See text.

A Devonian
spiriferid brachiopod from Ohio which served as a host substrate for a colony of hederellids.

is an order of extinct articulate brachiopod fossils which are known for their long hinge-line, which is often the widest part of the shell. In some genera (e.g. Mucrospirifer) it is greatly elongated, giving them a wing-like appearance. They often have a deep fold down the center of the shell. The feature that gives the spiriferids their name ("spiral-bearers") is the internal support for the lophophore; this brachidium, which is often preserved in fossils, is a thin ribbon of calcite that is typically coiled tightly within the shell. Spiriferids first appear in the Late Ordovician
with the appearance of Eospirifer radiatus. They increased in diversity throughout the Silurian
and underwent a dramatic evolutionary radiation during the Devonian
period, reaching peak development in variety and numbers. Spiriferida
survived the great Permian
extinction, finally becoming extinct during the Early to Middle Jurassic. Fossils of this order are often preserved as pyrite. Taxonomy[edit] Order Spiriferida

Suborder Delthyridina

Superfamily Delthyridoidea

Family Acrospiriferidae Family Cyrtinopsidae Family Delthyrididae Family Hysterolitidae Family Mucrospiriferidae

Superfamily Reticularioidea

Family Elythidae Family Reticulariidae Family Thomasariidae Family Xenomartiniidae

Suborder Spiriferidina

Superfamily Adolfioidea

Family Adolfiidae Family Echinospiriferidae

Superfamily Ambocoelioidea

Family Ambocoeliidae Family Eudoxinidae Family Lazutkiniidae Family Verneuiliidae

Superfamily Brachythyridoidea

Family Brachythyrididae Family Skelidorygmidae

Superfamily Cyrtioidea (syn. Cyrtiacea)

Family Costispiriferidae Family Cyrtiidae Family Hedeinopsidae

Superfamily Cyrtospiriferoidea

Family Conispiriferidae Family Cyrtospiriferidae Family Spinocyrtiidae

Superfamily Martinioidea

Family Crassumbidae Family Elythynidae Family Gerkispiridae Family Ingelarellidae Family Martiniidae Family Perissothyrididae Family Tenellodermidae

Superfamily Paeckelmanelloidea

Family Paeckelmanellidae Family Strophopleuridae

Superfamily Spiriferoidea

Family Choristitidae Family Imbrexiidae Family Reticulariacea Family Spiriferellidae Family Spiriferidae Family Trigonotretidae

Superfamily Theodossioidea

Family Palaeochoristitidae Family Theodossiidae Family Ulbospiriferidae


Introduction to the Spiriferida
at Spiriferida
at the Paleos website Zhan, RenBin, JiSuo Jin, Yan Liang, and LingKai Meng. " Evolution
and paleogeography of Eospirifer (Spiriferida, Brachiopoda) in Late Ordovician
and Silurian." Science China Earth Sciences 55, no. 9 (2012): 1427-1444.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1509529 EoL: 4337951 Fossil