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Southeast Asia, or Southeastern Asia, is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China
China
and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, and north of Australia.[4] Southeast Asia
Asia
is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia
Asia
and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania
Oceania
and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia
Australia
and the Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia
Asia
that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:

Mainland Southeast Asia, also known historically as Indochina, comprising parts of Northeast India
India
(Part of India
India
east of Siliguri Corridor), Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar
Myanmar
and West Malaysia. Maritime Southeast Asia, also known historically as Nusantara, the East Indies
East Indies
and Malay Archipelago, comprises the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, Indonesia, East Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, East Timor, Brunei, Christmas Island, and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.[5] The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities. The Sunda Plate
Sunda Plate
is the main plate of the region, featuring almost all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, and northern Luzon
Luzon
of the Philippines. The mountain ranges in Myanmar, Thailand, and peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
are part of the Alpide belt, while the islands of the Philippines
Philippines
are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia, causing the region to have relatively high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.[6] Southeast Asia
Asia
covers about 4.5 million km2 (1.7 million mi2), which is 10.5% of Asia
Asia
or 3% of earth's total land area. Its total population is more than 641 million, about 8.5% of the world's population. It is the third most populous geographical region in the world after South Asia
Asia
and East Asia.[7] The region is culturally and ethnically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups.[8] Ten countries in the region are members of ASEAN, a regional organization established for economic, political, military, educational and cultural integration amongst its members.[9]

Contents

1 Definitions

1.1 Political divisions

1.1.1 Sovereign states 1.1.2 Administrative subdivisions 1.1.3 Dependent territories

1.2 Geographical divisions

2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist kingdoms era 2.3 Spread of Islam 2.4 Trade and foreign colonisation

2.4.1 Chinese 2.4.2 European 2.4.3 Japanese 2.4.4 Indian 2.4.5 American

2.5 Contemporary history

3 Geography

3.1 Boundaries 3.2 Climate 3.3 Environment

4 Economy 5 Demographics

5.1 Ethnic groups 5.2 Religion 5.3 Languages 5.4 Cities

6 Culture

6.1 Influences 6.2 Arts

6.2.1 Music 6.2.2 Writing

7 See also 8 References

8.1 Citations 8.2 Sources

9 Further reading 10 External links

Definitions[edit] The region, together with part of South Asia, was well known by Europeans as the East Indies
East Indies
or simply the Indies
Indies
until the 20th century. Chinese sources referred the region as 南洋 (Nanyang), which literally means the "Southern Ocean." The mainland section of Southeast Asia
Asia
was referred to as Indochina
Indochina
by European geographers due to its location between China
China
and the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and its having cultural influences from both neighboring regions. In the 20th century, however, the term became more restricted to territories of the former French Indochina
Indochina
(Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam). The maritime section of Southeast Asia
Asia
is also known as the Malay Archipelago, a term derived from the European concept of a Malay race.[10] Another term for Maritime Southeast Asia
Asia
is Insulindia (Indian Islands), used to describe the region between Indochina
Indochina
and Australasia.[11] The term "Southeast Asia" was first used in 1839 by American pastor Howard Malcolm in his book Travels in South-Eastern Asia. Malcolm only included the Mainland section and excluded the Maritime section in his definition of Southeast Asia.[12] The term was officially used in the midst of World
World
War II by the Allies, through the formation of South East Asia
Asia
Command (SEAC) in 1943.[13] SEAC popularised the use of the term "Southeast Asia," although what constituted Southeast Asia
Asia
was not fixed; for example, SEAC excluded the Philippines
Philippines
and a large part of Indonesia
Indonesia
while including Ceylon. However, by the late 1970s, a roughly standard usage of the term "Southeast Asia" and the territories it encompasses had emerged.[14] Although from a cultural or linguistic perspective the definitions of "Southeast Asia" may vary, the most common definitions nowadays include the area represented by the countries (sovereign states and dependent territories) listed below. Ten of the eleven states of Southeast Asia
Asia
are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN), while East Timor
East Timor
is an observer state. Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
has stated that it might join ASEAN, and is currently an observer. Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China
China
Sea.

Political divisions[edit] Sovereign states[edit]

State

Area(km2)[2]

Population(2016)[1]

Density(/km2)

GDP (nominal),USD (2019)[2]

GDP (PPP)per capita,Int$ (2019)[2]

HDI (2018 report)

Capital

 Brunei

5,765

423,196

78

14,310,000,000

$86,480

0.853

Bandar Seri Begawan

 Cambodia

181,035

15,762,370

85

24,733,000,000

$4,322

0.582

Phnom Penh

  East Timor
East Timor
(Timor-Leste)

14,874

1,268,671

75

2,962,000,000

$6,077

0.625

Dili

 Indonesia

1,904,569

261,115,456

132

1,177,568,000,000

$13,969

0.694

Jakarta

 Laos

236,800

6,758,353

30

17,216,000,000

$8,571

0.600

Vientiane

 Malaysia

329,847

31,187,265

91

422,591,000,000

$32,502

0.802

Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
*

 Myanmar

676,000

52,885,223

78

92,775,000,000

$7,387

0.578

Nay Pyi Taw

 Philippines

343,448

103,320,222

294

435,905,000,000

$9,538

0.699

Manila

 Singapore

724

5,622,455

7,671

334,713,000,000

$102,027

0.932

Singapore

 Thailand

513,120

68,863,514

127

436,467,000,000

$20,268

0.755

Bangkok

 Vietnam

331,210

94,569,072

279

254,324,000,000

$8,060

0.694

Hanoi

Administrative subdivisions[edit] UNSD statistical divisions for Asia
Asia
based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:[15]   North Asia   Central Asia
Asia
  Western Asia
Asia
  South Asia
Asia
  East Asia
Asia
  Southeast Asia

Territory

Area (km2)

Population

Density (/km2)

GDP,USD (2018)

GDPper capita,USD (2018)

HDI (2014)

Capital

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

8,251

380,600[16]

46

0.778

Port Blair

Hainan

33,920

9,257,600[17]

201.1

73,025,000,000

$7,888.1

0.738

Haikou

Dependent territories[edit] * Administrative centre in Putrajaya.

Territory

Area (km2)

Population

Density (/km2)

Capital

 Christmas Island

135[18]

1,402[18]

10.4

Flying Fish Cove

 Cocos (Keeling) Islands

14[19]

596[19]

42.6

West Island (Pulau Panjang)

Political map of Southeast Asia. Geographical divisions[edit] Southeast Asia
Asia
is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia
Asia
(or Indochina) and Maritime Southeast Asia
Asia
(or the similarly defined Malay Archipelago) (Javanese: Nusantara). Mainland Southeast Asia
Asia
includes:

Cambodia Laos Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burma) Peninsular Malaysia Thailand Vietnam

Maritime Southeast Asia
Asia
includes:

Indonesia Philippines East Malaysia Brunei Singapore East Timor

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
of India
India
are geographically considered part of Maritime Southeast Asia. Eastern Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Northeast India
India
have strong cultural ties with Southeast Asia
Asia
and are sometimes considered both South Asian
South Asian
and Southeast Asian.[20] Sri Lanka has on some occasions been considered a part of Southeast Asia
Asia
because of its cultural ties to mainland Southeast Asia.[14][21] The rest of the island of New Guinea which is not part of Indonesia, namely, Papua New Guinea, is sometimes included, and so are Palau, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, which were all part of the Spanish East Indies
East Indies
with strong cultural and linguistic ties to the region, specifically, the Philippines.[22] The eastern half of Indonesia
Indonesia
and East Timor
East Timor
(east of the Wallace Line) are considered to be biogeographically part of Oceania (Wallacea) due to its distinctive faunal features. New Guinea
New Guinea
and its surrounding islands are geologically considered as a part of Australian continent, connected via the Sahul Shelf.

Andaman SeaArafura Sea Bali
Bali
SeaBanda SeaCeram Sea Flores
Flores
SeaJava SeaMolucca SeaSavu SeaSouth China
China
Sea Timor
Timor
SeaBohol SeaCamotes Sea Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
(Pacific Ocean)Samar SeaSibuyan SeaSulu SeaVisayan SeaCelebes SeaBismarck SeaCoral SeaEast China
China
SeaSolomon SeaGulf of ThailandGulf of TonkinBay of BengalIndian OceanStrait of Malacca Makassar
Makassar
StraitGulf of CarpentariaKarimata StraitLuzon Strait Taiwan
Taiwan
StraitGulf of TominiSunda Strait Moro Gulf
Moro Gulf
Oceans and Seas in Southeast Asia History[edit] Main article: History of Southeast Asia Prehistory[edit] A megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra. 1500 CE The region was already inhabited by Homo erectus
Homo erectus
from 1,000,000 years ago during the Middle Pleistocene age.[23] Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45,000 years ago,[24] having moved eastwards from the Indian subcontinent.[25] Rock art (parietal art) dating from 40,000 years ago (which is currently the world's oldest) has been discovered in the caves of Borneo.[26] Homo floresiensis
Homo floresiensis
also lived in the area up until 12,000 years ago, when they became extinct.[27] It has been proposed that the Austronesian
Austronesian
people, who form the majority of the modern population in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, East Timor, and the Philippines, may have migrated to Southeast Asia
Asia
from Taiwan. They arrived in Indonesia
Indonesia
around 2000 BC, and as they spread through the archipelago, they often settled along coastal areas and confined indigenous peoples such as Orang Asli
Orang Asli
of peninsular Malaysia, Negritos of the Philippines
Philippines
or Papuans
Papuans
of New Guinea
New Guinea
to inland regions.[28] Archaeologists refer these people as Deutero-Malays, whom are more advanced in farming techniques and metal knowledge than their indigenous counterpart, the Proto-Malays.[29][30] Studies presented by HUGO (Human Genome Organization) through genetic studies of the various peoples of Asia, show empirically that there was a single migration event from Africa, whereby the early people travelled along the south coast of Asia, first entered the Malay peninsula 50,000–90,000 years ago. The Orang Asli, in particular the Semang
Semang
who show Negrito
Negrito
characteristics, are the direct descendants of these earliest settlers of Southeast Asia. These early people diversified and travelled slowly northwards to China, and the populations of Southeast Asia
Asia
show greater genetic diversity than the younger population of China.[31][30] Studies on the genetics of modern Malays however show that there is a complex history of admixture of human populations in Southeast Asia, with the Malay population showing four major ancestral components: Austronesian, Proto-Malay, East Asian, and South Asian.[32] Solheim and others have shown evidence for a Nusantao (Nusantara) maritime trading network ranging from Vietnam
Vietnam
to the rest of the archipelago as early as 5000 BC to 1 AD.[33] The Bronze Age Dong Son culture
Dong Son culture
flourished in Northern Vietnam
Vietnam
from about 1000 BC to 1 BC. Its influence spread to other parts Southeast Asia.[34][35][36] The region entered the Iron Age era in 500 BC, when iron was forged also in northern Vietnam
Vietnam
still under Dong Son, due to its frequent interactions with neighboring China.[23] The peoples of Southeast Asia, especially those of Austronesian descent, have been seafarers for thousands of years, some reaching the island of Madagascar, became the ancestors of modern-day Malagasy people.[37] Passage through the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
aided the colonisation of Madagascar, as well as commerce between Western Asia, eastern coast of India
India
and Chinese southern coast.[37] Gold from Sumatra
Sumatra
is thought to have reached as far west as Rome. Pliny the Elder wrote in his Natural History about Chryse and Argyre, two legendary islands rich in gold and silver, located in the Indian Ocean. Their vessels, such as the vinta, were capable to sail across ocean. Magellan's voyage
Magellan's voyage
records how much more manoeuvrable their vessels were, as compared to the European ships.[38] A slave from the Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
was believed to have been used in Magellan's voyage as a translator.

Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC Most Southeast Asian people were originally animist, engaged in ancestors, nature, and spirits worship. These belief systems were later supplanted by Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
after the region, especially coastal areas, came under contacts with Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
during the 1st century.[39] Indian Brahmins and traders brought Hinduism to the region and made contacts with local courts.[40] Local rulers converted to Hinduism
Hinduism
or Buddhism
Buddhism
and adopted Indian religious traditions to reinforce their legitimacy, elevate ritual status above their fellow chief counterparts and facilitate trade with South Asian states. They periodically invited Indian Brahmins into their realms and began a gradual process of Indianisation in the region.[41][42][43] Shaivism
Shaivism
was the dominant religious tradition of many southern Indian Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms during the 1st century. It then spread into Southeast Asia
Asia
via Bay of Bengal, Indochina, then Malay Archipelago, leading to thousands of Shiva temples on the islands of Indonesia
Indonesia
as well as Cambodia
Cambodia
and Vietnam, co-evolving with Buddhism
Buddhism
in the region.[44][45] Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
entered the region during the 3rd century, via maritime trade routes between the region and Sri Lanka.[46] Buddhism
Buddhism
later established a strong presence in Funan
Funan
region in the 5th century. In present-day mainland Southeast Asia, Theravada
Theravada
is still the dominant branch of Buddhism, practiced by the Thai, Burmese and Cambodian Buddhists. This branch was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture. Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
established presence in Maritime Southeast Asia, brought by Chinese monks during their transit in the region en route to Nalanda.[41] It is still the dominant branch of Buddhism
Buddhism
practiced by Indonesian and Malaysian Buddhists. The spread of these two Indian religions confined the adherents of Southeast Asian indigenous beliefs into remote inland areas. Maluku Islands and New Guinea
New Guinea
were never been Indianised and its native people were predominantly animists until the 15th century when Islam began to spread in those areas.[47] While in Vietnam, Buddhism never managed to develop strong institutional networks due to strong Chinese influence.[48] In present-day Southeast Asia, Vietnam is the only country where its folk religion makes up the plurality.[49][50] Recently, Vietnamese folk religion is undergoing a revival with the support of the government.[51] Elsewhere, there are ethnic groups in Southeast Asia
Asia
that resist conversion and still retain their original animist beliefs, such as the Dayaks
Dayaks
in Kalimantan, the Igorots in Luzon, and the Shans in eastern Myanmar.[52]

Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist kingdoms era[edit] Main articles: Greater India
India
and History of Indian influence on Southeast Asia Borobudur
Borobudur
in Central Java, Indonesia After the region came under contacts with Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
circa 400 BCE, it began a gradual process of Indianisation where Indian ideas such as religions, cultures, architectures and political administrations were brought by traders and religious figures and adopted by local rulers. In turn, Indian Brahmins and monks were invited by local rulers to live in their realms and help transforming local polities to become more Indianised, blending Indian and indigenous traditions.[53][42][43] Sanskrit and Pali
Pali
became the elite language of the region, which effectively made Southeast Asia
Asia
part of the Indosphere.[54] Most of the region had been Indianised during the first centuries, while the Philippines
Philippines
later Indianised circa 9th century when Kingdom of Tondo was established in Luzon.[55] Vietnam, especially its northern part, was never fully Indianised due to the many periods of Chinese domination it experienced.[56] The first Indian-influenced polities established in the region were the Pyu city-states
Pyu city-states
that already existed circa 2nd century BCE, located in inland Myanmar. It served as an overland trading hub between India
India
and China.[57] Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
was the predominant religion of these city states, while the presence of other Indian religions such as Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism
Hinduism
were also widespread.[58][59] In the 1st century, the Funan states centered in Mekong Delta
Mekong Delta
were established, encompassed modern-day Cambodia, southern Vietnam, Laos, and eastern Thailand. It became the dominant trading power in mainland Southeast Asia
Asia
for about five centuries, provided passage for Indian and Chinese goods and assumed authority over the flow of commerce through Southeast Asia.[37] In maritime Southeast Asia, the first recorded Indianised kingdom was Salakanagara, established in western Java
Java
circa 2nd century CE. This Hindu
Hindu
kingdom was known by the Greeks as Argyre (Land of Silver).[60]

Spread of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Indian culture
Indian culture
in Southeast Asia By the 5th century CE, trade networking between East and West was concentrated in the maritime route. Foreign traders were starting to use new routes such as Malacca and Sunda Strait
Sunda Strait
due to the development of maritime Southeast Asia. This change resulted in the decline of Funan, while new maritime powers such as Srivijaya, Tarumanagara, and Medang emerged. Srivijaya
Srivijaya
especially became the dominant maritime power for more than 5 centuries, controlling both Strait of Malacca and Sunda Strait.[37] This dominance started to decline when Srivijaya
Srivijaya
were invaded by Chola
Chola
Empire, a dominant maritime power of Indian subcontinent, in 1025.[61] The invasion reshaped power and trade in the region, resulted in the rise of new regional powers such as the Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
and Kahuripan.[62] Continued commercial contacts with the Chinese Empire
Chinese Empire
enabled the Cholas to influence the local cultures. Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu
Hindu
cultural influence found today throughout Southeast Asia
Asia
are the result of the Chola
Chola
expeditions.[63]

Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
in Siem Reap, Cambodia As Srivijaya
Srivijaya
influence in the region declined, The Hindu
Hindu
Khmer Empire experienced a golden age during the 11th to 13th century CE. The empire's capital Angkor
Angkor
hosts majestic monuments—such as Angkor
Angkor
Wat and Bayon. Satellite imaging has revealed that Angkor, during its peak, was the largest pre-industrial urban centre in the world.[64] The Champa
Champa
civilisation was located in what is today central Vietnam, and was a highly Indianised Hindu
Hindu
Kingdom. The Vietnamese launched a massive conquest against the Cham people during the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa, ransacking and burning Champa, slaughtering thousands of Cham people, and forcibly assimilating them into Vietnamese culture.[65] During the 13th century CE, the region experienced Mongol invasions, affected areas such as Vietnamese coast, inland Burma and Java. In 1258, 1285 and 1287, the Mongols tried to invade Đại Việt
Đại Việt
and Champa.[66] The invasions were unsuccessful, yet both Dai Viet and Champa
Champa
agreed to become tributary states to Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
to avoid further conflicts.[67] The Mongols also invaded Pagan Kingdom in Burma from 1277 to 1287, resulted in fragmentation of the Kingdom and rise of smaller Shan States
Shan States
ruled by local chieftains nominally submitted to Yuan dynasty.[68][69] However, in 1297, a new local power emerged. Myinsaing Kingdom
Myinsaing Kingdom
became the real ruler of Central Burma and challenged the Mongol rule. This resulted in the second Mongol invasion of Burma in 1300, which was repulsed by Myinsaing.[70][71] The Mongols would later in 1303 withdrawn from Burma.[72] In 1292, The Mongols sent envoys to Singhasari
Singhasari
Kingdom in Java
Java
to ask for submission to Mongol rule. Singhasari
Singhasari
rejected the proposal and injured the envoys, enraged the Mongols and made them sent a large invasion fleet to Java. Unbeknownst to them, Singhasari
Singhasari
collapsed in 1293 due to a revolt by Kadiri, one of its vassals. When the Mongols arrived in Java, a local prince named Raden Wijaya
Raden Wijaya
offered his service to assist the Mongols in punishing Kadiri. After Kadiri was defeated, Wijaya turned on his Mongol allies, ambushed their invasion fleet and forced them to immediately leave Java.[73][74] After the departure of the Mongols, Wijaya established the Majapahit Empire in eastern Java
Java
in 1293. Majapahit would soon grew into a regional power. Its greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire's peak when other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali
Bali
came under its influence. Various sources such as the Nagarakertagama also mention that its influence spanned over parts of Sulawesi, Maluku, and some areas of western New Guinea
New Guinea
and southern Philippines, making it one of the largest empire to ever exist in Southeast Asian history.[75](p107) By the 15th century CE however, Majapahit's influence began to wane due to many war of successions it experienced and the rise of new Islamic states such as Samudera Pasai
Samudera Pasai
and Malacca Sultanate around the strategic Strait of Malacca. Majapahit then collapsed around 1500. It was the last major Hindu
Hindu
kingdom and the last regional power in the region before the arrival of the Europeans.[76][77]

Spread of Islam[edit] Main articles: Spread of Islam
Islam
in Southeast Asia
Asia
and Islam
Islam
in Southeast Asia Kampung Laut Mosque
Kampung Laut Mosque
in Tumpat is one of the oldest mosques in Malaysia, dating to the early 18th century. Islam
Islam
began to made contacts with Southeast Asia
Asia
in the 8th-century CE, when the Umayyads established trade with the region via sea routes.[78][79][80] However its spread into the region happened centuries later. In the 11th century, a turbulent period occurred in the history of Maritime Southeast Asia. The Indian Chola
Chola
navy crossed the ocean and attacked the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
kingdom of Sangrama Vijayatungavarman in Kadaram (Kedah); the capital of the powerful maritime kingdom was sacked and the king was taken captive. Along with Kadaram, Pannai in present-day Sumatra
Sumatra
and Malaiyur and the Malayan peninsula were attacked too. Soon after that, the king of Kedah
Kedah
Phra Ong Mahawangsa became the first ruler to abandon the traditional Hindu
Hindu
faith, and converted to Islam
Islam
with the Sultanate of Kedah
Kedah
established in 1136. Samudera Pasai
Samudera Pasai
converted to Islam
Islam
in 1267, the King of Malacca Parameswara married the princess of Pasai, and the son became the first sultan of Malacca. Soon, Malacca became the center of Islamic study and maritime trade, and other rulers followed suit. Indonesian religious leader and Islamic scholar Hamka (1908–1981) wrote in 1961: "The development of Islam
Islam
in Indonesia and Malaya is intimately related to a Chinese Muslim, Admiral Zheng He."[81]

Children studying Qur'an
Qur'an
in Java, Indonesia, during colonial period There are several theories to the Islamisation
Islamisation
process in Southeast Asia. Another theory is trade. The expansion of trade among West Asia, India
India
and Southeast Asia
Asia
helped the spread of the religion as Muslim traders from Southern Yemen (Hadramout) brought Islam
Islam
to the region with their large volume of trade. Many settled in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia. This is evident in the Arab-Indonesian, Arab-Singaporean, and Arab-Malay populations who were at one time very prominent in each of their countries. Finally, the ruling classes embraced Islam
Islam
and that further aided the permeation of the religion throughout the region. The ruler of the region's most important port, Malacca Sultanate, embraced Islam
Islam
in the 15th century, heralding a period of accelerated conversion of Islam
Islam
throughout the region as Islam
Islam
provided a positive force among the ruling and trading classes. Gujarati Muslims played a pivotal role in establishing Islam
Islam
in Southeast Asia.[82]

Trade and foreign colonisation[edit] Strait of Malacca Trade among Southeast Asian countries has a long tradition. The consequences of colonial rule, struggle for independence and in some cases war influenced the economic attitudes and policies of each country until today.[83]

Chinese[edit] See also: List of tributaries of Imperial China
China
and Chinese Empire From 111 BC to 938 AD northern Vietnam
Vietnam
was under Chinese rule. Vietnam
Vietnam
was successfully governed by a series of Chinese dynasties including the Han, Eastern Han, Eastern Wu, Cao Wei, Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang, Sui, Tang, and Southern Han. Records from Magellan's voyage
Magellan's voyage
show that Brunei
Brunei
possessed more cannon than European ships, so the Chinese must have been trading with them.[38] Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Hang Li Po, to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan. Han Li Po's well (constructed 1459) is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina, where her retinue settled. The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca, which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca
Sultanate of Malacca
in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa, who in 1500 wrote "He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice".

European[edit] Fort Cornwallis
Fort Cornwallis
in George Town marks the spot where the British East India
India
Company first landed in Penang
Penang
in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya. See also: European colonisation of Southeast Asia Western influence started to enter in the 16th century, with the arrival of the Portuguese in Malacca, Maluku and the Philippines, the latter being settled by the Spanish years later. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the Dutch established the Dutch East Indies; the French Indochina; and the British Strait Settlements. By the 19th century, all Southeast Asian countries were colonised except for Thailand.

Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit. European explorers were reaching Southeast Asia
Asia
from the west and from the east. Regular trade between the ships sailing east from the Indian Ocean and south from mainland Asia
Asia
provided goods in return for natural products, such as honey and hornbill beaks from the islands of the archipelago. Before the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the Europeans mostly were interested in expanding trade links. For the majority of the populations in each country, there was comparatively little interaction with Europeans and traditional social routines and relationships continued. For most, a life with subsistence level agriculture, fishing and, in less developed civilizations, hunting and gathering was still hard.[84] Europeans brought Christianity
Christianity
allowing Christian missionaries to become widespread. Thailand
Thailand
also allowed Western scientists to enter its country to develop its own education system as well as start sending Royal members and Thai scholars to get higher education from Europe
Europe
and Russia.

Japanese[edit] See also: Greater East Asia
Asia
Co-Prosperity Sphere, Empire of Japan, and Japanese war crimes During World
World
War II, Imperial Japan
Japan
invaded most of the former western colonies. The Shōwa occupation regime committed violent actions against civilians such as the Manila
Manila
massacre and the implementation of a system of forced labour, such as the one involving 4 to 10 million romusha in Indonesia.[85] A later UN report stated that four million people died in Indonesia
Indonesia
as a result of famine and forced labour during the Japanese occupation.[86] The Allied powers who defeated Japan
Japan
in the South-East Asian theatre of World
World
War II then contended with nationalists to whom the occupation authorities had granted independence.

Indian[edit] Gujarat, India
India
had a flourishing trade relationship with Southeast Asia
Asia
in the 15th and 16th centuries.[82] The trade relationship with Gujarat
Gujarat
declined after the Portuguese invasion of Southeast Asia
Asia
in the 17th century.[82]

American[edit] Americans from the United States had invaded the Philippines
Philippines
after Spain
Spain
left and they traded with Southeast Asia
Asia
too via their Philippine colony.

Contemporary history[edit] See also: Japanese foreign policy on Southeast Asia Most countries in the region enjoy national autonomy. Democratic forms of government and the recognition of human rights are taking root. ASEAN
ASEAN
provides a framework for the integration of commerce, and regional responses to international concerns. China
China
has asserted broad claims over the South China
China
Sea, based on its Nine-Dash Line, and has built artificial islands in an attempt to bolster its claims. China
China
also has asserted an exclusive economic zone based on the Spratly Islands. The Philippines
Philippines
challenged China
China
in the Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration
in The Hague
The Hague
in 2013, and in Philippines
Philippines
v. China
China
(2016), the Court ruled in favor of the Philippines
Philippines
and rejected China's claims.[87][88]

Geography[edit] See also: Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia), List of Southeast Asian mountains, and Zomia (geography) Relief map of Southeast Asia. Indonesia
Indonesia
is the largest country in Southeast Asia
Asia
and it also the largest archipelago in the world by size (according to the CIA World Factbook). Geologically. the Indonesian archipelago
Indonesian archipelago
is one of the most volcanically active regions in the world. Geological uplifts in the region have also produced some impressive mountains, culminating in Puncak Jaya
Puncak Jaya
in Papua, Indonesia
Indonesia
at 5,030 metres (16,500 feet), on the island of New Guinea; it is the only place where ice glaciers can be found in Southeast Asia. The highest mountain in Southeast Asia
Asia
is Hkakabo Razi at 5,967 meters and can be found in northern Burma sharing the same range of its parent peak, Mount Everest. The South China
China
Sea is the major body of water within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, and Singapore, have integral rivers that flow into the South China
China
Sea. Mayon Volcano, despite being dangerously active, holds the record of the world's most perfect cone which is built from past and continuous eruption.[89]

Boundaries[edit] See also: Austronesia Southeast Asia
Asia
is bounded to the southeast by the Australian continent, a boundary which runs through Indonesia. But a cultural touch point lies between Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
and the Indonesian region of the Papua and West Papua, which shares the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
with Papua New Guinea.

Climate[edit] Southeast Asia
Asia
map of Köppen climate classification. The climate in Southeast Asia
Asia
is mainly tropical–hot and humid all year round with plentiful rainfall. Northern Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Myanmar Himalayas
Himalayas
are the only regions in Southeast Asia
Asia
that feature a subtropical climate, which has a cold winter with snow. The majority of Southeast Asia
Asia
has a wet and dry season caused by seasonal shift in winds or monsoon. The tropical rain belt causes additional rainfall during the monsoon season. The rain forest is the second largest on earth (with the Amazon being the largest). An exception to this type of climate and vegetation is the mountain areas in the northern region, where high altitudes lead to milder temperatures and drier landscape. Other parts fall out of this climate because they are desert like. Southeast Asia
Asia
is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in the world.[90] Climate change will have a big effect on agriculture in Southeast Asia
Asia
such as irrigation systems will be affected by changes in rainfall and runoff, and subsequently, water quality and supply.[91] Climate change is also likely to pose a serious threat to the fisheries industry in Southeast Asia.[90]

Environment[edit] See also: Southeast Asian coral reefs
Southeast Asian coral reefs
and Wallace line Komodo dragon
Komodo dragon
in Komodo National Park, Indonesia The vast majority of Southeast Asia
Asia
falls within the warm, humid tropics, and its climate generally can be characterised as monsoonal. The animals of Southeast Asia
Asia
are diverse; on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, the orangutan, the Asian elephant, the Malayan tapir, the Sumatran rhinoceros
Sumatran rhinoceros
and the Bornean clouded leopard
Bornean clouded leopard
can also be found. Six subspecies of the binturong or bearcat exist in the region, though the one endemic to the island of Palawan
Palawan
is now classed as vulnerable. Tigers of three different subspecies are found on the island of Sumatra
Sumatra
(the Sumatran tiger), in peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
(the Malayan tiger), and in Indochina
Indochina
(the Indochinese tiger); all of which are endangered species. The Komodo dragon
Komodo dragon
is the largest living species of lizard and inhabits the islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, and Gili Motang in Indonesia.

The Philippine eagle The Philippine eagle
Philippine eagle
is the national bird of the Philippines. It is considered by scientists as the largest eagle in the world,[92] and is endemic to the Philippines' forests. The wild Asian water buffalo, and on various islands related dwarf species of Bubalus
Bubalus
such as anoa were once widespread in Southeast Asia; nowadays the domestic Asian water buffalo is common across the region, but its remaining relatives are rare and endangered. The mouse deer, a small tusked deer as large as a toy dog or cat, mostly can be found on Sumatra, Borneo
Borneo
(Indonesia) and in Palawan Islands (Philippines). The gaur, a gigantic wild ox larger than even wild water buffalo, is found mainly in Indochina. There is very little scientific information available regarding Southeast Asian amphibians.[93] Birds such as the peafowl and drongo live in this subregion as far east as Indonesia. The babirusa, a four-tusked pig, can be found in Indonesia
Indonesia
as well. The hornbill was prized for its beak and used in trade with China. The horn of the rhinoceros, not part of its skull, was prized in China
China
as well. The Indonesian Archipelago is split by the Wallace Line. This line runs along what is now known to be a tectonic plate boundary, and separates Asian (Western) species from Australasian (Eastern) species. The islands between Java/ Borneo
Borneo
and Papua form a mixed zone, where both types occur, known as Wallacea. As the pace of development accelerates and populations continue to expand in Southeast Asia, concern has increased regarding the impact of human activity on the region's environment. A significant portion of Southeast Asia, however, has not changed greatly and remains an unaltered home to wildlife. The nations of the region, with only few exceptions, have become aware of the need to maintain forest cover not only to prevent soil erosion but to preserve the diversity of flora and fauna. Indonesia, for example, has created an extensive system of national parks and preserves for this purpose. Even so, such species as the Javan rhinoceros
Javan rhinoceros
face extinction, with only a handful of the animals remaining in western Java.

Wallace's hypothetical line divide Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deep water of the Lombok Strait
Lombok Strait
between the islands of Bali
Bali
and Lombok
Lombok
formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side. The shallow waters of the Southeast Asian coral reefs
Southeast Asian coral reefs
have the highest levels of biodiversity for the world's marine ecosystems, where coral, fish and molluscs abound. According to Conservation International, marine surveys suggest that the marine life diversity in the Raja Ampat (Indonesia) is the highest recorded on Earth. Diversity is considerably greater than any other area sampled in the Coral Triangle composed of Indonesia, Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. The Coral Triangle is the heart of the world's coral reef biodiversity, the Verde Passage is dubbed by Conservation International as the world's "center of the center of marine shorefish biodiversity". The whale shark, the world's largest species of fish and 6 species of sea turtles can also be found in the South China
China
Sea and the Pacific Ocean territories of the Philippines. The trees and other plants of the region are tropical; in some countries where the mountains are tall enough, temperate-climate vegetation can be found. These rainforest areas are currently being logged-over, especially in Borneo. While Southeast Asia
Asia
is rich in flora and fauna, Southeast Asia
Asia
is facing severe deforestation which causes habitat loss for various endangered species such as orangutan and the Sumatran tiger. Predictions have been made that more than 40% of the animal and plant species in Southeast Asia
Asia
could be wiped out in the 21st century.[94] At the same time, haze has been a regular occurrence. The two worst regional hazes were in 1997 and 2006 in which multiple countries were covered with thick haze, mostly caused by "slash and burn" activities in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Borneo. In reaction, several countries in Southeast Asia
Asia
signed the ASEAN
ASEAN
Agreement on Transboundary Haze
Haze
Pollution to combat haze pollution. The 2013 Southeast Asian Haze
Haze
saw API levels reach a hazardous level in some countries. Muar experienced the highest API level of 746 on 23 June 2013 at around 7 am.[95]

Economy[edit] The Port of Singapore
Singapore
is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia. Even prior to the penetration of European interests, Southeast Asia was a critical part of the world trading system. A wide range of commodities originated in the region, but especially important were spices such as pepper, ginger, cloves, and nutmeg. The spice trade initially was developed by Indian and Arab
Arab
merchants, but it also brought Europeans to the region. First Spaniards ( Manila
Manila
galleon) who sailed from the Americas and Portuguese, then the Dutch, and finally the British and French became involved in this enterprise in various countries. The penetration of European commercial interests gradually evolved into annexation of territories, as traders lobbied for an extension of control to protect and expand their activities. As a result, the Dutch moved into Indonesia, the British into Malaya and parts of Borneo, the French into Indochina, and the Spanish and the US into the Philippines. An economic effect of this imperialism was the shift in the production of commodities. For example, the rubber plantations of Malaysia, Java, Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia, the tin mining of Malaya, the rice fields of the Mekong Delta
Mekong Delta
in Vietnam
Vietnam
and Irrawaddy River delta in Burma, were a response to powerful market demands.[96] The overseas Chinese community has played a large role in the development of the economies in the region. The origins of Chinese influence can be traced to the 16th century, when Chinese migrants from southern China
China
settled in Indonesia, Thailand, and other Southeast Asian countries.[97] Chinese populations in the region saw a rapid increase following the Communist Revolution
Communist Revolution
in 1949, which forced many refugees to emigrate outside of China.[98] The region's economy greatly depends on agriculture; rice and rubber have long been prominent exports. Manufacturing and services are becoming more important. An emerging market, Indonesia
Indonesia
is the largest economy in this region. Newly industrialised countries
Newly industrialised countries
include Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines, while Singapore and Brunei
Brunei
are affluent developed economies. The rest of Southeast Asia
Asia
is still heavily dependent on agriculture, but Vietnam
Vietnam
is notably making steady progress in developing its industrial sectors. The region notably manufactures textiles, electronic high-tech goods such as microprocessors and heavy industrial products such as automobiles. Oil reserves in Southeast Asia
Asia
are plentiful. Seventeen telecommunications companies contracted to build the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable to connect Southeast Asia
Asia
to the US[99] This is to avoid disruption of the kind recently caused by the cutting of the undersea cable from Taiwan
Taiwan
to the US in the 2006 Hengchun earthquakes.

Along with its temples Cambodia
Cambodia
has been promoting its coastal resorts.Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia. Tourism has been a key factor in economic development for many Southeast Asian countries, especially Cambodia. According to UNESCO, "tourism, if correctly conceived, can be a tremendous development tool and an effective means of preserving the cultural diversity of our planet."[100] Since the early 1990s, "even the non-ASEAN nations such as Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
Vietnam
and Burma, where the income derived from tourism is low, are attempting to expand their own tourism industries."[101] In 1995, Singapore
Singapore
was the regional leader in tourism receipts relative to GDP at over 8%. By 1998, those receipts had dropped to less than 6% of GDP while Thailand
Thailand
and Lao PDR increased receipts to over 7%. Since 2000, Cambodia
Cambodia
has surpassed all other ASEAN
ASEAN
countries and generated almost 15% of its GDP from tourism in 2006.[102] Furthermore, Vietnam
Vietnam
is considered as a rising power in Southeast Asia
Asia
due to its large foreign investment opportunities and the booming tourism sector, despite only having their trade embargo lifted in 1995. Indonesia
Indonesia
is the only member of G-20 major economies
G-20 major economies
and is the largest economy in the region.[103] Indonesia's estimated gross domestic product for 2016 was US$932.4 billion (nominal) or $3,031.3 billion (PPP) with per capita GDP of US$3,604 (nominal) or $11,717 (PPP).[104] Stock markets in Southeast Asia
Asia
have performed better than other bourses in the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region in 2010, with the Philippines' PSE leading the way with 22 percent growth, followed by Thailand's SET with 21 percent and Indonesia's JKSE with 19 percent.[105][106] Southeast Asia's GDP per capita is US$3,853 according to a 2015 United Nations report, which is comparable to Guatemala and Tonga.[107]

Country

Currency

Population(2017)[108]

Nominal GDP(2018)[109]

GDP per capita(2018)[110]

GDP growth(2018)[111]

Inflation(2018)[112]

Main industries

 Brunei

B$ Brunei
Brunei
dollar

443,593

$14.695 billion

$32,414

-0.2%

0.1%

Petroleum, Petrochemicals, Fishing

 Cambodia

៛ Riel

16,204,486

$24.141 billion

$1,509

7.3%

2.4%

Clothing, Gold, Agriculture

 East Timor

US$ US dollar

1,291,358

$3.155 billion

$2,435

0.8%

2.3%

Petroleum, Coffee, Electronics

 Indonesia

Rp Rupiah

260,580,739

$1,022.454 billion

$3,871

5.2%

3.2%

Coal, Petroleum, Palm oil

 Laos

₭ Kip

7,126,706

$18.230 billion

$2,720

6.5%

2%

Copper, Electronics, Tin

 Malaysia

RM Ringgit

31,381,992

$354.348 billion

$10,942

4.7%

1%

Electronics, Petroleum, Palm oil

 Myanmar

K Kyat

55,123,814

$71.543 billion

$1,298

2.1%

3.5%

Natural gas, Agriculture, Clothing

 Philippines

₱ Peso

104,256,076

$330.846 billion

$3,104

6.2%

5.2%

Electronics, Timber, Automotive

 Singapore

S$ Singapore
Singapore
dollar

5,888,926

$361.109 billion

$64,041

3.2%

0.4%

Electronics, Petroleum, Chemicals

 Thailand

฿ Baht

68,414,135

$487.239 billion

$7,187

4.1%

1.1%

Electronics, Automotive, Rubber

 Vietnam

₫ Đồng

96,160,163

$241.272 billion

$2,551

7.1%

3.5%

Electronics, Clothing, Agriculture

Demographics[edit] Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia
Asia
(with Indonesia
Indonesia
split into its major islands). Southeast Asia
Asia
has an area of approximately 4,500,000 square kilometres (1,700,000 sq mi). As of 2016, around 642 million people live in the region, more than a fifth live (143 million) on the Indonesian island of Java, the most densely populated large island in the world. Indonesia
Indonesia
is the most populous country with 261 million people, and also the 4th most populous country in the world. The distribution of the religions and people is diverse in Southeast Asia
Asia
and varies by country. Some 30 million overseas Chinese also live in Southeast Asia, most prominently in Christmas Island, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, and also as the Hoa in Vietnam. People of Southeast Asian origins are known as Southeast Asians or Aseanites.

 vte Largest cities in Southeast AsiaPSA Census August 2015

Rank

Name

Country

Pop.

Rank

Name

Country

Pop.

JakartaBangkok

1 Jakarta Indonesia 10,135,030 11 Medan Indonesia 2,185,789

Ho Chi Minh CityHanoi

2 Bangkok Thailand 8,305,218 12 Tangerang Indonesia 2,001,925

3 Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam 7,981,411 13 Hai Phong Vietnam 1,946,000

4 Hanoi Vietnam 7,067,000 14 Depok Indonesia 1,869,681

5 Singapore Singapore 5,399,000 15 Manila Philippines 1,780,148

6 Yangon Myanmar 5,451,439 16 Davao City Philippines 1,632,991

7 Surabaya Indonesia 3,457,409 17 Caloocan Philippines 1,583,978

8 Quezon City Philippines 2,936,116 18 Semarang Indonesia 1,575,058

9 Bandung Indonesia 2,575,478 19 Palembang Indonesia 1,561,959

10 Bekasi Indonesia 2,510,951 20 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 1,475,337

Ethnic groups[edit] Main article: Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
of Southeast Asia Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos
Negritos
were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia. The Aslians and Negritos
Negritos
were believed as one of the earliest inhabitant in the region. They are genetically related to the Papuans in Eastern Indonesia, East Timor
East Timor
and Australian Aborigines. In modern times, the Javanese are the largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia, with more than 100 million people, mostly concentrated in Java, Indonesia. The second largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia
Asia
is Vietnamese (Kinh people) with around 86 million population, mainly inhabiting in Vietnam, thus forming a significant minority in neighboring Cambodia
Cambodia
and Laos. The Thais is also a significant ethnic group with around 59 million population forming the majority in Thailand. In Burma, the Burmese account for more than two-thirds of the ethnic stock in this country.

A Native Indonesian
Native Indonesian
Balinese girl wearing kebaya during a traditional ceremony. Indonesia
Indonesia
is clearly dominated by the Javanese and Sundanese ethnic groups, with hundreds of ethnic minorities inhabited the archipelago, including Madurese, Minangkabau, Bugis, Balinese, Dayak, Batak and Malays. While Malaysia
Malaysia
is split between more than half Malays and one-quarter Chinese, and also Indian minority in the West Malaysia however Dayaks
Dayaks
make up the majority in Sarawak
Sarawak
and Kadazan-dusun
Kadazan-dusun
makes up the majority in Sabah
Sabah
which are in the East Malaysia. The Malays are the majority in West Malaysia
Malaysia
and Brunei, while they forming a significant minority in Indonesia, Southern Thailand, East Malaysia and Singapore. In city-state Singapore, Chinese are the majority, yet the city is a multicultural melting pot with Malays, Indians and Eurasian also called the island their home. The Chams
Chams
forming a significant minority in Central and South Vietnam, also in Central Cambodia. While the Khmers are the majority in Cambodia, and forming a significant minority in Southern Vietnam
Vietnam
and Thailand. The Hmong people
Hmong people
are the minority in Vietnam, China
China
and Laos. Within the Philippines, the Tagalog, Visayan (mainly Cebuanos, Warays and Hiligaynons), Ilocano, Bicolano, Moro (mainly Tausug, Maranao, and Maguindanao) and Central Luzon
Luzon
(mainly Kapampangan and Pangasinan) groups are significant. The Philippines
Philippines
is also unique in Southeast Asia, in holding the only Latino founded communities in Southeast Asia due to its former political union with Mexico during the era of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
Spain
and also possessing a Mexican-Spanish based Creole language called Chavacano. There is also burgeoning American expat population in the Philippines.

Religion[edit] See also: Buddhism
Buddhism
in Southeast Asia, Hinduism
Hinduism
in Southeast Asia, Islam
Islam
in Southeast Asia, Shenism in Southeast Asia, Muslim Southeast Asia, and Christianity
Christianity
in Asia Thai Theravada
Theravada
Buddhists
Buddhists
in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Buddhist monks collecting alms in Luang Prabang, north Laos. The Kek Lok Si
Kek Lok Si
Buddhist Temple on Penang
Penang
Island combines Chinese, Thai and Burmese architectural influences. Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila, Philippines. Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque
in Brunei, an Islamic country
Islamic country
with Sharia
Sharia
rule. The Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Masjid
Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Masjid
of Cotabato City, Philippines. A Protestant
Protestant
church in Indonesia. Indonesia
Indonesia
has the largest Protestant
Protestant
population in Southeast Asia. The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu
Hindu
temples. Countries in Southeast Asia
Asia
practice many different religions. By population, Islam
Islam
is the most practised faith, numbering approximately 240 million adherents, or about 40% of the entire population, concentrated in Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, Southern Thailand
Thailand
and in the Southern Philippines. Indonesia
Indonesia
is the most populous Muslim-majority country around the world. Buddhism
Buddhism
is predominant in Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma and Singapore. Ancestor worship
Ancestor worship
and Confucianism
Confucianism
are also widely practised in Vietnam
Vietnam
and Singapore. Christianity
Christianity
is predominant in the Philippines, eastern Indonesia, East Malaysia
Malaysia
and East Timor. The Philippines
Philippines
has the largest Roman Catholic population in Asia. East Timor
East Timor
is also predominantly Roman Catholic due to a history of Portuguese rule. No individual Southeast Asian country is religiously homogeneous. Some groups are protected de facto by their isolation from the rest of the world.[113] In the world's most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia, Hinduism
Hinduism
is dominant on islands such as Bali. Christianity also predominates in the rest of the part of the Philippines, New Guinea and Timor. Pockets of Hindu
Hindu
population can also be found around Southeast Asia
Asia
in Singapore, Malaysia
Malaysia
etc. Garuda
Garuda
(Sanskrit: Garuḍa), the phoenix who is the mount (vahanam) of Vishnu, is a national symbol in both Thailand
Thailand
and Indonesia; in the Philippines, gold images of Garuda
Garuda
have been found on Palawan; gold images of other Hindu
Hindu
gods and goddesses have also been found on Mindanao. Balinese Hinduism
Hinduism
is somewhat different from Hinduism
Hinduism
practised elsewhere, as Animism
Animism
and local culture is incorporated into it. Christians can also be found throughout Southeast Asia; they are in the majority in East Timor
Timor
and the Philippines, Asia's largest Christian nation. In addition, there are also older tribal religious practices in remote areas of Sarawak
Sarawak
in East Malaysia, Highland Philippines
Philippines
and Papua in eastern Indonesia. In Burma, Sakka (Indra) is revered as a nat. In Vietnam, Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
is practised, which is influenced by native animism but with strong emphasis on ancestor worship. The religious composition for each country is as follows: Some values are taken from the CIA World
World
Factbook:[114]

Country

Religions

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Hinduism
Hinduism
(69%), Christianity, Islam, Sikhism and others

 Brunei

Islam
Islam
(67%), Buddhism, Christianity, others (indigenous beliefs, etc.)

 Cambodia

Buddhism
Buddhism
(97%), Islam, Christianity, Animism, others

 Christmas Island

Buddhism
Buddhism
(75%), Islam, Christianity

 Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Islam
Islam
(80%), others

 East Timor

Roman Catholicism (97%), Protestantism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism

 Indonesia

Islam
Islam
(87.18%), Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, others[115]

 Laos

Buddhism
Buddhism
(67%), Animism, Christianity, others

 Malaysia

Islam
Islam
(60.4%), Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Animism

  Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burma)

Buddhism
Buddhism
(89%), Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Animism, others

 Philippines

Roman Catholicism (80%), Islam
Islam
(11%),[116] Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ) (3%), Buddhism
Buddhism
(2%),[117] Animism
Animism
(1.25%), others (0.35%)

 Singapore

Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Taoism, Hinduism, others

 Thailand

Buddhism
Buddhism
(94.50%), Islam
Islam
(4.06%), Christianity
Christianity
(0.7%), Hinduism (0.011%), others (0.094%)

 Vietnam

Vietnamese folk religion
Vietnamese folk religion
(45.3%), Buddhism
Buddhism
(16.4%), Christianity (8.2%), Other (0.4%), Unaffiliated (29.6%)[118]

Languages[edit] See also: Classification schemes for Southeast Asian languages, Sino-Tibetan languages, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Hmong–Mien languages, and Tai–Kadai languages Each of the languages have been influenced by cultural pressures due to trade, immigration, and historical colonization as well. There are nearly over 800 native languages in the region. The language composition for each country is as follows (with official languages in bold):

Country/Region Languages

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Bengali, Hindi, English, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Shompen, A-Pucikwar, Aka-Jeru, Aka-Bea, Aka-Bo, Aka-Cari, Aka-Kede, Aka-Kol, Aka-Kora, Aka-Bale, Jangil, Jarawa, Oko-Juwoi, Önge, Sentinelese, Camorta, Car, Chaura, Katchal, Nancowry, Southern Nicobarese, Teressa

 Brunei

Malay, English, Indonesian, Chinese, Tamil and indigenous Bornean dialects (Iban, Murutic language, Lun Bawang,)[119]

 Cambodia

Khmer, Thai, Vietnamese, Cham, Chinese, others[120]

 Christmas Island

English, Chinese, Malay[121]

 Cocos (Keeling) Islands

English, Cocos Malay[122]

 East Timor

Tetum, Portuguese, Indonesian, Mambae, Makasae, Tukudede, Bunak, Galoli, Kemak, Fataluku, Baikeno, others[123]

Hainan

Hainanese, Mandarin, Cantonese, Hmongic, Mienic, Kra/Kadai, Kam-Sui, Ong Be, Hlai, Zhuang-Tai

 Indonesia

Indonesian, Javanese, Sundanese, Batak, Minangkabau, Buginese, Banjar, Papuan, Dayak, Acehnese, Ambonese Balinese, Betawi, Madurese, Musi, Manado, Sasak, Makassarese, Batak Dairi, Karo, Mandailing, Jambi Malay, Mongondow, Gorontalo, Ngaju, Nias, North Moluccan, Uab Meto, Bima, Manggarai, Toraja-Sa'dan, Komering, Tetum, Rejang, Muna, Sumbawa, Bangka Malay, Osing, Gayo, Bungku-Tolaki languages, Moronene, Bungku, Bahonsuai, Kulisusu, Wawonii, Mori Bawah, Mori Atas, Padoe, Tomadino, Lewotobi, Tae', Mongondow, Lampung, Tolaki, Ma'anyan, Simeulue, Gayo, Buginese, Mandar, Minahasan, Enggano, Ternate, Tidore, Mairasi, East Cenderawasih Language, Lakes Plain Languages, Tor-Kwerba, Nimboran, Skou/Sko, Border languages, Senagi, Pauwasi, Mandarin, Hokkien, Cantonese, Hakka, Teochew, Tamil, Punjabi, Bengali, and Arabic. Indonesia
Indonesia
has over 700 languages in over 17,000 islands across the archipelago, making Indonesia
Indonesia
the second most linguistically diverse country on the planet,[124] slightly behind Papua New Guinea. The official language of Indonesia
Indonesia
is Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), widely used in educational, political, economic, and other formal situations. In daily activities and informal situations, most Indonesians speak in their local language(s). For more details, see: Languages of Indonesia.

 Laos

Lao, Thai, Vietnamese, Hmong, Miao, Mien, Dao, Shan and others[125]

 Malaysia

Malaysian, English, Mandarin, Indonesian, Tamil, Kedah
Kedah
Malay, Sabah Malay, Brunei
Brunei
Malay, Kelantan Malay, Pahang Malay, Acehnese, Javanese, Minangkabau, Banjar, Buginese, Hakka, Cantonese, Hokkien, Teochew, Fuzhounese, Telugu, Bengali, Punjabi, Hindi, Sinhalese, Malayalam, Arabic, Brunei
Brunei
Bisaya, Okolod, Kota Marudu Talantang, Kelabit, Lotud, Terengganu Malay, Semelai, Thai, Iban, Kadazan, Dusun, Kristang, Bajau, Jakun, Mah Meri, Batek, Melanau, Semai, Temuan, Lun Bawang, Temiar, Penan, Tausug, Iranun, Lundayeh/Lun Bawang, and others,[126] see: Languages of Malaysia

  Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burma)

Burmese, Shan, Kayin(Karen), Rakhine, Kachin, Chin, Mon, Kayah, Chinese and other ethnic languages.[127]

 Philippines

Filipino, English, Spanish, Visayan (Aklanon, Cebuano, Kinaray-a, Capiznon, Hiligaynon, Waray, Masbateño, Romblomanon, Cuyonon, Surigaonon, Butuanon, Tausug) Ivatan, Ilocano, Ibanag, Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Bicolano, Sama-Bajaw, Maguindanao, Maranao, Chavacano The Philippines
Philippines
has more than a hundred native languages, most without official recognition from the national government. Spanish and Arabic are on a voluntary and optional basis. Malaysian, Indonesian, Mandarin, Lan-nang
Lan-nang
(Hokkien), Cantonese, Hakka, Japanese and Korean are also spoken in the Philippines
Philippines
due to immigration, geographic proximity and historical ties. See: Languages of the Philippines

 Singapore

English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, Hokkien, Teochew, Cantonese, Hakka, Indonesian, Telugu, Malayalam, Punjabi, Hindi, Sinhalese, Javanese, Balinese, Singlish
Singlish
creole and others

 Thailand

Thai, Teochew, Minnan, Hakka, Yuehai, Malay, Tamil, Bengali, Urdu, Arabic, Lao, Northern Khmer, Isan, Shan, Lue, Phutai, Mon, Mein, Hmong, Karen, Burmese and others[128]

 Vietnam

Vietnamese, Khmer, Cantonese, Hmong, Tai, Cham and others[129]

Cities[edit] See also: List of cities in ASEAN
ASEAN
by population Jabodetabek
Jabodetabek
(Jakarta/West Java/Banten),  Indonesia. Jabodetabek is an abbreviation of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi, which are the satellite cities of the Special
Special
Capital Region of Jakarta. Metro Manila
Manila
(Manila/Quezon City/Makati/Taguig/Pasay/ Caloocan
Caloocan
and 11 others),  Philippines Bangkok
Bangkok
Metropolitan Region (Bangkok/Nonthaburi/Samut Prakan/Pathum Thani/Samut Sakhon/Nakhon Pathom),  Thailand Greater Kuala Lumpur/ Klang Valley
Klang Valley
(Kuala Lumpur/Selangor),  Malaysia Greater Penang
Penang
(Penang/Kedah/Perak),  Malaysia Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
Metropolitan Area (Ho Chi Minh City/Vũng Tàu/Bình Dương/Đồng Nai),  Vietnam Hanoi
Hanoi
Capital Region (Hà Nội/Hải Phòng/Hạ Long),  Vietnam Da Nang
Da Nang
City (Đà Nẵng/Hội An/Huế),  Vietnam Yangon
Yangon
Region (Yangon/Thanlyin),  Myanmar Gerbangkertosusila (Surabaya/Sidoarjo/Gresik/Mojokerto/Lamongan/Bangkalan),  Indonesia Greater Bandung
Bandung
Metropolitan Area (Bandung/Cimahi),  Indonesia Metro Cebu
Metro Cebu
(Cebu City/Mandaue/Lapu-Lapu City/Talisay City and 11 others),  Philippines Metro Davao
Metro Davao
(Davao City/Digos/Tagum/Island Garden City of Samal),  Philippines Metro Iloilo-Guimaras
Metro Iloilo-Guimaras
(Iloilo City/Pavia/Oton/Leganes/Zarraga/San Miguel/Guimaras) ,  Philippines Metro Cagayan de Oro
Metro Cagayan de Oro
(Cagayan de Oro/El Salvador and 13 others)  Philippines Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
City (Phnom Penh/Kandal),  Cambodia

Night skylines

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Makati
Makati
CBD of Makati, Philippines

Sudirman CBD, Jakarta, Indonesia

Bangkok, Thailand

Raffles Place, Singapore

District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

JakartaBangkokHồ Chí Minh CityHà NộiSingaporeYangonSurabayaQuezon CityMedanHải PhòngManilaDavao CityPalembangKuala LumpurMakassarPhnom PenhCần ThơMandalayBatamPekanbaruBogorĐà NẵngBandar LampungCebu CityPadangZamboanga CityDenpasarMalangSamarindaPenangTasikmalayaCagayan de OroBanjarmasinIpohBalikpapanGeneral SantosBacolodNay Pyi TawVientianeHaikouNha TrangChiang MaiKota KinabaluKuchingVinhBuôn Ma ThuộtThanh Hóa Most populous cities in Southeast Asia
Asia
(500,000+ inhabitants) Culture[edit] See also: Southeast Asian cinema, Southeast Asian Games, and Southeast Asian music Burmese puppet performance The culture in Southeast Asia
Asia
is very diverse: on mainland Southeast Asia, the culture is a mix of Burmese, Cambodian, Laotian and Thai (Indian) and Vietnamese (Chinese) cultures. While in Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia
Malaysia
the culture is a mix of indigenous Austronesian, Indian, Islamic, Western, and Chinese cultures. Also Brunei
Brunei
shows a strong influence from Arabia. Vietnam
Vietnam
and Singapore show more Chinese influence[130] in that Singapore, although being geographically a Southeast Asian nation, is home to a large Chinese majority and Vietnam
Vietnam
was in China's sphere of influence for much of its history. Indian influence in Singapore
Singapore
is only evident through the Tamil migrants,[131] which influenced, to some extent, the cuisine of Singapore. Throughout Vietnam's history, it has had no direct influence from India
India
– only through contact with the Thai, Khmer and Cham peoples. Moreover, Vietnam
Vietnam
is also categorized under the East Asian cultural sphere
East Asian cultural sphere
along with China, Korea, and Japan
Japan
due to the large amount of Chinese influence embedded in their culture and lifestyle.

A paddy field in Vietnam. Rice paddy
Rice paddy
agriculture has existed in Southeast Asia
Asia
for thousands of years, ranging across the subregion. Some dramatic examples of these rice paddies populate the Banaue Rice Terraces
Banaue Rice Terraces
in the mountains of Luzon
Luzon
in the Philippines. Maintenance of these paddies is very labour-intensive. The rice paddies are well-suited to the monsoon climate of the region. Stilt houses can be found all over Southeast Asia, from Thailand
Thailand
and Vietnam, to Borneo, to Luzon
Luzon
in the Philippines, to Papua New Guinea. The region has diverse metalworking, especially in Indonesia. This include weaponry, such as the distinctive kris, and musical instruments, such as the gamelan.

Influences[edit] The region's chief cultural influences have been from some combination of Islam, India, and China. Diverse cultural influence is pronounced in the Philippines, derived particularly from the period of the Spanish and American rule, contact with Indian-influenced cultures, and the Chinese and Japanese trading era. As a rule, the peoples who ate with their fingers were more likely influenced by the culture of India, for example, than the culture of China, where the peoples ate with chopsticks; tea, as a beverage, can be found across the region. The fish sauces distinctive to the region tend to vary.

Arts[edit] The Royal Ballet of Cambodia
Cambodia
(Paris, France 2010) The arts of Southeast Asia
Asia
have affinity with the arts of other areas. Dance in much of Southeast Asia
Asia
includes movement of the hands as well as the feet, to express the dance's emotion and meaning of the story that the ballerina is going to tell the audience. Most of Southeast Asia
Asia
introduced dance into their court; in particular, Cambodian royal ballet represented them in the early 7th century before the Khmer Empire, which was highly influenced by Indian Hinduism. Apsara Dance, famous for strong hand and feet movement, is a great example of Hindu symbolic dance. Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries, a famous one being Wayang
Wayang
from Indonesia. The arts and literature in some of Southeast Asia
Asia
is quite influenced by Hinduism, which was brought to them centuries ago. Indonesia, despite conversion to Islam
Islam
which opposes certain forms of art, has retained many forms of Hindu-influenced practices, culture, art and literature. An example is the Wayang
Wayang
Kulit (Shadow Puppet) and literature like the Ramayana. The wayang kulit show has been recognized by UNESCO
UNESCO
on November 7, 2003, as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. It has been pointed out that Khmer and Indonesian classical arts were concerned with depicting the life of the gods, but to the Southeast Asian mind the life of the gods was the life of the peoples themselves—joyous, earthy, yet divine. The Tai, coming late into Southeast Asia, brought with them some Chinese artistic traditions, but they soon shed them in favour of the Khmer and Mon traditions, and the only indications of their earlier contact with Chinese arts were in the style of their temples, especially the tapering roof, and in their lacquerware.

Music[edit] Main article: Music of Southeast Asia Angklung
Angklung
as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Traditional music in Southeast Asia
Asia
is as varied as its many ethnic and cultural divisions. Main styles of traditional music can be seen: Court music, folk music, music styles of smaller ethnic groups, and music influenced by genres outside the geographic region. Of the court and folk genres, gong-chime ensembles and orchestras make up the majority (the exception being lowland areas of Vietnam). Gamelan
Gamelan
and Angklung
Angklung
orchestras from Indonesia, Piphat
Piphat
/Pinpeat ensembles of Thailand
Thailand
and Cambodia
Cambodia
and the Kulintang
Kulintang
ensembles of the southern Philippines, Borneo, Sulawesi
Sulawesi
and Timor
Timor
are the three main distinct styles of musical genres that have influenced other traditional musical styles in the region. String instruments also are popular in the region. On November 18, 2010, UNESCO
UNESCO
officially recognized angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, and encourage Indonesian people and government to safeguard, transmit, promote performances and to encourage the craftsmanship of angklung making.

Writing[edit] Main articles: Writing systems of Southeast Asia, Baybayin, Jawi script, S.E.A. Write Award, and Thai alphabet Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system. The history of Southeast Asia
Asia
has led to a wealth of different authors, from both within and without writing about the region. Originally, Indians were the ones who taught the native inhabitants about writing. This is shown through Brahmic forms of writing present in the region such as the Balinese script
Balinese script
shown on split palm leaf called lontar (see image to the left — magnify the image to see the writing on the flat side, and the decoration on the reverse side).

Sign in Balinese and Latin script
Latin script
at a Hindu
Hindu
temple in Bali The antiquity of this form of writing extends before the invention of paper around the year 100 in China. Note each palm leaf section was only several lines, written longitudinally across the leaf, and bound by twine to the other sections. The outer portion was decorated. The alphabets of Southeast Asia
Asia
tended to be abugidas, until the arrival of the Europeans, who used words that also ended in consonants, not just vowels. Other forms of official documents, which did not use paper, included Javanese copperplate scrolls. This material would have been more durable than paper in the tropical climate of Southeast Asia. In Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, the Malay language
Malay language
is now generally written in the Latin script. The same phenomenon is present in Indonesian, although different spelling standards are utilised (e.g. 'Teksi' in Malay and 'Taksi' in Indonesian for the word 'Taxi'). The use of Chinese characters, in the past and present, is only evident in Vietnam
Vietnam
and more recently, Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia. The adoption of Chinese characters in Vietnam
Vietnam
dates back to around 111 B.C., when it was occupied by the Chinese. A Vietnamese script called Chữ Nôm
Chữ Nôm
used modified Chinese characters to express the Vietnamese language. Both classical Chinese and Chữ Nôm
Chữ Nôm
were used up until the early 20th century. However, the use of the Chinese script has been in decline, especially in Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia
Malaysia
as the younger generations are in favour of the Latin Script.

See also[edit] List of Southeast Asian leaders Northeast Asia South Asia Southeast Asia
Asia
Treaty Organization Tiger Cub Economies References[edit] Citations[edit]

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^ Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 286. ISBN 978-1-107-50718-0.

^ Library of Congress, 1992, "Indonesia: World
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War II and the Struggle For Independence, 1942–50; The Japanese Occupation, 1942–45" Access date: 9 February 2007.

^ John W. Dower War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (1986; Pantheon; ISBN 0-394-75172-8)

^ Joseph Chinyong Liow, What does the South China
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Sea ruling mean, and what's next?, Brookings Institution (July 12, 2016).

^ Euan Graham, The Hague
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^ Davis, Lee (1992). Natural disasters: from the Black Plague to the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. New York, NY: Facts on File
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^ a b Overland, Indra
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et al. (2017) Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs: Risk and Opportunity Multiplier, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and Myanmar
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Institute of International and Strategic Studies (MISIS).

^ "Climate Change Impacts - South East Asia". Archived from the original on 29 August 2017.

^ "Climate Reality Watch Party 2016". 13 December 2012.

^ Navjot S. Sodhi; Barry W. Brook (2006). Southeast Asian Biodiversity in Crisis. Cambridge University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-521-83930-3.

^ Biodiversity
Biodiversity
wipeout facing Southeast Asia, New Scientist, 23 July 2003

^ 2013 Southeast Asian haze#Air Pollution Index readings

^ Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 287. ISBN 978-1-107-50718-0.

^ Murray L Weidenbaum (1 January 1996). The Bamboo Network: How Expatriate Chinese Entrepreneurs are Creating a New Economic Superpower in Asia. Martin Kessler Books, Free Press. pp. 23–28. ISBN 978-0-684-82289-1.

^ Murray L Weidenbaum (1 January 1996). The Bamboo Network: How Expatriate Chinese Entrepreneurs are Creating a New Economic Superpower in Asia. Martin Kessler Books, Free Press. pp. 4–8. ISBN 978-0-684-82289-1.

^ Sean Yoong (27 April 2007). "17 Firms to Build $500M Undersea Cable". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 28 July 2007.

^ Background overview of The National Seminar on Sustainable Tourism Resource Management Archived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Phnom Penh, 9–10 June 2003.

^ Hitchcock, Michael, et al. Tourism in South-East Asia. New York: Routledge, 1993

^ WDI Online

^ What is the G-20 Archived 4 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, www.g20.org. Retrieved 6 October 2009.

^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. 20 September 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2017.

^ "SE Asia
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Stocks-Jakarta, Manila
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hit record highs, others firm". Reuters. 27 September 2010.

^ Bull Market Lifts PSE Index to Top Rank Among Stock Exchanges in Asia
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Manila
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Bulletin. Mb.com .ph
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(24 September 2010). Retrieved on 17 October 2011.

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^ "Country Comparison :: Population". CIA. July 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.

^ " World
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^ " World
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^ " World
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Economic Outlook (April 2017) – Inflation
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^ CNN (11/21/2018) Tribespeople believed to have 'killed' 27-year-old missionary who trespassed on remote island

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^ Indonesia
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Factbook

^ "National Commission on Muslim Filipino". www.ncmf.gov.ph.

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^ "Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages". 18 December 2012.

^ CIA – The World
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Factbook – Brunei. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.

^ CIA – The World
World
Factbook – Cambodia. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.

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Factbook – Christmas Island. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.

^ CIA – The World
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Factbook – Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.

^ CIA – The World
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Factbook – East Timor. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.

^ "Top 20 Countries by Number of Languages Spoken". www.vistawide.com. Retrieved 28 May 2016.

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Factbook – Laos. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 17 October 2011.

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^ "Country: Myanmar
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^ http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001478/147804eb.pdf

^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

Sources[edit] .mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Tiwari, Rajnish (2003): Post-crisis Exchange Rate Regimes in Southeast Asia
Asia
(PDF), Seminar Paper, University of Hamburg. Rand, Nelson (2009). Conflict: Journeys through war and terror in SouthEast Asia. Dunboyne: Maverick House Publishers. ISBN 978-1-905379-54-5.

Further reading[edit]

Osborne, Milton (2010; first published in 1979). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-74237-302-7 Fletcher, Banister; Cruickshank, Dan (1996; first published in 1896). Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture, Architectural Press, 20th edition. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9. Cf. Part Four, Chapter 27. Farah, Paolo Davide (2015) Energy Investments and Environmental Concerns in Southeast Asia, in: Paolo Davide FARAH & Piercarlo ROSSI, ENERGY: POLICY, LEGAL AND SOCIAL-ECONOMIC ISSUES UNDER THE DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY AND SECURITY, World
World
Scientific Reference on Globalisation in Eurasia and the Pacific Rim, Imperial College Press (London, UK) & World
World
Scientific Publishing, Nov. 2015.

External links[edit]

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vteEarth's primary regionsvteRegions of AfricaCentral Africa Guinea region Gulf of Guinea Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland Mbaise Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau East Africa African Great Lakes Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Kavirondo Zanj Serengeti Horn of Africa Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Dahlak Archipelago Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura Indian Ocean
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islands Comoro Islands Lamu Archipelago Red Sea Hanish Islands North Africa Maghreb Ifriqiya Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains Nile
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world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

vteRegions of AsiaCentral Greater Middle East Aral Sea Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee Tartary Transoxiana Turan Greater Khorasan Ariana Arachosia Khwarazm Sistan Kazakhstania Kazakh Steppe Betpak-Dala Eurasian Steppe Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields Yedisan Muravsky Trail Ural Ural Mountains Volga region Idel-Ural Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Siachen Glacier North Inner Asia Northeast Ural Ural Mountains Far East Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Beringia Chukchi Peninsula Kamchatka Peninsula Extreme North Tartary Siberia Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Baraba steppe Khatanga Gulf Transbaikal West Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Sikhote-Alin Kolyma Bering Strait Ring of Fire Asia-Pacific East Orient Japanese archipelago Northeastern Japan
Japan
Arc Sakhalin Island Arc Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China
China
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China
Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland North China
China
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Yangtze River
Delta Yellow River Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Far East Ring of Fire Asia-Pacific West Greater Middle East MENA MENASA Middle East Red Sea Hanish Islands Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Elam Persian Gulf Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula Najd Al-Yamama Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
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coastal fog desert Tropical Asia Al-Sharat Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia Canaan Aram Aram-Naharaim Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley Levantine Sea Holy Land Palestine Land of Israel Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Hauran Iranian Plateau Dasht-e Kavir Armenian Highlands Caucasus Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus North Caucasus South Caucasus Shirvan Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula Kartli Anatolia Taurus Mountains Aeolis Paphlagonia Phasiane Isauria Ionia Bithynia Cilicia Cappadocia Caria Corduene Chaldia Doris Lycaonia Lycia Lydia Galatia Pisidia Pontus Mysia Arzawa Speri Sophene Biga Peninsula Troad Tuwana Alpide belt South Orient Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu
Hindu
Kush Bactria Carnatic region Tamilakam Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Guzgan Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Gedrosia Makran Marathwada Kashmir Kashmir
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Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern Coastal Plains Kalinga Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan Baltistan Shigar Valley High-mountain Asia Karakoram Saltoro Mountains Siachen Glacier Bengal Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Halar Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
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Upper Rhine
Plain Upper Rhine Gaul Normandy Brittany Batavia Gulf of Lion Iberia Al-Andalus Baetic System Pyrenees Alpide belt South Po Valley
Po Valley
(Padania) Italian Peninsula Tuscan Archipelago Insular Italy Aegadian Islands Iberia Al-Andalus Baetic System Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Alpide belt

Germanic Romance Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

vteRegions of North AmericaNorth(Canada)Eastern Central Canada Atlantic Canada Atlantic Northeast The Maritimes Great Lakes region Western Pacific Northwest Prairie Pothole Region Northern Canadian Arctic
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Archipelago Greenland

Canadian Prairies The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia Acadian Peninsula Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Kodiak Island Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula Bay de Verde Peninsula Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay North(United States)Arctic Aleutian Arc Aleutian Range Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula Aleutian Islands Gulf of Alaska Eastern East Coast Northeast Atlantic Northeast The Maritimes New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth Northeast Western West Coast Mountain states Intermountain West Basin and Range Province Northwestern United States Inland Northwest Pacific Northwest Southwest Old Southwest Four Corners Central Great Lakes Tallgrass prairie Midwest Upper Midwest South Central Gulf Coast Southern Deep South Upland South Santa Fe de Nuevo México

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Area San Francisco Bay North Bay East Bay Silicon Valley Interior Alaska- Yukon
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Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Anglo Latin French Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire

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Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
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Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea Indian Ocean Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali
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