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Ireland
Ireland
(/ˈaɪərlənd/ ( listen); Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen)), also known as the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
(Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe
Europe
occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern part of the island, and whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's 4.75 million inhabitants. The state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint George's Channel
Saint George's Channel
to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary, parliamentary republic.[8] The legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad
Seanad
Éireann, and an elected President (Uachtarán) who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
(Prime Minister, literally 'Chief', a title not used in English), who is elected by the Dáil
Dáil
and appointed by the President; the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
in turn appoints other government ministers. The state was created as the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion
Dominion
until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and effectively became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1948. Ireland
Ireland
became a member of the United Nations
United Nations
in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community (EEC), the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government
Irish government
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland
Ireland
ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita,[9] and as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015.[10] After joining the EEC, Ireland
Ireland
enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth. The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger
Celtic Tiger
period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash.[11][12] However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015,[13] Ireland
Ireland
is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland
Ireland
was ranked as the joint sixth (with Germany) most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index.[14] It also performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland
Ireland
is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe
Europe
and the OECD. The Irish government
Irish government
has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since immediately prior to World War II
World War II
and the country is consequently not a member of NATO,[15] although it is a member of Partnership for Peace.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Home-rule movement 2.2 Revolution and steps to independence 2.3 Irish Civil War 2.4 1937 Constitution 2.5 Recent history

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Politics

4.1 Local government 4.2 Law 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Military

5 Economy

5.1 Development 5.2 Trade 5.3 Energy 5.4 Transport

6 Demographics

6.1 Functional urban areas 6.2 Languages 6.3 Healthcare 6.4 Education 6.5 Religion

7 Culture

7.1 Literature 7.2 Music and dance 7.3 Architecture 7.4 Media 7.5 Cuisine 7.6 Sports 7.7 Society 7.8 State symbols

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

10.1 Bibliography

11 Further reading 12 External links

Name Main article: Names of the Irish state The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".[16] The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution.[17] The government of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
used the name "Eire" (without the diacritic) and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state;[18] it was not until the 1998 Good Friday Agreement
Good Friday Agreement
that it used the name "Ireland".[19] As well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is also referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South".[20] In an Irish republican
Irish republican
context it is often referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties".[21] History

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Main article: History of the Republic of Ireland For the history of the entire island, see History of Ireland. Home-rule movement Main article: Home Rule movement From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland
Ireland
was part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated, mostly to the United States.[22] This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in a constant population decline up to the 1960s.

The Irish Parliamentary Party
Irish Parliamentary Party
was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell (1846–1891).

From 1874, and particularly under Charles Stewart Parnell
Charles Stewart Parnell
from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party
Irish Parliamentary Party
gained prominence. This was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, and secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland
Ireland
limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, that had been in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant
Protestant
Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911
Parliament Act 1911
abolished the veto of the House of Lords, and John Redmond
John Redmond
secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics
Irish Catholics
achieved real political power. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century unionism was particularly strong in parts of Ulster, where industrialisation was more common in contrast to the more agrarian rest of the island. It was feared that any tariff barriers would heavily affect that region. In addition, the Protestant
Protestant
population was more prominent in Ulster, with a majority in four counties.[23] Under the leadership of the Dublin-born Sir Edward Carson of the Irish Unionist Party
Irish Unionist Party
and the Ulsterman Sir James Craig of the Ulster
Ulster
Unionist Party, unionists became strongly militant in order to oppose "the Coercion of Ulster". After the Home Rule Bill passed parliament in May 1914, to avoid rebellion with Ulster, the British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
H. H. Asquith
introduced an Amending Bill reluctantly conceded to by the Irish Party leadership. This provided for the temporary exclusion of Ulster
Ulster
from the workings of the bill for a trial period of six years, with an as yet undecided new set of measures to be introduced for the area to be temporarily excluded. Revolution and steps to independence

Easter Proclamation, 1916

Though it received the Royal Assent
Royal Assent
and was placed on the statute books in 1914, the implementation of the Third Home Rule Act was suspended until after the First World War which defused the threat of civil war in Ireland. With hope of ensuring the implementation of the Act at the end of the war through Ireland's engagement in the war, Redmond and his Irish National Volunteers
National Volunteers
supported Britain and its Allies. 175,000 men joined Irish regiments of the 10th (Irish) and 16th (Irish) divisions of the New British Army, while Unionists joined the 36th (Ulster) divisions.[24] The remainder of the Irish Volunteers, who opposed any support of Britain, launched an armed insurrection against British rule in the 1916 Easter Rising, together with the Irish Citizen Army. This commenced on 24 April 1916 with the declaration of independence. After a week of heavy fighting, primarily in Dublin, the surviving rebels were forced to surrender their positions. The majority were imprisoned but fifteen of the prisoners (including most of the leaders) were executed as traitors to Britain. This included Patrick Pearse, the spokesman for the rising and who provided the signal to the volunteers to start the rising, as well as James Connolly, socialist and founder of the Industrial Workers of the World
Industrial Workers of the World
union and both the Irish and Scottish Labour movements. These events, together with the Conscription Crisis of 1918, had a profound effect on changing public opinion in Ireland. In January 1919, after the December 1918 general election, 73 of Ireland's 106 Members of Parliament (MPs) elected were Sinn Féin members who refused to take their seats in the British House of Commons. Instead, they set up an Irish parliament called Dáil Éireann. This first Dáil
Dáil
in January 1919 issued a Declaration of Independence and proclaimed an Irish Republic. The Declaration was mainly a restatement of the 1916 Proclamation with the additional provision that Ireland
Ireland
was no longer a part of the United Kingdom. The new Irish Republic
Irish Republic
was recognised internationally only by the Russian Soviet Republic.[25] The Irish Republic's Aireacht (Ministry) sent a delegation under Ceann Comhairle
Ceann Comhairle
(Head of Council, or Speaker, of the Daíl) Seán T. O'Kelly
Seán T. O'Kelly
to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, but it was not admitted.

In 1922 a new parliament called the Oireachtas
Oireachtas
was established, of which Dáil
Dáil
Éireann became the lower house.

After the War of Independence and truce called in July 1921, representatives of the British government
British government
and the Irish treaty delegates, led by Arthur Griffith, Robert Barton
Robert Barton
and Michael Collins, negotiated the Anglo-Irish Treaty
Anglo-Irish Treaty
in London from 11 October to 6 December 1921. The Irish delegates set up headquarters at Hans Place in Knightsbridge
Knightsbridge
and it was here in private discussions that the decision was taken on 5 December to recommend the treaty to Dáil Éireann. The Second Dáil
Dáil
Éireann narrowly ratified the Treaty. In accordance with the treaty, on 6 December 1922 the entire island of Ireland
Ireland
became a self-governing Dominion
Dominion
called the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann). Under the Constitution of the Irish Free State, the Parliament of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
had the option to leave the Irish Free State one month later and return to the United Kingdom. During the intervening period, the powers of the Parliament of the Irish Free State and Executive Council of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
did not extend to Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
exercised its right under the treaty to leave the new Dominion
Dominion
and rejoined the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 8 December 1922. It did so by making an address to the King requesting, "that the powers of the Parliament and Government of the Irish Free State shall no longer extend to Northern Ireland."[26] The Irish Free State was a constitutional monarchy sharing a monarch with the United Kingdom and other Dominions of the British Commonwealth. The country had a governor-general (representing the monarch), a bicameral parliament, a cabinet called the "Executive Council", and a prime minister called the President of the Executive Council. Irish Civil War

Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
(1882–1975)

The Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War
was the consequence of the creation of the Irish Free State. Anti-treaty forces, led by Éamon de Valera, objected to the fact that acceptance of the treaty abolished the Irish Republic
Irish Republic
of 1919 to which they had sworn loyalty, arguing in the face of public support for the settlement that the "people have no right to do wrong".[27] They objected most to the fact that the state would remain part of the British Empire
British Empire
and that members of the Free State Parliament would have to swear what the Anti-treaty side saw as an oath of fidelity to the British King. Pro-treaty forces, led by Michael Collins, argued that the treaty gave "not the ultimate freedom that all nations aspire to and develop, but the freedom to achieve it".[28] At the start of the war, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) split into two opposing camps: a pro-treaty IRA and an anti-treaty IRA. The pro-treaty IRA disbanded and joined the new National Army. However, because the anti-treaty IRA lacked an effective command structure and because of the pro-treaty forces' defensive tactics throughout the war, Michael Collins and his pro-treaty forces were able to build up an army with many tens of thousands of World War I
World War I
veterans from the 1922 disbanded Irish regiments of the British Army, capable of overwhelming the anti-treatyists. British supplies of artillery, aircraft, machine-guns and ammunition boosted pro-treaty forces, and the threat of a return of Crown forces to the Free State removed any doubts about the necessity of enforcing the treaty. The lack of public support for the anti-treaty forces (often called the Irregulars) and the determination of the government to overcome the Irregulars contributed significantly to their defeat. 1937 Constitution Following a national referendum, on 29 December 1937 the new Constitution of Ireland
Constitution of Ireland
(Bunreacht na hÉireann) came into force. This replaced the Constitution of the Irish Free State
Constitution of the Irish Free State
and called the state Ireland, or Éire
Éire
in Irish.[29] Articles 2 and 3 of the constitution asserted a nominal territorial claim over the whole island, considering the partition of Ireland
Ireland
under the 1922 Anglo-Irish Treaty illegitimate. The former Irish Free State
Irish Free State
government had taken steps to abolish the Office of Governor-General some months before the new Constitution came into force.[30] Although the constitution established the office of President of Ireland, the question over whether Ireland
Ireland
was a republic remained open. Diplomats were accredited to the king, but the president exercised the internal functions of a head of state.[31] For instance, the President gave assent to new laws with his own authority, without reference to King George VI who was only an "organ", that was provided for by statute law. Ireland
Ireland
remained neutral during World War II, a period it described as the Emergency. Ireland's link with the Commonwealth was terminated with the passage of the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1948, which came into force on 18 April 1949 and declared that the state was a republic. At the time, a declaration of a republic terminated Commonwealth membership. This rule was changed 10 days after Ireland
Ireland
declared itself a republic, with the London Declaration of 28 April 1949. Ireland
Ireland
did not reapply when the rules were altered to permit republics to join. Later, the Crown of Ireland
Ireland
Act was repealed in Ireland
Ireland
by the Statute Law Revision (Pre-Union Irish Statutes) Act, 1962. Recent history

In 1973 Ireland
Ireland
joined the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
along with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Denmark. The country signed the Lisbon Treaty
Lisbon Treaty
in 2007.

Ireland
Ireland
became a member of the United Nations
United Nations
in December 1955, after having been denied membership because of its neutral stance during the Second World War and not supporting the Allied cause.[32] At the time, joining the UN involved a commitment to using force to deter aggression by one state against another if the UN thought it was necessary.[33] Interest towards membership of the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
(EEC) developed in Ireland
Ireland
during the 1950s, with consideration also given to membership of the European Free Trade Area. As the United Kingdom intended on EEC membership, Ireland
Ireland
applied for membership in July 1961 due to the substantial economic linkages with the United Kingdom. However, the founding EEC members remained skeptical regarding Ireland's economic capacity, neutrality, and unattractive protectionist policy.[34] Many Irish economists and politicians realised that economic policy reform was necessary. The prospect of EEC membership became doubtful in 1963 when French President General Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
stated that France
France
opposed Britain's accession, which ceased negotiations with all other candidate countries. However, in 1969 his successor, Georges Pompidou, was not opposed to British and Irish membership. Negotiations began and in 1972 the Treaty of Accession was signed. A referendum held in 1972 confirmed Ireland's entry, and it finally joined the EEC in 1973.[35] The economic crisis of the late 1970s was fuelled by the Fianna Fáil government's budget, the abolition of the car tax, excessive borrowing, and global economic instability including the 1979 oil crisis.[36] There were significant policy changes from 1989 onwards, with economic reform, tax cuts, welfare reform, an increase in competition, and a ban on borrowing to fund current spending. This policy began in 1989–1992 by the Fianna Fáil/Progressive Democrat government, and continued by the subsequent Fianna Fáil/Labour government and Fine Gael/Labour/Democratic Left government. Ireland became one of the world's fastest growing economies by the late 1990s in what was known as the Celtic Tiger
Celtic Tiger
period, which lasted until the global Financial crisis of 2007–08. However, since 2014, Ireland
Ireland
has experienced strong economic growth. In the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
question, the British and Irish governments started to seek a peaceful resolution to the violent conflict involving many paramilitaries and the British Army
British Army
in Northern Ireland known as "The Troubles". A peace settlement for Northern Ireland, known as the Good Friday Agreement, was approved in 1998 in referendums north and south of the border. As part of the peace settlement, the territorial claim to Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland
Constitution of Ireland
was removed by referendum. In its white paper on Brexit
Brexit
the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
government reiterated its commitment to the Good Friday Agreement. With regard to Northern Ireland's status, it said that the UK Government's "clearly-stated preference is to retain Northern Ireland’s current constitutional position: as part of the UK, but with strong links to Ireland".[37] Geography Main article: Geography of Ireland

The Cliffs of Moher
Cliffs of Moher
on the Atlantic coast

The state extends over an area of about five-sixths (70,273 km2 or 27,133 sq mi) of the island of Ireland
Ireland
(84,421 km2 or 32,595 sq mi), with Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
constituting the remainder. The island is bounded to the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean and to the northeast by the North Channel. To the east, the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
connects to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
via St George's Channel
St George's Channel
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
to the southwest. The western landscape mostly consists of rugged cliffs, hills and mountains. The central lowlands are extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand, as well as significant areas of bogland and several lakes. The highest point is Carrauntoohil
Carrauntoohil
(1,038 m or 3,406 ft), located in the Macgillycuddy's Reeks
Macgillycuddy's Reeks
mountain range in the southwest. River Shannon, which traverses the central lowlands, is the longest river in Ireland
Ireland
at 386 kilometres or 240 miles in length. The west coast is more rugged than the east, with numerous islands, peninsulas, headlands and bays.

Macgillycuddy's Reeks, mountain range in County Kerry
County Kerry
includes the highest peaks in Ireland

Before the arrival of the first settlers in Ireland
Ireland
about 9,000 years ago, the land was largely covered by forests of oak, ash, elm, hazel, yew, and other native trees.[38] The growth of blanket bog and the extensive clearing of woodland to facilitate farming are believed to be the main causes of deforestation during the following centuries. Today, about 12% of Ireland
Ireland
is forested, of which a significant majority is composed of mainly non-native coniferous plantations for commercial use.[39] Ideal soil conditions, high rainfall and a mild climate give Ireland
Ireland
the highest growth rates for forests in Europe. Hedgerows, which are traditionally used to define land boundaries, are an important substitute for woodland habitat, providing refuge for native wild flora and a wide range of insect, bird and mammal species.[40]

Glendalough
Glendalough
valley in County Wicklow

Agriculture
Agriculture
accounts for about 64% of the total land area.[41] This has resulted in limited land to preserve natural habitats, in particular for larger wild mammals with greater territorial requirements.[42] The long history of agricultural production coupled with modern agricultural methods, such as pesticide and fertiliser use, has placed pressure on biodiversity.[43] Climate Main article: Climate of Ireland The Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and the warming influence of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
affect weather patterns in Ireland.[44] Temperatures differ regionally, with central and eastern areas tending to be more extreme. However, due to a temperate oceanic climate, temperatures are seldom lower than −5 °C (23 °F) in winter or higher than 26 °C (79 °F) in summer.[45] The highest temperature recorded in Ireland
Ireland
was 33.3 °C (91.9 °F) on 26 June 1887 at Kilkenny Castle in Kilkenny, while the lowest temperature recorded was −19.1 °C (−2.4 °F) at Markree Castle
Markree Castle
in Sligo.[46] Rainfall is more prevalent during winter months and less so during the early months of summer. Southwestern areas experience the most rainfall as a result of south westerly winds, while Dublin
Dublin
receives the least. Sunshine duration is highest in the southeast of the country.[44] The far north and west are two of the windiest regions in Europe, with great potential for wind energy generation.[47] Ireland normally gets between 1100 and 1600 hours of sunshine each year, most areas averaging between 3.25 and 3.75 hours a day. The sunniest months are May and June, which average between 5 and 6.5 hours per day over most of the country. The extreme southeast gets most sunshine, averaging over 7 hours a day in early summer. December is the dullest month, with an average daily sunshine ranging from about 1 hour in the north to almost 2 hours in the extreme southeast. The sunniest summer in the 100 years from 1881 to 1980 was 1887, according to measurements made at the Phoenix Park in Dublin; 1980 was the dullest.[48] Politics Main article: Politics of the Republic of Ireland Ireland
Ireland
is a constitutional republic with a parliamentary system of government. The Oireachtas
Oireachtas
is the bicameral national parliament composed of the President of Ireland
President of Ireland
and the two Houses of the Oireachtas: Seanad
Seanad
Éireann (Senate) and Dáil
Dáil
Éireann (House of Representatives).[49] Áras an Uachtaráin
Áras an Uachtaráin
is the official residence of the President of Ireland, while the houses of the Oireachtas
Oireachtas
meet at Leinster House
Leinster House
in Dublin.

President Michael D. Higgins

The President serves as head of state, and is elected for a seven-year term and may be re-elected once. The President is primarily a figurehead, but is entrusted with certain constitutional powers with the advice of the Council of State. The office has absolute discretion in some areas, such as referring a bill to the Supreme Court for a judgment on its constitutionality.[50] Michael D. Higgins
Michael D. Higgins
became the ninth President of Ireland
President of Ireland
on 11 November 2011.[51] The Taoiseach
Taoiseach
(Prime Minister) serves as the head of government and is appointed by the President upon the nomination of the Dáil. Most Taoisigh have served as the leader of the political party that gains the most seats in national elections. It has become customary for coalitions to form a government, as there has not been a single-party government since 1989.[52] Leo Varadkar
Leo Varadkar
succeeded Enda Kenny
Enda Kenny
as Taoiseach
Taoiseach
on 14 June 2017.

Taoiseach
Taoiseach
Leo Varadkar

The Seanad
Seanad
is composed of sixty members, with eleven nominated by the Taoiseach, six elected by two universities, and 43 elected by public representatives from panels of candidates established on a vocational basis. The Dáil
Dáil
has 158 members (Teachtaí Dála) elected to represent multi-seat constituencies under the system of proportional representation and by means of the single transferable vote. The Government is constitutionally limited to fifteen members. No more than two members can be selected from the Seanad, and the Taoiseach, Tánaiste
Tánaiste
(Deputy Prime Minister) and Minister for Finance must be members of the Dáil. The Dáil
Dáil
must be dissolved within five years after its first meeting following the previous election,[53] and a general election for members of the Dáil
Dáil
must take place no later than thirty days after the dissolution. According to the Constitution of Ireland, parliamentary elections must be held at least every seven years, though a lower limit may be set by statute law. The current government is a Fine Gael
Fine Gael
led minority government led by Leo Varadkar as Taoiseach
Taoiseach
and Simon Coveney
Simon Coveney
as Tánaiste. It is supported by a number of independents including Shane Ross
Shane Ross
and former Senator Katherine Zappone. The minority government is held in place by a confidence and supply deal with Fianna Fáil. Opposition parties in the current Dáil
Dáil
are Fianna Fáil, Sinn Féin, the Labour Party, Solidarity–People Before Profit, Social Democrats, Workers and Unemployed Action, the Green Party as well as a number of independents. Ireland
Ireland
has been a member state of the European Union
European Union
since 1973, but has chosen to remain outside the Schengen Area. Citizens of the United Kingdom can freely enter the country without a passport due to the Common Travel Area, which is a passport-free zone comprising the islands of Ireland, Great Britain, the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and the Channel Islands. However, some identification is required at airports and seaports. Local government

Government Buildings

Main article: Local government in the Republic of Ireland The Local Government Act 1898[54] is the founding document of the present system of local government, while the Twentieth Amendment to the constitution of 1999 provided for its constitutional recognition. The twenty-six traditional counties of Ireland
Ireland
are not always coterminous with administrative divisions although they are generally used as a geographical frame of reference by the population of Ireland. The Local Government Reform Act 2014 provides for a system of thirty-one local authorities - twenty-six county councils, two city and county councils and three city councils.[54] Below this (with the exception of the Dublin
Dublin
Region and the three city councils) are municipal districts, replacing a previous system of town councils.

Fingal Dublin
Dublin
City Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown South Dublin Wicklow Wexford Carlow Kildare Meath Louth Monaghan Cavan Longford Westmeath Offaly Laois

Kilkenny Waterford Cork City Cork Kerry Limerick Tipperary Clare Galway Galway
Galway
City Mayo Roscommon Sligo Leitrim Donegal

Local authorities are responsible for matters such as planning, local roads, sanitation, and libraries. Dáil
Dáil
constituencies are required to follow county boundaries as much as possible. Counties with greater populations have multiple constituencies, some of more than one county, but generally do not cross county boundaries. The counties are grouped into eight regions, each with a Regional Authority composed of members delegated by the various county and city councils in the region. The regions do not have any direct administrative role as such, but they serve for planning, coordination and statistical purposes. Law Main articles: Law of Ireland, Courts of Ireland, and Law enforcement in the Republic of Ireland

The Four Courts, completed in 1802, is the location of the Supreme Court, the High Court and the Dublin
Dublin
Circuit Court.

Ireland
Ireland
has a common law legal system with a written constitution that provides for a parliamentary democracy. The court system consists of the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the High Court, the Circuit Court and the District Court, all of which apply the law of Ireland. Trials for serious offences must usually be held before a jury. The High Court and the Supreme Court have authority, by means of judicial review, to determine the compatibility of laws and activities of other institutions of the state with the constitution and the law. Except in exceptional circumstances, court hearings must occur in public. The Criminal Courts of Justice is the principal building for the criminal courts.[55][56] It includes the Dublin
Dublin
Metropolitan District Court, Court of Criminal Appeal, Dublin
Dublin
Circuit Criminal Court and Central Criminal Court.[55]

The Criminal Courts of Justice is the principal building for criminal courts.

Garda Síochána
Garda Síochána
na hÉireann (Guardians of the Peace of Ireland), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí, is the state's civilian police force. The force is responsible for all aspects of civil policing, both in terms of territory and infrastructure. It is headed by the Garda Commissioner, who is appointed by the Government. Most uniformed members do not routinely carry firearms. Standard policing is traditionally carried out by uniformed officers equipped only with a baton and pepper spray.[57] The Military Police is the corps of the Irish Army
Irish Army
responsible for the provision of policing service personnel and providing a military police presence to forces while on exercise and deployment. In wartime, additional tasks include the provision of a traffic control organisation to allow rapid movement of military formations to their mission areas. Other wartime roles include control of prisoners of war and refugees.[58] Ireland's citizenship laws relate to "the island of Ireland", including islands and seas, thereby extending them to Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. Therefore, anyone born in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
who meets the requirements for being an Irish citizen, such as birth on the island of Ireland
Ireland
to an Irish or British citizen parent or a parent who is entitled to live in Northern Ireland or the Republic without restriction on their residency,[59] may exercise an entitlement to Irish citizenship, such as an Irish passport.[60] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland See also: Ireland– NATO
NATO
relations Foreign relations are substantially influenced by membership of the European Union, although bilateral relations with the United Kingdom and United States
United States
are also important.[61] It held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union
European Union
on six occasions, most recently from January to June 2013.[62]

Ireland
Ireland
has been a member state of the European Union
European Union
since 1973.

Ireland
Ireland
tends towards independence in foreign policy; thus the country is not a member of NATO
NATO
and has a longstanding policy of military neutrality. This policy has helped the Irish Defence Forces
Irish Defence Forces
to be successful in their contributions to peace-keeping missions with the United Nations
United Nations
since 1960, during the Congo Crisis
Congo Crisis
and subsequently in Cyprus, Lebanon
Lebanon
and Bosnia and Herzegovina.[63][disputed – discuss] Despite Irish neutrality during World War II, Ireland
Ireland
had more than 50,000 participants in the war through enlistment in the British armed forces. During the Cold War, Irish military policy, while ostensibly neutral, was biased towards NATO.[64] During the Cuban Missile Crisis, Seán Lemass
Seán Lemass
authorised the search of Cuban and Czechoslovak aircraft passing through Shannon and passed the information to the CIA.[65] Ireland's air facilities were used by the United States
United States
military for the delivery of military personnel involved in the 2003 invasion of Iraq through Shannon Airport. The airport had previously been used for the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, as well as the First Gulf War.[66] Since 1999, Ireland
Ireland
has been a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
(EAPC), which is aimed at creating trust between NATO
NATO
and other states in Europe
Europe
and the former Soviet Union.[67][68] Military Main article: Defence Forces (Ireland)

Soldiers of the Garda Onór

The Defence Forces are made up of the Army, Naval Service, Air Corps and Reserve Defence Force. It is small but well equipped, with almost 10,000 full-time military personnel and over 2,000 in reserve.[69][70] Ireland
Ireland
is a neutral country,[71] and has "triple-lock" rules governing the participation of Irish troops in conflict zones, whereby approval must be given by the UN, the Dáil
Dáil
and Government.[72] Daily deployments of the Defence Forces cover aid to civil power operations, protection and patrol of Irish territorial waters and EEZ
EEZ
by the Irish Naval Service, and UN, EU and PfP peace-keeping missions. By 1996, over 40,000 Irish service personnel had served in international UN peacekeeping missions.[73] The Irish Air Corps
Irish Air Corps
is the air component of the Defence Forces and operates sixteen fixed wing aircraft and eight helicopters. The Irish Naval Service is Ireland's navy, and operates eight patrol ships, and smaller numbers of inflatable boats and training vessels, and has armed boarding parties capable of seizing a ship and a special unit of frogmen. The military includes the Reserve Defence Forces
Reserve Defence Forces
(Army Reserve and Naval Service Reserve) for part-time reservists. Ireland's special forces include the Army Ranger Wing, which trains and operates with international special operations units. The President is the formal Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces, but in practice answers to the Government via the Minister for Defence. Economy Main article: Economy of the Republic of Ireland

Ireland
Ireland
is part of the EU (dark blue & light blue) and Eurozone (dark blue).

Development The Irish economy has transformed since the 1980s from being predominantly agricultural to a modern knowledge economy focused on high technology industries and services. Ireland
Ireland
adopted the euro currency in 2002 along with eleven other EU member states.[43] The country is heavily reliant on Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign Direct Investment
and has attracted several multinational corporations due to a highly educated workforce and a low corporation tax rate.[74] Companies such as Intel
Intel
invested in Ireland
Ireland
during the late 1980s, later followed by Microsoft
Microsoft
and Google. Ireland
Ireland
is ranked as the ninth most economically free economy in the world, according to the Index of Economic Freedom. In terms of GDP per capita, Ireland
Ireland
is one of the wealthiest countries in the OECD
OECD
and EU. However, the country ranks below the OECD
OECD
average in terms of GNP per capita. GDP is significantly greater than GNP due to the large number of multinational corporations based in Ireland.[74] Beginning in the early 1990s, the country experienced unprecedented economic growth fuelled by a dramatic rise in consumer spending, construction and investment, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. The pace of growth slowed during 2007 and led to the burst of a major property bubble which had developed over time.[75] The dramatic fall in property prices highlighted the over-exposure of the economy to construction and contributed to the Irish banking crisis. Ireland
Ireland
officially entered a recession in 2008 following consecutive months of economic contraction.[76] GNP contracted by 11.3% in 2009 alone, the largest annual decline in GNP since 1950.[77] The country officially exited recession in 2010, assisted by a strong growth in exports.[78] However, due to a significant rise in the cost of public borrowing due to government guarantees of private banking debt, the Irish government
Irish government
accepted an €85 billion programme of assistance from the EU, International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) and bilateral loans from the United Kingdom, Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark.[79] Following three years of contraction, the economy grew by 0.7% in 2011 and 0.9% in 2012.[80] The unemployment rate was 14.7% in 2012, including 18.5% among recent immigrants.[81] In March 2016 the unemployment rate was reported by the Central Statistics Office (Ireland) to be 8.6%, down from a peak unemployment rate of 15.1% in February 2012.[82] In addition to unemployment, net emigration from Ireland
Ireland
between 2008 and 2013 totalled 120,100,[83] or some 2.6% of the total population according to the Census of Ireland
Ireland
2011. One-third of the emigrants were aged between 15 and 24.[83] In 2013, Ireland
Ireland
was named the "best country for business" by Forbes.[84] Ireland
Ireland
exited its EU-IMF bailout programme on 15 December 2013.[85] Having implemented budget cuts, reforms and sold assets, Ireland
Ireland
was again able to access debt markets. Since then, Ireland
Ireland
has been able to sell long term bonds at record rates.[86] Trade

The International Financial Services Centre
International Financial Services Centre
in Dublin

Although multinational corporations dominate Ireland's export sector, exports from other sources also contribute significantly to the national income. The activities of multinational companies based in Ireland
Ireland
have made it one of the largest exporters of pharmaceutical agents, medical devices and software-related goods and services in the world. Ireland's exports also relate to the activities of large Irish companies (such as Ryanair, Kerry Group
Kerry Group
and Smurfit Kappa) and exports of mineral resources: Ireland
Ireland
is the seventh largest producer of zinc concentrates, and the twelfth largest producer of lead concentrates. The country also has significant deposits of gypsum, limestone, and smaller quantities of copper, silver, gold, barite, and dolomite.[43] Tourism
Tourism
in Ireland
Ireland
contributes about 4% of GDP and is a significant source of employment. Other goods exports include agri-food, cattle, beef, dairy products, and aluminum. Ireland's major imports include data processing equipment, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, textiles, and clothing. Financial services
Financial services
provided by multinational corporations based at the Irish Financial Services Centre
Irish Financial Services Centre
also contribute to Irish exports. The difference between exports (€89.4 billion) and imports (€45.5 billion) resulted an annual trade surplus of €43.9 billion in 2010, which is the highest trade surplus relative to GDP achieved by any EU member state.[87] The EU is by far the country's largest trading partner, accounting for 57.9% of exports and 60.7% of imports. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the most important trading partner within the EU, accounting for 15.4% of exports and 32.1% of imports. Outside the EU, the United States accounted for 23.2% of exports and 14.1% of imports in 2010.[87] Energy

A wind farm in County Wexford

Main article: Energy in Ireland ESB, Ervia
Ervia
and Airtricity
Airtricity
are the three main electricity and gas suppliers in Ireland. There are 19.82 billion cubic metres of proven reserves of gas.[43][88] Natural gas extraction previously occurred at the Kinsale Head until its exhaustion. The Corrib gas field
Corrib gas field
was due to come on stream in 2013/14. In 2012, the Barryroe field was confirmed to have up to 1.6 billion barrels of oil in reserve, with between 160 and 600 million recoverable.[89] That could provide for Ireland's entire energy needs for up to 13 years, when it is developed in 2015/16. There have been significant efforts to increase the use of renewable and sustainable forms of energy in Ireland, particularly in wind power, with 3,000 MegaWatts[90] of wind farms being constructed, some for the purpose of export.[91] The Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland
Ireland
(SEAI) has estimated that 6.5% of Ireland's 2011 energy requirements were produced by renewable sources.[92] The SEAI has also reported an increase in energy efficiency in Ireland
Ireland
with a 28% reduction in carbon emissions per house from 2005 to 2013.[93] Transport Main articles: Transport
Transport
in Ireland, Rail transport in Ireland, and Roads in Ireland

Terminal 1 and 2 at Dublin
Dublin
Airport

The country's three main international airports at Dublin, Shannon and Cork serve many European and intercontinental routes with scheduled and chartered flights. The London to Dublin
Dublin
air route is the ninth busiest international air route in the world, and also the busiest international air route in Europe, with 14,500 flights between the two in 2017.[94][95] In 2015, 4.5 million people took the route, at that time, the world's second-busiest.[94] Aer Lingus
Aer Lingus
is the flag carrier of Ireland, although Ryanair
Ryanair
is the country's largest airline. Ryanair is Europe's largest low-cost carrier,[96] the second largest in terms of passenger numbers, and the world's largest in terms of international passenger numbers.[97]

InterCity Mark IV train at Heuston station

Railway services are provided by Iarnród Éireann
Iarnród Éireann
(Irish Rail), which operates all internal intercity, commuter and freight railway services in the country. Dublin
Dublin
is the centre of the network with two main stations, Heuston station and Connolly station, linking to the country's cities and main towns. The Enterprise service, which runs jointly with Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Railways, connects Dublin
Dublin
and Belfast. The whole of Ireland's mainline network operates on track with a gauge of 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm), which is unique in Europe
Europe
and has resulted in distinct rolling stock designs. Dublin
Dublin
has a steadily improving public transport network including the DART, Luas, Dublin Bus, and dublinbikes. Motorways, national primary roads and national secondary roads are managed by the National Roads Authority, while regional roads and local roads are managed by the local authorities in each of their respective areas. The road network is primarily focused on the capital, but motorways have been extended to other cities as part of the Transport 21
Transport 21
capital investment programme, as a result motorways have been completed between Dublin
Dublin
and a number of other major Irish cities including Cork, Limerick, Waterford
Waterford
and Galway.[98] Dublin
Dublin
has been the focus of major projects such as the East-Link and West-Link
West-Link
toll-bridges, as well as the Dublin
Dublin
Port Tunnel. The Jack Lynch Tunnel, under the River Lee in Cork, and the Limerick
Limerick
Tunnel, under the River Shannon, were two major projects outside Dublin. Several by-pass projects are underway in other urban areas. Demographics Main article: Demographics of the Republic of Ireland See also: Irish population analysis

Population of Ireland
Ireland
since 1951.

Genetic research suggests that the earliest settlers migrated from Iberia
Iberia
following the most recent ice age.[99] After the Mesolithic, Neolithic
Neolithic
and Bronze Age, migrants introduced a Celtic language and culture. Migrants from the two latter eras still represent the genetic heritage of most Irish people.[100][101] Gaelic tradition expanded and became the dominant form over time. Irish people
Irish people
are a combination of Gaelic, Norse, Anglo-Norman, French, and British ancestry. The population of Ireland
Ireland
stood at 4,588,252 in 2011, an increase of 8.2% since 2006.[102] As of 2011[update], Ireland
Ireland
had the highest birth rate in the European Union
European Union
(16 births per 1,000 of population).[103] In 2014, 36.3% of births were to unmarried women.[104] Annual population growth rates exceeded 2% during the 2002-2006 intercensal period, which was attributed to high rates of natural increase and immigration.[105] This rate declined somewhat during the subsequent 2006-2011 intercensal period, with an average annual percentage change of 1.6%. At the time of the 2011 census, the number of non-Irish nationals was recorded at 544,357, comprising 12% of the total population. This is nearly 2.5 times the number of non-Irish nationals recorded in the 2002 census (224,261), when the question of nationality was asked for the first time. The five largest non-national cohorts were Polish (122,585), UK (112,259), Lithuanian (36,683), Latvian (20,593) and Nigerian (17,642) respectively.[106] See also: List of urban areas in the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
by population

Largest urban centres by population (2016 census)

Dublin

Limerick

# Settlement Population # Settlement Population

Cork

Galway

1 Dublin 1,173,179[107] 11 Kilkenny 26,512

2 Cork 208,669[108] 12 Ennis 25,276

3 Limerick 94,192[109] 13 Carlow 24,272

4 Galway 79,934[110] 14 Tralee 23,691

5 Waterford 53,504[111] 15 Newbridge 22,742

6 Drogheda 40,956[112] 16 Portlaoise 22,050

7 Swords 39,248[113] 17 Balbriggan 21,722

8 Dundalk 39,004[114] 18 Naas 21,393

9 Bray 32,600[115] 19 Athlone 21,349

10 Navan 30,173[116] 20 Mullingar 20,928

Functional urban areas The following is a list of functional urban areas in Ireland
Ireland
and their population as of 2011.[117]

Functional urban areas Population 2011

Dublin 1,794,000

Cork 406,000

Galway 179,000

Limerick 162,000

Languages Main articles: Languages of Ireland, Irish language, Hiberno-English, and Mid Ulster
Ulster
English

The percentage who said they spoke Irish daily outside the education system in the 2011 census.

The Irish Constitution describes Irish as the "national language", but English is the dominant language. In the 2006 census, 39% of the population regarded themselves as competent in Irish. Irish is spoken as a community language only in a small number of rural areas mostly in the west and south of the country, collectively known as the Gaeltacht. Except in Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
regions, road signs are usually bilingual.[118] Most public notices and print media are in English only. While the state is officially bilingual, citizens can often struggle to access state services in Irish and most government publications are not available in both languages, even though citizens have the right to deal with the state in Irish. Irish language
Irish language
media include the TV channel TG4, the radio station RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta and online newspaper Tuairisc.ie. In the Irish Defence Forces, all foot and arms drill commands are given in the Irish language. As a result of immigration, Polish is the most widely spoken language in Ireland
Ireland
after English, with Irish as the third most spoken.[119] Several other Central European languages (namely Czech, Hungarian and Slovak), as well as Baltic languages
Baltic languages
(Lithuanian and Latvian) are also spoken on a day-to-day basis. Other languages spoken in Ireland include Shelta, spoken by Irish Travellers, and a dialect of Scots is spoken by some Ulster
Ulster
Scots people in Donegal.[120] Most secondary school students choose to learn one or two foreign languages. Languages available for the Junior Certificate
Junior Certificate
and the Leaving Certificate include French, German, Italian and Spanish; Leaving Certificate students can also study Arabic, Japanese and Russian. Some secondary schools also offer Ancient Greek, Hebrew and Latin. The study of Irish is compulsory for Leaving Certificate students, but some may qualify for an exemption in some circumstances, such as learning difficulties or entering the country after age 11.[121] Healthcare Main article: Healthcare in the Republic of Ireland

RCSI
RCSI
Disease and Research Centre at Beaumont Hospital in Dublin
Dublin
city.

Healthcare in Ireland
Ireland
is provided by both public and private healthcare providers.[122] The Minister for Health has responsibility for setting overall health service policy. Every resident of Ireland is entitled to receive health care through the public health care system, which is managed by the Health Service Executive
Health Service Executive
and funded by general taxation. A person may be required to pay a subsidised fee for certain health care received; this depends on income, age, illness or disability. All maternity services are provided free of charge and children up to the age of 6 months. Emergency care is provided to patients who present to a hospital emergency department. However, visitors to emergency departments in non-emergency situations who are not referred by their GP may incur a fee of €100. In some circumstances this fee is not payable or may be waived.[123] Anyone holding a European Health Insurance Card
European Health Insurance Card
is entitled to free maintenance and treatment in public beds in Health Service Executive and voluntary hospitals. Outpatient services are also provided for free. However, the majority of patients on median incomes or above are required to pay subsidised hospital charges. Private health insurance is available to the population for those who want to avail of it. The average life expectancy in Ireland
Ireland
in 2012 is 81 years (OECD average life expectancy in 2012 was 80 years), with 78.2 years for men and 83.6 years for women.[124] It has the highest birth rate in the EU (16.8 births per 1,000 inhabitants, compared to an EU average of 10.7)[125] and a very low infant mortality rate (3.5 per 1,000 live births). The Irish healthcare system ranked 13th out of 34 European countries in 2012 according to the European Health Consumer Index produced by Health Consumer Powerhouse.[126] The same report ranked The Irish healthcare system as having the 8th best health outcomes but only the 21st most accessible system in Europe. Education Main article: Education in the Republic of Ireland

University College Cork
University College Cork
was founded in 1845 and is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland.

Ireland
Ireland
has three levels of education: primary, secondary and higher education. The education systems are largely under the direction of the Government via the Minister for Education and Skills. Recognised primary and secondary schools must adhere to the curriculum established by the relevant authorities. Education is compulsory between the ages of six and fifteen years, and all children up to the age of eighteen must complete the first three years of secondary, including one sitting of the Junior Certificate
Junior Certificate
examination.[127] There are approximately 3,300 primary schools in Ireland.[128] The vast majority (92%) are under the patronage of the Catholic Church. Schools run by religious organisations, but receiving public money and recognition, cannot discriminate against pupils based upon religion or lack thereof. A sanctioned system of preference does exist, where students of a particular religion may be accepted before those who do not share the ethos of the school, in a case where a school's quota has already been reached.

Longroom at the Trinity College Library

The Leaving Certificate, which is taken after two years of study, is the final examination in the secondary school system. Those intending to pursue higher education normally take this examination, with access to third-level courses generally depending on results obtained from the best six subjects taken, on a competitive basis.[129] Third-level education awards are conferred by at least 38 Higher Education Institutions - this includes the constituent or linked colleges of seven universities, plus other designated institutions of the Higher Education and Training Awards Council. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Ireland
Ireland
as having the fourth highest reading score, ninth highest science score and thirteenth highest mathematics score, among OECD
OECD
countries, in its 2012 assessment.[130] In 2012, Irish students aged 15 years had the second highest levels of reading literacy in the EU.[131] Ireland
Ireland
also has 0.747 of the World's top 500 Universities per capita, which ranks the country in 8th place in the world.[132] Primary, secondary and higher (university/college) level education are all free in Ireland
Ireland
for all EU citizens.[133] There are charges to cover student services and examinations. In addition, 37 percent of Ireland's population has a university or college degree, which is among the highest percentages in the world.[134][135] Religion Main article: Religion in the Republic of Ireland

Religion in the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
[136]

Religion

Percent

Roman Catholic

78.3%

Non-religious

10.1%

Protestant

4.2%

Muslim

1.3%

Other

6.1%

Religious freedom is constitutionally provided for in Ireland. Christianity is the predominant religion, and while Ireland
Ireland
remains a predominantly Catholic country, the percentage of the population who identified as Catholic on the census has fallen sharply from 84.2 percent in the 2011 census to 78.3 percent in the most recent 2016 census. Other results from the 2016 census are : 4.2% Protestant, 1.3% as Muslim, and 9.8% as having no religion.[3] According to a Georgetown University
Georgetown University
study, before 2000 the country had one of the highest rates of regular Mass attendance in the Western world.[137] While daily attendance was 13% in 2006, there was a reduction in weekly attendance from 81% in 1990 to 48% in 2006, although the decline was reported as stabilising.[138] In 2011, it was reported that weekly Mass attendance in Dublin
Dublin
was just 18%, with it being even lower among younger generations.[139]

Saint Finbarre's Cathedral
Saint Finbarre's Cathedral
in Cork is a Church of Ireland
Ireland
cathedral

Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin
Dublin
is a Church of Ireland
Ireland
cathedral

The Church of Ireland, at 2.7% of the population, is the second largest Christian denomination. Membership declined throughout the twentieth century, but experienced an increase early in the 21st century, as have other small Christian denominations. Significant Protestant
Protestant
denominations are the Presbyterian Church and Methodist Church. Immigration has contributed to a growth in Hindu and Muslim populations. In percentage terms, Orthodox Christianity and Islam
Islam
were the fastest growing religions, with increases of 100% and 70% respectively.[140] Ireland's patron saints are Saint Patrick, Saint Bridget and Saint Columba. Saint Patrick
Saint Patrick
is the only one commonly recognised as the patron saint. Saint Patrick's Day
Saint Patrick's Day
is celebrated on 17 March in Ireland and abroad as the Irish national day, with parades and other celebrations. As with other predominantly Catholic European states, Ireland underwent a period of legal secularisation in the late twentieth century. In 1972, the article of the Constitution naming specific religious groups was deleted by the Fifth Amendment in a referendum. Article 44 remains in the Constitution: "The State acknowledges that the homage of public worship is due to Almighty God. It shall hold His Name in reverence, and shall respect and honour religion." The article also establishes freedom of religion, prohibits endowment of any religion, prohibits the state from religious discrimination, and requires the state to treat religious and non-religious schools in a non-prejudicial manner. Religious studies
Religious studies
was introduced as an optional Junior Certificate subject in 2001. Although many schools are run by religious organisations, a secularist trend is occurring among younger generations.[141] Culture Main article: Culture of Ireland Ireland's culture was for centuries predominantly Gaelic, and it remains one of the six principal Celtic nations. Following the Anglo-Norman invasion in the 12th century, and gradual British conquest and colonisation beginning in the 16th century, Ireland became influenced by English and Scottish culture. Subsequently, Irish culture, though distinct in many aspects, shares characteristics with the Anglosphere, Catholic Europe, and other Celtic regions. The Irish diaspora, one of the world's largest and most dispersed, has contributed to the globalisation of Irish culture, producing many prominent figures in art, music, and science. Literature Main article: Irish literature

Jonathan Swift
Jonathan Swift
(1667–1745)

Ireland
Ireland
has made a significant contribution to world literature in both the English and Irish languages. Modern Irish fiction
Irish fiction
began with the publishing of the 1726 novel Gulliver's Travels
Gulliver's Travels
by Jonathan Swift. Other writers of importance during the 18th century and their most notable works include Laurence Sterne
Laurence Sterne
with the publication of The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman and Oliver Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield. Numerous Irish novelists emerged during the 19th century, including Maria Edgeworth, John Banim, Gerald Griffin, Charles Kickham, William Carleton, George Moore, and Somerville and Ross. Bram Stoker
Bram Stoker
is best known as the author of the 1897 novel Dracula. James Joyce
James Joyce
(1882–1941) published his most famous work Ulysses in 1922, which is an interpretation of the Odyssey
Odyssey
set in Dublin. Edith Somerville continued writing after the death of her partner Martin Ross in 1915. Dublin's Annie M. P. Smithson was one of several authors catering for fans of romantic fiction in the 1920s and 1930s. After the Second World War, popular novels were published by, among others, Brian O'Nolan, who published as Flann O'Brien, Elizabeth Bowen, and Kate O'Brien. During the final decades of the 20th century, Edna O'Brien, John McGahern, Maeve Binchy, Joseph O'Connor, Roddy Doyle, Colm Tóibín, and John Banville
John Banville
came to the fore as novelists.

W. B. Yeats
W. B. Yeats
(1865–1939)

Patricia Lynch (1898–1972) was a prolific children's author, while Eoin Colfer
Eoin Colfer
has been particularly successful in this genre in recent years. In the genre of the short story, which is a form favoured by many Irish writers, the most prominent figures include Seán Ó Faoláin, Frank O'Connor and William Trevor. Well known Irish poets include Patrick Kavanagh, Thomas McCarthy, Dermot Bolger, and Nobel Prize in Literature laureates William Butler Yeats and Seamus Heaney (born in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
but resided in Dublin). Prominent writers in the Irish language
Irish language
are Pádraic Ó Conaire, Máirtín Ó Cadhain, Séamus Ó Grianna, and Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill. The history of Irish theatre
Irish theatre
begins with the expansion of the English administration in Dublin
Dublin
during the early 17th century, and since then, Ireland
Ireland
has significantly contributed to English drama. In its early history, theatrical productions in Ireland
Ireland
tended to serve political purposes, but as more theatres opened and the popular audience grew, a more diverse range of entertainments were staged. Many Dublin-based theatres developed links with their London equivalents, and British productions frequently found their way to the Irish stage. However, most Irish playwrights went abroad to establish themselves. In the 18th century, Oliver Goldsmith
Oliver Goldsmith
and Richard Brinsley Sheridan were two of the most successful playwrights on the London stage at that time. At the beginning of the 20th century, theatre companies dedicated to the staging of Irish plays and the development of writers, directors and performers began to emerge, which allowed many Irish playwrights to learn their trade and establish their reputations in Ireland
Ireland
rather than in Britain or the United States. Following in the tradition of acclaimed practitioners, principally Oscar Wilde, Literature Nobel Prize laureates George Bernard Shaw (1925) and Samuel Beckett
Samuel Beckett
(1969), playwrights such as Seán O'Casey, Brian Friel, Sebastian Barry, Brendan Behan, Conor McPherson and Billy Roche have gained popular success.[142] Other Irish playwrights of the 20th century include Denis Johnston, Thomas Kilroy, Tom Murphy, Hugh Leonard, Frank McGuinness, and John B. Keane. Music and dance Main articles: Irish music
Irish music
and Irish dance Irish traditional music has remained vibrant, despite globalising cultural forces, and retains many traditional aspects. It has influenced various music genres, such as American country and roots music, and to some extent modern rock. It has occasionally been blended with styles such as rock and roll and punk rock. Ireland
Ireland
has also produced many internationally known artists in other genres, such as rock, pop, jazz, and blues. Ireland's best selling musical act is the rock band U2, who have sold 170 million copies of their albums worldwide since their formation in 1976.[143]

Dublin-based rock group U2.

There are a number of classical music ensembles around the country, such as the RTÉ Performing Groups.[144] Ireland
Ireland
also has three opera organisations. Opera Ireland
Ireland
produces large-scale operas in Dublin, the Opera Theatre Company tours its chamber-style operas throughout the country, and the annual Wexford Opera Festival, which promotes lesser-known operas, takes place during October and November. Ireland
Ireland
has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
since 1965.[145] Its first win was in 1970, when Dana won with All Kinds of Everything.[146] It has subsequently won the competition six more times,[147][148] the highest number of wins by any competing country. The phenomenon Riverdance originated as an interval performance during the 1994 contest.[149] Irish dance
Irish dance
can broadly be divided into social dance and performance dance. Irish social dance can be divided into céilí and set dancing. Irish set dances are quadrilles, danced by 4 couples arranged in a square, while céilí dances are danced by varied formations of couples of 2 to 16 people. There are also many stylistic differences between these two forms. Irish social dance is a living tradition, and variations in particular dances are found across the country. In some places dances are deliberately modified and new dances are choreographed. Performance dance
Performance dance
is traditionally referred to as stepdance. Irish stepdance, popularised by the show Riverdance, is notable for its rapid leg movements, with the body and arms being kept largely stationary. The solo stepdance is generally characterised by a controlled but not rigid upper body, straight arms, and quick, precise movements of the feet. The solo dances can either be in "soft shoe" or "hard shoe". Architecture Main article: Architecture of Ireland

The ruins of Monasterboice
Monasterboice
in County Louth
County Louth
are of early Christian settlement.

Ireland
Ireland
has a wealth of structures,[150] surviving in various states of preservation, from the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, such as Brú na Bóinne, Poulnabrone dolmen, Castlestrange stone, Turoe stone, and Drombeg stone circle.[151] As the Romans never conquered Ireland, architecture of Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
origin is extremely rare. The country instead had an extended period of Iron Age
Iron Age
architecture.[152] The Irish round tower originated during the Early Medieval
Early Medieval
period. Christianity introduced simple monastic houses, such as Clonmacnoise, Skellig Michael
Skellig Michael
and Scattery Island. A stylistic similarity has been remarked between these double monasteries and those of the Copts
Copts
of Egypt.[153] Gaelic kings and aristocrats occupied ringforts or crannógs.[154] Church reforms during the 12th century via the Cistercians
Cistercians
stimulated continental influence, with the Romanesque styled Mellifont, Boyle and Tintern abbeys.[155] Gaelic settlement had been limited to the Monastic proto-towns, such as Kells, where the current street pattern preserves the original circular settlement outline to some extent.[156] Significant urban settlements only developed following the period of Viking invasions.[154] The major Hiberno-Norse Longphorts were located on the coast, but with minor inland fluvial settlements, such as the eponymous Longford.

Dublin
Dublin
Custom House is a neoclassical building from the late 18th century.

Castles were built by the Anglo-Normans
Anglo-Normans
during the late 12th century, such as Dublin
Dublin
Castle and Kilkenny
Kilkenny
Castle,[157] and the concept of the planned walled trading town was introduced, which gained legal status and several rights by grant of a Charter
Charter
under Feudalism. These charters specifically governed the design of these towns.[158] Two significant waves of planned town formation followed, the first being the 16th and 17th century plantation towns, which were used as a mechanism for the Tudor English kings to suppress local insurgency, followed by 18th century landlord towns.[159] Surviving Norman founded planned towns include Drogheda
Drogheda
and Youghal; plantation towns include Portlaoise
Portlaoise
and Portarlington; well-preserved 18th century planned towns include Westport and Ballinasloe. These episodes of planned settlement account for the majority of present-day towns throughout the country.

Brick architecture of multi-storey buildings in Dame Street in Dublin

Gothic cathedrals, such as St Patrick's, were also introduced by the Normans.[160] Franciscans were dominant in directing the abbeys by the Late Middle Ages, while elegant tower houses, such as Bunratty Castle, were built by the Gaelic and Norman aristocracy.[161] Many religious buildings were ruined with the Dissolution of the Monasteries.[162] Following the Restoration, palladianism and rococo, particularly country houses, swept through Ireland
Ireland
under the initiative of Edward Lovett Pearce, with the Houses of Parliament being the most significant.[163] With the erection of buildings such as The Custom House, Four Courts, General Post Office and King's Inns, the neoclassical and Georgian styles flourished, especially in Dublin.[163] Georgian townhouses produced streets of singular distinction, particularly in Dublin, Limerick
Limerick
and Cork. Following Catholic Emancipation, cathedrals and churches influenced by the French Gothic Revival emerged, such as St Colman's and St Finbarre's.[163] Ireland
Ireland
has long been associated with thatched roof cottages, though these are nowadays considered quaint.[164]

The Elysian
The Elysian
tower in Cork is the tallest storeyed building in the Republic of Ireland.

Beginning with the American designed art deco church at Turner's Cross in 1927, Irish architecture followed the international trend towards modern and sleek building styles since the 20th century.[165] Recent developments include the regeneration of Ballymun
Ballymun
and an urban extension of Dublin
Dublin
at Adamstown.[166] Since the establishment of the Dublin
Dublin
Docklands Development Authority in 1997, the Dublin
Dublin
Docklands area underwent large-scale redevelopment, which included the construction of the Convention Centre Dublin
Dublin
and Grand Canal Theatre.[167] Completed in 2008, the Elysian tower in Cork is the tallest storeyed building in the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
(the Obel Tower in Belfast, Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
being the tallest in Ireland), at a height of 71 metres (233 feet), surpassing Cork County Hall. The Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland
Ireland
regulates the practice of architecture in the state.[168] Media Main article: Media of the Republic of Ireland Raidió Teilifís Éireann
Raidió Teilifís Éireann
(RTÉ) is Ireland's public service broadcaster, funded by a television licence fee and advertising.[169] RTÉ operates two national television channels, RTÉ One
RTÉ One
and RTÉ Two. The other independent national television channels are TV3, 3e, UTV Ireland
Ireland
and TG4, the latter of which is a public service broadcaster for speakers of the Irish language. All these channels are available on Saorview, the national free-to-air digital terrestrial television service.[170] Additional channels included in the service are RTÉ News Now, RTÉjr, and RTÉ One
RTÉ One
+1. Subscription-based television providers operating in Ireland
Ireland
include Virgin Media and Sky. Supported by the Irish Film Board, the Irish film industry grew significantly since the 1990s, with the promotion of indigenous films as well as the attraction of international productions like Braveheart and Saving Private Ryan.[171] A large number of regional and local radio stations are available countrywide. A survey showed that a consistent 85% of adults listen to a mixture of national, regional and local stations on a daily basis.[172] RTÉ Radio
RTÉ Radio
operates four national stations, Radio 1, 2fm, Lyric fm, and RnaG. It also operates four national DAB radio stations. There are two independent national stations: Today FM and Newstalk. Ireland
Ireland
has a traditionally competitive print media, which is divided into daily national newspapers and weekly regional newspapers, as well as national Sunday editions. The strength of the British press is a unique feature of the Irish print media scene, with the availability of a wide selection of British published newspapers and magazines.[171] Eurostat
Eurostat
reported that 82% of Irish households had Internet access in 2013 compared to the EU average of 79% but only 67% had broadband access.[173] Cuisine Main article: Irish cuisine Further information: List of Irish dishes

A pint of Guinness

Irish cuisine
Irish cuisine
was traditionally based on meat and dairy products, supplemented with vegetables and seafood. Examples of popular Irish cuisine include boxty, colcannon, coddle, stew, and bacon and cabbage. Ireland
Ireland
is famous for the full Irish breakfast, which involves a fried or grilled meal generally consisting of bacon, egg, sausage, pudding, and fried tomato. Apart from the significant influence by European and international dishes, there has been a recent emergence of a new Irish cuisine based on traditional ingredients handled in new ways. This cuisine is based on fresh vegetables, fish, oysters, mussels and other shellfish, and the wide range of hand-made cheeses that are now being produced across the country. Shellfish have increased in popularity, especially due to the high quality shellfish available from the country's coastline. The most popular fish include salmon and cod. Traditional breads include soda bread and wheaten bread. Barmbrack
Barmbrack
is a yeasted bread with added sultanas and raisins. Popular everyday beverages among the Irish include tea and coffee. Alcoholic drinks associated with Ireland
Ireland
include Poitín
Poitín
and the world-famous Guinness, which is a dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness
Guinness
at St. James's Gate
St. James's Gate
in Dublin. Irish whiskey is also popular throughout the country, and comes in various forms, including single malt, single grain and blended whiskey.[174] Sports Main article: Sport in Ireland

Croke Park
Croke Park
stadium is the headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association.

Gaelic football
Gaelic football
and hurling are the traditional sports of Ireland
Ireland
as well as most popular spectator sports.[175] They are administered by the Gaelic Athletics Association
Gaelic Athletics Association
on an all- Ireland
Ireland
basis. Other Gaelic games organised by the association include Gaelic handball
Gaelic handball
and rounders.[176] Soccer is the third most popular spectator sport and has the highest level of participation.[177] Although the League of Ireland
Ireland
is the national league, the English Premier League
Premier League
is the most popular among the public.[178] The Republic of Ireland
Ireland
national football team plays at international level and is administered by the Football Association of Ireland.[179] The Irish Rugby Football Union
Irish Rugby Football Union
is the governing body of rugby union, which is played at local and international levels on an all-Ireland basis, and has produced players such as Brian O'Driscoll
Brian O'Driscoll
and Ronan O'Gara, who were on the team that won the Grand Slam in 2009.[180] The success of the Irish Cricket Team
Irish Cricket Team
in the 2007 Cricket World Cup has led to an increase in the popularity of cricket, which is also administered on an all- Ireland
Ireland
basis by Cricket Ireland.[181] Netball
Netball
is represented by the Ireland
Ireland
national netball team. Golf
Golf
is another popular sport in Ireland, with over 300 courses countrywide.[182] The country has produced several internationally successful golfers, such as Pádraig Harrington
Pádraig Harrington
and Paul McGinley. Horse Racing
Horse Racing
has a very large presence in Ireland, with one of the most influential breeding and racing operations based in the country. Racing takes place at courses at The Curragh Racecourse
The Curragh Racecourse
in County Kildare and at Leopardstown Racecourse, racing taking place since the 1860s, but racing taking place as early as the early 1700s. Popular race meetings also take place at Galway. Operations include Coolmore Stud and Ballydoyle, the base of Aidan O'Brien
Aidan O'Brien
arguably one of the world's most successful horse trainers. Ireland
Ireland
has produced champion horses such as Galileo, Montjeu, and Sea the Stars. Boxing
Boxing
is Ireland's most successful sport at an Olympic level. Administered by the Irish Athletic Boxing
Boxing
Association on an all- Ireland
Ireland
basis, it has gained in popularity as a result of the international success of boxers such as Bernard Dunne, Andy Lee and Katie Taylor. Some of Ireland's highest performers in athletics have competed at the Olympic Games, such as Eamonn Coghlan
Eamonn Coghlan
and Sonia O'Sullivan. The annual Dublin
Dublin
Marathon and Dublin
Dublin
Women's Mini Marathon are two of the most popular athletics events in the country.[183] Rugby league
Rugby league
is represented by the Ireland
Ireland
national rugby league team and administered by Rugby League Ireland
Ireland
(who are full member of the Rugby League European Federation) on an all- Ireland
Ireland
basis. The team compete in the European Cup (rugby league)
European Cup (rugby league)
and the Rugby League World Cup. Ireland
Ireland
reached the quarter finals of the 2000 Rugby League World Cup as well as reaching the semi finals in the 2008 Rugby League World Cup.[184] The Irish Elite League is a domestic competition for rugby league teams in Ireland.[185] The profile of Australian rules football has increased in Ireland
Ireland
due to the International rules
International rules
series that take place annually between Australia
Australia
and Ireland. Baseball and basketball are also emerging sports in Ireland, both of which have an international team representing the island of Ireland. Other sports which retain a strong following in Ireland
Ireland
include cycling, greyhound racing, horse riding, motorsport, and softball. Society See also: Abortion in the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
and LGBT rights in the Republic of Ireland Ireland
Ireland
ranks fifth in the world in terms of gender equality.[186] In 2011, Ireland
Ireland
was ranked the most charitable country in Europe, and second most charitable in the world.[187] Contraception was controlled in Ireland
Ireland
until 1979, however, the receding influence of the Catholic Church has led to an increasingly secularised society.[188] In 1983, the Eighth Amendment recognised "the right to life of the unborn", subject to qualifications concerning the "equal right to life" of the mother. The case of Attorney General v. X
Attorney General v. X
subsequently prompted passage of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments, guaranteeing the right to have an abortion performed abroad, and the right to learn about "services" that are illegal in Ireland
Ireland
but legal abroad. The prohibition on divorce in the 1937 Constitution was repealed in 1995 under the Fifteenth Amendment. Divorce rates in Ireland
Ireland
are very low compared to European Union
European Union
averages (0.7 divorced people per 1,000 population in 2011) while the marriage rate in Ireland
Ireland
is slightly above the European Union
European Union
average (4.6 marriages per 1,000 population per year in 2012). Capital punishment
Capital punishment
is constitutionally banned in Ireland, while discrimination based on age, gender, sexual orientation, marital or familial status, religion, race or membership of the travelling community is illegal. The legislation which outlawed homosexual acts was repealed in 1993.[189][190] In 2010, the Dáil
Dáil
and the Seanad passed the Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act, which recognised civil partnerships between same-sex couples.[191] It permits same-sex couples to register their relationship before a registrar.[192] A Sunday Times poll carried out in March 2011 showed that 73% of people believe that same-sex couples should be allowed to marry, while 60% believe that same-sex couples should be allowed to adopt children.[193] In April 2012, the Constitutional Convention voted overwhelmingly in favour of extending marriage rights to same-sex couples.[194] On 23 May 2015, Ireland became the first country to legalise same-sex marriage by popular vote.[195] Ireland
Ireland
became the first country in the world to introduce an environmental levy for plastic shopping bags in 2002 and a public smoking ban in 2004. Recycling in Ireland
Ireland
is carried out extensively and Ireland
Ireland
has the second highest rate of packaging recycling in the European Union. It was the first country in Europe
Europe
to ban incandescent lightbulbs in 2008 and the first EU country to ban in-store tobacco advertising and product display in 2009.[196][197] In 2015 Ireland became the second country in the world to introduce plain cigarette packaging.[198] Despite the above measures to discourage tobacco use, smoking rates in Ireland
Ireland
remain above 20% of the adult population and above those in other developed countries.[199] State symbols Further information: Symbols of the Republic of Ireland

The seal of the President of Ireland, incorporating a harp

The state shares many symbols with the island of Ireland. These include the colours green and blue, animals such as the Irish wolfhound and stags, structures such as round towers and celtic crosses, and designs such as Celtic knots and spirals. The shamrock, a type of clover, has been a national symbol of Ireland
Ireland
since the 17th century when it became customary to wear it as a symbol on St. Patrick's Day. These symbols are used by state institutions as well as private bodies in the Republic of Ireland. The flag of Ireland
Ireland
is a tricolour of green, white and orange. The flag originates with the Young Ireland
Ireland
movement of the mid-19th century but was not popularised until its use during the Easter Rising of 1916.[200] The colours represent the Gaelic tradition (green) and the followers of William of Orange in Ireland
Ireland
(orange), with white representing the aspiration for peace between them.[201] It was adopted as the flag of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
in 1922 and continues to be used as the sole flag and ensign of the state. A naval jack, a green flag with a yellow harp, is set out in Defence Forces Regulations and flown from the mast head of ships in addition to the national flag in limited circumstances (e.g. when a ship is not underway). It is based on the unofficial green ensign of Ireland
Ireland
used in the 18th and 19th centuries and the traditional green flag of Ireland
Ireland
dating from the 16th century.[202] Like the national flag, the national anthem, Amhrán na bhFiann (English: A Soldier's Song), has its roots in the Easter Rising, when the song was sung by the rebels. Although originally published in English in 1912,[203] the song was translated into Irish in 1923 and the Irish-language version is more commonly sung today.[203] The song was officially adopted as the anthem of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
in 1926 and continues as the national anthem of the state.[204] The first four bars of the chorus followed by the last five comprise the presidential salute. The arms of Ireland
Ireland
originate as the arms of the monarchs of Ireland and was recorded as the arms of the King of Ireland
Ireland
in the 12th century. From the union of the crowns of England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland in 1603, they have appeared quartered on the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Today, they are the personal arms of the President of Ireland
Ireland
whilst he or she is in office and are flown as the presidential standard. The harp symbol is used extensively by the state to mark official documents, Irish coinage and on the seal of the President of Ireland. See also

Ireland
Ireland
portal Celtic Studies portal European Union
European Union
portal

Ireland
Ireland
and the IMF Outline of the Republic of Ireland List of Ireland-related topics List of Irish people

Notes

^ Prior to 2002, Ireland
Ireland
used the punt (Irish pound) as its circulated currency. The euro was introduced as an accounting currency in 1999.

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– Leaving Certificate". Educationireland.ie. Archived from the original on 29 October 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010.  ^ "Irish teens perform significantly above average in maths, reading and science - OECD". Education. RTÉ News. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2015.  ^ "CSO – Measuring Ireland's Progress 2013". Central Statistics Office. 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2015.  ^ "World's top 500 Universities per capita". Nationmaster.com. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.  ^ "Third-level student fees". Free fees. Citizens Information Board. Retrieved 25 July 2010.  ^ Michael B. Sauter and Alexander E. M. Hess, The Most Educated Countries in the World, 24/7 Wall St., 21 September 2012 ^ Samantha Grossman, And the World's Most Educated Country Is…, Time, 27 September 2012 ^ Smyth, Declan (12 October 2017). "Profile 8 - Irish Travellers Ethnicity and Religion" (Press release). CSO.ie. Central Statistics Office. Retrieved 5 January 2018.  ^ Weekly Mass Attendance of Catholics in Nations with Large Catholic Populations, 1980–2000 – World Values Survey (WVS) ^ Irish Mass attendance below 50% Catholic World News 1 June 2006 ^ Smyth, Jamie (30 May 2011). "Fewer than one in five attend Sunday Mass in Dublin'". Irishtimes.com. Retrieved 30 June 2011.  ^ Final Principal Demographic Results 2006 (PDF). Central Statistics Office. 2007. pp. 31 (Table Q). ISBN 0-7557-7169-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2010.  ^ Daniszewski, John (17 April 2005). "Catholicism Losing Ground in Ireland". LA Times. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  Lawler, Phil (17 September 2007). " Ireland
Ireland
threatened by secularism, Pope tells new envoy". Catholic World News. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  "Irish poll shows parents no longer want to force religion on to children". United Kingdom: National Secular Society. 13 April 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ Houston, Eugenie (2001). Working and Living in Ireland. Working and Living Publications. ISBN 0-9536896-8-9.  ^ Mason, Anthony (24 May 2015). "U2: What they're still looking for". CBS News. Retrieved 25 May 2015.  ^ "Contemporary Music Ireland". Contemporary Music Centre – Links. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2009.  ^ "Showband legend Butch Moore dies". RTÉ. 4 April 2001. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012.  ^ "Dana". The Daily Show: Celebrity Guests. RTÉ Television. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2012.  ^ " Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Statistics". eurovisioncovers.co.uk. 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2012.  ^ "A Little Bit Eurovision". RTÉ Television. 6 July 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2012.  ^ "On The Road with Riverdance". RTÉ Radio
RTÉ Radio
1. 1 December 2004. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012.  ^ "The Megalithic Monuments of Ireland". Megalithomania. Retrieved 19 November 2011.  ^ "The Prehistoric Monuments of Ireland". About.com. Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ "AD 43–410 Roman Iron Age". WorldTimelines.org.uk. Archived from the original on 13 October 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ Meinardus 2002, p. 130. ^ a b "AD 410–1066 Early medieval". WorldTimelines.org.uk. Archived from the original on 12 October 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ Moody 2005, p. 735. ^ "Altman 2007 Unpublished thesis". Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2010.  ^ "Irish Castles". Castles.me.uk. Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ Butlin RA (1977): The Development of the Irish Town, Croom Helm ^ Butlin RA: op cit ^ Greenwood 2003, p. 813. ^ "The Later Middle Ages: 1350 to 1540". AskAboutIreland.ie. Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ "Early Tudor Ireland: 1485 to 1547". AskAboutIreland.ie. Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ a b c Greenwood 2003, p. 815. ^ "Thatching in Ireland". BallyBegVillage.com. Retrieved 19 October 2009.  ^ "Exterior of Church of Christ the King, Turner's Cross". Parish of Turner's Cross. Retrieved 9 November 2008.  ^ "About Adamstown". South Dublin
Dublin
County Council. Retrieved 13 August 2010.  ^ "Docklands Authority – About Us". Retrieved 31 August 2011.  ^ "About the RIAI". Archived from the original on 28 September 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010.  ^ "About RTÉ". RTÉ. Retrieved 30 August 2011.  ^ "What is Saorview?". Saorview
Saorview
official website. Retrieved 30 August 2011.  ^ a b "Media landscape: Ireland". European Journalism Centre. 5 November 2010. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011.  ^ "Listenership 2011/1 Summary Results" (PDF). JNLR/Ipsos MRB. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011.  ^ Ireland
Ireland
still lags behind EU counterparts in access to broadband The Irish Times, 18 December 2013 (accessed on 19 December 2013) Archived 29 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Food & Drink in Ireland". Retrieved 19 January 2011.  ^ "GAA attendances hold firm". GAA official website. 21 July 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.  ^ "About the GAA". GAA official website. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.  ^ "Social and Economic Value of Sport in Ireland" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2009.  ^ Whelan, Daire (2006). Who Stole Our Game?. Gill & Macmillan Ltd. ISBN 0-7171-4004-0.  ^ "About FAI". FAI official website. Retrieved 28 August 2011.  ^ " Ireland
Ireland
Are Grand Slam Champions!". IRFU. 21 March 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2015.  ^ Selvey, Mike (17 March 2011). " Ireland
Ireland
is learning to love cricket and deserves more visits from the elite". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 28 August 2011.  ^ " Golf
Golf
courses of Ireland". WorldGolf. Retrieved 28 August 2011.  ^ "A long and winding road". Dublin
Dublin
Marathon official website. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.  ^ " Ireland
Ireland
rugby league nation overview". Rugby League Planet. Retrieved 28 August 2011.  ^ "Irish Eye Super League". Sky Sports. Retrieved 2 September 2011.  ^ " Iceland
Iceland
'best country for gender equality'". BBC News. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2010.  ^ " Ireland
Ireland
'most charitable' country in Europe". RTÉ News. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.  ^ "Health (Family Planning) Act, 1979". Office of the Attorney General. 23 July 1979. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.  ^ "NORRIS v. IRELAND – 10581/83 [1988] ECHR 22". European Court of Human Rights. 26 October 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.  ^ Though Senator David Norris challenged the law in the European Court of Human Rights in 1988, but the Irish Government were tardy in not legislating to rectify the issue until 1993. ^ "Civil partnership bill backed by Irish politicians". BBC News. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010.  ^ O'Brien, Carl (2 July 2010). "'Historic advance' for equality as Civil Partnership Bill passed". The Irish Times. Dublin, Ireland. p. 1.  ^ "Nearly three-quarters of Irish people
Irish people
in favour of gay marriage". Irish Times. 5 March 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.  ^ "Constitutional convention backs extension of marriage rights to same-sex couples". Irish Times. 15 April 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.  ^ " Ireland
Ireland
becomes first country to approve same-sex marriage by popular vote". Irish Times. 23 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.  ^ "Traditional light bulbs to be scrapped". RTÉ. 10 October 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2009.  ^ "Ban on in-store tobacco advertising". RTÉ. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2009.  ^ Hilliard, Mark (10 March 2015), "Plain packaging for cigarettes signed into law in Ireland", Irishtimes.com, retrieved 13 March 2015  ^ accessed 10 December 2013 ^ "Flags Used in Northern Ireland". cain.ulst.ac.uk. Cain Web Service.  ^ "National Flag". taoiseach.gov.ie. Department of the Taoiseach.  ^ "Ireland: The Naval Service". crwflags.com. CRW Flags.  ^ a b Sherry, Ruth (Spring 1996). "The Story of the National Anthem". History Ireland. Dublin. 4 (1): 39–43.  ^ "Ceisteannea—Questions. Oral answers. – Saorstát National Anthem". Dáil
Dáil
Éireann – Volume 16. 20 July 1926. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2015. 

Bibliography

Gilland, Karin (2001). Ireland: Neutrality and the International Use of Force. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21804-7.  Greenwood, Margaret (2003). Rough guide to Ireland. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-059-7.  Mangan, James Clarence (2007). James Clarence Mangan – His Selected Poems. Read Books. ISBN 1-4086-2700-0.  Meinardus, Otto Friedrich August (2002). Two thousand years of Coptic Christianity. American Univ in Cairo Press. ISBN 977-424-757-4.  Moody, Theodore William (2005). A New History of Ireland: Prehistoric and early Ireland. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-821737-4. 

Further reading

Bunreacht na hÉireann (the 1937 constitution) The Irish Free State
Irish Free State
Constitution Act, 1922 J. Anthony Foley and Stephen Lalor (ed), Gill & Macmillan Annotated Constitution of Ireland
Constitution of Ireland
(Gill & Macmillan, 1995) (ISBN 0-7171-2276-X) FSL Lyons, Ireland
Ireland
Since the Famine Alan J. Ward, The Irish Constitutional Tradition: Responsible Government and Modern Ireland
Ireland
1782–1992 (Irish Academic Press, 1994) (ISBN 0-7165-2528-3) Michael J. Geary, An Inconvenient Wait: Ireland's Quest for Membership of the EEC, 1957–73 (Institute of Public Administration, 2009) (ISBN 978-1-904541-83-7)

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Drinks

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1652 Jacobite risings Bliadhna Theàrlaich Penal Laws Great Hunger Irish diaspora Highland Clearances Gaelic Revival Gaeltacht Gàidhealtachd

Gaelic culture

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Language

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Major tribes or clans

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Connachta
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Dál gCais
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Ulaid
(incl. Dál nAraidi, Conmhaícne, Ciarraige, etc)

Prominent organisations

Údarás na Gaeltachta Foras na Gaeilge Bòrd na Gàidhlig Culture Vannin Conradh na Gaeilge An Comunn Gàidhealach Manx Gaelic Society Seachtain na Gaeilge Gael Linn ULTACH Trust Comunn na Gàidhlig Columba
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Project Clans of Ireland An Coimisinéir Teanga An Comunn Gàidhealach
An Comunn Gàidhealach
America

Related subjects

Haplogroup R-M269
Haplogroup R-M269
(human genetics) Celts Norse– Gaels
Gaels
(incl. Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
and Clan MacLeod) Kingdom of the Isles Gaelicisation

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portal Ireland
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portal Scotland
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portal Isle of Man
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v t e

Languages of the Republic of Ireland

Official languages

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Minority languages

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Ulster
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Geographic locale

Lat. and Long. 53°20′39″N 6°16′3″W / 53.34417°N 6.26750°W / 53.34417; -6.26750 (Dublin)

v t e

Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

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autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark

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Special
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Finland

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autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

Norway

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unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard
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United Kingdom

Northern Ireland

country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
subject to the British-Irish Agreement

1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe
Europe
are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

v t e

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v t e

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International membership

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Member states of the European Union

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Future enlargement of the European Union

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Council of Europe

Institutions

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Members

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Observers

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Former members

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)

1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe
Europe
as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

v t e

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD)

History

Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD
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v t e

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People

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Members

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European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Special
Special
administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.

v t e

Pan-Celticism

Nations

Celtic League
Celtic League
definition

Brittany Cornwall Ireland Isle of Man Scotland Wales

Other claimants

Asturias Auvergne Cantabria Cumbria Galicia Norte Y Wladfa

Nationalisms

Breton nationalism
Breton nationalism
(history) Cornish nationalism Welsh nationalism Scottish nationalism Irish nationalism
Irish nationalism
(incl. Republicanism) Manx nationalism

Pan-Celtic groups

Celtic Congress Celtic League Columba
Columba
Project

Languages

Brythonic (Breton, Cornish & Welsh) Goidelic (Irish, Manx & Scottish Gaelic) Mixed ( Shelta & Bungee)

Peoples

Britons (Bretons, Cornish & Welsh) Gaels
Gaels
(Irish incl. Irish Travellers, Manx & Highland Scots incl. Scottish Travellers)

Culture

Brittany Cornwall Ireland Isle of Man Scotland Wales Celtic art

Music

Brittany Cornwall Ireland Isle of Man Scotland Wales

Festivals

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Sport

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Gaelic football
(Ladies') Gaelic handball Gouren Rounders Highland games Hurling Road bowls Shinty

Celts
Celts
portal Media Category Templates WikiProject

v t e

Irish states since 1171

Ireland
Ireland
(1937 onward) United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(1922† onward)

Medieval period

Gaelic Ireland
Ireland
(until 1607) Lordship of Ireland
Ireland
(1171–1541)

Modern period

Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
(1541–1801) United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
(1801–1922†)

Twentieth century

Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(1922–37)

Notable declared states

Republic of Connacht
Republic of Connacht
(1798) Irish Republic
Irish Republic
(1919–22)

See also

Confederate Ireland
Ireland
(1642–53) Commonwealth of England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
(1649–60) Patriot Parliament (1689)

† This date marks the secession of the majority of Ireland
Ireland
from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
rather than the creation of a new state. Official name was changed in 1927.

v t e

English-speaking world

Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region

Further links

Articles

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Lists

List of countries by English-speaking population List of countries where English is an official language

 

Countries and territories where English is the national language or the native language of the majority

Africa

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Americas

Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Dominica Falkland Islands Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Saba Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Europe

Guernsey Ireland Isle of Man Jersey United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia New Zealand Norfolk Island Pitcairn Islands

 

Countries and territories where English is an official language, but not the majority first language

Africa

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Americas

Puerto Rico

Asia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Special
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Europe

Gibraltar Malta

Oceania

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Dependencies shown in italics.

Coordinates: 53°N 8°W / 53°N 8°W / 53; -8

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