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The Sultanate
Sultanate
of Sarawak
Sarawak
(Malay: Kesultanan Melayu Sarawak; Jawi:كسولتانن ملايو سراوق) was a traditional Malay kingdom, precursor of the present-day Kuching
Kuching
Division, Sarawak. The kingdom was founded in 1599 and witnessed the reign of a sole Sultan, Sultan
Sultan
Tengah Manga, known as Ibrahim Ali Omar Shah of Sarawak.[1] The state established close relationship with Brunei, Johor and forged dynastic rules to the surrounding Malay kingdoms in western Borneo including Sambas, Sukadana
Sukadana
and Tanjungpura-Matan.[2] The kingdom was dissolved following Sultan
Sultan
Tengah's assassination in 1641. The administration of the territory was then replaced by the local Malay governors appointed from Brunei, reunifying the area into Brunei prior to the White Rajah
White Rajah
era.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origin 1.2 Sarawak–Johor diplomatic crisis 1.3 Sarawak– Sukadana
Sukadana
alliance 1.4 Sarawak–Sambas union 1.5 Sarawak–Matan 1.6 Return and death

2 Legacy 3 References 4 Bibliography

History[edit]

Hassanal Bolkiah, the Sultan
Sultan
of Brunei Darussalam during his state visit to the Royal Tomb of Ibrahim Ali Omar Shah in Sarawak. Both rulers are the direct descendants of Muhammad Hassan, the tenth sultan of Brunei.

Origin[edit] According to the Salahsilah Raja-Raja Brunei (Bruneian Royal Annals), the state was established following the demise of Sultan
Sultan
Muhammad Hassan, the monarch of Bruneian Empire
Bruneian Empire
who ruled between 1582 to 1598. The death of the sultan witnessed the enthronement of Abdul Jalilul Akbar, the eldest prince of Muhammad Hassan as the Sultan
Sultan
of Brunei. However, the crowning of Abdul Jalil Akbar was objected by Pengiran Muda Tengah, claiming that the status of Abdul Jalilul was invalid as the elder prince was born before their father become the Sultan, in contrast to the Pengiran who was born after his father’s ascension to the throne, hence he believed that he had the superior right to inherit the kingdom.[3] Already anticipating this dispute, the newly crowned Sultan
Sultan
of Brunei appointed the Pengiran Muda Tengah as the Sultan
Sultan
of Sarawak, a frontier territory far from the central core of the Bruneian kingdom. The departure of the Pengiran was accompanied by more than 1000 soldiers from the Sakai, Kedayan, and Bunut tribes, natives of Borneo. A coterie of Bruneian nobility also followed him to develop the administration system in the new kingdom.[4] Today, a number of Kuching
Kuching
and Sambas Malay community can trace their origin from the pioneers.[5] The new Sultan
Sultan
constructed a fortified palace in Sungai Bedil, Santubong, morphing the area into the royal, judicial and administrate capital of the kingdom. He began appoint his deputies and delegates, incorporating the position of Datu
Datu
Seri Setia, Datu
Datu
Shahbandar Indera Wangsa, Datu
Datu
Amar Setia Diraja and Datuk Temenggong Laila Wangsa in the governance system. He proclaimed as the sultan after completing the administration system of the new kingdom, bearing the regal name of Sultan
Sultan
Ibrahim Ali Omar Shah. According to Sambas Royal records, Sultan
Sultan
Tengah Manga was known as Sultan
Sultan
Abdul Jalil.[6] Sarawak–Johor diplomatic crisis[edit] By the early 17th century, Sultan
Sultan
Tengah was in Pahang (then an autonomous-kingdom in Johor) to visit his aunt, Raja Bondan, the Queen consort. Before he left, he elected four Datus (nobleman) to administer the kingdom. His aunt was married to the sultan, Abdul Ghafur Muhiuddin Shah. While in Johor, he was invited to perform a courtly dance. It was during the performance that one of the dancer almost hit the face of Sultan
Sultan
Tengah with a handkerchief, by accident. The furious Sultan
Sultan
Tengah then slapped the dancer. This caused a disappointed by the Sultan
Sultan
of Pahang, he then ordered the Sarawakian Royal entourage to immediately left his kingdom.[5] While based on the Sultanate
Sultanate
of Sambas narration, Sultan
Sultan
Tengah was requested to leave the Johorean soil for his refusal to marry Princess Cik Zohra upon the request of his queen aunt. Sarawak– Sukadana
Sukadana
alliance[edit] The royal entourage was hit by a major storm during their return voyage to Borneo. The vessel was then blew off course and arrived to the shores of the Sukadana
Sukadana
Kingdom.[6] The polity of Sukanada was ruled by a Javanese Hindu
Hindu
King, Penambahan Giri Mustika, he was later known as Sultan
Sultan
Muhammad Saifuddin after his conversion to Islam by Sheikh Shamsuddin, a missionary from Mecca. It was also during his time in Sukadana
Sukadana
that Sultan
Sultan
Tengah commenced his religious studies under the guidance of Sheikh Shamsuddin.[5][7] The Sultan
Sultan
later wedded Princess Puteri Surya Kesuma, sister of the reigning monarch. He also briefly settled in Sukadana
Sukadana
and requested permission to carry out missionary activities to the local populace. His request was permitted and granted the land around the Sambas river to perform his duties. By 1600, he departed Sukadana
Sukadana
to Sambas together with an entourage of 40 vessels with armed men. The royal entourage arrived and built a settlement around Kuala Bangun, near the Sambas river. It was during the time in Sambas that the Puteri gave birth to a prince, Radin Sulaiman. She later gave birth to following two childrens, Pengiran Badaruddin (later become Pengiran Bendahara Seri Maharaja) and Pengiran Abdul Wahab (Pengiran Temenggong Jaya Kesuma). Sarawak–Sambas union[edit]

The Jamek Mosque of Sambas Sultanate. The arrival of Sultan
Sultan
Tengah in Sambas revolutionised the ancient Hindu
Hindu
kingdom into a Malay Muslim Sultanate. The current ruling house of Sambas traced their lineage from the Sarawakian Sultan.

Located further up of the Sambas River, The sultan's arrival in Kota Lama was greatly celebrated by the Ratu Sapundak, the King of Kota Lama who welcomed the Sultan
Sultan
as the royal guest of honour. The King allowed Sultan
Sultan
Tengah to perform his missionary activities to the local populace, despite himself being a Hindu
Hindu
ruler of Majapahit descent. The long stay in Sambas also witnessed the marriage of his Sultan
Sultan
Tengah's prince, Radin Sulaiman to Puteri Mas Ayu Bongsu, the princess of Ratu Sapundak. The royal pair had a son named Radin Bima, who would later become the 2nd Sultan
Sultan
of Sambas.[5][7] Following the death of Ratu Sapundak, the throne of Sambas was succeeded by Pengiran Prabu Kenchana who appointed Radin Sulaiman as one of his advisers. Historical records narrated that Ratu Sapundak had desired to appoint Sultan
Sultan
Tengah as his successor due to his expertise in governance and administration, although his request was highly objected by the members of Sambas aristocrats due to their religious differences, with the members of the then-Sambas nobility was predominantly of Hindu
Hindu
faith. However, this would change in 1631, when Radin Sulaiman rise to the crown of Sambas, bearing the regal name of Sri Paduka al- Sultan
Sultan
Tuanku Muhammad Safiuddin I, the first muslim ruler of the Sambas Kingdom.[6] Sarawak–Matan[edit] By 1630, the sultan departed to Matan. In Matan, he married a local princess. The marriage issued a prince, Pengiran Mangku Negara, who later become the Sultan
Sultan
of Matan. It was after a few years in Matan that he decided to return to Sarawak.[5] Return and death[edit] After staying a few years in Matan, the sultan decided to return to Sarawak. In 1641, he and his party settled in Batu Buaya, Santubong while en route to Sarawak.[8] It was during his time in Batu Buaya that he was assassinated by one of his escorts.[3][9] When the news of the death of the sultan arrived in Sarawak, Datu
Datu
Patinggi, Shahbandar Datu, Datu
Datu
Amar and Datu
Datu
Temenggong departed to Santubong to complete the funeral rites of the sultan based on the Bruneian Royal customs. The Queen consort, Ratu Surya Kesuma decided to return to the Kingdom of Sukananda after his demise.[9] The kingdom was then reunified with Brunei following the death of the popular sultan, marking the end of an era. The local Sarawakian administration was then succeeded to the local governors appointed by the Bruneian monarch. Legacy[edit] The final resting place of the first and the final sultan of Sarawak was discovered in 1993, located in Kampong Batu Buaya.[10][11] A royal mausoleum was constructed in May 1995 following the rediscovery of the tomb.[7] The monument was visited by Hassanal Bolkiah, the Sultan
Sultan
of Brunei during his state visit to Sarawak
Sarawak
in 2007. The death of the sultan witnessed the demise of the Sultanate
Sultanate
of Sarawak. Nonetheless, his reign was instrumental to the sociopolitical framework of western shores of Borneo.[12] He established his capital in Sungai Bedil which then prospered into Kuching
Kuching
during the White Rajah era. He also had incorporated the position of Datu
Datu
Patinggi, Shahbandar Datu, Datu
Datu
Amar and Datu
Datu
Temenggong in the Sarawak administration system that can be seen today. While his missionary activities also transformed the native Hindu
Hindu
society into a Malay Muslim community in coastal Borneo, while his political marriage and alliances established new dynastic houses to the kingdoms of Sambas and Matan.[2] References[edit]

^ Porritt 2012 ^ a b Bruneidesi 2017 ^ a b Danielle Sendou Ringgit 2016 ^ Sarawak
Sarawak
State Secretary Office 2016 ^ a b c d e Gregory 2015 ^ a b c Kaffah 2017 ^ a b c Larsen 2012 ^ Tunku Hilda 2015 ^ a b Tomi 2014 ^ Arkib Negara Malaysia
Malaysia
2016 ^ Sygic 2017 ^ Utusan Borneo
Borneo
Online 2016

Bibliography[edit]

Arkib Negara Malaysia
Malaysia
(2016), Penemuan Makan Sultan
Sultan
Sarawak
Sarawak
Pertama, Pekhabar  Bruneidesi (2017), Sultans of Brunei  Danielle Sendou Ringgit (2016), A brush with royalty in Sambas, The Borneo
Borneo
Post  Gregory, Zayn (2015), The Maqam of Sultan
Sultan
Tengah, BinGreogory  Kaffah (2017), Istana Alwatzikhubillah, Kabupaten Sambas, Kalimantan barat  Larsen, Ib (2012), The First Sultan
Sultan
of Sarawak
Sarawak
and His Links to Brunei and the Sambas Dynasty, 1599-1826: A Little known Pre-Brooke History, Malaysian Branch of Royal Asiatic Society  Porritt, Vernon L. (2012), Sarawak
Sarawak
Proper: trading and trading patterns from earlier times to the registration of the Borneo
Borneo
Company in 1856., Borneo
Borneo
Research Council, Inc  Sarawak
Sarawak
State Secretary Office (2016), Sarawak
Sarawak
Before 1841, Official Website of Sarawak
Sarawak
State Government  Sygic (2017), Tomb of Sultan
Sultan
Tengah  Tomi (2014), Pasak Negeri Kapuas 1616-1822, Feliz Books, ISBN 978-602-961-357-5  Tunku Hilda (2015), Kino Santubung Megalithic Mystery, KINO (Kuching In and Out)  Utusan Borneo
Borneo
Online (2016), Teater Kesultanan Sarawak 

v t e

History of East Malaysia

Main history1

Empire of Brunei Japanese occupation

Battle of Borneo
Borneo
(1941–42) Borneo
Borneo
campaign (1945)

British Military Administration Indonesia– Malaysia
Malaysia
confrontation Malaysia
Malaysia
Agreement

Proclamation of Malaysia

History of Sabah

Brunei Civil War Sultanate
Sultanate
of Sulu Austrian colony North Borneo
North Borneo
Chartered Company British North Borneo

Antanum Mat Salleh

Madrid Protocol Jesselton Revolt Sandakan camp

Sandakan Death Marches

Battle of North Borneo Crown Colony of North Borneo Self-government of North Borneo Cobbold Commission

20-point agreement

Keningau Oath Stone Double Six Crash Cross border attacks from the Philippines

1985 Lahad Datu
Datu
ambush 2000 Sipadan kidnappings 2013 Lahad Datu
Datu
standoff

1986 Sabah riots 1991 Sabah political arrests Project IC Sabah State Water Department corruption probe

History of Sarawak

Sultanate
Sultanate
of Sarawak Kingdom of Sarawak

Rentap Liu Shan Bang Syarif Masahor

Crown Colony of Sarawak

Anti-cession movement of Sarawak

Communist insurgency in Sarawak Self-government of Sarawak Cobbold Commission

18-point agreement

1966 Sarawak
Sarawak
constitutional crisis 1987 Ming Court Affair

History of Labuan

Crown Colony of Labuan North Borneo
North Borneo
Chartered Company Administered under Straits Settlements Battle of North Borneo

Battle of Labuan

Administered under Crown Colony of North Borneo Part of Sabah Became Federal Territory

1: Covers the three