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Saxe-Coburg- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
(German: Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld) was one of the Saxon Duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin Dynasty. Established in 1699, the Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield line lasted until the reshuffle of the Ernestine territories that occurred following the extinction of the Saxe-Gotha
Saxe-Gotha
line in 1825,[1] in which the Saxe-Coburg- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
line received Gotha, but lost Saalfeld
Saalfeld
to Saxe-Meiningen.

Contents

1 Saxe- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
1680 to 1735 2 Saxe-Coburg- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
1735 to 1826 3 Dukes of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 4 Prime Ministers of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography

Saxe- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
1680 to 1735[edit]

Schloss Saalfeld, built after 1677 as the ducal residence

After the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, Ernest the Pious, died on 26 March 1675 in Gotha, the Principality was divided on 24 February 1680 among his seven surviving sons. The lands of Saxe- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
went to the youngest of them, who became John Ernest IV (1658–1729), the Duke of Saxe-Saalfeld. But the new Principality did not have complete independence. It had to depend on the higher authorities in Gotha
Gotha
for the matters of administration of its three districts, Saalfeld, Grafenthal
Grafenthal
and Probstzella
Probstzella
– the so-called “Nexus Gothanus” – because that was the residence of John Ernest’s oldest brother, who ruled as Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Saalfeld
Saalfeld
was the residence of the Dukes of Saxe- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
from 1680 to 1735. When Albert V, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg, died in 1699 without any surviving descendants, disputes arose over the inheritance, especially with Bernhard I of Saxe-Meiningen, and they were not settled until 1735. Most of the Saxe- Coburg
Coburg
properties were given to the new Ernestine line of Saxe- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
and the Principality of Saxe-Coburg- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
was born with John Ernest as its Duke (not Prince). However, the Districts of Sonneberg
Sonneberg
and Neuhaus am Rennweg had to be handed over to Saxe-Meiningen
Saxe-Meiningen
and the District of Sonnefeld had to be given to Saxe-Hildburghausen. One-third of the District of Römhild
Römhild
and five-twelfths of the District of Themar
Themar
remained with Saxe-Coburg. Saxe-Coburg- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
1735 to 1826[edit] After the death of John Ernest IV in 1729, his sons Christian Ernest II and Francis Josias ruled the country, consisting of two distinct and separate areas, together, but at different residences. Christian Ernst remained in Saalfeld, while Franz Josias chose Coburg
Coburg
as his residence. In 1745, when Christian Ernest II died childless, his domains were inherited by his brother, Duke Francis Josias. In 1747 Francis Josias was able to anchor his birthright (primogeniture) in the Line of Succession laws and confer it on his rapidly growing family for the long-term survival of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. His youngest son Prince Frederick Josias made himself and the Duchy famous with his sieges and victories as an Imperial general and field marshal in the Austro-Turkish War and the War of the First Coalition
War of the First Coalition
against France. His brother and Regent Duke Ernest Frederick was known more for the perilous finances of his Duchy, which underwent from 1773 onwards a forced management of debts by an Imperial Debit Commission until 1802 and affected the fortunes of his successors.

Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, in orange, in 1820

Duke Francis Frederick Anton, who ruled for only six years (from 1800 to 1806), was forced in 1805, especially by his minister Theodor Konrad von Kretschmann, for the renewal of the ailing Duchy to make a contract between the two duchies, Coburg
Coburg
and Saalfeld, for a uniform state system with a state administration of the Principality, which regained its full independence in 1806 with the fall of the Holy Roman Empire. It was the children of Duke Francis Frederick Anton who assured the dynastic success and survival of the House of Saxe-Coburg. The fame of Prince Frederick Josias led to the wedding of his daughter, Princess Juliane (later Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna), with Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia. Another daughter, Princess Marie Luise Victoire, married Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, in 1818, and became the mother of Queen Victoria. The youngest surviving son, Prince Leopold, was elected in 1831 as Leopold I, King of the Belgians. In 1816, his elder brother, Prince Ferdinand, married Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág, who came from one of the wealthiest aristocratic families in Hungary, and founded the Catholic line of Saxe-Coburg-Koháry. Their namesake son, Prince Ferdinand, became in 1837 Dom Fernando II, King of Portugal
Portugal
and the other son, Prince August, was the father of Ferdinand I, who became the Sovereign Prince of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1887 and the Tsar in 1908. In addition, the heir to the throne of Saxe- Coburg
Coburg
was Prince Ernst, who became Duke Ernest III in 1806. He was the father of Prince Albert, who married his cousin, Queen Victoria, in 1840 and became The Prince Consort of Great Britain and Ireland. On 15 December 1806, Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, along with the other Ernestine duchies, entered the Confederation of the Rhine. From November 1806 until the Peace of Tilsit
Peace of Tilsit
in July 1807, the Principality was occupied by the French. Only then Duke Ernst I was able to return from his exile in Königsberg
Königsberg
in East Prussia. A border treaty with the Kingdom of Bavaria
Kingdom of Bavaria
in 1811 led to a territorial swap of the disputed territories. The towns of Fürth am Berg, Hof an der Steinach, Niederfüllbach
Niederfüllbach
and Triebsdorf came to Saxe-Coburg; Gleußen, the Schleifenhan mill, Buch am Forst
Buch am Forst
and Herreth went to Bavaria. In 1815, as the reward for fighting in 1813 on the Allied side against Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
sent an area left of the Rhine River, later called the Principality of Lichtenberg, a territorial gain as well as membership in the German Confederation
German Confederation
for the sovereign. On 8 August 1821, the Duchy received a constitution. The extinction of the oldest line, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
in 1825 again led to inheritance disputes among the other lines of the Ernestine family. On 12 November 1826 the decision, from the arbitration of the supreme head of the family, King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony, resulted in the extensive rearrangement of the Ernestine duchies. Saxe-Coburg- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
became Saxe- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
with the District of Themar from Saxe-Meiningen. The Duchy of Saxe-Gotha
Saxe-Gotha
was left without the Districts of Kranichfeld
Kranichfeld
and Römhild, which fell to Saxe-Meiningen, and without the domain of Altenburg
Altenburg
(Districts of Altenburg, Ronneburg, Eisenberg, Roda and Kahla), which turned the Duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Saxe-Hildburghausen
into the Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg. But Saxe-Coburg gained from Saxe-Hildburghausen
Saxe-Hildburghausen
the two Districts – Königsberg
Königsberg
and Sonnefeld. The new duchy of Saxe- Coburg
Coburg
and Gotha
Gotha
was born as a personal union of the two duchies of Saxe- Coburg
Coburg
and Saxe-Gotha. Ernest III, the last Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, then became Ernest I, the first Duke of Saxe- Coburg
Coburg
and Gotha. Dukes of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld[edit]

1680–1729 Johann Ernest IV, son of Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg 1729–1745 Christian Ernest II, son of the previous Duke (reigned with his brother Francis Josias with the residence in Saalfeld) 1745–1764 Francis Josias, brother of the previous Duke (reigned until 1745, together with his brother Christian Ernest with the residence in Coburg) 1764–1800 Ernest Frederick, son of the previous Duke 1800–1806 Francis Frederick Anton, son of the previous Duke 1806–1826 Ernest III, son of the previous Duke (since 1826, Ernest I, Duke of Saxe- Coburg
Coburg
and Gotha, died 1844)

Prime Ministers of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld[edit]

1801–1808 Theodor Konrad von Kretschmann 1808–1822 Johann Ernst Gruner 1823–1824 Ludwig Hofmann 1824–1840 Christoph Anton Friedrich von Carlowiz (until 21 January 1840)

See also[edit]

Ernestine duchies Saxe- Coburg
Coburg
and Gotha

References[edit]

^ (in German) Harold Sandner, Das Haus von Sachsen- Coburg
Coburg
und Gotha 1826 bis 2001 [The House of Saxe- Coburg
Coburg
and Gotha
Gotha
1826 to 2001], with a preface from Andreas, the Prince of Saxe- Coburg
Coburg
and Gotha
Gotha
(Coburg: Neue Presse GmbH, 2004). ISBN 3-00-008525-4, page 32

Bibliography[edit]

(in German) Carl-Christian Dressel, Die Entwicklung von Verfassung und Verwaltung in Sachsen- Coburg
Coburg
1800 - 1826 im Vergleich [The Development and Comparison of the Constitution
Constitution
and Administration of Saxe-Coburg 1880 – 1826] (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 2007), ISBN 978-3-428-12003-1. (in German) Johann Hübner, Drey hundert drey und dreyßig Genealogische Tabellen: nebst denen darzu gehörigen genealogischen Fragen zur Erläuterung der politischen Historie, mit sonderbahrem Fleiße zusammen getragen, und vom Anfange der Welt biß auff diesen Tag continuiret; Nebst darzu dienlichen Registern [Three Hundred and Thirty Three Genealogical Tables: Together with those Related Questions of Genealogy to Explain the Political History, Compiled with Great Diligence, and Continuing from the Beginning of the World to This Day; Added Herein with Relevant Records] (Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Gleditsch, 1708) Table No. 166

v t e

Ernestine duchies
Ernestine duchies
after the Division of Erfurt (1572)

Saxe-Weimar
Saxe-Weimar
(1572–1806) Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach (1572–1596, 1633-1638) Saxe- Coburg
Coburg
(1596–1633, 1681–1699) Saxe-Eisenach
Saxe-Eisenach
(1596–1638, 1640–1644, 1672–1806) Saxe- Altenburg
Altenburg
(1603–1672, 1826–1918) Saxe-Gotha
Saxe-Gotha
(1640–1680) Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
(1681–1826) Saxe-Marksuhl
Saxe-Marksuhl
(1662–1672) Saxe-Jena
Saxe-Jena
(1672–1690) Saxe-Eisenberg
Saxe-Eisenberg
(1680–1707) Saxe-Hildburghausen
Saxe-Hildburghausen
(1680–1826) Saxe- Römhild
Römhild
(1680–1710) Saxe- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
(1680–1735) Saxe-Meiningen
Saxe-Meiningen
(1681–1918) Saxe-Coburg- Saalfeld
Saalfeld
(1735–1826) Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
(1806–1918) Saxe- Coburg
Coburg
and Gotha
Gotha
(1826–1918)

v t e

States of the Confederation of the Rhine
States of the Confederation of the Rhine
(1806–13)

Rank elevated by Napoleon

Kingdoms

Bavaria Saxony Württemberg

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse

Duchies

Nassau

States created

Kingdoms

Westphalia

Grand Duchies

Berg Frankfurt1 Würzburg

Principalities

Aschaffenburg2 Leyen Regensburg2

Pre-existing states

Saxon duchies

Coburg-Saalfeld Gotha-Altenburg Hildburghausen Meiningen Weimar3 Eisenach3 Weimar-Eisenach4

Other duchies

Anhalt (Bernburg Dessau Köthen) Arenberg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg

Principalities

Hohenzollern

Hechingen Sigmaringen

Isenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Reuss

Ebersdorf Greiz Lobenstein Schleiz

Salm5 Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck

1 from 1810 2 until 1810 3 until 1809 4 from 1809 5 until 1811

v t e

States of the German Confederation
States of the German Confederation
(1815–66)

Empires

Austria1

Kingdoms

Prussia1 Bavaria Saxony Hanover Württemberg

Electorates

Hesse-Kassel

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse-Darmstadt Luxembourg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Duchies

Anhalt

Bernburg2 Dessau2 Köthen3

Brunswick Holstein Limburg4 Nassau Saxe-Lauenburg Ernest

Altenburg5 Coburg-Saalfeld6 Coburg-Gotha5 Gotha-Altenburg6 Hildburghausen6 Meiningen

Principalities

Hesse-Homburg Hohenzollern

Hechingen7 Sigmaringen7

Liechtenstein Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck and Pyrmont

City-states

Bremen Frankfurt Hamburg Lübeck

1 w/o areas listed under other territories 2 Merged with Anhalt from 1863 3 until 1847 4 from 1839 5 from 1826 6 until 1826 7 until 1850 8 1849–60 9 as of 1849 10 until 1837 11 until 1829 12 until 1848/57 13 until 1848 14 as of 1848 15 as of 1829 16 as of 1864

Authority control