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Sevastopol
Sevastopol
or traditionally Sebastopol (/sɛvəˈstoʊpəl, -ˈstɒpəl/[4] or /sɛˈvæstəpəl, -pɒl/[4] Ukrainian: Севастополь; Russian: Севасто́поль; Crimean Tatar: Акъяр, Aqyar; Greek: Σεβαστούπολη, Sevastoupoli) is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula
Crimean Peninsula
and a major Black Sea
Black Sea
port. The city is administered as a federal city of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
following Crimea's annexation by Russia
Russia
in 2014, though Ukraine
Ukraine
and most of the UN member countries continue to regard Sevastopol
Sevastopol
as a city with special status within Ukraine. Sevastopol
Sevastopol
has a population of 393,304 (2014 Census),[5] concentrated mostly near the Bay of Sevastopol
Bay of Sevastopol
and surrounding areas. The location and navigability of the city's harbours have made Sevastopol
Sevastopol
a strategically important port and naval base throughout history. The city has been a home to the Russian Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet, which is why it was considered as a separate city in Crimea
Crimea
of significant military importance and was therefore once a closed city. Although relatively small at 864 square kilometres (334 sq mi), Sevastopol's unique naval and maritime features provide the basis for a robust economy. The city enjoys mild winters and moderate warm summers; characteristics that help make it a popular seaside resort and tourist destination, mainly for visitors from the former Soviet republics. The city is also an important centre for marine biology; in particular, dolphins have been studied and trained in the city since the end of World War II.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Under the Russian Empire 2.2 Under the Soviet Union 2.3 Sevastopol
Sevastopol
as part of Ukrainian SSR 2.4 After the Soviet dissolution 2.5 2014 Russian annexation

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Politics and government

4.1 City State Administration 4.2 Legislature 4.3 Administrative and municipal divisions

5 Economy

5.1 Industry 5.2 Infrastructure 5.3 Tourism

6 Demographics 7 Culture 8 Twin towns – sister cities 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Etymology[edit] The name of Sevastopolis was originally chosen in the same etymological trend as other cities in the Crimean peninsula that was intended to reflect its ancient Greek origins. It is a compound of the Greek adjective, σεβαστός (sebastos, 'venerable') and the noun πόλις (pólis) ('city'). Σεβαστός is the traditional Greek equivalent of the Roman honorific Augustus, originally given to the first emperor of the Roman Empire, Augustus
Augustus
and later awarded as a title to his successors. Despite its Greek origin, the name itself is not from Ancient Greek times. The city was probably named after the Empress ("Augusta") Catherine II of Russia
Russia
who founded Sevastopol
Sevastopol
in 1783. She visited the city in 1787 accompanied by Joseph II, the Emperor of Austria, and other foreign dignitaries. In the west of the city, there are well-preserved ruins of the ancient Greek port city of Chersonesos, founded in the 5th[citation needed] (or 4th) century BC by settlers from Heraclea Pontica. This name means "peninsula", reflecting its immediate location, and is not related to the ancient Greek name for the Crimean Peninsula
Crimean Peninsula
as a whole: Chersonēsos Taurikē ("the Taurian Peninsula"). The name of the city is spelled as:

In English, the current prevalent spelling of the name is Sevastopol; the previously common spelling Sebastopol is still used by some publications such as The Economist. In English the current spelling has the pronunciation /səˈvæstəˌpoʊl/ or /ˌsɛvəˈstoʊpəl/,[6] whilst the former spelling has the pronunciation /sɪˈbæstəpəl, -pɒl/[7] or /səˈbæstəˌpoʊl, -ˌpɔːl/.[8] Ukrainian: Севастополь; Russian: Севасто́поль, pronounced [sevɑˈstɔpɔlʲ] in Ukrainian and [sʲɪvɐˈstopəlʲ][9] in Russian. Crimean Tatar: Aqyar, pronounced [aqˈjar].

History[edit] See also: History of Crimea

The ruins of the ancient Greek theatre in Chersonesos Taurica

In the 6th century BC a Greek colony was established in the area of the modern-day city. The Greek city of Chersonesus existed for almost two thousand years, first as an independent democracy and later as part of the Bosporan Kingdom. In the 13th and 14th centuries it was sacked by the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
several times and was finally totally abandoned. The modern day city of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
has no connection to the ancient and medieval Greek city, but the ruins are a popular tourist attraction located on the outskirts of the city. Under the Russian Empire[edit]

"Soldier and Sailor" Memorial to Heroic Defenders of Sevastopol

The Monument to the ships scuttled during the siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War
Crimean War
by Amandus Adamson

Sevastopol
Sevastopol
was founded in June 1783 as a base for a naval squadron under the name Akhtiar[10] (White Cliff),[11] by Rear Admiral Thomas MacKenzie (Foma Fomich Makenzi), a native Scot in Russian service; soon after Russia
Russia
annexed the Crimean Khanate. Five years earlier, Alexander Suvorov ordered that earthworks be erected along the harbour and Russian troops be placed there. In February 1784, Catherine the Great ordered Grigory Potemkin to build a fortress there and call it Sevastopol. The realisation of the initial building plans fell to Captain Fyodor Ushakov
Fyodor Ushakov
who in 1788 was named commander of the port and of the Black Sea
Black Sea
squadron.[12] It became an important naval base and later a commercial seaport. In 1797, under an edict issued by Emperor Paul I, the military stronghold was again renamed to Akhtiar. Finally, on 29 April (10 May), 1826, the Senate returned the city's name to Sevastopol. One of the most notable events involving the city is the Siege of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
(1854–55) carried out by the British, French, Sardinian, and Turkish troops during the Crimean War, which lasted for 11 months. Despite its efforts, the Russian army had to leave its stronghold and evacuate over a pontoon bridge to the north shore of the inlet. The Russians
Russians
chose to sink their entire fleet to prevent it from falling into the hands of the enemy and at the same time to block the entrance of the Western ships into the inlet. When the enemy troops entered Sevastopol, they were faced with the ruins of a formerly glorious city.[citation needed] A panorama of the siege originally was created by Franz Roubaud. After its destruction in 1942 during World War II, it was restored and is currently housed in a specially constructed circular building in the city. It portrays the situation at the height of the siege, on 18 June 1855.[citation needed] Under the Soviet Union[edit] During World War II, Sevastopol
Sevastopol
withstood intensive bombardment by the Germans in 1941–42, supported by their Italian and Romanian allies during the Battle of Sevastopol. German forces used railway artillery — including history's largest-ever calibre railway artillery piece in battle, the 80-cm calibre Schwerer Gustav
Schwerer Gustav
— and specialised mobile heavy mortars to destroy Sevastopol's extremely heavy fortifications, such as the Maxim Gorky
Maxim Gorky
naval battery. After fierce fighting, which lasted for 250 days, the supposedly untakable[citation needed] fortress city finally fell to Axis forces in July 1942. It was intended to be renamed to "Theoderichshafen" (in reference to Theoderic the Great
Theoderic the Great
and the fact that the Crimea
Crimea
had been home to Germanic Goths
Goths
until the 18th or 19th century) in the event of a German victory against the Soviet Union, and like the rest of the Crimea
Crimea
was designated for future colonisation by the Third Reich. It was liberated by the Red Army
Red Army
on 9 May 1944 and was awarded the Hero City title a year later. In 1957, the town of Balaklava
Balaklava
was incorporated into Sevastopol. Sevastopol
Sevastopol
as part of Ukrainian SSR[edit] During the Soviet era, Sevastopol
Sevastopol
became a so-called "closed city". This meant that any non-residents had to apply to the authorities for a temporary permit to visit the city. On 29 October 1948 the Presidium of Supreme Council of the Russian SFSR issued an ukase (order) which confirmed the special status of the city.[13] Soviet academic publications since 1954, including the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, indicated that Sevastopol, Crimean Oblast
Crimean Oblast
was part of the Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
( Great Soviet Encyclopedia
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
1976, Vol.23. pp 104).[14] In 1954, both Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and the remainder of the Crimean peninsula were administratively transferred by Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
from being territories within the Russian SFSR to being territories administered by the Ukrainian SSR. Administratively, Sevastopol
Sevastopol
was a municipality excluded from the adjacent Autonomous Republic of Crimea. The territory of the municipality was 863.5 km² and it was further subdivided into four raions (districts). Besides the City of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
proper, it also included two towns— Balaklava
Balaklava
(having had no status until 1957), Inkerman, urban-type settlement Kacha, and 29 villages.[15] At the 1955 Ukrainian parliamentary elections on 27 February, Sevastopol
Sevastopol
was split into two electoral districts, Stalinsky and Korabelny (initially requested three Stalinsky, Korabelny, and Nakhimovsky).[13] Eventually Sevastopol
Sevastopol
received two people's deputies of the Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
elected to the Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
A.Korovchenko and M.Kulakov.[13][16] After the Soviet dissolution[edit]

The Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet Museum

On 10 July 1993, the Russian parliament
Russian parliament
passed a resolution declaring Sevastopol
Sevastopol
to be "a federal Russian city".[17] At the time, many supporters of the president, Boris Yeltsin, had ceased taking part in the Parliament's work.[18] On 20 July 1993 the United Nations Security Council denounced the decision of the Russia
Russia
parliament. According to Anatoliy Zlenko, it was for the first time that the council had to review actions and come up with qualification of them for a legislative body.[13] On 14 April 1993, the Presidium of the Crimean Parliament called for the creation of the presidential post of the Crimean Republic. A week later, the Russian deputy, Valentin Agafonov, stated that Russia
Russia
was ready to supervise the referendum on Crimean independence and include the republic as a separate entity in the CIS. On 28 July 1993, one of the leaders of the Russian Society of Crimea, Viktor Prusakov, stated that his organisation was ready for an armed mutiny and establishment of the Russian administration in Sevastopol. In September, Eduard Baltin accused Ukraine
Ukraine
of converting some of his fleet and conducting an armed assault on his personnel, and threatened to take countermeasures of placing the fleet on alert. In May 1997, Russia
Russia
and Ukraine
Ukraine
signed the Peace and Friendship Treaty, ruling out Moscow's territorial claims to Ukraine.[19] A separate agreement established the terms of a long-term lease of land, facilities, and resources in Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and the Crimea
Crimea
by Russia.[citation needed]

Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
on board the Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet's flagship, July 2001

The ex-Soviet Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet and its facilities were divided between Russia's Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet and the Ukrainian Naval Forces. The two navies co-used some of the city's harbours and piers, while others were demilitarised or used by either country. Sevastopol
Sevastopol
remained the location of the Russian Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet headquarters with the Ukrainian Naval Forces Headquarters also in the city. A judicial row periodically continues over the naval hydrographic infrastructure both in Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and on the Crimean coast (especially lighthouses historically maintained by the Soviet or Russian Navy and also used for civil navigation support). As in the rest of the Crimea, Russian remained the predominant language of the city, although following the independence of Ukraine there was some attempts at Ukrainisation
Ukrainisation
with very little success. The Russian society in general and even some outspoken government representatives never accepted the loss of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and tended to regard it as temporarily separated from the homeland.[20] In July 2009, the chairman of the Sevastopol
Sevastopol
city council, Valeriy Saratov (Party of Regions)[21] stated that Ukraine
Ukraine
should increase the amount of compensation it is paying to the city of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
for hosting the foreign Russian Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet, instead of requesting such obligations from the Russian government and the Russian Ministry of Defense in particular.[22] On 27 April 2010, Russia
Russia
and Ukraine
Ukraine
ratified the Russian Ukrainian Naval Base for Gas treaty, extending the Russian Navy's lease of Crimean facilities for 25 years after 2017 (through 2042) with an option to prolong the lease in 5-year extensions. The ratification process in the Ukrainian parliament
Ukrainian parliament
encountered stiff opposition and erupted into a brawl in the parliament chamber. Eventually, the treaty was ratified by a 52% majority vote—236 of 450. The Russian Duma ratified the treaty by a 98% majority without incident.[23] 2014 Russian annexation[edit]

Vladimir Putin, Vladimir Konstantinov, Sergey Aksyonov
Sergey Aksyonov
and Aleksei Chalyi signing the Treaty, March 2014

Main article: Annexation of Crimea
Crimea
by the Russian Federation On 20 February 2014, Russian armed forces invaded and seized control over the Crimean peninsula.[24] The city council of Sevastopol reportedly unilaterally declared that it wished to join the Russian Federation as a federal subject.[25] The city council on 11 March released a joint resolution with the Supreme Council of Crimea
Supreme Council of Crimea
to unite as an independent republic between the potential passing of the referendum and union with Russia.[26] Ukrainian authorities and the international community strongly criticised the referendum decision.[27] The actions of Russian Federation
Russian Federation
were qualified by international community[who?] as aggression against Ukraine, and occupation of its territory. On 16 March, an unconstitutional referendum on leaving Ukraine
Ukraine
took place in the city, along with the rest of Crimea. During the voting the Building of the Supreme Council of Crimea
Supreme Council of Crimea
was controlled by the Russian military.[27] The official reports by the organizers of the referendum were that a majority of 95.6%[28] voted to become a part of the Russian Federation, though these results are contested. This referendum resulted in the establishment of the short-lived Republic of Crimea, which consisted of both Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and Crimea. On 18 March 2014, the treaty on the incorporation of the Republic of Crimea
Crimea
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
to Russia
Russia
was signed between Russia
Russia
and the Republic of Crimea, with the following content:[29]

The territory of the former Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
is incorporated as the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
(a Federal subject
Federal subject
of Russian Federation). The former Special
Special
Status City of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
is incorporated as a Federal City of Russia. Both territories are incorporated as part of the Crimean Federal District.

While Russia
Russia
and ten other UN member states recognize the Crimean peninsula as part of the Russian Federation, Ukraine
Ukraine
continues to claim Crimea
Crimea
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
as an integral part of its territory, supported by most foreign governments and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262.[30] Geography[edit]

Satellite image of the Sevastopol
Sevastopol
area.

A view of the Bay of Sevastopol.

Fiolent rocks formation on the coast of Sevastopol.

The city of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
is located at the southwestern tip of the Crimean peninsula in a headland known as Heracles peninsula
Heracles peninsula
on a coast of the Black Sea. The city is designated a special city-region of Ukraine
Ukraine
which beside the city itself includes several of its outlying settlements. The city itself is concentrated mostly at the western portion of the region and around the long Bay of Sevastopol. This bay is a ria, a river canyon drowned by Holocene
Holocene
sea-level rise, and the outlet of Chorna River. Away in a remote location southeast of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
is located the former city of Balaklava
Balaklava
(since 1957 incorporated within Sevastopol), the bay of which in Soviet times served as a main port for the Soviet diesel-powered submarines. The coastline of the region is mostly rocky, in a series of smaller bays, a great number of which are located within the Bay of Sevastopol. The biggest of them are the Southern Bay (within Bay of Sevastopol), the Archer Bay, a gulf complex that consist of the Deergrass Bay, the Bay of Cossack, the Salty Bay, and many others. There are over thirty bays in the immediate region. Through the region flow three rivers: the Belbek, Chorna, and Kacha. All three mountain chains of Crimean mountains
Crimean mountains
are represented in Sevastopol, the southern chain by the Balaklava
Balaklava
Highlands, the inner chain by the Mekenziev Mountains, and the outer chain by the Kara-Tau Upland (Black Mountain). Climate[edit] Sevastopol
Sevastopol
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa),[31] thanks to summer mean straddling 22 °C (72 °F) that is bordering on a four-season oceanic climate, with cool winters and warm to hot summers. The average yearly temperature is 15–16 °C (59–61 °F) during the day and around 9 °C (48 °F) at night. In the coldest months, January and February, the average temperature is 5–6 °C (41–43 °F) during the day and around 1 °C (34 °F) at night. In the warmest months, July and August, the average temperature is around 26 °C (79 °F) during the day and around 19 °C (66 °F) at night. Generally, summer/holiday season lasts 5 months, from around mid-May and into September, with the temperature often reaching 20 °C (68 °F) or more in the first half of October. The average annual temperature of the sea is 14.2 °C (58 °F), ranging from 7 °C (45 °F) in February to 24 °C (75 °F) in August. From June to September, the average sea temperature is greater than 20 °C (68 °F). In the second half of May and first half of October; the average sea temperature is about 17 °C (63 °F). The average rainfall is about 400 millimetres (16 in) per year. There are about 2,345 hours of sunshine duration per year.[32]

Climate data for Sevastopol

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 5.1 (41.2) 5.9 (42.6) 8.8 (47.8) 15.5 (59.9) 20.5 (68.9) 24.7 (76.5) 27.3 (81.1) 26.9 (80.4) 22.6 (72.7) 17.1 (62.8) 11.9 (53.4) 7.7 (45.9) 16.17 (61.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.7 (35.1) 2.4 (36.3) 4.8 (40.6) 10.8 (51.4) 15.7 (60.3) 19.7 (67.5) 22.1 (71.8) 21.6 (70.9) 17.5 (63.5) 12.6 (54.7) 8.2 (46.8) 4.4 (39.9) 11.79 (53.23)

Average low °C (°F) −1.6 (29.1) −1.0 (30.2) 0.9 (33.6) 6.1 (43) 10.9 (51.6) 14.8 (58.6) 17.1 (62.8) 16.4 (61.5) 12.5 (54.5) 8.1 (46.6) 4.5 (40.1) 1.1 (34) 7.48 (45.47)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 57 (2.24) 46 (1.81) 42 (1.65) 36 (1.42) 39 (1.54) 54 (2.13) 44 (1.73) 47 (1.85) 46 (1.81) 41 (1.61) 57 (2.24) 74 (2.91) 583 (22.94)

Average precipitation days 12 11 10 10 9 9 7 8 7 9 11 13 116

Mean monthly sunshine hours 93 87 155 180 248 300 310 279 240 186 90 62 2,230

Source #1: weather2travel.com[33]

Source #2: Climate-Data.org[34]

Politics and government[edit]

2012 Navy Day joint celebration (Russian AF)

2012 Navy Day joint celebration (Ukrainian AF)

Ukrainian Navy
Ukrainian Navy
artillery boat U170 in the Bay of Sevastopol

Victory Day in Sevastopol, 9 May 2014

On 18 March 2014 the Kremlin announced that Sevastopol
Sevastopol
would become the third federal city in the Russian Federation, the two others being Moscow
Moscow
and St. Petersburg. City State Administration[edit] The executive power of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
is exercised by the Sevastopol
Sevastopol
City State Administration led by a chairman.[35] Since April 2014 the executive power is held by the Government of Sevastopol, led by the City Governor. Legislature[edit] Main articles: Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol
Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
City Council Before 2014, the Sevastopol City Council
Sevastopol City Council
was the legislature of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and the mayor of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
was appointed by the Ukrainian central government. However, during the 2014 Crimean crisis, the pro-Russian City Council threw its support behind Russian citizen Alexei Chaly
Alexei Chaly
as the "people's mayor" and said it would not recognise orders from Kiev.[36][37] After the Accession of Crimea
Crimea
to the Russian Federation, the Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol
Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol
replaced the City Council and the mayor is appointed by the legislature branch on nomination of the Russian President,[38] and officially the mayor is called the Governor of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
City. Administrative and municipal divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative and municipal divisions of Sevastopol Sevastopol
Sevastopol
is administratively divided into four districts.

Districts of Sevastopol:    Gagarin Raion
Gagarin Raion
(Gagarinsky District)   Lenin Raion (Leninsky District)    Nakhimov Raion
Nakhimov Raion
(Nakhimovsky District)    Balaklava
Balaklava
Raion (Balaklavsky District)

Within the Russian municipal framework, the territory of the federal city of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
is divided into nine municipal okrugs and the Town of Inkerman. While individual municipal divisions are contained within the borders of the administrative districts, they are not otherwise related to the administrative districts. Economy[edit]

This section is missing information about Sevastopol's economic output by economic sector. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (March 2014)

Apart from navy-related civil facilities, Sevastopol
Sevastopol
hosts some other notable industries. An example is Stroitel, one of the leading plastic manufacturers in Russia. The city received millions of US Dollars in compensation for hosting the Russian Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet from the Russian and the Ukrainian government. Industry[edit]

Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Aircraft Plant, SMZ Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Shipyards (main at Naval Bay) & Inkerman
Inkerman
Shipyards, Balaklava
Balaklava
Bay Shipyard Impuls 2 SMZ Chornomornaftogaz § Chernomorneftegaz (Chjornomor), oil gas extraction, petrochemical, jack rigs and oil plantforms, LNG and oil tankers. AO FNGUP Granit subsidiary of Almaz Antej , (assemblation ?) overhaul and manutention of SAM and radar EW complexes, ADS services. Sevastopol
Sevastopol
(Parus SPriborMZ, Mayak, NPO Elektron, NPP Kvant, Tavrida Elektronik, Musson, other plants, industry) Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Economic Industrial Zone SevPZ (south SE area) Persej SMZ ship remont and floating dock yard plant (South Bay, Sevastopol) Sevastopol
Sevastopol
ship remont and floating docks yards (various) Various Mining and Metallurgy, Chemical Plants, and other industries around Agricolture, crops, rice wheat wines thea fruits, tobacco (lesser), other products . Fishing and farming . Mining, iron titanium manganese aluminium, calcite silicates and else, amethyst, other . Kerch
Kerch
bridge, Taurida highway, Sevastopol
Sevastopol
GasTES plus solar FV plants, gas and petro depots coal and materials , ports .

Infrastructure[edit]

Trolleybuses ZiU-9
ZiU-9
in Sevastopol

There are seven types of transport in Sevastopol:

Bus – 101 lines Trolleybus
Trolleybus
– 14 lines Minibus – 52 lines Cutter – 6 lines Ferry – 1 lines Express-bus – 15 lines HEV-train local, suburban route – 1 route Airport – 1

Sevastopol Shipyard
Sevastopol Shipyard
comprises three facilities that together repair, modernise, and re-equip Russian Naval ships and submarines.[39] The Sevastopol International Airport
Sevastopol International Airport
is used as a military aerodrome at the moment and being reconstructed to be used by international airlines. Sevastopol
Sevastopol
maintains a large port facility in the Bay of Sevastopol and in smaller bays around the Heracles peninsula. The port handles traffic from passengers (local transportation and cruise), cargo, and commercial fishing. The port infrastructure is fully integrated with the city of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and naval bases of the Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet.

Panorama
Panorama
of the Sevastopol
Sevastopol
port entrance (left) with its monument to Russian ships which were sunk in the Crimean war
Crimean war
to blockade the harbor (far right side).

Tourism[edit] After World War II, Sevastopol
Sevastopol
was entirely rebuilt. Many top architects and civil engineers from Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev
Kiev
and other cities and thousands of workers from all parts of the USSR took part in the rebuilding process which was mostly finished by the mid-1950s. The downtown core situated on a peninsula between two narrow inlets, South Bay and Artillery Bay, features mostly Mediterranean-style, three-story residential buildings with columned balconies and Venetian-style arches, with retail and commercial spaces occupying the ground level. Some carefully restored landmarks date back to the early 20th century (e.g., the Art Nouveau Main Post Office on Bolshaya Morskaya St and the Art Museum on Nakhimovsky Prospect). It has been a long-time tradition for the residents of surrounding suburbs to spend summer evenings by coming to the downtown area for a leisurely stroll with their families along the avenues and boulevards encircling the Central Hill, under the famous Sevastopol
Sevastopol
chestnut trees, and usually ending up on the waterfront with its famous Marine Boulevard. Due to its military history, most streets in the city are named after Russian and Soviet military heroes. There are hundreds of monuments and plaques in various parts of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
commemorating its military past. Attractions include:

Chersonessos National Archeological Reserve Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Art Museum named after the N.P. Kroshitskiy Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Museum of Local History Aquarium-Museum of the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Dolphinarium of Sevastopol Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Zoo The Monument to the scuttled ships on the Marine Boulevard The Panorama
Panorama
Museum (The Heroic Defence of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
during the Crimean War) Malakhov Kurgan
Malakhov Kurgan
(Barrow) with its White Tower Admirals' Burial Vault The Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet Museum The Storming of Sapun-gora
Sapun-gora
of 7 May 1944, the Diorama Museum (World War II) Naval museum complex "Balaklava", decommissioned underground submarine base, now opened to the public Cheremetieff brothers museum " Crimean war
Crimean war
1853–1856" Museum of the underground forces of 1942—1944 Museum Historical Memorial Complex "35th Coastal Battery" The Naval Museum "Michael's battery" Fraternal (Communal) War Cemetery (Sevastopol)

Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Artillery Bay view.

The sea side of Sevastopol.

St. Vladimir's Cathedral at 'the city hill'.

Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral.

View of the Northern side.

Old city cemetery.

Main railway station.

The Panorama
Panorama
Museum (The Heroic Defence of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
during the Crimean War).

The Storming of Sapun-gora
Sapun-gora
of 7 May 1944, the Diorama Museum (World War II).

Entrance to Balaklava
Balaklava
bay, 2010.

Demographics[edit]

This section is missing information about the different religions practised in Sevastopol; its education system (schools, colleges, and universities); and its healthcare system (clinics and hospitals). Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (March 2014)

The population of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
proper is 418,987 (01.01.16),[40] making it the largest in the Crimean Peninsula. City agglomeration has population ~600,000 (2015). According to the Ukrainian National Census, 2001, the ethnic groups of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
include Russians (71.6%), Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(22.4%), Belarusians
Belarusians
(1.6%), Tatars
Tatars
(0.7%), Crimean Tatars
Tatars
(0.5%), Armenians
Armenians
(0.3%), Jews (0.3%), Moldovans (0.2%), and Azerbaijanis (0.2%).[41]

Age structure

0–14 years old male 27,856 / female 26,532 (14.3% )

15–64 years old male 126,918 / female 141,304 (70.3% )

65 years and over male 19,038 / female 39,826 (15.4% )

Source:[citation needed][disputed – discuss]

Median age

Male 36.0 years

Female 44.6 years

Total 40.2 years

Source:[citation needed]

Vital statistics for 2015

Births: 5 471 (13.7 per 1000) Deaths: 6 072 (15.2 per 1000)

Culture[edit]

This section is missing information about architecture, arts, cuisine, literature, media, and music in Sevastopol. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (March 2014)

There are many historical buildings in the central and eastern parts of the city and Balaklava, some of which are architectural monuments. The Western districts have modern architecture. More recently, numerous skyscrapers have been built. Balaklava
Balaklava
Bayfront Plaza (On Hold), currently under construction, will be one of the tallest buildings in Ukraine, at 173 m (568 ft) with 43 floors.[42] After the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea
2014 Russian annexation of Crimea
the city's monument to Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny
Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny
was removed and handed over to Kharkiv.[43] Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Moscow
Moscow
(18 March 2014) Volgograd
Volgograd
(19 November 2013) Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
(2000) Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
(2009) Belgorod Poti

Gallery[edit]

View of Sevastopol.

Ships of the Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet docked in Sevastopol.

Nakhimov square.

Culture Palace.

Theater Lunacharsky.

Artillery Bay

See also[edit]

Russia
Russia
portal Ukraine
Ukraine
portal Crimea
Crimea
portal

2121 Sevastopol – asteroid discovered in 1971 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Mikhailovna Smirnova and named after the city.[44] Sebastopol, Victoria

References[edit]

^ "Крымский федеральный округ включен в состав Южного федерального округа" (in Russian). Interfax. 28 July 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.  ^ "Севастополь перешел на российскую нумерацию". sevastopol.gov.ru.  ^ "Русский язык стал государственным в Севастополе, Донецкой и Запорожской обл (Russkiy yazyk stal regional'nym v Sevastopole, Donetskoy i Zaporozhskoy obl)" [Russian became regional in Sevastopol, Donetsk
Donetsk
and Zaporizhia
Zaporizhia
region]. Ros Business Consulting (in Russian). RU. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.  ^ a b Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Merriam-Webster.  ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2014). "Таблица 1.3. Численность населения Крымского федерального округа, городских округов, муниципальных районов, городских и сельских поселений" [Table 1.3. Population
Population
of Crimean Federal District, Its Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, Urban and Rural Settlements]. Федеральное статистическое наблюдение «Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе». ("Population Census in Crimean Federal District" Federal Statistical Examination) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 4, 2016.  ^ "definition: meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014.  ^ "definition: meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014.  ^ "definition: meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014.  ^ "definition: meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014.  ^ "Sevastopol", The Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia, UK: Leksika  ^ "Sevastopol", The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, RU: Yandex  ^ "Основание и развитие Севастополя (Osnovaniye i razvitiye Sevastopolya)" [Foundation and development of Sevastopol] (in Russian). Sevastopol.info. 28 May 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2010.  ^ a b c d "Українське життя в Севастополi Михайло ЛУКІНЮК ОБЕРЕЖНО: МІФИ! Міф про юридичну належність Севастополя Росії". archive.org. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014.  ^ "Яндекс.Словари". yandex.ru.  ^ "Contemporary Ukraine". google.com.  ^ "小褌邪褌褜懈 / 谐邪蟹械褌邪 肖谢芯褌 校泻褉邪褩薪懈: 袩袨效孝袠 50 袥袝孝 袧袗袟袗袛. 小袝袙袗小孝袨袩袨袥鞋 袙 1955 袚袨袛校". archive.org. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014.  ^ Secession as an International Phenomenon: From America's Civil War to Contemporary Separatist Movements edited by Don Harrison Doyle (page 284) ^ Schmemann, Serge (10 July 1993), "Russian Parliament Votes a Claim to Russian Port of Sevastopol", The New York Times  ^ People, CN, 28 December 2005  ^ "Лужков знайшов у серці рану і хоче почувати себе в Криму як вдома". pravda.com.ua.  ^ "Calm sea in Sevastopol", Kyiv Post, 4 September 2009, archived from the original on 15 September 2008  ^ " Sevastopol
Sevastopol
authorities asking to raise compensation fees for Russian Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet's basing", Kyiv Post, 28 July 2009, archived from the original on 1 March 2012  ^ "Parliamentary chaos as Ukraine
Ukraine
ratifies fleet deal", World, UK: BBC, 27 April 2010  ^ "Today is the 2nd anniversary since the beginning of Crimea occupation". 112.international.  ^ "Севастополь принял решение о вхождении в состав РФ : Новости УНИАН". Unian.net. Retrieved 7 March 2014.  ^ Парламент Крыма принял Декларацию о независимости АРК и г. Севастополя [Parliament of Crimea
Crimea
adopted the Declaration on the Independence of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
and the city of Sevastopol] (Press release) (in Russian). Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. 11 March 2014. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.  ^ a b "ВС Крыма принял незаконное решение о проведении референдума – Турчинов". unian.net.  ^ http://sevsovet.com.ua/index.php/2011-06-30-23-44-03/12395-na-sessii-gorodskogo-soveta-utverzhdeny-rezultaty-obshchekrymskogo-referenduma-16-marta-2014-goda ] Archived 22 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Президент России". kremlin.ru.  ^ "Kremlin: Crimea
Crimea
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
are now part of Russia, not Ukraine". CNN. 18 March 2014.  ^ Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF). Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 28 August 2012.  ^ "The duration of sunshine in some cities of the former USSR" (in Russian). Meteoweb. Retrieved 29 September 2012.  ^ " Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Climate Guide". Weather2travel.com. Retrieved 26 March 2014.  ^ "Climate Sevastopol: Temperature, Climate graph, Climate table for Sevastopol
Sevastopol
- Climate-Data.org". climate-data.org.  ^ "The City State Administration". Sevastopol
Sevastopol
City State Administration. Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.  ^ "Ukraine: Sevastopol
Sevastopol
installs pro-Russian mayor as separatism fears grow". The Guardian. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.  ^ " Sevastopol City Council
Sevastopol City Council
refuses to recognize Kyiv leadership". Kyiv Post. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.  ^ http://docs.sevsovet.com.ua/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=2482:№6-зс-от-30042014-г-о-порядке-избрания-губернатора-города-севастополя-депутатами-законодательного-собрания-города-севастополя&Itemid=226 ^ "Sevmorverf ( Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Shipyard)". Federation of American Scientists. 24 August 2000. Retrieved 8 July 2013.  ^ population 2016-01-01 ^ "2001 Ukrainian census". Ukrcensus.gov.ua. Retrieved 26 April 2010.  ^ " Balaklava
Balaklava
Bayfront Plaza, Sevastopol". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 26 April 2010.  ^ "В Харькове появится памятник Сагайдачному". Status Quo.  ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 172. ISBN 3540002383. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutSevastopolat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official website Satellite picture by Google Maps The murder of the Jews of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
during World War II, at Yad Vashem website.

v t e

Administrative divisions of Sevastopol

Administrative center: Sevastopol

Raions

Balaklavskiy Gagarinskiy Leninskiy Nakhimovskiy

Cities

Regional

Sevastopol

District

Inkerman

v t e

 Administrative divisions of Ukraine

Capital: Kiev

Oblasts

Cherkasy Chernihiv Chernivtsi Dnipropetrovsk Donetsk Ivano-Frankivsk Kharkiv Kherson Khmelnytskyi Kiev Kirovohrad Luhansk Lviv Mykolaiv Odessa Poltava Rivne Sumy Ternopil Vinnytsia Volyn Zakarpattia Zaporizhia Zhytomyr

Cities with special status

Kiev Sevastopol1

Autonomous republic

Crimea1

Administrative centers

Cherkasy Chernihiv Chernivtsi Dnipro Donetsk Ivano-Frankivsk Kharkiv Kherson Khmelnytskyi Kiev Kropyvnytskyi Luhansk Lutsk Lviv Mykolaiv Odessa Poltava Rivne Sevastopol Simferopol Sumy Ternopil Uzhhorod Vinnytsia Zaporizhia Zhytomyr

1Claimed and controlled by Russia
Russia
as the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
and the Federal City of Sevastopol

v t e

Cities in Ukraine
Ukraine
(including Crimea) by population

City with special status City of regional significance City of district significance

1,000,000+

Kiev Kharkiv Dnipro Odessa

500,000+

Donetsk Zaporizhia Lviv Kryvyi Rih Mykolaiv

200,000+

Mariupol Luhansk Makiivka Vinnytsia Simferopol Sevastopol Kherson Poltava Chernihiv Cherkasy Sumy Horlivka Zhytomyr Kamianske Kropyvnytskyi Khmelnytskyi Rivne Chernivtsi Kremenchuk Ternopil Ivano-Frankivsk Lutsk Bila Tserkva

100,000+

Kramatorsk Melitopol Kerch Nikopol Sloviansk Berdiansk Sievierodonetsk Alchevsk Pavlohrad Uzhhorod Lysychansk Yevpatoria Yenakiieve

Crimea
Crimea
is the subject of a territorial dispute between Ukraine (Autonomous Republic of Crimea) and Russia
Russia
(Republic of Crimea)

v t e

Subdivisions of Russia

Federal subjects

Republics

Adygea Altai Bashkortostan Buryatia Chechnya Chuvashia Crimea1 Dagestan Ingushetia Kabardino-Balkaria Kalmykia Karachay-Cherkessia Karelia Khakassia Komi Mari El Mordovia North Ossetia-Alania Sakha Tatarstan Tuva Udmurtia

Krais

Altai Kamchatka Khabarovsk Krasnodar Krasnoyarsk Perm Primorsky Stavropol Zabaykalsky

Oblasts

Amur Arkhangelsk Astrakhan Belgorod Bryansk Chelyabinsk Irkutsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kemerovo Kirov Kostroma Kurgan Kursk Leningrad Lipetsk Magadan Moscow Murmansk Nizhny Novgorod Novgorod Novosibirsk Omsk Orenburg Oryol Penza Pskov Rostov Ryazan Sakhalin Samara Saratov Smolensk Sverdlovsk Tambov Tomsk Tula Tver Tyumen Ulyanovsk Vladimir Volgograd Vologda Voronezh Yaroslavl

Federal cities

Moscow St. Petersburg Sevastopol1

Autonomous oblast

Jewish

Autonomous okrugs

Chukotka Khanty-Mansi2 Nenets3 Yamalo-Nenets2

1Claimed by Ukraine
Ukraine
and considered by most of the international community to be part of Ukraine 2Administratively subordinated to Tyumen Oblast 3Administratively subordinated to Arkhangelsk Oblast

Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different institutions

Economic regions (by Ministry of Economic Development) Military districts (by Ministry of Defence) Federal districts (by President) Judicial districts (by law "On arbitration courts")

v t e

Hero Cities of the Soviet Union

Leningrad Odessa Sevastopol Stalingrad Kiev Brest Fortress Moscow Kerch Novorossiysk Minsk Tula Murmansk Smolensk

v t e

Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation
Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation
/ 2014 Crimean crisis

Part of the: 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine

timeline

Russian military intervention in Ukraine Ukrainian crisis

Main topics

Timeline International reaction List of military units International sanctions

List of sanctioned individuals List of companies that applied sanctions

2014 anti-war protests in Russia Reaction of Russian intelligentsia 2014 Crimean status referendum UN General Assembly Resolution 68/262 Declaration of Independence Republic of Crimea 2014 Constitution of Crimea Political status Crimean Federal District Crimean speech of Vladimir Putin Medal "For the Return of Crimea" 2014 Simferopol
Simferopol
incident

Background

History of Crimea 1783 annexation by Russian Empire 1921–45 Crimean ASSR 1944 deportation of the Crimean Tatars 1945–91 Crimean Oblast 1954 transfer of Crimea 1991–92 Crimean ASSR Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
(since 1992) 1994–95 President of Crimea

Yuriy Meshkov

1994 Budapest Memorandum 1997 Partition Treaty 1998 Constitution of Crimea 2003 Tuzla Island
Tuzla Island
conflict 2006 anti-NATO protests in Feodosia 2010 Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Pact 2012 law on languages 2013–14 Euromaidan 2014 Ukrainian revolution 40th G7 summit

Main places

Simferopol

Simferopol
Simferopol
Airport Building of the Supreme Council of Crimea

Sevastopol

Belbek Airport

Kerch
Kerch
Strait Bridge Donuzlav

Ochakov scuttling

Perevalne Armyansk Dzhankoy Chonhar Port Krym Strilkove Arabat Spit Novofedorivka

Crimea
Crimea
/ Russia

Organizations

Supreme Council of Crimea Council of Ministers of Crimea Sevastopol
Sevastopol
City Council Russian Armed Forces

Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet Russian Airborne Troops

Crimean Berkut Russian Unity Night Wolves Kuban Cossacks Ukrainian Choice

Lead figures (Crimea)

Sergey Aksyonov Vladimir Konstantinov Natalia Poklonskaya Rustam Temirgaliev Denis Berezovsky Aleksei Chaly Igor Besler

Lead figures (Russia)

Vladimir Putin Dmitry Medvedev Sergey Shoygu Vladislav Surkov Sergey Lavrov Valery Gerasimov Igor Sergun Aleksandr Vitko Oleg Belaventsev Rustam Minnikhanov

Ukraine

Organizations

Yatsenyuk government Parliamentary parties

Batkivshchyna Svoboda UDAR

Armed Forces of Ukraine

Ukrainian Ground Forces Ukrainian Navy National Guard of Ukraine

Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People Right Sector

Lead figures (Ukraine)

Oleksandr Turchynov Arseniy Yatsenyuk Andriy Parubiy Arsen Avakov Valentyn Nalyvaichenko Ihor Tenyukh Mykhailo Kutsyn Serhiy Hayduk Yuliy Mamchur Serhiy Kunitsyn Mustafa Dzhemilev Refat Chubarov

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 158932083 LCCN: n80145