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Ongoing conflict[nb 1]

Fall of the Supreme Revolutionary Council Consolidation of states Conflict between radical Islamists and the government De facto independence of Somaliland New government

Belligerents

1986–91: Somali Democratic Republic
Somali Democratic Republic
(until 1991)

SNA

Allied rebel groups:

SNF (after 1991)

1986–91: Armed rebel groups:

SSDF SNM SPM USC

1992–95:  United Nations

UNOSOM I Unified Task Force UNOSOM II

1992–93: USC

2006–09: Transitional Federal Government  Ethiopia AMISOM Allied armed groups:

ARPCT Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a

2006–09: Islamic Courts Union Oromo Liberation Front[1] Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia Al-Shabaab Ras Kamboni Brigades
Ras Kamboni Brigades
(from 2007) Jabhatul Islamiya (from 2007) Muaskar Anole (from 2007)

2009–present: Federal Government of Somalia AMISOM

Advisors/Operators  United States[2]

JSOC SOCOM   United States
United States
Navy[3]

2009–present: Al-Qaeda

Al-Shabaab

Foreign Mujahideen Hizbul Islam Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
(after 2015)[4][5]

Casualties and losses

Casualties: 300,000 (SFG)–500,000+ (AFP)[10][13][14] Displaced: 1.1 million+[15]

v t e

Recent conflicts in the Horn of Africa

Eritrean War of Independence Eritrean Civil Wars Oromo conflict Ethiopian Civil War Ogaden War 1982 Border War Somali Civil War

Somali Rebellion 2006–2009 2009–present

Djiboutian Civil War Insurgency in Ogaden

Ethiopian crackdown

Hanish Islands conflict Eritrean–Ethiopian War OEF – Horn of Africa Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict

Second Afar insurgency

Djiboutian–Eritrean border conflict

The Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War
(Somali: Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, Arabic: الحرب الأهلية الصومالية‎) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia. It grew out of resistance to the military junta led by Siad Barre
Siad Barre
during the 1980s. By 1988–90, the Somali Armed Forces began engaging various armed rebel groups,[16] including the Somali Salvation Democratic Front
Somali Salvation Democratic Front
in the northeast,[17] the Somali National Movement in the northwest,[16] and the United Somali Congress in the south.[18] The clan-based armed opposition groups eventually managed to overthrow the Barre government in 1991.[19] Various armed factions began competing for influence in the power vacuum and turmoil that followed, particularly in the south.[20] In 1990–92 customary law temporarily collapsed due to the fighting.[21] This precipitated the arrival of UNOSOM I
UNOSOM I
UN military observers in July 1992, followed by larger peacekeeping forces. Factional fighting continued in the south. In the absence of a central government, Somalia
Somalia
became a "failed state".[22] The UN withdrew in 1995, having incurred significant casualties, but no central authority had yet been reestablished.[20] After the collapse of the central government, there was some return to customary and religious law in most regions.[23] In 1991 and 1998, two autonomous regional governments were also established in the northern part of the country.[20] This led to a relative decrease in the intensity of the fighting, with SIPRI removing Somalia
Somalia
from its list of major armed conflicts for the years 1997 and 1998.[24] In 2000, the Transitional National Government
Transitional National Government
was established, followed by the Transitional Federal Government
Transitional Federal Government
(TFG) in 2004. The trend towards reduced conflict halted in 2005, and sustained and destructive conflict took place in the south in 2005–07.[25] However, the fighting was of a much lower scale and intensity than in the early 1990s.[24] In 2006, Ethiopian troops seized most of the south from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union
Islamic Courts Union
(ICU). The ICU then splintered into more radical groups, notably Al-Shabaab, which have since been fighting the Somali government and the AU-mandated AMISOM peacekeeping force for control of the country. Somalia
Somalia
topped the annual Fragile States Index
Fragile States Index
for six years between 2008 and 2013.[26] In October 2011, following preparatory meetings, Kenyan troops entered southern Somalia
Somalia
("Operation Linda Nchi") to fight Al-Shabaab,[27] and to establish a buffer zone inside Somalia.[28] Kenyan troops were formally integrated into the multinational force in February 2012.[29] The Federal Government of Somalia
Somalia
was later established in August 2012, constituting the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war.[30] International stakeholders and analysts have subsequently begun to describe Somalia as a "fragile state", which is making some progress towards stability.[31][32][33][34]

Contents

1 Fall of Barre government (1986–91) 2 United Somali Congress topples Barre 3 United Nations
United Nations
intervention (1992–95) 4 USC/SSA (1995–2000) 5 TFG, Islamic Courts Union, and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(2006–09) 6 Coalition government (2009–) 7 From 2009 onwards 8 Casualties 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Fall of Barre government (1986–91)[edit] Main article: Somali Rebellion

Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, Chairman of the Supreme Revolutionary Council and President of Somalia.

In May 1986, Barre suffered serious injuries in an automobile accident near Mogadishu, when the car that was transporting him smashed into the back of a bus during a heavy rainstorm.[35] He was treated in a hospital in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
for head injuries, broken ribs and shock over a period of a month.[36][37] Lieutenant General Mohamed Ali Samatar, then Vice President, subsequently served as de facto head of state for the next several months. Although Barre managed to recover enough to present himself as the sole presidential candidate for re-election over a term of seven years on December 23, 1986, his poor health and advanced age led to speculation about who would succeed him in power. Possible contenders included his son-in-law General Ahmed Suleiman Abdille, who was at the time the Minister of the Interior, in addition to Samatar.[35][36]

Three knocked-out Somali National Army
Somali National Army
(SNA) M47 Patton
M47 Patton
medium tanks left abandoned near a warehouse following the outbreak of the civil war

In an effort to hold on to power, Barre's ruling Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) became increasingly totalitarian and arbitrary. This caused opposition to his government to grow. Barre in turn tried to quell the unrest by abandoning appeals to nationalism, relying more and more on his own inner circle, and exploiting historical clan animosities. By the mid-1980s, more resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg
Derg
administration had sprung up across the country. Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerrillas, especially in the northern regions. The clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative center of Hargeisa, a Somali National Movement (SNM) stronghold, among the targeted areas in 1988.[38] In 1990, as fighting intensified, Somalia's first President Aden Abdullah Osman Daar and about 100 other Somali politicians signed a manifesto advocating reconciliation.[39] A number of the signatories were subsequently arrested.[40] Barre's heavy-handed tactics further strengthened the appeal of the various rebel movements, although these groups' only common goal was the overthrow of his government.[38] It also played a major role in developing piracy in Somalia. United Somali Congress topples Barre[edit] By mid 1990, United Somali Congress (USC) rebels had captured most towns and villages surrounding Mogadishu, which prompted some to give Barre the ironic title 'Mayor of Mogadishu.'[41] In December the USC entered Mogadishu. Four weeks of battle between Barre's remaining troops and the USC ensued, over the course of which the USC brought more forces into the city. By January 1991, USC rebels had managed to defeat the Red Berets, in the process toppling Barre's government.[38] The remainder of the government's forces then finally collapsed. Some became irregular regional forces and clan militias.[42] After the USC's victory over Barre's troops, the other rebel groups declined to cooperate with it, as each instead drew primary support from their own constituencies.[38] Among these other opposition movements were the Somali Patriotic Movement
Somali Patriotic Movement
(SPM) and Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA), a Gadabuursi
Gadabuursi
group which had been formed in the northwest to counter the Somali National Movement
Somali National Movement
Isaaq
Isaaq
militia.[43] For its part, the SNM initially refused to accept the legitimacy of the provisional government that the USC had established.[38] However, the SNM's former leader Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo
Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo
later proposed a power-sharing framework in March 1991 between the SNM and USC under a new transitional government.[44] Many of the opposition groups subsequently began competing for influence in the power vacuum that followed the ouster of Barre's government. In the south, armed factions led by USC commanders General Mohamed Farah Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mohamed, in particular, clashed as each sought to exert authority over the capital.[45] In the northwest, at the Burao
Burao
conference of April–May 1991, SNM secessionists proclaimed independence for the region under the name Somaliland.[46] They concurrently selected the SNM's leader Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur as president.[47] In 1992, after four months of heavy fighting for control of Mogadishu, a ceasefire was agreed between Ali Mahdi Mohamed
Ali Mahdi Mohamed
and Mohamed Farah Aideed. Neither leader had seized control of the capital, and as a result, a 'greenline' was established between north and south that divided their areas of control.[48] United Nations
United Nations
intervention (1992–95)[edit] Main articles: UNITAF
UNITAF
and UNOSOM II UN Security Council Resolution 733 and UN Security Council Resolution 746 led to the creation of the United Nations
United Nations
Operation in Somalia
Somalia
I (UNOSOM I), to provide humanitarian relief and help restore order in Somalia
Somalia
after the dissolution of its central government.

An American soldier at the main entrance to the Port of Mogadishu points to identify a sniper's possible firing position (January 1994).

United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 794 was unanimously passed on December 3, 1992, which approved a coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States. Forming the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), the alliance was tasked with assuring security until humanitarian efforts aimed at stabilizing the situation were transferred to the UN. Landing in 1993, the UN peacekeeping coalition started the two-year United Nations
United Nations
Operation in Somalia
Somalia
II (UNOSOM II) primarily in the south.[49] UNITAF's original mandate was to use "all necessary means" to guarantee the delivery of humanitarian aid in accordance to Chapter VII of the United Nations
United Nations
Charter.[50] During negotiations from 1993 to 1995, Somali principals had some success in reconciliation and establishment of public authorities. Among these initiatives was the Mudug
Mudug
peace agreement of June 1993 between Aidid's forces and the SSDF, which established a ceasefire between the Haber Gedir and the Majeerteen clans, opened the trade routes, and formalized the withdrawal of militants from Galkayo; the UNOSOM-mediated Hirab reconciliation of January 1994 in Mogadishu between elders of the rival Abgal and Haber Gedir clans, which was backed by politicians from these constituencies and concluded with a pact to end hostilities, dismantle the green line partitioning the city, and remove road blocks; the UNOSOM-mediated Kismayo
Kismayo
initiative of 1994 between the SNA, SPM, SSDF, and representatives of nineteen clans from the southern Lower Juba
Lower Juba
and Middle Juba
Middle Juba
regions;[51] the 1994 Bardhere
Bardhere
conference between the Marehan and Rahanweyn (Digil and Mirifle), which resolved conflicts over local resources; and the short-lived Digil-Mirifle Governing Council for the southern Bay and Bakool
Bakool
regions, which was established in March 1995.[46] Some of the militias that were then competing for power saw UNOSOM's presence as a threat to their hegemony. Consequently, gun battles took place in Mogadishu
Mogadishu
between local gunmen and peacekeepers. Among these was the Battle of Mogadishu
Mogadishu
in October 1993, an unsuccessful attempt by U.S. troops to apprehend faction leader Aidid. UN soldiers eventually withdrew altogether from the country on March 3, 1995, having incurred more significant casualties.[52] USC/SSA (1995–2000)[edit]

President of the Transitional National Government, Abdiqasim Salad Hassan

According to Interpeace, after UNOSOM's departure in March 1995, military clashes between local factions became shorter, generally less intense, and more localized. This was in part due to the large-scale UN military intervention that had helped to curb the intense fighting between the major factions, who then began to focus on consolidating gains that they had made. The local peace and reconciliation initiatives that had been undertaken in the south-central part of the country between 1993 and 1995 also generally had a positive impact.[46] Aidid subsequently declared himself President of Somalia
Somalia
on June 15, 1995.[53] However, his declaration received no recognition, as his rival Ali Mahdi Muhammad had already been elected interim President at a conference in Djibouti
Djibouti
and recognized as such by the international community.[54] Consequently, Aidid's faction continued its quest for hegemony in the south. In September 1995, militia forces loyal to him attacked and occupied the city of Baidoa.[55] Aidid's forces remained in control of Baidoa
Baidoa
from September 1995 to at least January 1996, while the local Rahanweyn Resistance Army
Rahanweyn Resistance Army
militia continued to engage his forces in the town's environs.[56] Fighting continued in the later half of 1995 in southern Kismayo
Kismayo
and the Juba Valley, as well as southwestern and central Somalia. However, despite these pockets of conflict, the Gedo
Gedo
and Middle Shabelle regions, in addition to both the northeastern and northwestern parts of the country remained relatively peaceful. A number of the regional and district administrations that had been locally established in the preceding few years continued to operate in these areas.[56]

Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud, leader of the Rahanweyn Resistance Army

In March 1996, Ali Mahdi was elected chairman of the United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA), based in northern Mogadishu. In the southern part of city, Aidid's forces battled those of Osman Atto for control of the port of Merca
Merca
as well as strategic areas in Mogadishu. Fighting in Merca
Merca
eventually ended after elders intervened, but continued in Mogadishu. In August 1996, Aidid died from wounds incurred during combat in the Medina area.[57] In 1998, a homegrown constitutional conference was held in the northeastern town of Garowe
Garowe
over a period of three months. Attended by the area's political elite, traditional elders (Issims), members of the business community, intellectuals and other civil society representatives, the autonomous Puntland
Puntland
State of Somalia
Somalia
was subsequently officially established so as to deliver services to the population, offer security, facilitate trade, and interact with both domestic and international partners.[58] In 1999, Eritrea
Eritrea
was alleged to be supporting Somali National Alliance forces led by the late Aidid's son Hussein Farrah Aidid. Aidid jr. denied the claims, saying that the Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi had requested that he mediate between Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea
Eritrea
in their separate conflict.[59] However the International Institute for Strategic Studies separately reported that Hussein Aideed himself had acknowledged support from both Eritrea
Eritrea
and Uganda.[60] Aideed's forces occupied Baidoa
Baidoa
in May 1999. However they were driven out by the Rahanweyn Resistance Army
Rahanweyn Resistance Army
in June 1999, backed by an Ethiopian force of up to 3,000 using tanks and artillery. The IISS said that the attack was part of a strategy to prevent Eritrea
Eritrea
opening up a new front. By the end of the year, the Rahanweyn Resistance Army
Rahanweyn Resistance Army
had taken control of the southern Bay and Bakool
Bakool
provinces. The RRA's leader Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud subsequently established the Southwestern State of Somalia
Somalia
regional administration. In 2000, Ali Mahdi participated in another conference in Djibouti. He lost a re-election bid there to Barre's former Interior Minister Abdiqasim Salad Hassan.[61] TFG, Islamic Courts Union, and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(2006–09)[edit] Main articles: Advance of the Islamic Courts Union, War in Somalia (2006–09), Transitional Federal Government, ARPCT, and Islamic Courts Union

Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founders of the Transitional Federal Government, established in 2004

In 2000, the Transitional National Government
Transitional National Government
(TNG) was established.[19] The Transitional Federal Government
Transitional Federal Government
(TFG) was formed in Nairobi in 2004. Selection of members of parliament was underway by June, over two hundred members of parliament (MPs) took the oath of office in August, and Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
was elected president by the parliament in October 2004.[62] However, in March 2005 the TFG split after a brawl in parliament over deployment of peacekeepers and relocation to an interim capital. The parliamentary speaker led some members to Mogadishu
Mogadishu
while the president and others remained in Nairobi. In June 2005, under pressure from Kenya, the remainder of the TFG left Nairobi for Jowhar.[63] In February 2006, the TFG parliament met in Baidoa
Baidoa
for the first time since March 2005. (Interpeace, 104) A battle for Mogadishu
Mogadishu
followed in the first half of 2006 in which the ARPCT, a coalition of U.S.-backed militia leaders, confronted the ascendant Islamic Courts Union
Islamic Courts Union
(ICU). However, the ICU won a decisive victory in June of that year.[64] It then rapidly expanded and consolidated its power throughout southern Somalia. By August 2006, the TFG was confined to Baidoa
Baidoa
under Ethiopian protection. (Interpeace, 104) Hardline Islamists subsequently gained power within the ICU, prompting fears of a Talibanization of the movement.[65] In December 2006, Ethiopian troops entered Somalia
Somalia
to assist the TFG against the advancing Islamic Courts Union,[19] initially winning the Battle of Baidoa. With their support, Somali government forces recaptured the capital from the ICU.[66] The offensive helped the TFG solidify its rule.[64] On January 8, 2007, as the Battle of Ras Kamboni raged, TFG President and founder Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
entered Mogadishu
Mogadishu
for the first time since being elected to office. But as Meckhaus writes, the TFG was seen "by most of the Mogadishu
Mogadishu
population as a puppet of Ethiopia, and uncontrolled TFG security forces became the principal sources of insecurity for the local population, engaging in kidnapping, assaults, and worse."[67] Within weeks, an armed insurgency subsequently arose in the capital against the TFG and its Ethiopian allies.[68] The government then relocated to the capital from its interim location in Baidoa.[66] The arms embargo on Somalia
Somalia
was amended in February 2007 to allow states to supply weapons to the TFG's security forces, provided that they received prior approval from the UN's Somalia
Somalia
Sanctions Committee. After long discussions, the African Union approved the initial deployment of the African Union Mission to Somalia
Somalia
(AMISOM) in March 2007. It established a 'small triangle of protection' around Mogadishu's airport, seaport, and the Villa Somalia, and began to adopt a low-key negotiating profile with key actors.[69] In November 2008, following repeated violations of the weapons blockade, the Security Council decided that an arms embargo could be imposed on entities involved in such breaches.[70] After a two-year consultation process, the TFG was formed in 2004 by Somali politicians in Nairobi under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). The process also led to the establishment of the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs), and concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
as president.[71] The TFG thereafter became Somalia's internationally recognized government.[70]

Political situation in Somalia
Somalia
following the Ethiopian military withdrawal, February 3, 2009

Following their defeat, the Islamic Courts Union
Islamic Courts Union
splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical[according to whom?] elements, including Al-Shabaab, regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia. Throughout 2007 and 2008, Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia. At the end of 2008, the group had captured Baidoa
Baidoa
but not Mogadishu. On May 1, 2008, the U.S. made an airstrike on Dhusamareb, and followed on 3 May with another airstrike on the border town of Dobley. According to the International Crisis Group, Ethiopia's leaders were surprised by the insurgency's persistence and strength and frustrated at the TFG's chronic internal problems.[72] By January 2009, Al-Shabaab and other militias had forced the Ethiopian troops to retreat, leaving behind an understaffed African Union peacekeeping force.[73] Due to a lack of funding and human resources, an arms embargo that made it difficult to re-establish a national security force, and general indifference on the part of the international community,[citation needed] President Yusuf found himself obliged to deploy thousands of troops from Puntland
Puntland
to Mogadishu
Mogadishu
to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country. Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region's government. This left little revenue for Puntland's own security forces and civil service employees, leaving the territory vulnerable to piracy and terrorist attacks.[74][75] On December 29, 2008, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
announced before a united parliament in Baidoa
Baidoa
his resignation as President of Somalia. In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen-year conflict as his government had mandated to do.[76] He also blamed the international community for its failure to support the government, and said that the speaker of parliament would succeed him in office per the charter of the Transitional Federal Government.[77] Coalition government (2009–)[edit] See also: Al-Shabaab (militant group), Hizbul Islam, Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, and Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia

The battle flag of Al-Shabaab, an Islamist group waging war against the federal government

Between May 31 and June 9, 2008, representatives of Somalia's federal government and the moderate Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) group of Islamist rebels participated in peace talks in Djibouti brokered by the former United Nations
United Nations
Special
Special
Envoy to Somalia, Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah. The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation. Parliament was subsequently expanded to 550 seats to accommodate ARS members, which then elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, the former ARS chairman, to office. President Sharif shortly afterwards appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, as the nation's new Prime Minister.[19] With the help of AMISOM, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February 2009 to assume full control of the southern half of the country. To solidify its rule, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union, other members of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a moderate Sufi militia.[78] Furthermore, Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam, the two main Islamist groups in opposition, began to fight amongst themselves in mid-2009.[79] As a truce, in March 2009, Somalia's coalition government announced that it would re-implement shari'a as the nation's official judicial system.[80] However, conflict continued in the southern and central parts of the country. Within months, the coalition government had gone from holding about 70% of south-central Somalia's conflict zones, territory which it had inherited from the previous Yusuf administration, to losing control of over 80% of the disputed territory to the Islamist insurgents.[81] From 2009 onwards[edit] Main article: War in Somalia
Somalia
(2009–present) In November 2010, a new technocratic government was elected to office, which enacted numerous reforms. Among these, in its first 50 days in office, the new administration completed its first monthly payment of stipends to government soldiers.[82]

Political situation in Somalia
Somalia
as of 14 October 2014

On August 6, 2011, Al-Shabaab was forced to withdraw from most areas of Mogadishu. Somali government forces and their AMISOM
AMISOM
allies subsequently launched offensives in January 2012 on the insurgent group's last foothold on the northern outskirts of the city.[83] An ideological rift within Al-Shabaab's leadership also emerged after the 2011 drought and the assassination of top officials in the organization.[84] In October 2011, following a weekend preparatory meeting between Somali and Kenyan military officials in the town of Dhobley,[85] Operation Linda Nchi, involving the Kenya Defence Forces
Kenya Defence Forces
and Somali Armed Forces, began against the Al-Shabaab group of insurgents in southern Somalia.[86][87] The cross-border incursion had reportedly taken nearly two years of planning, during which Kenyan officials had sought U.S. support.[88][89] In early June 2012, Kenyan troops were formally integrated into AMISOM.[90] In late September and early October 2012, Kenya Army
Kenya Army
AMISOM
AMISOM
troops, and the allied Raskamboni militia captured the strategic town of Kismayo
Kismayo
from Al-Shabaab. The southern city was a key source of revenue for the insurgent group and constituted its last major stronghold.[91] The Federal Government of Somalia
Somalia
was established in September 2012 (Bryden, Somalia
Somalia
Redux). In January 2013, AMISOM's mandate was extended for another year following the adoption of UNSC Resolution 2093. The Security Council therein also unanimously voted to suspend Somalia's arms embargo on light weapons for a one-year period. Additionally, the Security Council welcomed the Federal Government's development of a new national security strategy, urging the central authorities to accelerate the plan's implementation, further define the Somali national security forces' composition, and identify capability gaps to assist their international partners in better addressing them.[92] While many urban areas had been seized, Al-Shabaab still controlled many rural areas, where a number of their operatives disappeared into local communities in order to more effectively exploit any mistakes by the central authorities.[93] In October 2013, the U.S. Africa Command
U.S. Africa Command
began establishing the Mogadishu
Mogadishu
Coordinating Cell in the Somali capital, which became fully operational in late December.[94] The unit was formed at the request of the Somali government and AMISOM, who had approached U.S. Department of Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel
Chuck Hagel
in September about the possibility. It consists of a small team of fewer than five advisers, including planners and communicators between the Somali authorities and AMISOM. The cell is intended to provide consultative and planning support to the allied forces in order to enhance their capacity and to promote peace and security throughout the country and wider region.[95] In November 2013, a senior Ethiopian government official announced that Ethiopia's troops deployed in Somalia
Somalia
would soon join AMISOM, having already forwarded a request to do so. At the time, an estimated 8,000 Ethiopian soldiers were stationed in the country.[96] The Somali Foreign Ministry welcomed the decision, asserting that the move would galvanize AMISOM's campaign against Al-Shabaab.[97] Following the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 2124, which authorized the deployment of 4,000 additional troops to augment AMISOM's 22,126 strong force, Ethiopian troops formally joined the mission in January 2014.[98] They are mandated to work alongside the Somali National Army, with responsibility for the allied forces' operations in the southern Gedo, Bakool
Bakool
and Bay regions. The Ethiopian troops represent AMISOM's sixth contingent after the Djibouti, Burundi, Sierra Leone, Kenya and Uganda units.[99] In January 2014, at an African Union Summit in Addis Ababa, President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud
requested an extension of the UN Security Council's weapons purchasing mandate for Somalia
Somalia
after its March expiration. He indicated that the Somali defence forces required better military equipment and arms to more effectively combat militants.[100] The following month, the UN Somalia
Somalia
and Eritrea Monitoring Group reported that systematic abuses by officials within the Somali government had allowed weapons to be diverted away from Somalia's security forces and into the hands of faction leaders and Al-Shabaab militants. The panel had observed various issues and concerns surrounding the management of weapons and ammunition stockpiles, including difficulties by monitors in accessing local weapons stockpiles and in obtaining information about the arms. The monitors also suggested that one key adviser to the president was involved in planning arms deliveries to Al-Shabaab and that shipments of weapons from Djibouti
Djibouti
and Uganda could not be accounted for.[101] Somali Chief of Army Dahir Adan Elmi
Dahir Adan Elmi
made a pro forma denial of the allegations.[102] He also indicated that a UN monitoring team had twice visited the government's weapons and ammunition storage facilities in Mogadishu,[103] where it was shown the arms stockpiles for inspection and had reportedly expressed satisfaction.[102] Elmi stated that the government had twice purchased weapons since the arms embargo on Somalia
Somalia
was partially lifted.[103] Elmi also asserted that Al-Shabaab already possessed an adequate supply of weapons and mainly utilized explosive devices and sophisticated bombs.[104]

Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War
(updated as of December 2016)

In February 2014, a delegation led by Prime Minister of Somalia Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed
Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed
met in Addis Ababa with Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn
Hailemariam Desalegn
to discuss strengthening relations between the two countries. Ahmed commended Ethiopia's role in the ongoing peace and stabilization process in Somalia
Somalia
as well as its support against Al-Shabaab, and welcomed the Ethiopian military's decision to join AMISOM. Hailemariam Desalegn
Hailemariam Desalegn
in turn pledged his administration's continued support for the peace and stabilization efforts in Somalia, as well as its preparedness to assist in initiatives aiming to build up the Somali security forces through experience-sharing and training. The meeting concluded with a tripartite Memorandum of Understanding agreeing to promote partnership and cooperation, including a cooperative agreement to develop the police force.[105] On 5 March 2014, the UN Security Council unanimously voted to extend the partial easing of the arms embargo on Somalia
Somalia
until 25 October of the year.[106] The resolution permits the Somali government to purchase light weapons, with the stipulation that all member states must take steps to prevent the direct or indirect supply, transfer or sale of arms and military equipment to individuals or entities outside of the Somali security forces.[106][107] The Somali government is also required to routinely report on the structural status of the military, as well as provide information on the extant infrastructure and protocols designed to ensure the military equipment's safe delivery, storage and maintenance.[107] In early March 2014, AMISOM, supported by Somali militias, launched another operation to remove Al-Shabaab from its remaining areas of control in southern Somalia.[108] According to Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, the government subsequently launched stabilization efforts in the newly liberated areas, which included Rab Dhuure, Hudur, Wajid and Burdhubo. The Ministry of Defence was providing ongoing reassurance and security to the local residents, and supplying logistical and security support. Additionally, the Ministry of Interior was prepared to support and put into place programs to assist local administration and security. A Deputy Minister and several religious scholars were also dispatched to all four towns to coordinate and supervise the federal government's stabilization initiatives.[109] By March 26, the allied forces had liberated ten towns within the month, including Qoryoley
Qoryoley
and El Buur.[110][111] UN Special
Special
Representative for Somalia
Somalia
Nicholas Kay
Nicholas Kay
described the military advance as the most significant and geographically extensive offensive since AU troops began operations in 2007.[112] In August 2014, the Somali government-led Operation Indian Ocean was launched, which aimed to clean up the remaining insurgent-held pockets in the countryside.[113] On 1 September 2014, a U.S. drone strike carried out as part of the broader mission killed Al-Shabaab leader Moktar Ali Zubeyr.[114] U.S. authorities hailed the raid as a major symbolic and operational loss for Al-Shabaab, and the Somali government offered a 45-day amnesty to all moderate members of the militant group. Casualties[edit] According to Necrometrics, around 500,000 people are estimated to have been killed in Somalia
Somalia
since the start of the civil war in 1991.[10] The Armed Conflict Location & Event Dataset estimates that 3,300 people were killed during the conflict in 2012,[115] with the number of fatalities dropping slightly in 2013 to 3,150.[115] See also[edit]

Somalia
Somalia
portal United Nations
United Nations
portal War portal

Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War
(2009–present) Drone strikes in Somalia Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War
(2006–2009) History of Somalia
Somalia
(1991–2006) Consolidation of states within Somalia
Somalia
(1998–2006) Factions in the Somali Civil War Mogadishu
Mogadishu
Line IIDA Women's Development Organisation List of conflicts in the Horn of Africa

Notes[edit]

^ Various start dates have been offered for when the civil war in Somalia
Somalia
began. The Central Bank of Somalia,[6] the United Nations,[7][8] the US Office of the Secretary of Defense,[9] and Necrometrics all assert that the conflict started in 1991, after the ouster of the Siad Barre
Siad Barre
administration.[10] Political scientist James Fearon argues that the start of the conflict could be dated to 1981, when armed Isaaq
Isaaq
clan militias began to launch small-scale attacks against the Barre regime and its Isaaq
Isaaq
members, to the razing of the Isaaq
Isaaq
majority town of Hargeisa
Hargeisa
in 1988 by state forces, or to 1991, following the collapse of the Barre administration and the commencement of interclan warfare. For analytical purposes, he settles on 1991 for the start date of a new civil war, on the grounds that the fighting had begun previously, but that a major party to the conflict was defeated.[11] Robinson writes that the "civil war had effectively begun by 1987", referring to Compagnon.[12]

References[edit]

^ Kenya: Seven Oromo Liberation Front
Oromo Liberation Front
Fighters Held in Garissa Allafrica.com (Daily Nation), January 6, 2007 ^ "Al-Shabaab leader's fate unclear after suspected U.S. drone strike". CNN.  ^ "U.S. drone strike in Somalia
Somalia
targets al-Shabab leader". The Washington Post.  ^ "ISIL's First East African Affiliate Conducts Attacks in Somalia, Kenya". DefenseNews. December 29, 2015.  ^ "Somalia: Pro-ISIL militants, Al Shabaab clash in deadly Puntland infighting". Garowe
Garowe
Online. December 24, 2015.  ^ "Board of Directors". Central Bank of Somalia. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ "UN senior official calls for widespread support for Somali Government reform efforts" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ " Somalia
Somalia
- UNOSOM II: Background". United Nations. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ "Richard B. Cheney - George H.W. Bush Administration". US Office of the Secretary of Defense. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ a b c "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls and Casualty Statistics for Wars, Dictatorships and Genocides". Users.erols.com. Retrieved April 20, 2011.  ^ Fearon, James D. (2004). "Why Do Some Civil Wars Last So Much Longer Than Others?". Journal of Peace Research. 41 (3): 275–301. doi:10.1177/0022343304043770.  ^ Robinson, Colin (2016). "Revisiting the rise and fall of the Somali Armed Forces, 1960–2012". Defense & Security Analysis. 32 (3): 237–252. doi:10.1080/14751798.2016.1199122.  ^ c.f. UCDP datasets for SNA, SRRC, USC, SNM, ARS/UIC and Al-Shabaab tolls. ^ UCDP non-state conflict tolls ^ "UNHCR report: More displaced now than after WWII".  ^ a b Ken Menkhaus, 'Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa,' in Andersen/Moller/Stepputat (eds.) , Fragile States and Insecure People,' Palgrave, 2007, 73. Archived February 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Legum, Colin (1989). Africa Contemporary Record: Annual Survey and Documents, Volume 20. Africa Research Limited. p. B-394.  ^ Bongartz, Maria (1991). The civil war in Somalia: its genesis and dynamics. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. p. 24.  ^ a b c d Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Somalia". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved October 5, 2011.  ^ a b c Central Intelligence Agency (2011). " Somalia
Somalia
- Government - Judicial branch". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 May 2015.  ^ Ken Menkhaus, "Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa," Fragile States and Insecure People, 2007, 73. ^ Jamal, Ahmad Rashid. "Identifying Causes of State failure: The Case of Somalia". Universität Konstanz Politik- und Verwaltungswissenschaften. Retrieved 22 May 2015. ; Fergusson, James (13 January 2013). "Somalia: A failed state is back from the dead". The Independent. Retrieved 18 May 2015. ; Anderson, Jon Lee (14 December 2009). "The Most Failed State". The New Yorker. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2003). " Somalia
Somalia
- Government - Judicial branch". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ a b In 2007, Menkhaus wrote that '..armed conflict in Somalia
Somalia
has generally subsided since the early 1990s. Armed clashes continue to break out, but are nowhere near the scale and intensity of the fighting that destroyed Hargeisa
Hargeisa
in 1988–89 or Mogadishu
Mogadishu
in 1991–92. Menkhaus, FSIP, 2007, 75. ^ Menkhaus 2007, op. cit., 76. ^ Messner, J.J. (24 June 2014). "Failed States Index 2014: Somalia Displaced as Most-Fragile State". The Fund for Peace. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ "Kenya launches offensive in Somalia". Reuters. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2015.  ^ United Nations
United Nations
Security Council, Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia
Somalia
and Eritrea
Eritrea
pursuant to Security Council Resolution 2002 (2011), S/2012/544, p.226 ^ "Kenya – KDF". AMIS. Retrieved 5 May 2015.  ^ "Communiqué on Secretary-General's Mini-Summit on Somalia". United Nations. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ Balthasar, Dominik (19 November 2014). "New Approaches Are Needed for State-Building in Somalia". Fair Observer. Retrieved 26 June 2015.  ^ Messner, J. J. (24 June 2013). "Failed States Index 2013: What Were You Expecting?". The Fund for Peace. Retrieved 26 June 2015.  ^ "The European Union announces more than €124 million to increase security in Somalia". European Commissioner. Retrieved 22 May 2015.  ^ Kay, Nicholas. "Somalia's Year of Delivery". Goobjoog. Retrieved 22 May 2015.  ^ a b World of Information (Firm), Africa review, (World of Information: 1987), p.213. ^ a b Arthur S. Banks, Thomas C. Muller, William Overstreet, Political Handbook of the World 2008, (CQ Press: 2008), p.1198. ^ National Academy of Sciences (U.S.). Committee on Human Rights, Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Health and Human Rights, Scientists and human rights in Somalia: report of a delegation, (National Academies: 1988), p.9. ^ a b c d e "Somalia — Government". Library of Congress. Retrieved February 15, 2014.  ^ Bloomfield, Steve (June 11, 2007). "Aden Abdulle Osman — First President of Somalia". The Independent. Archived from the original on December 21, 2013. Retrieved December 21, 2013.  ^ Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
Bulletin, Volumes 3–4. Life & Peace Institute. 1991. p. 14.  ^ Adam, Hussein (1998). Somalia: Personal Rule, Military Rule and Militarism (in) Hutchful and Bathily, The Military and Militarism in Africa. Dakar: Council for the Development of Economic and Social Research in Africa (CODESRIA). p. 389. ISBN 2-86978-069-9.  ^ Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.19. ^ Ciisa-Salwe, Cabdisalaam M. (1996). The collapse of the Somali state: the impact of the colonial legacy. HAAN Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 187420991X.  ^ Silanyo, Ahmed M. "A Proposal to the Somali National Movement: On a Framework for a Transitional Government in Somalia" (PDF). Wardheernews. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2014.  ^ Library Information and Research Service, The Middle East: Abstracts and index, Volume 2, (Library Information and Research Service: 1999), p.327. ^ a b c Interpeace, 'The search for peace: A history of mediation in Somalia
Somalia
since 1988,' Interpeace, May 2009, 13–14. Archived February 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Clancy, Tom; Tony Zinni; Tony Koltz (2005). Battle Ready:Study in Command Commander Series. Penguin. pp. 234–236. ISBN 978-0-425-19892-6.  ^ Mohamed Ahmed Jama, “Securing Mogadishu: Neighbourhood Watches,” in Whose Peace is it anyway? Connecting Somali and International Peacemaking Approaches, Accord 21, Conciliation Resources, 2010, 66. ^ Ken Rutherford, Humanitarianism Under Fire: The US and UN Intervention in Somalia, Kumarian Press, July 2008 ISBN 1-56549-260-9 ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Operation In Somalia
Somalia
I – (Unosom I)". United Nations. Retrieved January 29, 2012.  ^ For further details on UNOSOM-sponsored local-level community-based reconciliation conferences, see Menkhaus, 'International Peacebuilding and the Dynamics of Local and National Reconciliation in Somalia,' International Peacekeeping, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 1996, 52. ^ See also Report of the Secretary-General on Somalia, S/1995/231 (March 28, 1995). ^ "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Somalia (S/1996/42)" (PDF). January 19, 1996. Retrieved February 14, 2014. , page 2, paragraph 7. ^ Djibouti
Djibouti
Conference. ^ Associated Press (September 19, 1995). "Aidid troops kill Somalis, capture city". The Register-Guard. Retrieved May 16, 2013.  ^ a b S/1996/42, 26, 27, 28, 29 ^ Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Somalia, S/1997/135, February 17, 1997, paragraphs 6,7, and 9. For later occurrences 1997 to 2000, see S/1997/715, S/1999/882, and S/2000/1211 (December 19, 2000). ^ Somalia: Puntland's Experience in Peace-building and State-building[dead link] ^ "Somalia: IRIN interview with Hussein Aideed, 5/4/99". IRIN. Retrieved 19 April 2014.  ^ Strategic Survey 1999-2000, 264. ^ "August 2000 – Somalia". Rulers. Retrieved October 6, 2013.  ^ Interpeace, 'The search for peace: A history of mediation in Somalia since 1988,' Interpeace, May 2009, 59-60 ^ Interpeace, May 2009, 60-61. ^ a b "Ethiopian Invasion of Somalia". Globalpolicy.org. 2007-08-14. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  ^ Ken Menkhaus, "Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa", in Andersen/Moller/Stepputat (eds.), Fragile States and Insecure People, Palgrave, 2007, 67. ^ a b "Profile: Somali's newly resigned President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed". News.xinhuanet.com. 29 December 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2013.  ^ Ken Menkhaus, 'Somalia: What went wrong?' The RUSI Journal, Vol. 154, No. 4, August 2009, 8. Menkhaus says in addition: '[f]or details, see Human Rights Watch, 'Shell-shocked: Civilians under siege in Mogadishu,' August 13, 2007, and HRW, 'So Much to Fear: War Crimes and the Devastation of Somalia,' December 2008.' ^ Menkhaus, ibid. ^ Interpeace, May 2009, 61. ^ a b Wezeman, Pieter D. "Arms flows and conflict in Somalia" (PDF). SIPRI. Retrieved February 10, 2014.  ^ "Background and Political Developments". AMISOM. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved February 11, 2014.  ^ International Crisis Group, Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State, Africa Report N°147 – December 23, 2008, 25. ^ "USCIRF Annual Report 2009 – The Commission's Watch List: Somalia". USCIRF. Retrieved February 15, 2014.  ^ "Somalia: Guide to Puntland
Puntland
Election 2009". Garoweonline.com. December 25, 2008. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2011.  ^ "Opening Annual General Assembly Debate, Secretary-General Urges Member States to Press in Tackling Poverty, Terrorism, Human Rights Abuses, Conflicts". Unis.unvienna.org. Retrieved June 12, 2011.  ^ "Somalia's president quits office", BBC News, December 29, 2008. ^ "Somali President Yusuf resigns", Reuters (FT.com), December 29, 2008. ^ Kamaal says: (May 22, 2010). "UN boss urges support for Somalia ahead of Istanbul summit". Horseedmedia.net. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved June 27, 2010.  ^ "Islamists break Somali port truce". BBC News. October 21, 2009. Retrieved June 27, 2010.  ^ Shariah in Somalia – Arab News ^ Online, Garowe
Garowe
(January 12, 2011). " Somalia
Somalia
President, Parliament Speaker dispute over TFG term". Garoweonline.com. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2011.  ^ "Security Council Meeting on Somalia". Somaliweyn.org. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014.  ^ "Al-Shabaab Evicted from Mogadishu". Somalia
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Report. Retrieved February 14, 2014.  ^ Chothia, Farouk (August 9, 2011). "Could Somali famine deal a fatal blow to al-Shabab?". BBC.  ^ Reuters (October 16, 2011). "Kenya launches offensive in Somalia". National Post.  ^ "Joint Communique – Operation Linda Nchi". Kenya High Commission, Tanzania. Retrieved September 25, 2013.  ^ " Somalia
Somalia
government supports Kenyan forces' mission". Standardmedia.co.ke. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012.  ^ Azikiwe, Abayomi (January 4, 2012). "Leaked cables confirm U.S. role in Somalia
Somalia
war". Pan-African News Wire. Retrieved February 16, 2014.  ^ Anderson, David; McKnight, Jacob (2015). "Kenya at war: Al-Shabaab and its enemies in Eastern Africa". African Affairs. 114 (454): 1–27. doi:10.1093/afraf/adu082.  ^ "Kenya: Defense Minister appointed as acting Internal Security Minister". Garowe
Garowe
Online. June 19, 2012. Retrieved June 20, 2012. [dead link] ^ Chonghaile, Clar Ni (September 28, 2012). "Kenyan troops launch beach assault on Somali city of Kismayo". The Guardian. Retrieved September 28, 2012.  ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 2093".  S/RES/2093 (2013), March 6, 2013 ^ Hammond, Laura (2013). " Somalia
Somalia
rising: things are starting to change for the world's longest failed state". Journal of Eastern African Studies. 7 (1): 183–193. doi:10.1080/17531055.2012.755316. Retrieved February 16, 2014.  ^ "U.S. military advisers deployed to Somalia
Somalia
to help African forces". Reuters. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.  ^ Martinez, Luis (January 10, 2014). "U.S. Military Advisers Deployed to Somalia: First Time Since Blackhawk Down". ABC News. Retrieved January 12, 2014.  ^ Tekle, Tesfa-Alem (November 12, 2013). "Somalia: Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Decides to Join Amisom Force in Somalia". Sudan Tribune. Retrieved January 12, 2014.  ^ Ali, Hassan (November 12, 2013). "Somali government welcomes Ethiopia
Ethiopia
AMISOM
AMISOM
integration". Dalsan Radio. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2014.  ^ "Comment on Ethiopian troops formally join AMISOM
AMISOM
peacekeepers in Somalia". Foreign Affairs. February 14, 2014. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2014.  ^ "Ethiopian Forces formally integrated into AMISOM". AMISOM. Retrieved February 14, 2014.  ^ "Mohamud wants UN to extend weapons purchasing mandate". Sabahi. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.  ^ " Somalia
Somalia
diverting arms to al-Shabab, UN report claims". BBC News. February 14, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.  ^ a b "Somali Government official denies U.N arms diversion allegations". Horseed Media. 15 February 2014. Archived from the original on February 16, 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.  ^ a b "Federal government of Somalia
Somalia
denies the report issued by UN monitoring group". Goobjoog. February 15, 2014. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.  ^ "SOMALIA: Military chief says UN Monitoring Group wants Al Shabab to become an endless project". Raxanreeb. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.  ^ "Ethiopia: The Prime Minister of Somalia
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Somalia
arms embargo to October". Reuters. Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "Somalia: Federal Govt, AMISOM
AMISOM
troops clash with Al Shabaab". Garowe Online. 11 March 2014. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.  ^ "SOMALIA: PM hosts meeting with International Community diplomats on stabilisation efforts". Raxanreeb. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.  ^ "SOMALIA: The capture of Qoryooley is critical for the operations to liberate Barawe, Amisom head says". Raxanreeb. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.  ^ "SOMALIA: Elbur town falls for Somali Army and Amisom". Raxanreeb. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.  ^ "Somalia, AU troops close in on key Shebab base". AFP. March 22, 2014. Archived from the original on March 23, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2014.  ^ "SOMALIA: President says Godane is dead, now is the chance for the members of al-Shabaab to embrace peace". Raxanreeb. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.  ^ "Pentagon Confirms Death of Somalia
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Further reading[edit]

Afyare Abdi Elmi. Understanding the Somalia
Somalia
conflagration: Identity, political Islam and peacebuilding. Pluto Press, 2010. Barnes, Cedric, and Harun Hassan. "The rise and fall of Mogadishu's Islamic Courts." Journal of Eastern African Studies 1, no. 2 (2007): 151–160. Bøås, Morten. "Returning to realities: a building-block approach to state and statecraft in Eastern Congo and Somalia." Conflict, Security & Development 10, no. 4 (2010): 443–464. I. M. Lewis. A Modern History of the Somali: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa, Athens: Ohio University Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-8214-1495-8. Jutta Bakonyi. Authority and administration beyond the state: local governance in southern Somalia, 1995–2006, Journal of Eastern African Studies, Vol. 7, Issue 2, 2013. Ken Menkhaus. Somalia: State collapse and the threat of terrorism. Adelphi Papers No. 364, Routledge, 2008. McGregor, Andrew. "The Leading Factions Behind the Somali Insurgency." Terrorism Monitor, Volume V, Issue 8, April 26, 2007.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Somali Civil War.

Somalia's Struggle for Stability from The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer Somali – U.S. Relations from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives Somalia
Somalia
Operations: Lessons Learned by Kenneth Allard (CCRP, 1995) "Preserving American Security Ties to Somalia," by Michael Johns, The Heritage Foundation, December 26, 1989. Changed Arab attitudes to Somalia
Somalia
Conflict Security Council Report, United Nations
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Somali Civil War
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Timeline

2006 2007 2008 2009

Background

History of Somalia
Somalia
(1991–2006) Greater Somalia Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa Somali Civil War

Factions Diplomatic and humanitarian efforts Propaganda Disarmament

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Islamic Courts Union
(2006)

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Mogadishu
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Ethiopian–Somali conflict Insurgency in Ogaden Somali Reconciliation Conferences

1993 2002 2007

Battles

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(March–April 2007) Battle of Bargal (2007) Battle of Mogadishu
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(November 2007) Battle of Mogadishu
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2007 Mogadishu
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 Ethiopia

Meles Zenawi Gabre Heard

Islamic Courts Union

Hassan Dahir Aweys Sharif Sheikh Ahmed

al-Itihaad al-Islamiya

Hassan Abdullah Hersi al-Turki

Hizbul Shabaab

Mukhtar Robow Aden Hashi Farah

ARPCT

Abdi Hasan Awale Mohamed Omar Habeb

Transitional Federal Parliament

Ali Mohammed Ghedi Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed

 Puntland

Mohamud Muse Hersi

Galmudug

Mohamed Warsame Ali

 United States

Jendayi Frazer

AMISOM

Yoweri Museveni

Next phase: Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War
(2009–present)

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Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War
(2009–present)

Part of the Somali Civil War War on Terror

Timeline

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Background

History of Somalia
Somalia
(1991–2006) Greater Somalia Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa Somali Civil War

Factions Diplomatic and humanitarian efforts Propaganda Disarmament

Advance of the Islamic Courts Union
Islamic Courts Union
(2006)

Battle of Mogadishu
Mogadishu
(2006)

Ethiopian–Somali conflict Insurgency in Ogaden Somali Reconciliation Conferences

1993 2002 2007

Operations and battles

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Mogadishu
(2009) Battle for Central Somalia
Somalia
(2009) Battle of Wabho Battle of Kismayo
Kismayo
(2009) Battle of Beledweyne (2010) 2010 Ayn clashes 2010 Kenya–Al-Shabaab border clash Galgala campaign Battle of Mogadishu
Mogadishu
(2010–11) Battle of Beledweyne (2011) Battle of Gedo Battle of Elwaq Battle of Jubbada Hoose Operation Linda Nchi Battle of Kismayo
Kismayo
(2012) Battle of Yurkud (2012) Bulo Marer hostage rescue attempt Operation Indian Ocean Battle of Leego (2015) Battle of Janale (2015) Battle of El Adde Qandala campaign Battle of Kulbiyow 2017 Barii raid Battle of Af Urur Golweyn ambush 2018 African Union base attack in Bulo Marer

Bombings

2009 African Union base bombings in Mogadishu 2009 Beledweyne bombing 2009 Hotel Shamo bombing May 2010 Mogadishu
Mogadishu
bombings Muna Hotel attack July 2010 Kampala attacks 2011 Mogadishu
Mogadishu
bombing Battle of Deynile 2014 Villa Somalia
Somalia
attack 2014 Hotel Amalo attack 2015 Central Hotel attack Makka al-Mukarama hotel attack 2015 Garowe
Garowe
attack 2015 Ministry of Higher Education attack Jazeera Palace Hotel bombing January 2016 Mogadishu
Mogadishu
attack February 2016 Mogadishu
Mogadishu
attack Baidoa
Baidoa
suicide bombing June 2016 Mogadishu
Mogadishu
attacks November 2016 Mogadishu
Mogadishu
car bombing December 2016 Mogadishu
Mogadishu
suicide bombing January 2017 Mogadishu
Mogadishu
bombings February 2017 Mogadishu
Mogadishu
bombing 14 October 2017 Mogadishu
Mogadishu
bombings 28 October 2017 Mogadishu
Mogadishu
bombings February 2018 Mogadishu
Mogadishu
attack

OEF–HOA

2009 Baraawe raid Bulo Marer hostage rescue attempt 2013 Barawe raid 2017 Barii raid

Other events

Death of Noramfaizul Mohd Nor London Somalia
Somalia
Conference Abdiaziz Abdinur Ibrahim controversy Daallo Airlines Flight 159 Awdinle massacre

Key players

Al-Shabaab

Mukhtar Robow Ali Dhere Fuad Qalaf

Hizbul Islam

Hassan Dahir Aweys Hassan Abdullah Hersi al-Turki

Federal Government of Somalia

Hassan Sheikh Mohamud Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke Mohamed Sheikh Hassan Ahlu Suna Wal Jamea Galmudug

Abdi Hasan Awale Qeybdiid

 Puntland

Abdiweli Mohamed Ali

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Ongoing armed conflicts

Africa

ADF insurgency Batwa-Luba clashes Boko Haram insurgency Burundian unrest Central African Republic Civil War Communal conflicts in Nigeria
Communal conflicts in Nigeria
(Herder–farmer conflicts in Nigeria) Conflict in the Niger Delta Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict

Second Afar insurgency

Ethnic violence in South Sudan

South Sudanese Civil War

Insurgency in Egypt Insurgency in the Maghreb ISIL insurgency in Tunisia Islamist insurgency in Mozambique Ituri conflict Kamwina Nsapu rebellion‎ Katanga insurgency Kivu conflict Libyan Crisis

Second Civil War

Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Northern Mali conflict Ogaden insurgency Oromo-Somali clashes RENAMO insurgency Sinai insurgency Somali Civil War

War in Somalia

Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile Sudanese nomadic conflicts War in Darfur

Americas

Colombian conflict EPP insurgency Mexican Drug War Peruvian internal conflict Mapuche conflict

East and South Asia

Balochistan conflict

Sistan and Baluchestan insurgency

Insurgency in Laos Insurgency in Northeast India

Assam Meghalaya Manipur Nagaland

Insurgency in the Philippines

CPP–NPA–NDF Moro

Internal conflict in Bangladesh Internal conflict in Myanmar

Kachin Karen Rohingya

Kashmir conflict Naxalite–Maoist insurgency Papua conflict Sectarianism in Pakistan South Thailand insurgency War in Afghanistan

2001–present

War in North-West Pakistan Xinjiang conflict

Europe

Insurgency in the North Caucasus War in Donbass Islamic terrorism in Europe

West Asia

Arab separatism in Khuzestan Iraqi Civil War (2014–present) Israeli–Palestinian conflict Kurdish separatism in Iran

West Iran clashes

Kurdish–Turkish conflict

2015–present

Lebanese conflict Nagorno-Karabakh conflict Qatif conflict

2017 Qatif unrest

Syrian Civil War Yemeni Crisis

civil war

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Post– Cold War
Cold War
African conflicts

North Africa

Algerian Civil War
Algerian Civil War
(1991–2002) Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) Libyan Crisis [2011–present]

First Libyan Civil War [2011] Factional violence [2011–14] Second Libyan Civil War [2014–present]

Tunisian Revolution
Tunisian Revolution
(2010–11) Western Sahara conflict
Western Sahara conflict
(1970–present)

Western Sahara War

Egyptian conflicts

Egyptian crisis [2011–14] 2011 Revolution Sinai insurgency
Sinai insurgency
[2011–present] Post-coup unrest [2013–14] Insurgency in Egypt (2013–present)

Sudanese conflicts

Ethnic violence in South Sudan Civil War [1983–2005] War in Darfur
War in Darfur
[2003–present] Sudanese nomadic conflicts
Sudanese nomadic conflicts
[2009–present] Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile
Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile
[2011–present] Heglig Crisis
Heglig Crisis
[2012] South Sudanese Civil War

West Africa

Sierra Leone conflicts

Ndogboyosoi War Sierra Leone Civil War

Guinea-Bissau Civil War
Guinea-Bissau Civil War
(1998–99) Sierra Leone Civil War
Sierra Leone Civil War
(1991–2002) Liberian Civil Wars

1989–96 1999–2003

Ivorian Civil Wars

2002–07 2010–11

Nigerian conflicts

Communal conflicts in Nigeria
Communal conflicts in Nigeria
(1998–present) Herder–farmer conflicts in Nigeria Religious violence in Nigeria Islamist insurgency in Nigeria
Islamist insurgency in Nigeria
(1999–present) Boko Haram insurgency
Boko Haram insurgency
[2009–present] Niger Delta conflict (2004–present) 2016 conflict

Malian conflicts

Tuareg rebellion (1990–1995) Tuareg rebellion (2007–2009) Tuareg rebellion (2012) Northern Mali conflict
Northern Mali conflict
(2012–present)

2013 Guinea clashes Casamance conflict 2016–2017 Gambian constitutional crisis

ECOWAS intervention in the Gambia (2017)

Central Africa

Republic of the Congo conflicts

First Civil War (1993–94) Second Civil War (1997–99) Pool War

Angolan Civil War
Angolan Civil War
(1975–2002) Chadian Civil War (2005–10) Democratic Republic of the Congo conflicts

First Congo War
First Congo War
[1996–97] Second Congo War
Second Congo War
[1998–2003] Ituri conflict
Ituri conflict
[1999–2007] Dongo conflict [2009] Ituri conflict
Ituri conflict
[2009–present] Kivu conflict
Kivu conflict
[2004–present] M23 rebellion Kamwina Nsapu rebellion

Central African Republic conflicts

Bush War [2004–07] Central African Republic Civil War (2012–present)

Lord's Resistance Army insurgency
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency
(1987–present) Boko Haram insurgency

East Africa

Rwandan Civil War
Rwandan Civil War
[1990–94]

Genocide

Djiboutian Civil War
Djiboutian Civil War
(1991–94) Ethiopian conflicts

Eritrean War of Independence Insurgency in Ogaden Second Afar insurgency Eritrean–Ethiopian War
Eritrean–Ethiopian War
(1998–2000) Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict (2000–present)

Hanish Islands conflict Djiboutian–Eritrean border conflict Burundian conflicts

Burundian Civil War
Burundian Civil War
(1993–2005) Burundian unrest (2015–present)

Somali conflicts

Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War
[1991–present] 2006–09 War 2009–present War

Kenyan conflicts

Ethnic conflicts in Kenya Somali-Kenyan conflict Likoni Massacres 2007–08 Kenyan crisis 2012–13 Tana River District clashes Baragoi clashes

South Sudanese conflicts [2011–present]

Heglig Crisis Sudanese nomadic conflicts Ethnic violence in South Sudan South Sudanese Civil War

Insurgency in the Ogaden (1995-present) Second Afar Insurgency (1995-present) Ugandan conflicts

Lord's Resistance Army insurgency
Lord's Resistance Army insurgency
(1987–present) Allied Democratic Forces insurgency
Allied Democratic Forces insurgency
(1996-present)

Oromo-Somali clashes

Southern Africa

Bophuthatswana crisis (1994) Caprivian conflict (1994–99) SADC intervention in Lesotho (1998-99) 2014 Lesotho political crisis Mozambican conflicts

RENAMO insurgency (2013–present) Islamist insurgency in Mozambique

Related topics

War on Terror
War on Terror
(2001–present) Arab Spring
Arab Spring
[2010–11]

Arab Winter

Colour revolutions

European conflicts Asian conflicts Middle East conflicts Conflic