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 Parouse.com



Sirte
Sirte
(/ˈsɜːrt/; Arabic: سرت‎,  pronunciation (help·info); from Ancient Greek: Σύρτις), also spelled Sirt, Surt, Sert or Syrte, is a city in Libya. It is located south of the Gulf of Sirte, between Tripoli
Tripoli
and Benghazi. It is famously known for its battles, ethnic groups, and loyalism to Muammar Gaddafi. Also due to its development, it was the capital of Libya
Libya
as Tripoli's successer after the Fall of Tripoli since September 1, 2011 to October 20, 2011. The settlement was established in the early 20th century by the Italians, at the site of a 19th-century fortress built by the Ottomans. It grew into a city after World War II. As the birthplace of Muammar Gaddafi, Sirte
Sirte
saw big developments and a bright future by the Jamahiriya government.[citation needed] The city was the final major stronghold of Gaddafi
Gaddafi
loyalists in the Libyan Civil War and Gaddafi
Gaddafi
was killed there by rebel forces on 20 October 2011. During the battle, Sirte
Sirte
was left almost completely in ruins, with many buildings totally destroyed or damaged.[2] Six months after the civil war, almost 60,000 inhabitants, more than 70 percent of pre-war population, had returned. Although, Sirte
Sirte
remains as probably the most loyal city of Libya
Libya
even after the atrocities and unfair persecutions done by rebel forces. Sirte
Sirte
has rising hate and tensions against the new governments.[3]

Contents

1 Early history 2 Modern history

2.1 Gaddafi
Gaddafi
era 2.2 2011 Libyan Civil War 2.3 Postwar

2.3.1 ISIL occupation 2.3.2 Reconstruction

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Early history[edit] Sirte
Sirte
is built near the site of the ancient Phoenician city of Macomedes-Euphranta,[4] which was an important link on the road along the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
littoral. It is the last confirmed place where the Punic
Punic
language was spoken, in the 5th century CE. The region had no recognized administrative centre and was infested for centuries by bandits. In Classical times, the coast was "proverbially dangerous to shipping",[5] called "inhospita Syrtis" in Virgil's Aeneid.[6] John Milton's Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
Book 2 lines 939-940 speaks of "a boggy Syrtis, neither sea/Nor good dry land". Modern history[edit] In 1842 the Ottomans built a fortress at Marsat al Zaafran ("saffron harbour") which became known as Qasr al Zaafran ("saffron castle"), and later as Qasr Sert. The fortress was built under sultan Abdülmecid I
Abdülmecid I
as part of the restoration of Ottoman control over Tripolitania
Tripolitania
after the fall of the Karamanli dynasty. It was around this fortification, which was taken over and repaired by the Italians in 1912, that the settlement of Sirte
Sirte
grew up.[7] Sirte
Sirte
served as an administrative centre under Italian rule.[8] During the North African Campaign
North African Campaign
of the Second World War
Second World War
there were no noteworthy events in this location, which was characterised at the time as "a shabby little Arab village of mud huts, clustered on the banks of a foul-smelling stream."[9] The village grew into a prominent town after the Second World War
Second World War
for two reasons – the discovery and exploitation of oil nearby and the birth of Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
in 1942 in a tent at Qasr Abu Hadi, some 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Sirte. He was sent to the primary school at Sirte
Sirte
at the age of ten.[10] Gaddafi
Gaddafi
era[edit] After seizing power in 1969, Gaddafi
Gaddafi
transformed Sirte
Sirte
into a showcase of his self-proclaimed revolution, carrying out an extensive programme of public works to expand the former village into a small city. After 1988, most government departments and the Libyan parliament were relocated from Tripoli
Tripoli
to Sirte, although Tripoli
Tripoli
remained formally the capital of the country.[11] Al-Tahadi University was established in 1991. In 1999, Gaddafi
Gaddafi
proposed the idea of creating a "United States of Africa" with Sirte
Sirte
as its administrative centre. Ambitious plans to build a new international airport and seaport were announced in 2007.[12] In 1999, the Sirte Declaration was signed in the city by the Organisation of African Unity
Organisation of African Unity
in a conference that was hosted by Gaddafi. In 2007 he also hosted talks in Sirte
Sirte
to broker a peace agreement between the government of Sudan
Sudan
and warring factions in Darfur.[13] In 2008, China Railway Construction Corporation
China Railway Construction Corporation
won a $2.6 billion bid in Libya
Libya
to build a west-to-east coastal railway 352 km (219 mi) from Khoms to Sirte
Sirte
and a south-to-west railway 800 km (500 mi) long for iron ore transport from the southern city Sabha to Misrata.[14] 2011 Libyan Civil War[edit] Further information: 2011 Libyan civil war, Libyan rebel advance on Sirte, and Battle of Sirte
Sirte
(2011) On 5 March 2011, anti- Gaddafi
Gaddafi
forces said they were preparing to capture the city.[15] However, on 6 March, the rebel advance was stopped during the Battle of Bin Jawad before reaching Sirte. Government forces launched a counter-offensive that recaptured Ra's Lanuf[16][17] and continued to advance as far as the outskirts of the de facto rebel capital of Benghazi. Under United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 1973, several Western and Arab countries then intervened with air and missile strikes, which turned the tide again in favour of the rebels. On 28 March, Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
reported that Sirte had been claimed to be taken by rebel forces overnight with little resistance,[18] but other news organisations later reported that rebels and Gaddafi
Gaddafi
forces were fighting on the road between Bin Jawad and Sirte.[19] By 30 March, Gaddafi
Gaddafi
loyalists had forced the rebels out of Bin Jawad
Bin Jawad
and Ra's Lanuf
Ra's Lanuf
and once again removed the immediate threat of an attack on Sirte.[20] In August, the city faced a more severe threat from the rebels as the loyalist position deteriorated rapidly, with rebels making gains on multiple fronts. As Tripoli
Tripoli
came under attack, other rebel forces based in Benghazi
Benghazi
broke the military stalemate in the eastern desert, taking Brega and Ra's Lanuf. At the same time, rebels in Misrata pushed eastward along the coast towards Sirte, which then faced a pincer movement from the rebels on two fronts.[21] On 24 August, rebel units were reported as being 56 km (35 mi) from the city.[22] On 27 August, Bin Jawad
Bin Jawad
– about 150 km east – was once again recaptured by the rebels. It was also reported that the National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
were in negotiations with tribal figures from the city for it to surrender to rebel forces.[23] In a radio address on 1 September 2011, Gaddafi
Gaddafi
declared Sirte
Sirte
the new capital of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, replacing the former capital Tripoli, which had been captured by rebels.[24] Anti-Gaddafi forces
Anti-Gaddafi forces
surrounded the city during September 2011 and began a long, difficult battle there, hoping to bring the war to an end. On 20 October, after suffering massive casualties during a siege that lasted over a month, NTC fighters mounted a major offensive and took control of the last remaining district of Sirte, "Number Two", that was in the hands of regime loyalists. Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
attempted to flee the city, but he was injured and captured by fighters. He was killed in custody less than an hour later.[25] Sirte
Sirte
was left heavily damaged by a month of intense fighting, which was preceded by NATO
NATO
airstrikes throughout the war,[26] and was considered to have been subjected to the most damage of any Libyan city during the civil war.[27] Many homes were ransacked and looted by fighters, angering residents including those loyal to Gaddafi
Gaddafi
and those sympathetic to the revolution.[28] Many streets and buildings also experienced flooding as water mains were destroyed, though it was unclear by which side.[29] Landmarks like the Ouagadougou Conference Center, which became an impromptu fortress for the city's defenders during the battle, were ruined by artillery fire and blasts. A number of Libyan residents and fighters described the city as unrecognisable after weeks of siege.[30] Postwar[edit] In April 2012, almost six months after the civil war, more than 70 percent of the inhabitants had returned to Sirte. Rebuilding of the city started, although unexploded ordnance still posed a great risk to civilians.[3] In February 2012, some local residents said they felt abandoned by the National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
(NTC), but the new government had promised to rebuild the city and Deputy Prime Minister Mustafa Abushagur
Mustafa Abushagur
insisted this would happen.[31] Some local rebuilding was done in 2012 and 2013,[27] but reconstruction of municipal services did not begin until a 9 million Libyan dinars reconstruction project started in 2014.[32] Although, little to no reconstruction occurred, Sirte
Sirte
was being ignored by the NTC even after what it went through and it's rich history. ISIL occupation[edit] Further information: Battle of Sirte (2015)
Battle of Sirte (2015)
and Battle of Sirte
Sirte
(2016) During the widespread chaos and civil war that followed the revolution and led to the erosion of territorial control under the General National Congress (GNC) (which had succeeded the NTC) and the new GNC (NGNC), local loyalists to the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant (ISIL), which had previously seized the port city of Derna, launched an attack in March 2015 to capture Sirte, which was then occupied by the Libya
Libya
Shield Force, an NGNC-linked militia. Sirte
Sirte
fell to the ISIL loyalists in May 2015.[33] Following the formation of a new Tripoli-based government, the Government of National Accord
Government of National Accord
(GNA), an offensive backed by the United Nations was launched in May 2016 by GNA-aligned forces, known as the Bunyan Marsous, to recapture Sirte.[34] After two months of advances, pro-government forces took control of ISIL's Sirte
Sirte
headquarters on 10 August 2016,[35] although pockets of ISIL resistance continued to prolong fighting through the end of the year.[36] Sirte
Sirte
was substantially under the control of the GNA by 6 December 2016.[36][37][38] A contributing factor to the recapture of the city were the over 400 airstrikes organized by the United States Africa Command against ISIL positions during the months-long battle.[34] Approximately 700 Libya
Libya
pro-government fighters and 2,000 ISIL loyalists died in Sirte
Sirte
between May and November 2016.[34][39] Reconstruction[edit] Mayoral elections are scheduled for 12 December 2016 with the previously (2015) municipal councilmen taking office again.[40] See also[edit]

Libya
Libya
portal

List of cities in Libya Transport in Libya Railway stations in Libya Qadhadhfa

References[edit]

^ "World Gazetteer". Archived from the original on 16 December 2012.  ^ "Sirte, Libya: Gadhafi's hometown seems largely destroyed". The News Tribune. Tacoma, Washington. 16 October 2011. Archived from the original on 24 December 2011.  ^ a b Dobbs, L. (16 April 2012). Libya: Displaced Return to Rebuild Gaddafi's Hometown - Face Needs? allAfrica. Accessed 22 April 2012 ^ Wallace, Jonathan; Wilkinson, Bill. Doing business with Libya, p. 197. Kogan Page Publishers, 2004. ISBN 978-0-7494-3992-7 ^ P. G. W. Glare (1982). "Syrtis". Oxford Latin Dictionary. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. p. 1897. ISBN 0-19-864224-5.  ^ Book IV, line 41 ^ Goodchild, Richard George. Libyan studies: select papers of the late R. G. Goodchild, p. 136. P. Elek, 1976. ISBN 978-0-236-17680-9 ^ Ham, Anthony. Libya, p. 121. Lonely Planet, 2007. ISBN 978-1-74059-493-6 ^ Barker, A.J. Afrika Korps, p. 16. Bison Books, 1978 ^ Simons, Geoffrey Leslie. Libya: the struggle for survival, p. 170. Palgrave Macmillan, 1993. ISBN 978-0-312-08997-9 ^ "Libya". Europa World Year 2004 Volume II, p. 2651. Taylor & Francis Group, 2004. ISBN 978-1-85743-255-8 ^ The Report: Libya
Libya
2008, p. 73. Oxford Business Group, 2008. ISBN 978-1-902339-11-5 ^ "Struggle to salvage Darfur
Darfur
talks". BBC News. 29 October 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2011.  ^ China Railway Construction Corporation
China Railway Construction Corporation
website ^ Tomasevic, Goran (March 5, 2011). "In disorganized surge, Libya's rebels push west along shifting front line". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 6 March 2011.  ^ "Rebel forces retreat from Ras Lanuf". Al Jazeera. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2011.  ^ "Rebel push stalls outside Ras Lanuf". Al Jazeera. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2011.  ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oPpCJkCA_VI ^ "Libya: Rebels battle for road to Gaddafi
Gaddafi
hometown Sirte". BBC News. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "Libya: Gaddafi's fighters force rebel retreat". BBC News. 30 March 2011.  ^ Erdbrink, Thomas; Sly, Liz (2011-08-23). "Libyan rebels storm Gaddafi
Gaddafi
compound in Tripoli". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-08-23.  ^ Stephen, Christopher (2011-08-24). "Libyan rebels advance on Gaddafi's home town". The Guardian. www.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-08-24.  ^ " Libya
Libya
rebels in "fierce" fight for Sabha--spokesman". Reuters. 2011-08-23. Retrieved 2011-08-24.  ^ "From voice said to be Gadhafi, a defiant message to his foes". CNN. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.  ^ " Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
killed as Sirte
Sirte
falls". Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
English. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.  ^ "Gaddafi's final stronghold falls: Libyan forces conquer Sirte". The Daily Telegraph. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.  ^ a b " Sirte
Sirte
and Misrata
Misrata
rebuild in wake of Libya
Libya
conflict". France 24. 31 May 2013. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013.  ^ " Sirte
Sirte
fighter indignant at level of city's destruction". The Daily Star. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.  ^ Peachey, Paul (14 October 2011). "Through hell and high water: final push in battle for Sirte". The Independent. Retrieved 20 October 2011.  ^ "Gaddafi's dream in ruins". News24. 13 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.  ^ Head, Jonathan (9 February 2012). "Should Libya
Libya
rebuild Gaddafi hometown of Sirte?". BBC News. Retrieved 17 February 2012.  ^ Adel, Jamal (5 June 2014). "Town of Sirte
Sirte
launches massive reconstruction project". Libya
Libya
Herald. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "Libia nel caos, l'Isis conquista Sirte
Sirte
"Minaccia a pochi km dall'Italia"". Corriere Della Sera (in Italian). 13 February 2015. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015.  ^ a b c "After 4,000 dead and wounded Bunyan Marsous finally beats IS in Sirte". Libya
Libya
Herald. 5 December 2016. Archived from the original on 8 December 2016.  ^ "Libyan forces recapture ISIL headquarters in Sirte". Al Jazeera. 11 August 2016. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016.  ^ a b Mannocchi, Francesca (6 December 2016). "Libya's Sirte
Sirte
in rubble after ISIL battle". Al Jezeera. Archived from the original on 7 December 2016.  ^ Jawad, Rana; et al. (6 December 2016). " Libya
Libya
conflict: IS 'ejected' from stronghold of Sirte". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 December 2016.  ^ Joscelyn, Thomas (7 December 2016). "Pentagon: Islamic State has lost its safe haven in Sirte, Libya". FDD's Long War Journal (Foundation for Defense of Democracies). Archived from the original on 9 December 2016.  ^ "Casualties continue to rise in battle for Sirte". Libya
Libya
Heraald. 16 November 2016. Archived from the original on 30 November 2016.  ^ Mzioudet, Houda; Fornaji, Hadi (6 December 2016). "Mayoral election set for Sirte
Sirte
and municipal elections for central Zawia and Bani Walid". Libya
Libya
Herald. Archived from the original on 8 December 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sirte.

Sirte
Sirte
travel guide from Wikivoyage

v t e

Sirte
Sirte
District, Libya

Capital

Sirte

Towns and villages

Abu Qurayn Bin Jawad Harawa Nofaliya Qasr Abu Hadi Ra's Lanuf Sidra ‘Uwayja Buerat

v t e

Administrative seats of the districts of Libya

Ajdabiya Al Jawf ‘Aziziya Bayda Benghazi Brak Derna Gharyan Ghat Hun Khoms Marj Misrata Murzuk Nalut Sabha Sirte Tripoli Tobruk Ubari Zawiya Zuwara

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Libya [1][2][3]

Rank Name District Pop.

Tripoli

Benghazi 1 Tripoli Tripoli 1,250,000

Misurata

Bayda

2 Benghazi Benghazi 700,000

3 Misurata Misurata 350,000

4 Bayda Jabal al Akhdar 250,000

5 Al Khums Murqub 201,000

6 Zawiya Zawiya 200,000

7 Ajdabiya Al Wahat 134,000

8 Sabha Sabha 130,000

9 Sirte Sirte 128,000

10 Tobruk Butnan 120,000

v t e

Arab Capital of Culture

Cairo
Cairo
1996 (Egypt) Tunis
Tunis
1997 (Tunisia) Sharjah
Sharjah
1998 (United Arab Emirates) Beirut
Beirut
1999 (Lebanon) Riyadh
Riyadh
2000 (Saudi Arabia) Kuwait City
Kuwait City
2001 (Kuwait) Amman
Amman
2002 (Jordan) Rabat
Rabat
2003 (Morocco) San'a
San'a
2004 (Yemen) Khartoum
Khartoum
2005 (Sudan) Muscat
Muscat
2006 (Oman) Algiers
Algiers
2007 (Algeria) Damascus
Damascus
2008 (Syria) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
2009 (State of Palestine) Doha
Doha
2010 (Qatar) Sirte
Sirte
2011 (Libya) Manama
Manama
2012 (Bahrain) Baghdad
Baghdad
2013 (Iraq) Tripoli
Tripoli
2014 (Libya) Constantine 2015 (Algeria) S