation collected for the Promenaders' musical charities over the season, and announcing the date of the First Night for the following year. This tradition dates from 1941, when Sir Henry Wood
Henry Wood
gave the first such speech at the close of that season, which was the first at the Royal Albert Hall, when he thanked colleagues and sponsors. Wood gave a similar speech at the 1942 Last Night, and a pre-recorded version was played at the 1943 Last Night. During his tenure as conductor, Sir Malcolm Sargent established the tone of making the Last Night speech more humorous. Subsequent conductors have generally continued this, although one exception was in 1997 when Sir Andrew Davis addressed the deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales, Mother Teresa, and Sir Georg Solti
Georg Solti
in 1997.[63] The Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
could be filled many times over with people who would wish to attend. To involve extra people, and to cater for those who are not near London, the Proms in the Park concerts were started in 1996. Initially there was one, in Hyde Park adjacent to the Hall. More locations have been added in recent years, and in 2005, Belfast, Glasgow, Swansea
Swansea
and Manchester
Manchester
hosted a Last Night Prom in the Park, broadcast live from each venue. 2007 saw Manchester's prom being replaced by one in Middlesbrough. 2008 featured a reduction from five to four, in Hyde Park, Belfast, Glasgow and Swansea. 2009 returned to a total of five, in Hyde Park, Glasgow, Swansea, County Down
County Down
and Salford. Each location has its own live concert, typically playing the countries' respective national anthem, before joining in a live big screen video link up with the Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
for the traditional finale. Leonard Slatkin, chief conductor of the BBC
BBC
Symphony Orchestra from 2000 to 2004, expressed a desire to tone down the nationalism of the Last Night, and during the seasons from 2002 until 2007 "Rule Britannia" was only heard as part of Henry Wood's '"Fantasia on British Sea Songs" (another piece traditional to the Last Night) rather than separately. Slatkin, an American and the first non-Commonwealth citizen to lead the Last Night, conducted his first in 2001, just days after the 9/11 attacks. The atmosphere was more restrained and less festive than normal, with a heavily revised programme where the finale of Beethoven's 9th Symphony replaced the "Sea Songs", and Samuel Barber's "Adagio for Strings" was performed in tribute to 9/11 victims.[64] On the day of the 2005 Last Night, the hall management received word of a bomb threat, which led to a thorough search of the Albert Hall for 5 hours, but the concert took place after a short delay. This has led to increased security concerns, given the stature of the Last Night in British culture, which Jacqui Kelly of the Royal Albert Hall staff noted:

That was quite a nerve-wracker – our biggest event, the one everybody knows the Albert Hall for, and we were in real danger of losing it. We're an iconic thing, up there in the public eye, so we have to expect that.[65]

2008 also contained some departures from the traditional programme. "Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1" was moved to after the conductor's speech. In addition, most of Wood's "Fantasia on British Sea Songs" was replaced by Vaughan Williams's Sea Songs as a final tribute in his anniversary year. However, Wood's arrangements of naval bugle calls from the start of the "Fantasia" were retained, and Sargent's arrangement of "Rule Britannia" returned with Bryn Terfel
Bryn Terfel
as soloist. As on his 1994 Last Night appearance,[66] he sang one verse in a Welsh translation, with the chorus also translated into Welsh. 2009 saw the continued absence of Wood's Sea Songs, this time replaced by specially commissioned fanfares, and extracts from Handel's "Music for the Royal Fireworks".[67][68] In 2009, for the first time, the Last Night was shown live in several cinemas across Asia and in Canada and Australia.[69] The 2014 Last Night saw the on-line auction of a Vivienne Westwood dress, worn by soprano Elizabeth Watts, in aid of Streetwise Opera.[70] Last Night conductors[edit] The following table lists by year the conductors of the Last Night of the Proms. In general, since the tenure of Sargent, the Chief Conductor of the BBC
BBC
Symphony Orchestra has led this concert, but guest conductors have directed the Last Night on several occasions. Additionally, the tradition until 1980 was for a British conductor. Charles Mackerras
Charles Mackerras
was the first non-British-born conductor to lead the Last Night, in 1980. Leonard Slatkin
Leonard Slatkin
was the first American conductor of the Last Night in 2001. Jiří Bělohlávek
Jiří Bělohlávek
was the first non-native English speaker to conduct the Last Night, in 2007. Marin Alsop was the Last Night's first female conductor in 2013.[71]

Conductor Last Night(s) ...2

19th c.–1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

Henry Wood
Henry Wood
3 1895–1938, 1941–1943 2

Sir Adrian Boult 1945, 1946 1 7

Basil Cameron 1945 7

Constant Lambert

Sir Malcolm Sargent 1947–1966

Colin Davis
Colin Davis
4

1967–1972

Norman Del Mar

1973, 1975 19831

Sir Charles Groves 1974, 1976, 19781

James Loughran 1977, 1979 1981, 1982, 19841

Sir Charles Mackerras

19801

Vernon Handley 19851

Raymond Leppard 19861

Mark Elder
Mark Elder
5 19871 20061

Andrew Davis 6 19881 19908–1992, 1994–1999, 20001

Sir John Pritchard 1989

Barry Wordsworth

19931

Leonard Slatkin

2001–2004

Paul Daniel 20051

Jiří Bělohlávek 2007 2010, 2012

Sir Roger Norrington 20081

David Robertson 20091 9

Edward Gardner

20111

Marin Alsop 2013, 20151

Sakari Oramo[72] 2014, 2016, 2017

^1 Duties undertaken as Guest Conductor, rather than as resident Chief Conductor, BBC
BBC
Symphony Orchestra ^2 The 1939 season was curtailed by the outbreak of war, and the 1940 season by German bombing, meaning that there was no official "Last Night". Only the first few concerts were held in public in 1944 due to renewed bombing. Wood died shortly before what should have been the end of the 1944 season.[73] ^3 Sir Henry from 1911 onwards ^4 Later Sir Colin ^5 Later Sir Mark ^6 Sir Andrew from 1999 onwards [74] ^7 Constant Lambert, Basil Cameron and Sir Adrian Boult
Sir Adrian Boult
jointly undertook proceedings upon the return in 1945 ^8 replacing Mark Elder ^9 Robertson was Principal Guest Conductor of the BBC
BBC
SO from 2005 to 2012

Proms seasons[edit]

No Season Start date (1st night) End date (Last night) Location No of Proms

1 1895 Saturday 10 August Saturday 5 October Queen's Hall, London 49

2 1896 Saturday 29 August Saturday 10 October Queen's Hall, London 37

3 1897 Saturday 28 August Saturday 9 October Queen's Hall, London 43

4 1898 Saturday 27 August Saturday 15 October Queen's Hall, London 43

5 1899 Saturday 26 August Saturday 21 October Queen's Hall, London 49

6 1900 Saturday 25 August Saturday 10 October Queen's Hall, London 67

7 Summer 1901 Saturday 24 August Saturday 9 October Queen's Hall, London 67

7a Winter 1901/02 Saturday 26 December Saturday 1 February Queen's Hall, London 33

8 1902 Saturday 23 August Saturday 8 November Queen's Hall, London 67

9 1903 Saturday 22 August Friday 23 October Queen's Hall, London 54

10 1904 Saturday 6 August Friday 21 October Queen's Hall, London 66

11 1905 Saturday 19 August Friday 27 October Queen's Hall, London 60

12 1906 Saturday 18 August Friday 26 October Queen's Hall, London 60

13 1907 Saturday 17 August Saturday 26 October Queen's Hall, London 61

14 1908 Saturday 15 August Saturday 24 October Queen's Hall, London 61

15 1909 Saturday 14 August Saturday 23 October Queen's Hall, London 61

16 1910 Saturday 13 August Saturday 22 October Queen's Hall, London 61

17 1911 Saturday 12 August Saturday 21 October Queen's Hall, London 61

18 1912 Saturday 17 August Saturday 26 October Queen's Hall, London 61

19 1913 Saturday 16 August Saturday 25 October Queen's Hall, London 61

20 1914 Saturday 15 August Saturday 24 October Queen's Hall, London 61

21 1915 Saturday 14 August Saturday 23 October Queen's Hall, London 61

22 1916 Saturday 26 August Saturday 21 October Queen's Hall, London 49

23 1917 Saturday 25 August Saturday 20 October Queen's Hall, London 49

24 1918 Saturday 11 August Saturday 19 October Queen's Hall, London 61

25 1919 Saturday 16 August Saturday 25 October Queen's Hall, London 61

26 1920 Saturday 14 August Saturday 23 October Queen's Hall, London 61

27 1921 Saturday 13 August Saturday 22 October Queen's Hall, London 61

28 1922 Saturday 12 August Saturday 21 October Queen's Hall, London 61

29 1923 Saturday 11 August Saturday 20 October Queen's Hall, London 61

30 1924 Saturday 9 August Saturday 18 October Queen's Hall, London 61

31 1925 Saturday 8 August Saturday 17 October Queen's Hall, London 61

32 1926 Saturday 14 August Saturday 16 October Queen's Hall, London 55

33 1927 Saturday 13 August Saturday 24 October Queen's Hall, London 37

34 1928 Saturday 11 August Saturday 6 October Queen's Hall, London 49

35 1929 Saturday 10 August Saturday 5 October Queen's Hall, London 49

36 1930 (Northern) Monday 26 May Saturday 21 June Free Trade Hall, Manchester Philharmonic, Liverpool Town Hall, Leeds 24

36a 1930 (London) Saturday 9 August Saturday 4 October Queen's Hall, London 49

37 1931 Saturday 8 August Saturday 3 October Queen's Hall, London 48

38 Summer 1932 Saturday 6 August Saturday 1 October Queen's Hall, London 49

38a Winter 1932/33 Saturday 31 December Saturday 14 February Queen's Hall, London 13

39 1933 Saturday 12 August Saturday 7 October Queen's Hall, London 49

40 Summer 1934 Saturday 11 August Saturday 6 October Queen's Hall, London 49

40a Winter 1934/35 Monday 31 December Saturday 12 January Queen's Hall, London 12

41 Summer 1935 Saturday 10 August Saturday 5 October Queen's Hall, London 49

41a Winter 1935/36 Monday 30 December Saturday 11 January Queen's Hall, London 12

42 1936 Saturday 8 August Saturday 3 October Queen's Hall, London 49

43 1937 Saturday 7 August Saturday 2 October Queen's Hall, London 49

44 1938 Saturday 6 August Saturday 1 October Queen's Hall, London 49

45 1939 Saturday 12 August Saturday 1 September[1] Queen's Hall, London 17.5[1]

46 1940 Saturday 10 August Saturday 7 September[2] Queen's Hall, London 25[2]

47 1941 Saturday 12 July Saturday 23 August Royal Albert Hall, London 37

48 1942 Saturday 27 June Saturday 22 August Royal Albert Hall, London 49

49 1943 Saturday 19 June Saturday 21 August Royal Albert Hall, London 55

50 1944 Saturday 10 June Thursday 29 June[3] Royal Albert Hall, London 17[3]

51 1945 Saturday 21 July Saturday 15 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

52 1946 Saturday 27 July Saturday 21 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

52a Winter 1947 Monday 6 January Saturday 18 January Royal Albert Hall, London 12

53 Summer 1947 Saturday 19 July Saturday 13 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

53a Winter 1948 Monday 5 January Saturday 17 January Royal Albert Hall, London 12

54 Summer 1948 Saturday 24 July Saturday 18 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

54a Winter 1949 Monday 10 January Saturday 22 January Royal Albert Hall, London 12

55 Summer 1949 Saturday 23 July Saturday 17 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

55a Winter 1950 Monday 9 January Saturday 21 January Royal Albert Hall, London 12

56 Summer 1950 Saturday 22 July Saturday 16 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

56a Winter 1951 Monday 8 January Saturday 20 January Royal Albert Hall, London 12

57 Summer 1951 Saturday 28 July Saturday 22 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

58 Winter 1952 Monday 7 January Saturday 19 January Royal Albert Hall, London 12

58a 1952 Saturday 26 July Saturday 20 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

59 1953 Saturday 25 July Saturday 19 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

60 1954 Saturday 24 July Saturday 18 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

61 1955 Saturday 23 July Saturday 17 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

62 1956 Saturday 21 July Saturday 15 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

63 1957 Saturday 20 July Saturday 14 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

64 1958 Saturday 26 July Saturday 20 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

65 1959 Saturday 25 July Saturday 19 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

66 1960 Saturday 23 July Saturday 17 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

67 1961 Saturday 22 July Saturday 16 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

68 1962 Saturday 21 July Saturday 15 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

69 1963 Saturday 20 July Saturday 14 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

70 1964 Saturday 25 July Saturday 19 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

71 1965 Saturday 17 July Saturday 11 September Royal Albert Hall, London 49

72 1966 Saturday 23 July Saturday 17 September Royal Albert Hall, London 50

73 1967 Saturday 22 July Saturday 16 September Royal Albert Hall, London 51

74 1968 Friday 19 July Saturday 14 September Royal Albert Hall, London 52

75 1969 Friday 18 July Saturday 13 September Royal Albert Hall, London 52

76 1970 Friday 17 July Saturday 12 September Royal Albert Hall, London 53

77 1971 Friday 23 July Saturday 18 September Royal Albert Hall, London 54

78 1972 Friday 21 July Saturday 16 September Royal Albert Hall, London 57

78a Winter 1972/73 Friday 29 December Friday 5 January Royal Albert Hall, London 8

79 1973 Friday 20 July Saturday 15 September Royal Albert Hall, London 55

80 1974 Friday 19 July Saturday 14 September Royal Albert Hall, London 55

81 1975 Friday 25 July Saturday 20 September Royal Albert Hall, London 57

82 1976 Friday 16 July Saturday 11 September Royal Albert Hall, London 56

83 1977 Friday 22 July Saturday 17 September Royal Albert Hall, London 55

84 1978 Friday 21 July Saturday 16 September Royal Albert Hall, London 55

85 1979 Friday 20 July Saturday 15 September Royal Albert Hall, London 54

86 1980 Friday 18 July Saturday 13 September Royal Albert Hall, London 57

87 1981 Friday 17 July Saturday 12 September Royal Albert Hall, London 56

88 1982 Friday 16 July Saturday 11 September Royal Albert Hall, London 57

89 1983 Friday 22 July Saturday 17 September Royal Albert Hall, London 57

90 1984 Friday 20 July Saturday 15 September Royal Albert Hall, London 59

91 1985 Friday 19 July Saturday 14 September Royal Albert Hall, London 60

92 1986 Friday 18 July Saturday 13 September Royal Albert Hall, London 60

93 1987 Friday 17 July Saturday 12 September Royal Albert Hall, London 66

94 1988 Friday 22 July Saturday 17 September Royal Albert Hall, London 69

95 1989 Friday 21 July Saturday 16 September Royal Albert Hall, London 68

96 1990 Friday 20 July Saturday 15 September Royal Albert Hall, London 66

97 1991 Friday 19 July Saturday 14 September Royal Albert Hall, London 67

98 1992 Friday 17 July Saturday 12 September Royal Albert Hall, London 66

99 1993 Friday 16 July Saturday 11 September Royal Albert Hall, London 67

100 1994 Friday 15 July Saturday 10 September Royal Albert Hall, London 68

101 1995 Friday 21 July Saturday 16 September Royal Albert Hall, London 70

102 1996 Friday 19 July Saturday 14 September Royal Albert Hall, London 72

103 1997 Friday 18 July Saturday 13 September Royal Albert Hall, London 73

104 1998 Friday 17 July Saturday 12 September Royal Albert Hall, London 73

105 1999 Friday 16 July Saturday 11 September Royal Albert Hall, London 72

106 2000 Friday 14 July Saturday 9 September Royal Albert Hall, London 72

107 2001 Friday 20 July Saturday 15 September Royal Albert Hall, London 73

108 2002 Friday 19 July Saturday 14 September Royal Albert Hall, London 73

109 2003 Friday 18 July Saturday 13 September Royal Albert Hall, London 73

110 2004 Friday 16 July Saturday 11 September Royal Albert Hall, London 74

111 2005 Friday 15 July Saturday 10 September Royal Albert Hall, London 74

112 2006 Friday 14 July Saturday 9 September Royal Albert Hall, London 73

113 2007 Friday 13 July Saturday 8 September Royal Albert Hall, London 72

114 2008 Friday 18 July Saturday 13 September Royal Albert Hall, London 76

115 2009 Friday 17 July Saturday 12 September Royal Albert Hall, London 76

116 2010 Friday 16 July Saturday 11 September Royal Albert Hall, London 76

117 2011 Friday 15 July Saturday 10 September Royal Albert Hall, London 74

118 2012 Friday 13 July Saturday 8 September Royal Albert Hall, London 76

119 2013 Friday 12 July Saturday 7 September Royal Albert Hall, London 75

120 2014 Friday 18 July Saturday 13 September Royal Albert Hall, London 76

121 2015 Friday 17 July Saturday 12 September Royal Albert Hall, London 76

122 2016 Friday 15 July Saturday 10 September Royal Albert Hall, London 75

123 2017 Friday 14 July Saturday 9 September Royal Albert Hall, London 75

[1] The second half of concert 18 and the remaining 31 concerts (19–49) of the 1940 season (Saturday 2 September to Saturday 7 October) were cancelled due to the outbreak of World War II. [2] Concerts 26–49 of the 1941 season (Saturday 8 September to Saturday 5 October) were cancelled due to intensified nightly air raids during World War II. [3] Concerts 18–55 (Friday 30 June to Saturday 12 August) of the 1944 season were cancelled due to V-1 flying bombs ("Doodle Bugs") which had started to fall on London
London
during World War II. Proms Controllers[edit]

William Glock (1960–1973) Robert Ponsonby (1973–1985) John Drummond (1986–1995) Nicholas Kenyon (1996–2007) Roger Wright (2007–2014) Edward Blakeman (interim Director; 2014–2015) David Pickard (2015–present)[32]

See also[edit]

BBC
BBC
portal

BBC
BBC
Radio 2 Electric Proms List of music festivals in the United Kingdom

References[edit]

^ 2007 Last Night of the Proms speech, Jiří Bělohlávek, September 8, 2007. Daily Kos, November 3, 2007. ^ Robert Elkin, Queen's Hall, 1893–1941 (Rider & Co, London 1944), pp. 25–6. ^ Henry J. Wood, My Life of Music (Victor Gollancz, London, First edition 1938, cheap edition 1946), 1946, p. 68. ^ Wood, 1946, p. 68. ^ Ivan Hewett (12 July 2007). " The Proms
The Proms
and the Promenerders". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 20 July 2008.  ^ Peter Mullen. "Everyone knows Henry Wood
Henry Wood
set up the Proms. But who remembers the man who hired him to do it?". The Independent. London. Retrieved 19 April 2009.  ^ John Smith. "Encore for the Proms". Manchester
Manchester
Evening News. Retrieved 19 April 2009.  ^ Wood 1946, pp. 68–84. ^ Wood 1946, pp. 69–71, 73. ^ Jacobs, Arthur (2004). "Wood, Sir Henry Joseph (1869–1944)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/37001. Retrieved 2000-01-10.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ In a B.B.C. Interview recorded on 23 August 1941, introducing Sir Henry Wood, W.W. Thompson, the orchestral manager, remarked, 'There's only one man to speak for the Proms, for he is the Proms. That's Sir Henry Wood. Would you live them over again, Sir Henry?' (Henry Wood): 'Every day and every hour.' (Thompson): 'All those five thousand concerts?' (Henry Wood): 'Every one of them.' R. Elkin, Queen's Hall 1893–1941 (Rider & Co., London
London
1944), Transcript pp. 138–46, at p. 143. ^ For a list of Wood's principal 'novelties' from 1895 to 1937, see Wood 1946, pp. 353–372. ^ "Sir Henry Wood
Henry Wood
Collection". Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ Elkin 1944, p. 33, quoting from W. Boosey, Fifty Years of Music (Ernest Benn Limited, London
London
1931), at pp. 177–78. The title ' Queen's Hall
Queen's Hall
Orchestra' was briefly revived in 1935 and 1936 for some recordings and a series of Sunday Concerts. ^ Thomas Russell, Philharmonic Decade (Hutchinson & Co, London, New York, Melbourne & Sydney [1944]), pp. 97–8. ^ Further details of Wood's sometimes difficult relations with Keith Douglas and with the BBC
BBC
are given in Reginald Pound, Sir Henry Wood: A Biography (Cassell, London
London
1969). ^ Russell, Philharmonic Decade, pp. 97–8, 112. ^ In 1944 an article in The Times commented, 'The Proms. as we know them are Sir Henry Wood's creation, and in their unbroken though slightly war-damaged career of 48 years they have depended on him through all vicissitudes of taste, finance, personnel, and management.' (quoted in) Elkin (1944), p. 37. ^ Russell ([1944]), p. 112. ^ Doctor, Jenny (2008). "The Parataxis of "British Musical Modernism"". The Musical Quarterly. 91 (1–2): 89–115. doi:10.1093/musqtl/gdn031. Retrieved 19 September 2010.  ^ Bayan Northcott. "Small ripples in a calm sea: As the 100th season of Henry Wood
Henry Wood
Proms sails into port, Bayan Northcott wonders if the programming is running out of steam". The Independent. London. Retrieved 19 September 2010.  ^ BBC
BBC
Proms Guide 2007. BBC. 2007. ISBN 978-1-84607-256-7.  ^ Lasserson, David. " Blue Peter
Blue Peter
Proms". The Guardian. UK.  ^ BBC
BBC
Press Office. " Blue Peter
Blue Peter
presenters perform at the Proms". Retrieved 1 September 2007.  ^ Fisher, Neil. " The Proms
The Proms
have been innovating ever since 1895". The Times. UK. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  ^ "What is promming?". BBC. 2010. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.  ^ "How to book/buy tickets". BBC. 2010. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.  ^ Andrew Hough and Andy Bloxham "Proms: Palestinian protest at Royal Albert Hall forces BBC
BBC
to abandon live broadcast", The Daily Telegraph, 2 September 2011 ^ Marcus Dysch "Anti-Israel protesters disrupt BBC
BBC
Proms", The Jewish Chronicle, 2 September 2011 ^ Andrew Clements (2014-07-17). "Start of Proms marks end of Roger Wright's tenure as director". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-06-07.  ^ "David Pickard named as Director, BBC
BBC
Proms" (Press release). BBC. 26 May 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-02.  ^ a b John Plunkett (2015-05-26). "Glyndebourne chief David Pickard to head BBC
BBC
Proms". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-06-07.  ^ "Proms resume after fire at venue". BBC
BBC
News Online. Retrieved 11 April 2007.  ^ a b c BBC
BBC
Proms Guide 2009. BBC. 2009. ISBN 978-1-84607-788-3.  ^ Alberge, Dalya. " BBC
BBC
Proms to feature West End show tunes". The Times. London. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 26 April 2007.  ^ Akbar, Arifa. " BBC
BBC
denies dumbing down as Michael Ball signs up for Proms". The Independent. UK: Independent News & Media. Archived from the original on 29 April 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.  ^ "Dam Busters fly in for British film score night at the Proms". Evening Standard. London: Associated Newspapers. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2007.  ^ Higgins, Charlotte. "Proms chief takes over at Barbican". The Guardian. UK: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 11 April 2007.  ^ "Radio 3 Controller to run the BBC
BBC
Proms". BBC
BBC
press release CF2/VB. BBC
BBC
Online. Retrieved 26 April 2007.  ^ " BBC
BBC
Proms homepage". BBC
BBC
Proms website. BBC. 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2008.  ^ Jessica Duchen. " BBC
BBC
Proms: Everything you wanted to know (but were afraid to ask)". The Independent. London. Retrieved 20 July 2008.  ^ Ciar Byrne. " Doctor Who
Doctor Who
makes his debut at the Proms". The Independent. London. Retrieved 20 July 2008.  ^ Philip Webster. " Margaret Hodge
Margaret Hodge
in hot water after Proms attack". The Times. London. Retrieved 5 March 2008.  ^ "Britain's Proms go Bollywood". Google News. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2009.  ^ Hoyle, Ben. "Goldie features in 2009 Proms programme". The Times. UK. Retrieved 8 April 2009.  ^ Fisher, Neil. "The verdict on the 2009 Proms programme". The Times. UK. Retrieved 8 April 2009.  ^ Higgins, Charlotte. " Bollywood
Bollywood
comes to the Proms—Sounds of India and music for vacuum cleaners both feature in the Proms' bold 114th season". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 8 April 2009.  ^ " BBC
BBC
Proms 2010: Parry and Scriabin spotlights". BBC. Retrieved 22 April 2010.  ^ " BBC
BBC
Proms 2010: celebrating Henry Wood". BBC. Retrieved 22 April 2010.  ^ "Saturday 24 July 2010". BBC. Retrieved 22 April 2010.  ^ "Sunday 25 July 2010". BBC. Retrieved 22 April 2010.  ^ Higgins, Charlotte. "The 2010 BBC
BBC
Proms unveiled". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 April 2010.  ^ Andrew Clements. "Prom 4: Gothic Symphony – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 March 2012.  ^ Fiona Maddocks. "Havergal Brian: Symphony No 1 ('The Gothic') – review". The Observer. Retrieved 22 March 2012.  ^ Fiona Maddocks (2013-07-27). "Proms 14 & 15: Das Rheingold/Die Walküre – review". The Observer. Retrieved 2017-08-16.  ^ Barry Millington (2017-07-31). "Proms 2017, review: BBCNOW / Zhang". Evening Standard. Retrieved 2017-08-16.  ^ Last Night of the Proms speech by Sakari Oramo, 9 September 2017. ^ "The Last Night". BBC
BBC
Proms website. BBC. 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008.  ^ Hamilton, James (2008). "Last Night of the Proms brought to a rousing finale with patriotic splendour". Sunday Herald. Archived from the original on 18 September 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008.  ^ Colin Matthews. "The evolution of the Proms". The Times Literary Supplement. London. Retrieved 20 July 2008.  ^ Cannadine, David (May 2008). "The 'Last Night of the Proms' in historical perspective". Historical Research. 81 (212): 315–349. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2008.00466.x. Retrieved 7 September 2009.  ^ a b "How to Book / Last Night Booking". BBC. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2009.  ^ Robert Cowan/Edward Seckerson. "Last Saturday saw the Last Night of the Proms and the first night of the Royal Opera's exile at the Barbican. Robert Cowan and Edward Seckerson were at the respective venues..." The Independent. London. Retrieved 7 September 2009.  ^ Andrew Clements. "Prom 72/ Last Night of the Proms". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 November 2008.  ^ Michael Church (28 August 2006). "How to put on a Prom". The Independent. London. Retrieved 20 July 2008.  ^ Teldec 4509-97868-2 CD, "Last Night of the Proms (The 100th Season)", 1994. ^ "Prom 76: Last Night of the Proms". BBC. Retrieved 14 August 2009.  ^ Roger Wright. "About the Proms / Questions to Roger Wright—Last Night of the Proms & Sea Shanties (Archived)". BBC. Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Last Night of the Proms to go live at cinemas worldwide". The Guardian. London. Press Association. Retrieved 14 August 2009.  ^ " Vivienne Westwood
Vivienne Westwood
couture gown auction – Streetwise Opera". Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ " BBC
BBC
Proms appoints first female director for Last Night". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ "Proms 76: Last Night of the Proms". BBC. Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ "Discover the secret history of the BBC
BBC
Proms". royalalberthall.com. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2016.  ^ "The Gazette ( London
London
Gazette supplement), issue 55354" (PDF). www.thegazette.co.uk. The Stationery Office. 30 December 1998. 

External links[edit]

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