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In religion, a prophet is an individual who is regarded as being in contact by a divine being and is said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.[1][2] The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy, which transports—at least in Judaism—a message beyond mere pagan soothsaying, augury, divination, or forecasting, and, most prominently in the neviim of the Tanakh, often comprises issues of social justice. Claims of prophethood have existed in many cultures through history, including Judaism, Christianity, Islam, in Ancient Greek Philosophy, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and many others. Prophets are traditionally regarded as having a role in society that promotes change due to their messages and actions which often convey God's displeasure concerning the behavior of the people.

Contents

1 Abrahamic religions

1.1 Judaism 1.2 Christianity 1.3 Islam 1.4 Bahá'í

2 Prophetic claims in movements deriving from Abrahamic religions

2.1 Catholicism 2.2 Jehovah's Witnesses 2.3 Founders of Christian
Christian
sects or movements

2.3.1 Latter Day Saint 2.3.2 Adventism

2.3.2.1 Seventh-day Adventist 2.3.2.2 Branch Davidians

2.3.3 Other Christian
Christian
sects or movements

2.4 Ahmadiyya 2.5 Judaic messianism

3 Other religions

3.1 Hinduism 3.2 Ifa and other African traditional religions 3.3 Tenrikyo 3.4 Other

4 Native Americans 5 Other individuals 6 Secular usage 7 See also 8 Further reading 9 Notes 10 External links

Abrahamic religions[edit] Judaism[edit] See also: Nevi'im
Nevi'im
and Prophets in Judaism In Hebrew, the word נָבִיא (nāvî), "spokesperson", traditionally translates as "prophet".[3] The second subdivision of the Hebrew Bible, TaNaKh (for "Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim"), is devoted to the Hebrew prophets. The meaning of navi is perhaps described in Deuteronomy 18:18,[4] where God
God
said, "...and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." Thus, the navi was thought to be the "mouth" of God. The root nun-bet-alef ("navi") is based on the two-letter root nun-bet which denotes hollowness or openness; to receive transcendental wisdom, one must make oneself "open". Cf. Rashbam's comment to Genesis 20:7.[5]

Malachi, one of the last prophets of Israel, painting by Duccio di Buoninsegna, c. 1310 (Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena Cathedral). “He [Mashiach] will turn the hearts of the parents to their children, and the hearts of the children to their parents” (Malachi 4:6)[6]

In addition to writing and speaking messages from God, Israelite or Jewish nevi'im ("spokespersons", "prophets") often acted out prophetic parables in their life.[7] For example, in order to contrast the people’s disobedience with the obedience of the Rechabites, God
God
has Jeremiah
Jeremiah
invite the Rechabites to drink wine, in disobedience to their ancestor’s command. The Rechabites refuse, wherefore God
God
commends them.[8][9] Other prophetic parables acted out by Jeremiah
Jeremiah
include burying a linen belt so that it gets ruined to illustrate how God intends to ruin Judah's pride.[10][11][11][12] Likewise, Jeremiah
Jeremiah
buys a clay jar and smashes it in the Valley of Ben Hinnom in front of elders and priests to illustrate that God
God
will smash the nation of Judah and the city of Judah beyond repair.[13] God
God
instructs Jeremiah to make a yoke from wood and leather straps and to put it on his own neck to demonstrate how God
God
will put the nation under the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon.[14] In a similar way, the prophet Isaiah
Isaiah
had to walk stripped and barefoot for three years to illustrate the coming captivity,[15] and the prophet Ezekiel
Ezekiel
had to lie on his side for 390 days and eat measured food to illustrate the coming siege.[16] The prophetic assignment is not always portrayed as positive in the Hebrew Bible,[17][18][19] and prophets were often the target of persecution and opposition.[20] God’s personal prediction for Jeremiah, "Attack you they will, overcome you they can't,"[21] was performed many times in the biblical narrative as Jeremiah
Jeremiah
warned of destruction of those who continued to refuse repentance and accept more moderate consequences.[20][22] In return for his adherence to God’s discipline and speaking God’s words, Jeremiah
Jeremiah
was attacked by his own brothers,[23] beaten and put into the stocks by a priest and false prophet,[24][25] imprisoned by the king,[26] threatened with death,[27] thrown into a cistern by Judah’s officials,[28] and opposed by a false prophet.[29] Likewise, Isaiah
Isaiah
was told by his hearers who rejected his message, "Leave the way! Get off the path! Let us hear no more about the Holy One of Israel!"[18][30] The life of Moses
Moses
being threatened by Pharaoh is another example.[31] According to I Samuel
Samuel
9:9,[32] the old name for navi is ro'eh, רֹאֶה, which literally means "Seer". That could document an ancient shift, from viewing prophets as seers for hire to viewing them as moral teachers. Allen (1971) comments that in the First Temple Era, there were essentially seer-priests, who formed a guild, divined, performed rituals and sacrifices, and were scribes, and then there were canonical prophets, who did none of these (and were against divination) and had instead a message to deliver.[citation needed] The seer-priests were usually attached to a local shrine or temple, such as Shiloh, and initiated others as priests in that priesthood: it was a mystical craft-guild with apprentices and recruitment. Canonical prophets were not organised this way. The similar term ben-navi ("son of the prophet") means "member of a seer-priest guild".[citation needed] Some examples of prophets in the Tanakh
Tanakh
include Abraham, Moses, Miriam, Isaiah, Samuel, Ezekiel, Malachi, and Job. In Jewish tradition Daniel is not counted in the list of prophets. A Jewish tradition suggests that there were twice as many prophets as the number which left Egypt, which would make 1,200,000 prophets.[33] The Talmud
Talmud
recognizes the existence of 48 male prophets who bequeathed permanent messages to mankind.[33] According to the Talmud
Talmud
there were also seven women who are counted as prophets whose message bears relevance for all generations: Sarah, Miriam, Devorah, Hannah (mother of the prophet Samuel), Abigail
Abigail
(a wife of King David), Huldah
Huldah
(from the time of Jeremiah), and Esther.[33] Rashi
Rashi
points out that Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah
Leah
were also prophets.[34] Prophets in Judaism
Judaism
are not always Jews.[33] The story of Balaam
Balaam
in Numbers 22 describes a non-Jewish prophet.[35] According to the Talmud, Obadiah
Obadiah
is said to have been a convert to Judaism. The last nevi'im ("spokespersons", "prophets") mentioned in the Jewish Bible
Bible
are Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, all of whom lived at the end of the 70-year Babylonian exile. The Talmud
Talmud
(Sanhedrin 11a) states that Haggai, Zachariah, and Malachi
Malachi
were the last prophets, and nowadays only the "Bath Kol" (בת קול, lit. daughter of a voice, "voice of God") exists. Christianity[edit] Main article: Prophets of Christianity In Christianity
Christianity
a prophet (or seer)[36] is one inspired by God
God
through the Holy Spirit to deliver a message for a specific purpose. God's calling as a prophet is not to elevate an individual for their own glory, but for the glory of God
God
and to turn people to him. Some Christian
Christian
denominations limit a prophet's message to those only to the entire church congregation and exclude personal messages not intended for the body of believers, but in the Bible
Bible
on a number of occasions prophets were called to deliver personal messages.[37] The reception of a message is termed revelation and the delivery of the message is termed prophecy. James Jordan argues that the office of prophet involves more than delivering the direct revelations of God. He writes, "The full meaning of prophet is council member, a member of God's Divine Council . . . Moses, who is an exemplary prophet of the Old Covenant (Numbers 12:6–8) . . . not only received information from the Counsel and passed its decisions onto the people . . . he also actively argued before the Council when he felt it necessary, even 'changing God's mind' on occasion (Exodus 32:7–14, 30–35; Numbers 14:13–19)." [38] In this way, Christ
Christ
is executing a prophetic office when he intercedes for Christians and ordinary Christians are executing a prophetic office when they reason with God
God
on the behalf of others in prayer, just as Moses
Moses
interceded and persuaded God
God
on behalf of Israel as part of his prophetic function. The term prophet is applied to those who receive public or private revelation. Public Revelation, in Catholicism, is part of the Deposit of faith, the revelation of which was completed by Jesus; whereas Private Revelation
Revelation
does not add to the Deposit. The term "deposit of faith" refers to the entirety of Jesus
Jesus
Christ's revelation, and is passed to successive generations in two different forms, sacred scripture (the Bible) and sacred tradition. Anyone who claims to speak God's words or teach in his name and is not a prophet the Bible
Bible
terms a false prophet. One test given in the Old Testament in Deuteronomy[39] contains a warning of those who prophecy events which do not come to pass and said they should be put to death. Elsewhere a false prophet may be someone who is purposely trying to deceive, is delusional, under the influence of Satan
Satan
or is speaking from his own spirit.[40]

A 1542 painting of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
by Titian

Some Christians who believe in dispensationalism believe prophecy ended along with the rest of the sign gifts shortly after the coming of Jesus, who delivered the "fullness of the law". Within this group, many Protestants believe that prophecy ended with the last of the Hebrew prophets of the Hebrew Bible, leaving a gap of about 400 years between then and the life of Jesus. The majority, including the Eastern Orthodox, allow an exception for John the Baptist
John the Baptist
as a prophet contemporary with Jesus. New Testament
New Testament
passages that explicitly discuss prophets existing after the death and resurrection of Christ
Christ
include Revelation
Revelation
11:10,[41] Matthew 10:40–41 and 23:34,[42] John 13:20 and 15:20[43] and Acts 11:25–30, 13:1 and 15:32.[44] Christians believe that the Holy Spirit leads people to faith in Jesus
Jesus
and gives them the ability to lead a Christian
Christian
life and to give gifts (i.e. abilities) to Christians. These may include the charismatic gifts such as prophecy, tongues, miraculous healing ability, and clairsentience. Christians holding a view known as cessationism believe these gifts were given only in New Testament
New Testament
times and ceased after the last apostle died. The Didache
Didache
gives extensive instruction in how to distinguish between true and false prophets, as well as commands regarding tithes to prophets in the church.[45] Irenaeus, wrote of 2nd-century believers with the gift of prophecy,[46] while Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
argued in his Dialogue with Trypho that prophets were not found among the Jews
Jews
in his time, but that the church had prophets.[47] The Shepherd of Hermas describes revelation in a vision regarding the proper operation of prophecy in the church.[48] Eusebius mentions that Quadratus and Ammia of Philadelphia were both prominent prophets following the age of the Twelve Apostles.[49][50] Tertullian, writing of the church meetings of the Montanists (to whom he belonged), described in detail the practice of prophecy in the 2nd-century church.[51] A number of later Christian
Christian
saints were claimed to have powers of prophecy, such as Columba of Iona, Saint Malachy
Saint Malachy
or Padre Pio. Marian apparitions like those at Fatima or Kibeho often included prophecies regarding the future of the world as well as of the local areas they occurred in [52] Prophetic movements in particular can be traced throughout the Christian
Christian
Church's history, in expressions such as Montanism, Novatianism, Donatism, Franciscanism, Anabaptism, Camisard
Camisard
enthusiasm, Puritanism, Quakerism, Quietism, Lutheranism[53] and Pietism. Modern Pentecostals and Charismatics, movements which together make up approximately half a billion people, believe in the contemporary function of the gift of prophecy, and some in these movements allow for idea that God
God
may continue to gift the church with some individuals who are prophets. Some Christians also believe that the title "prophet" encompasses others than those who receive visions from God. A more modern definition of prophet is someone who spreads God's truths. These can be revealed in a number of ways, not only visions. Some Christian
Christian
sects recognize the existence of a "modern-day" prophet. One such denomination is The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), which teaches that God
God
still communicates with mankind through prophecy.[54] Islam[edit]

Part of a series on Islam Islamic prophets

Prophets in the Quran Listed by Islamic name and Biblical name.

ʾĀdam (Adam) ʾIdrīs (Enoch) Nūḥ (Noah) Hūd (Eber) Ṣāliḥ (Salah) ʾIbrāhīm (Abraham) Lūṭ (Lot) ʾIsmāʿīl (Ishmael) ʾIsḥāq (Isaac) Yaʿqūb (Jacob) Yūsuf (Joseph) Ayūb (Job) Dhul-Kifl
Dhul-Kifl
(Ezekiel) Shuʿayb (Jethro) Mūsā (Moses) Hārūn (Aaron) Dāūd (David) Sulaymān (Solomon) Yūnus (Jonah) ʾIlyās (Elijah) Alyasaʿ (Elisha) Zakarīya (Zechariah) Yaḥyā (John) ʿĪsā (Jesus) Muḥammad (Muhammad)

Main events

Stories of the Prophets The Three Messengers

Views

Jews, Christians and Muslims prophets Abrahamic prophets

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Main article: Prophets and messengers in Islam The Quran
Quran
identifies a number of men as "Prophets of Islam" (Arabic: nabiyy نبي‎; pl. anbiyaa' أنبياء). Muslims believe such individuals were assigned a special mission by God
God
(Arabic: Allah) to guide humanity. Besides Muhammad, this includes prophets such as Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses) and Isa (Jesus).

A depiction of Muhammad
Muhammad
receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-tawarikh
Jami' al-tawarikh
by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307, Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
period.

Although only twenty-five prophets[55] are mentioned by name in the Qur'an, a hadith (no. 21257 in Musnad Ibn Hanbal)[56] mentions that there were (more or less) 124,000 prophets in total throughout history. Other traditions place the number of prophets at 224,000. Some scholars hold that there are an even greater number in the history of mankind, and only God
God
knows. The Qur'an
Qur'an
says that God
God
has sent a prophet to every group of people throughout time, and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the last of the prophets, sent for the whole of humankind.[57] The message of all the prophets is believed to be the same. In Islam, all prophetic messengers are prophets (such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad) though not all prophets are prophetic messengers. The primary distinction is that a prophet is required to demonstrate God's law through his actions, character, and behavior without necessarily calling people to follow him, while a prophetic messenger is required to pronounce God's law (i.e. revelation) and call his people to submit and follow him. Muhammad
Muhammad
is distinguished from the rest of the prophetic messengers and prophets in that he was commissioned by God
God
to be the prophetic messenger to all of mankind. Many of these prophets are also found in the texts of Judaism
Judaism
(The Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings) and Christianity.[58] Muslims often refer to Muhammad
Muhammad
as the prophet, in the form of a noun.[59][60][61][62] Isa (Jesus) is the result of a virgin birth in Islam
Islam
as in Christianity, and is regarded as a prophet.[63] Traditionally, four prophets are believed to have been sent holy books: the Tawrat (Torah) to Moses, the Zabur
Zabur
(Psalms) to David, the Injil (Gospel) to Jesus, and the Qur'an
Qur'an
to Muhammad; those prophets are considered "messengers" or rasul (Ule al A'zm men al Rusul أولي العزم من الرسل). Other main prophets are considered messengers or Nabi, even if they didn't receive a Book from God. Examples include the messenger-prophet Aaron
Aaron
(Harun), the messenger-prophet Ishmael
Ishmael
(Isma'il) and the messenger-prophet Yusuf (Joseph). Although it offers many incidents from the lives of many prophets, the Qur'an
Qur'an
focuses with special narrative and rhetorical emphasis on the careers of the first four of these five major prophets. Of all the figures before Muhammad, Moses
Moses
is referred to most frequently in the Qur'an. As for the fifth, the Qur'an
Qur'an
is frequently addressed directly to Muhammad, and it often discusses situations encountered by him. Direct use of his name in the text, however, is rare. Rarer still is the mention of Muhammad's contemporaries. Bahá'í[edit] Main article: Manifestation of God The Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
refers to what are commonly called prophets as "Manifestations of God" who are directly linked with the concept of Progressive revelation. Bahá'ís believe that God
God
expresses this will at all times and in many ways, including through a series of divine messengers referred to as "Manifestations of God" or "divine educators".[64] In expressing God's intent, these Manifestations are seen to establish religion in the world. Thus they are seen as an intermediary between God
God
and humanity.[65] The Manifestations of God
God
are not seen as incarnations of God, and are also not seen as ordinary mortals. Instead, the Bahá'í concept of the Manifestation of God
God
emphasizes simultaneously the humanity of that intermediary and the divinity in the way they show forth the will, knowledge and attributes of God; thus they have both human and divine stations.[65] In addition to the Manifestations of God, there are also minor prophets. While the Manifestations of God, or major prophets, are compared to the Sun (which produces its own heat and light), minor prophets are compared to the Moon (which receives its light from the sun). Moses, for example, is taught as having been a Manifestation of God
God
and his brother Aaron
Aaron
a minor prophet. Moses
Moses
spoke on behalf of God, and Aaron
Aaron
spoke on behalf of Moses
Moses
(Exodus 4:14–17).[66] Other Jewish prophets are considered minor prophets, as they are considered to have come in the shadow of the dispensation of Moses
Moses
to develop and consolidate the process he set in motion. Prophetic claims in movements deriving from Abrahamic religions[edit] In modern times the term "prophet" can be somewhat controversial. Many Christians with Pentecostal or charismatic beliefs believe in the continuation of the gift of prophecy and the continuation of the role of prophet as taught in Ephesians 4.[67] The content of prophecies can vary widely. Prophecies are often spoken as quotes from God. They may contain quotes from scripture, statements about the past or current situation, or predictions of the future. Prophecies can also 'make manifest the secrets' of the hearts of other people, telling about the details of their lives. Sometimes, more than one person in a congregation will receive the same message in prophecy, with one giving it before another. Other movements claim to have prophets. In France, Michel Potay says he received a revelation, called The Revelation
Revelation
of Arès, dictated by Jesus
Jesus
in 1974, then by God
God
in 1977. He is considered a prophet by his followers, the Pilgrims of Arès. Catholicism[edit] A number of modern catholic saints have been claimed to have powers of prophecy, such as Padre Pio
Padre Pio
[68] and Alexandrina Maria da Costa.[69] In addition to this many modern Marian apparitions included prophecies in them about the world and about the local areas. The Fátima apparition in 1917 included a prophecy given by Mary to three children, that on October 13, 1917 there would be a great miracle for all to see at Fátima, Portugal, and on that day tens of thousands of people headed to Fátima to see what would happen including newspaper journalists. Many witnesses, including journalists, claimed to see the sun "dance" in the sky in the afternoon of that day, exactly as the visionaries had predicted several months before.[70] The Kibeho apparition in Rwanda
Rwanda
in the 1980s included many prophecies about great violence and destruction that was coming, and the Rwandan genocide only ten years later was interpreted by the visionaries as the fulfilment of these prophecies [71] Several miracles and a vision of the identity of the last 112 Popes were attributed to Saint Malachy, the Archbishop of Armagh (1095–1148). Jehovah's Witnesses[edit] See also: Watch Tower Society unfulfilled predictions Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
do not consider any single person in their modern-day organization to be a prophet.[72] Their literature has referred to their organization collectively as God's "prophet" on earth; this is understood, however, in the sense of declaring their interpretation of God's judgments from the Bible
Bible
along with God's guidance of His Holy Spirit.[73][74] Their publishing company, Watch Tower, and official position magazine, The Watchtower, have asserted: "Ever since The Watchtower began to be published in July 1879 it has looked ahead into the future... No, The Watchtower is no inspired prophet, but it follows and explains a Book of prophecy the predictions in which have proved to be unerring and unfailing till now. The Watchtower is therefore under safe guidance. It may be read with confidence, for its statements may be checked against that prophetic Book."[75] They also claim that they are God's one and only true channel to mankind on earth, and used by God
God
for this purpose. They have made many eschatological forecasts, some of which have led people (including followers) to incorrect assumptions. One example is The Watchtower's assertions that the end of the "Gentile times" or "times of the nations" would occur in 1914; even prominent Watch Tower representatives such as A. H. Macmillan incorrectly concluded and overstated their expectations. As a result, The Watchtower
The Watchtower
has acknowledged that Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
"have made mistakes in their understanding of what would occur at the end of certain time periods."[76] Concurrently with these exceptions, Jehovah's Witnesses in their literature and assemblies have taught their leadership was personally chosen by Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
in 1919 (a prophetic year in Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
eschatology) and that they are "God's sole channel on earth," and "Jehovah's spirit directed organization". Founders of Christian
Christian
sects or movements[edit] Latter Day Saint[edit]

A portrait of Joseph Smith

Main articles: Prophet, seer, and revelator; President of the Church; and Revelation
Revelation
(Latter Day Saints) Joseph Smith, who established the Church of Christ
Christ
in 1830, is considered a prophet by members of the Latter Day Saint movement, of which The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is the largest denomination. Additionally, many churches within the movement believe in a succession of modern prophets (accepted by Latter Day Saints as "prophets, seers, and revelators") since the time of Joseph Smith. Russell M. Nelson
Russell M. Nelson
is the current president and prophet of The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
of Latter-day Saints. Adventism[edit] Baptist preacher William Miller is credited with beginning the mid-19th century North American religious movement now known as Adventism. He announced a Second Coming, resulting in the Great Disappointment. Seventh-day Adventist[edit] Main article: Inspiration of Ellen G. White The Seventh-day Adventist Church, established in 1863, believes Ellen G. White, one of the church's founders, was given the spiritual gift of prophecy. Branch Davidians[edit] The Branch Davidians
Branch Davidians
sect evolved from the Seventh-Day Adventists Church. David
David
Koresh, who died in the well-known Waco Siege
Waco Siege
in 1993, in 1983 claimed to be their final prophet and "the Son of God, the Lamb". Other Christian
Christian
sects or movements[edit]

Montanus, founder of Montanism
Montanism
an early Christian
Christian
movement of the 2nd century. Mani, founder of Manichaeism, a quasi-Gnostic movement of late antiquity. Bernhard Müller, also known as Count de Leon, was a German Christian mystic. Emanuel Swedenborg, founder of Swedenborgianism, an 18th-century mystic movement. Hong Xiuquan, established the heterodox Christian
Christian
sect "Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace" (Chinese: 太平天國; Chinese: 太平天国). John Alexander Dowie, a faith healer who founded the city of Zion, Illinois, and the Christian
Christian
Catholic Apostolic Church. Nona L. Brooks, described as a "prophet of modern mystical Christianity", was a founder of the Church of Divine Science. William M. Branham, Christian
Christian
minister, usually credited with founding the post-World War II faith healing movement.[77][78] Gerald Flurry, founder and head of the Philadelphia Church of God, who claimed he is 'that prophet' mentioned in John 1:21–22.[79][80]

Ahmadiyya[edit]

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad

The Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
movement in Islam
Islam
believes that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
was a non law-bearing Prophet, who claimed to be a fulfillment of the various Islamic prophecies regarding the spiritual second advent of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth near the end times.[81] Judaic messianism[edit] Nathan of Gaza
Nathan of Gaza
was a theologian and author who became famous as a prophet for the alleged messiah, Sabbatai Zevi. Other religions[edit] Hinduism[edit] The Hindu concept of rishis is similar to the concept of prophets. The Sanskrit word rishi is loosely translated into English as "seer" (a prophet, a man who can foresee the future). Hinduism
Hinduism
recognizes and reveres thousands of rishis, who can be thought of as the collective founders of the Hindu religion over many millennia. Of these, special importance is given to the Saptarshi
Saptarshi
(the Seven Sages), widely regarded as patriarchs of the Hindu religion, whose listing is different according to different texts. The Saptarshi
Saptarshi
and their clans are believed to have composed the hymns of the four Vedas
Vedas
by entering into communion with the Supreme Cosmic Spirit through meditation. For instance, Rigveda
Rigveda
1.1 is attributed to Rishi Madhucchandā Vaishwāmitra (i.e. Madhucchandā of the clan of Vishwamitra). Most rishikās were male, but some were female too. Lopamudra
Lopamudra
is the author of one hymn in the Rigveda, and Gargi Vachaknavi is described in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
as a highly respected woman in the field of Brahmajñāna. Apart from the Vedas, various rishis are also credited with composing the several Smriti
Smriti
texts, like Veda Vyasa
Veda Vyasa
who composed the Mahābhārata. Ifa and other African traditional religions[edit] Main article: Traditional African religion, Ifá, Religion
Religion
in Africa Divination
Divination
remains an important aspect of the lives of the people of contemporary Africa, especially amongst the usually rural, socially traditionalistic segments of its population. In arguably its most influential manifestation, the system of prophecy practiced by the Babalawos and Iyanifas of the historically Yoruba regions of West Africa
Africa
have bequeathed to the world a corpus of fortune-telling poetic methodologies so intricate that they have been added by UNESCO
UNESCO
to its official intangible cultural heritage of the World list. Tenrikyo[edit] Tenrikyo's prophet, Nakayama Miki, is believed by Tenrikyoans to have been a messenger of God.[82] Other[edit]

Lou de Palingboer, founder and figurehead of a new religious movement in the Netherlands. Noble Drew Ali, Prophet
Prophet
and founder of the Moorish Science Temple of America, founder of the Moorish Divine and National Movement, 1913 AD, Newark N.J. Rashad Khalifa, founder of the religious group United Submitters International (USI). Marshall Vian Summers, founder of the New Message from God
God
religious movement.[83] Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish scientist, philosopher, theologian, revelator, and mystic.

Native Americans[edit] Native American Great Peacemaker
Great Peacemaker
(Deganawidah) co-founded the Haudenosaunee league in pre-Columbian times. In retrospect, his prophecy of the boy seer could appear to refer to the conflict between natives and Europeans (white serpent). From 1805 until the Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle of Tippecanoe
that falsified his predictions in 1811, the " Shawnee
Shawnee
prophet" Tenskwatawa
Tenskwatawa
lead an Indian alliance to stop Europeans to take more and more land going west. He reported visions he had. He is said to have accurately predicted a solar eclipse. His brother Tecumseh
Tecumseh
re-established the alliance for Tecumseh's War, that ended with the latter's death in 1813. Tecumseh fought together with British forces that, in the area of the Great Lakes, occupied essentially today's territory of Canada. Francis the Prophet, influenced by Tecumseh
Tecumseh
and Tenskwatawa, was a leader of the Red Stick faction of the Creek Indians. He traveled to England in 1815 as a representative of the "four Indian nations" in an unsuccessful attempt to get Great Britain to help them resist the expansionism of the white settlers. 20 years later (1832), Wabokieshiek, the "Winnebago Prophet", after whom Prophetstown has been named, (also called "White Cloud") claimed that British forces would support the Indians in the Black Hawk War against the United States as 20 years earlier (based on "visions"). They did not, and no longer he was considered a "prophet". In 1869, the Paiute Wodziwob founded the Ghost Dance
Ghost Dance
movement. The dance rituals were an occasion to announce his visions of an earthquake that would swallow the whites. He seems to have died in 1872. The Northern Paiute Wovoka
Wovoka
claimed he had a vision during the solar eclipse of January 1, 1889, that the Paiute dead would come back and the whites would vanish from America, provided the natives performed Ghost Dances. This idea spread among other Native American peoples. The government were worried about a rebellion and sent troops, which lead to the death of Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull
and to the Wounded Knee massacre
Wounded Knee massacre
in 1890. Other individuals[edit] Other people throughout history have been described as prophets in the sense of foretelling the future (as opposed to relaying a religious message). Examples of such prophets include:

Jeane Dixon Billy Meier Nostradamus Coinneach Odhar Mother Shipton Pothuluru Veerabrahmendra

Secular usage[edit] In the late 20th century the appellation of prophet has been used to refer to individuals particularly successful at analysis in the field of economics, such as in the derogatory prophet of greed. Alternatively, social commentators who suggest escalating crisis are often called prophets of doom.[84][85] See also[edit]

Cassandra Edgar Cayce Clairvoyance Dashavatara Elijah
Elijah
List Major prophet Mediumship Nubuwwah Prophethood (Ahmadiyya) Table of prophets of Abrahamic religions Twelve Minor Prophets Vates Völva

Further reading[edit]

Peels, H.G.L., & S.D. Snyman, The Lion Has Roared. Theological Themes in the Profetic Literature of the Old Testament, Eugene Oregon 2012. Elst, Koenraad (1993). Psychology of prophetism: A secular look at the Bible. New Delhi: Voice of India. ISBN 978-8185990002

Notes[edit]

^ prophet – definition of prophet by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia ^ prophet – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary ^ p.1571, Alcalay. A more accepted translation of this Hebrew word is derived from an Akkadian word "nabu," meaning to call. The Hebrew "navi" has a passive sense and means "the one who has been called" (see HALOT, p.661). ^ Deuteronomy 18:18 ^ Genesis 20:7 ^ cf. “If anyone comes to me and does not hate father and mother, wife and children, brothers and sisters—yes, even their own life—such a person cannot be my [Christ] disciple.” (Luke 14:26) ^ All the Parables of the Bible, Herbert Lockyer, Zondervan, 1963. ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
35:13–16, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ Commentary on Jeremiah
Jeremiah
35, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
13, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ a b Commentary on Jeremiah
Jeremiah
13, Jeremiah, The Anchor Bible, Doubleday, 1984 ^ Jeremiah, Lamentations, Tremper Longman, Hendrickson Publishers, 2008. ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
19, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
27–28, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ Isaiah
Isaiah
20, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ Ezekiel
Ezekiel
4, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ Commentary on Jeremiah, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ a b Isaiah
Isaiah
(Commentary), John Goldingay, Hendrickson, 2001 ^ Commentary on Isaiah
Isaiah
6:8–13, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ a b ’’ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
(Prophet)’’, The Anchor Bible
Bible
Dictionary Volume 3, Doubleday, 1992 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
1:19, The Anchor Bible, Doubleday, 1984 ^ ’’Jeremiah, Lamentations’’, F.B. Huey, Broadman Press, 1993 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
12:6, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
20:1–4, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ The NIV Study Bible, Zondervan, 1995, p. 1501 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
37:18, Jeremiah
Jeremiah
38:28, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
38:4, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
38:6, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ Jeremiah
Jeremiah
28, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ Isaiah
Isaiah
30:11, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ Exodus 2, Exodus 10:28, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 2004 ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
9:9, Hebrew – English Bible ^ a b c d Prophets and Prophecy ^ Rashi
Rashi
on Genesis 29:34. ^ Numbers 24:1–24:18 ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
9:9, King James Bible ^ Matthew 14:1–7, 2 Kings 3:11 ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-06. Retrieved 2013-03-10.  ^ Deuteronomy 18:21–22 ^ Ezekiel
Ezekiel
13:3, "Thus saith the Lord GOD; Woe unto the foolish prophets, that follow their own spirit, and have seen nothing!" ^ Revelation
Revelation
11:10 ^ Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Matthew
10:40–41, 23:34 ^ Gospel of John
Gospel of John
13:20, 15:20 ^ Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
11:25–30, 13:1, 15:32 ^ Early Christian
Christian
Writings: Didache
Didache
(Chapters 11–15) ^ Against Heresies, Book V Chapter 6.1 ^ Early Christian
Christian
Writings: Dialogue with Trypho (Chapter LXXXII) ^ Early Christian
Christian
Writings: Shepherd of Hermas (Eleventh Commandment) ^ Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 37.1 ^ Ecclesiastical History, Book V, Chapter 17.2–4 ^ A Treatise on the Soul, Chapter 9 ^ http://marianapparitions.org/marian_apparitions/index.html, retrieved June 10th 2016 ^ Jürgen Beyer, Lay prophets in Lutheran Europe (c. 1550–1700) (Brill’s series in church history and religious culture 74), Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2017 ^ Whether or not the Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
of Latter-day Saints is considered a Christian
Christian
denomination is subject to dispute, see Mormonism and Christianity. ^ Wheeler, Brannon M. (2002-06-18). Prophets in the Quran: an introduction to the Quran
Quran
and Muslim
Muslim
exegesis. Comparative Islamic studies. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-8264-4957-3. Retrieved 2011-01-29. There are 25 prophets mentioned by name in the Quran
Quran
[...] Among those mentioned by name are: Adam
Adam
(mentioned 25 times by name), Idris (1), Noah
Noah
(43), Hud (7), Salih
Salih
(10), Abraham
Abraham
(69), Ishmael
Ishmael
(12), Isaac
Isaac
(17), Jacob
Jacob
(16), Lot (27), Joseph (27), Shuayb (11), Job (4), Dhu al-Kifl (2), Moses (137), Aaron
Aaron
(20), David
David
(16), Solomon
Solomon
(17), Elijah
Elijah
(1), Elisha
Elisha
(2), Jonah
Jonah
(4), Zechariah (7), John (5), Jesus
Jesus
(25), Muhammad
Muhammad
(4).  ^ Number Of Prophets & Messengers ^ Quran 16:36 ^ (see Biblical narratives and the Qur'an) ^ Chambers 21st Century Dictionary. p. 1111 ^ Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion, William A. Graham, William Albert Graham – 1993, p93 ^ The militia – Page 100, James B. Whisker – 1992 "The work of Mohammed (569–632), commonly called the Prophet, the Koran was revealed in a series of visions over a period of many years beginning in 610" ^ Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz’ 26 (Part 26): Al-Ahqaf 1 To Az-Zariyat 30, Muhammad
Muhammad
Saed Abdul-Rahman – 2009 ^ Quran 3:45 ^ Hutter, Manfred (2005). "Bahā'īs". In Ed. Lindsay Jones. Encyclopedia of Religion. 2 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 737–740. ISBN 0-02-865733-0.  ^ a b Cole, Juan (1982). "The Concept of Manifestation in the Bahá'í Writings". Bahá'í Studies. monograph 9: 1–38.  ^ Exodus 4:14–17 ^ Ephesians 4 ^ https://www.ewtn.com/padrepio/man/biography2.htm, retrieved June 10th 2016 ^ http://www.ewtn.com/library/MARY/ALEXDRIN.HTM, retrieved June 10th 2016 ^ https://www.ewtn.com/fatima/sixth-apparition-of-our-lady.asp, retrieved June 10th 2016 ^ http://www.michaeljournal.org/kibeho.htm, retrieved June 10th 2016 ^ "The Watchtower, Number 7, Vol. XCIII". 1972-04-01. Retrieved 2009-09-12.  ^ Keep Yourselves in God's Love, 2008 Watch Tower, page 209, "Today, prophesying would apply to any Bible-based teaching that a Christian minister does." ^ “Would That All Were Prophets!”, Awake!, Watch Tower, June 8, 1986, page 9, "True Christians are prophets in that they teach others God’s Word" ^ The Watchtower
The Watchtower
1 January 1969 ^ Reasoning From the Scriptures p.136 ^ Weaver, C. Douglas (2000). The Healer-Prophet: William Marrion Branham (A study of the Prophetic in American Pentecostalism). Mercer University Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0253202215.  ^ Larson, Bob (2004). Larson's Book of World Religions and Alternative Spirituality. Tyndale House Publishers. p. 79. ISBN 0-8423-6417-X.  ^ PCG Information, 'That Prophet' ^ The Riddle of That Prophet
Prophet
Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "My Claim to Promised Messiahship". Review of Religions.  ^ oyasama[permanent dead link] ^ GodDiscussion.com "God's Latest Prophet
Prophet
to Deliver the New Message" September 7, 2011 Retrieved September 20, 2012 ^ "Ruff sees more rough times ahead – MarketWatch". Retrieved 2009-04-09.  ^ Rushe, Dominic (2008-10-26). "Nouriel Roubini: I fear the worst is yet to come – Times Online". The Times. London. Retrieved 2009-04-09. ...after making a series of uncannily accurate predictions about the global meltdown, Roubini has become the prophet of his age... 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1905 New International Encyclopedia article about Prophet.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prophets.

Etymology of the English word "prophet" Entry for prophecy, prophet, and prophetess at the Catholic Encyclopedia on-line edition Entry for prophecy and prophets at the Jewish Encyclopedia "Prophets, a Mormon Perspective". Mormon.org. Retrieved August 5, 2005. 

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