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†Eritherium †Moeritherium †Plesielephantiformes Elephantiformes

The Proboscidea
Proboscidea
(from the Greek προβοσκίς and the Latin proboscis) are a taxonomic order of afrotherian mammals containing one living family, Elephantidae, and several extinct families. This order, first described by J. Illiger in 1811, encompasses the trunked mammals.[1] In addition to their enormous size, later proboscideans are distinguished by tusks and long, muscular trunks; these features were less developed or absent in the smaller early proboscideans. Beginning in the mid Miocene, most members of this order were very large animals. The largest land mammal of all time may have been a proboscidean; Palaeoloxodon
Palaeoloxodon
namadicus, which may have weighed up to 22 t (24.3 short tons), with a shoulder height of up to 5.2 metres (17.1 ft), surpassing several sauropod dinosaurs (in height).[2] The earliest known proboscidean is Eritherium,[3] followed by Phosphatherium,[4] a small animal about the size of a fox. These both date from late Paleocene
Paleocene
deposits of Morocco.

Woolly mammoth
Woolly mammoth
and American mastodon

Proboscideans diversified during the Eocene
Eocene
and early Oligocene. Several primitive families from these epochs have been described, including Numidotheriidae, Moeritheriidae, and Barytheriidae
Barytheriidae
in Africa. ( Anthracobunidae
Anthracobunidae
from the Indian subcontinent has also been included, but was excluded from Proboscidea
Proboscidea
by Shoshani & Tassy (2005)[5] and has more recently been assigned to Perissodactyla.[6]) These were followed by the earliest Deinotheriidae, or "hoe tuskers", which thrived during the Miocene
Miocene
and into the early Quaternary. Proboscideans from the Miocene
Miocene
also included Stegolophodon, an early genus of the disputed family Stegodontidae; the diverse family of Gomphotheriidae, or "shovel tuskers", such as Platybelodon
Platybelodon
and Amebelodon; and the Mammutidae, or mastodons. Most families of Proboscidea
Proboscidea
are now extinct, many since the end of the last glacial period. Recently extinct species include the last examples of gomphotheres in Central and South America, the American mastodon of family Mammutidae
Mammutidae
in North America, numerous stegodonts once found in Asia, the last of the mammoths, and several island species of dwarf elephants.[7] Classification[edit] Below is the current taxonomy of the proboscidean genera as of 2017.[8][9][10]

Proboscidea
Proboscidea
Illiger, 1811

Eritherium
Eritherium
Gheerbrant, 2009 † Moeritherium
Moeritherium
Andrews, 1901 † Plesielephantiformes
Plesielephantiformes
Shoshani et al., 2001

Numidotheriidae
Numidotheriidae
Shoshani & Tassy, 1992

Phosphatherium
Phosphatherium
Gheerbrant et al., 1996 †Arcanotherium Delmer, 2009 † Daouitherium
Daouitherium
Gheerbrant & Sudre, 2002 † Numidotherium
Numidotherium
Mahboubi et al., 1986

Barytheriidae
Barytheriidae
Andrews, 1906

†Omanitherium Seiffert et al., 2012 † Barytherium
Barytherium
Andrews, 1901

Deinotheriidae
Deinotheriidae
Bonaparte, 1841

Chilgatherium
Chilgatherium
Sanders et al., 2004 † Prodeinotherium
Prodeinotherium
Ehik, 1930 † Deinotherium
Deinotherium
Kaup, 1829

Elephantiformes
Elephantiformes
Tassy, 1988

Eritreum
Eritreum
Shoshani et al., 2006 † Hemimastodon
Hemimastodon
Pilgrim, 1912 † Palaeomastodon
Palaeomastodon
Andrews, 1901 † Phiomia
Phiomia
Andrews & Beadnell, 1902 Elephantimorpha
Elephantimorpha
Tassy & Shoshani, 1997

Mammutidae
Mammutidae
Hay, 1922

Losodokodon
Losodokodon
Rasmussen & Gutierrez, 2009 † Eozygodon
Eozygodon
Tassy & Pickford, 1983 † Zygolophodon
Zygolophodon
Vacek, 1877 † Sinomammut
Sinomammut
Mothé et al., 2016 † Mammut
Mammut
Blumenbach, 1799

Elephantida
Elephantida
Tassy & Shoshani, 1997

Choerolophodontidae
Choerolophodontidae
Gaziry, 1976

†Afrochoerodon Pickford, 2001 † Choerolophodon
Choerolophodon
Schlesinger, 1917

Amebelodontidae
Amebelodontidae
Barbour, 1927

†Afromastodon Pickford, 2003 † Progomphotherium
Progomphotherium
Pickford, 2003 †Eurybelodon Lambert, 2016 † Serbelodon
Serbelodon
Frick, 1933 † Archaeobelodon
Archaeobelodon
Tassy, 1984 †Protanancus Arambourg, 1945 † Amebelodon
Amebelodon
Barbour, 1927 † Konobelodon
Konobelodon
Lambert, 1990 † Torynobelodon
Torynobelodon
Barbour, 1929 †Aphanobelodon Wang et al., 2016 † Platybelodon
Platybelodon
Borissiak, 1928

Gomphotheriidae
Gomphotheriidae
Hay, 1922

Gomphotherium
Gomphotherium
Burmeister, 1837 † Gnathabelodon
Gnathabelodon
Barbour & Sternberg, 1935 † Eubelodon
Eubelodon
Barbour, 1914 † Stegomastodon
Stegomastodon
Pohlig, 1912 † Sinomastodon
Sinomastodon
Tobien et al., 1986 † Notiomastodon
Notiomastodon
Cabrera, 1929 † Rhynchotherium
Rhynchotherium
Falconer, 1868 † Cuvieronius
Cuvieronius
Osborn, 1923

Elephantoidea
Elephantoidea
Gray, 1821

Anancidae
Anancidae
Hay, 1922

Anancus
Anancus
Aymard, 1855 † Morrillia
Morrillia
Osborn, 1924 † Paratetralophodon
Paratetralophodon
Tassy, 1983 † Pediolophodon
Pediolophodon
Lambert, 2007 † Tetralophodon
Tetralophodon
Falconer, 1857

Stegodontidae
Stegodontidae
Osborn, 1918

Stegolophodon
Stegolophodon
Schlesinger, 1917 † Stegodon
Stegodon
Falconer, 1857

Elephantidae
Elephantidae
Gray, 1821

Stegotetrabelodontinae Aguirre, 1969

Stegodibelodon
Stegodibelodon
Coppens, 1972 † Stegotetrabelodon
Stegotetrabelodon
Petrocchi, 1941 †Selenotherium Mackaye, Brunet & Tassy, 2005

Elephantinae
Elephantinae
Gray, 1821

Primelephas
Primelephas
Maglio, 1970 Loxodonta
Loxodonta
Anonymous, 1827 † Palaeoloxodon
Palaeoloxodon
Matsumoto, 1924 † Mammuthus
Mammuthus
Brookes, 1828 Elephas
Elephas
Linnaeus, 1758

References[edit]

^ Illiger, Johann Karl Wilhelm (1811). Prodromus Systematis Mammalium et Avium: Additis Terminis Zoographicis Utriusque Classis, Eorumque Versione Germanica. Berolini: Sumptibus C. Salfeld. p. 62.  ^ Larramendi, A. (2016). "Shoulder height, body mass and shape of proboscideans" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 61. doi:10.4202/app.00136.2014.  ^ Gheerbrant, E. (2009). " Paleocene
Paleocene
emergence of elephant relatives and the rapid radiation of African ungulates". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (26): 10717–10721. doi:10.1073/pnas.0900251106. PMC 2705600 . PMID 19549873.  ^ Gheebrant, Emmanuel (1996). "A Palaeocene proboscidean from Morocco". Nature. 383: 68–70. doi:10.1038/383068a0.  ^ Shoshani, Jeheskel; Pascal Tassy (2005). "Advances in proboscidean taxonomy & classification, anatomy & physiology, and ecology & behavior". Quaternary
Quaternary
International. 126–128: 5–20. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2004.04.011.  ^ Cooper, L. N.; Seiffert, E. R.; Clementz, M.; Madar, S. I.; Bajpai, S.; Hussain, S. T.; Thewissen, J. G. M. (2014-10-08). "Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene
Eocene
of India and Pakistan Are Stem Perissodactyls". PLoS ONE. 9 (10): e109232. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109232. PMC 4189980 . PMID 25295875.  ^ Bjorn Kurten, Elaine Anderson (17 May 2005). Pleistocene mammals of North America - Google Books. Google Book Search. Retrieved 1 July 2009.  ^ J. Shoshani and P. Tassy. 2005. Advances in proboscidean taxonomy & classification, anatomy & physiology, and ecology & behavior. Quaternary
Quaternary
International 126-128:5-20 ^ Shi-Qi Wang; Tao Deng; Jie Ye; Wen He; Shan-Qin Chen (2016). Morphological and ecological diversity of Amebelodontidae (Proboscidea, Mammalia) revealed by a Miocene
Miocene
fossil accumulation of an upper-tuskless proboscidean. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. Online edition. doi:10.1080/14772019.2016.1208687. ^ Mothé, Dimila; Ferretti, Marco P.; Avilla, Leonardo S. (12 January 2016). "The Dance of Tusks: Rediscovery of Lower Incisors in the Pan-American Proboscidean Cuvieronius
Cuvieronius
hyodon Revises Incisor Evolution in Elephantimorpha". PLOS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147009. Retrieved 4 May 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

Ronald M. Nowak (1999), Walker’s Mammals
Mammals
of the World (6th ed.), Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-5789-9, LCCN 98023686 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Proboscidea.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Proboscidea

The Wikibook Dichotomous Key has a page on the topic of: Proboscidea

Look up Proboscidea
Proboscidea
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

v t e

Extant mammal orders

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata (unranked) Amniota

Yinotheria

Australosphenida

Monotremata (Platypus and echidnas)

Theria

Metatheria ( Marsupial
Marsupial
inclusive)

Ameridelphia

Paucituberculata (Shrew opossums) Didelphimorphia (Opossums)

Australidelphia

Microbiotheria
Microbiotheria
(Monito del monte) Notoryctemorphia ( Marsupial
Marsupial
moles) Dasyuromorphia
Dasyuromorphia
(Quolls and dunnarts) Peramelemorphia
Peramelemorphia
(Bilbies and bandicoots) Diprotodontia
Diprotodontia
(Kangaroos and relatives)

Eutheria ( Placental
Placental
inclusive)

Atlantogenata

Xenarthra

Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa
Pilosa
(Anteaters and sloths)

Afrotheria

Afrosoricida
Afrosoricida
(Tenrecs and golden moles) Macroscelidea ( Elephant
Elephant
shrews) Tubulidentata (Aardvark) Hyracoidea (Hyraxes) Proboscidea
Proboscidea
(Elephants) Sirenia
Sirenia
(Dugongs and manatees)

Boreoeutheria

Laurasiatheria

Eulipotyphla
Eulipotyphla
(Hedgehogs, shrews, moles and relatives) Chiroptera (Bats) Pholidota (Pangolins) Carnivora
Carnivora
(Dogs, cats and relatives) Perissodactyla
Perissodactyla
(Odd-toed ungulates) Artiodactyla (Even-toed ungulates and cetaceans)

Euarchontoglires

Rodentia (Rodents) Lagomorpha
Lagomorpha
(Rabbits and pikas) Scandentia (Treeshrews) Dermoptera (Colugos) Primates

v t e

Genera of the Order Proboscidea

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Superorder: Afrotheria Clade: Paenungulata

†Basal proboscideans

†Eritherium †Moeritherium

†Plesielephantiformes

†Numidotheriidae

†Phosphatherium †Arcanotherium †Daouitherium †Numidotherium

†Barytheriidae

†Omanitherium †Barytherium

†Deinotheriidae

†Chilgatherium †Prodeinotherium †Deinotherium

Elephantiformes

†Basal elephantiforms

†Eritreum †Hemimastodon †Palaeomastodon †Phiomia

Elephantimorpha

†Mammutidae

†Losodokodon †Eozygodon †Zygolophodon †Sinomammut †Mammut

Elephantida

†Choerolophodontidae

†Afrochoerodon †Choerolophodon

†Amebelodontidae

†Afromastodon †Progomphotherium †Eurybelodon †Serbelodon †Archaeobelodon †Protanancus †Amebelodon †Konobelodon †Torynobelodon †Aphanobelodon †Platybelodon

†Gomphotheriidae

†Gomphotherium †Gnathabelodon †Eubelodon †Stegomastodon †Sinomastodon †Notiomastodon †Rhynchotherium †Cuvieronius

Elephantoidea

†Anancidae

†Anancus †Morrillia †Paratetralophodon †Pediolophodon †Tetralophodon

†Stegodontidae

†Stegolophodon †Stegodon

Elephantidae

†Stegotetrabelodontinae

†Stegodibelodon †Stegotetrabelodon †Selenotherium

Elephantinae (Elephants and Mammoths)

†Primelephas Loxodonta †Palaeoloxodon †Mammuthus Elephas

v t e

Extant Proboscidea
Proboscidea
species by family

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Infraclass Eutheria Superorder Afrotheria

Elephantidae (Elephants)

Elephas

Asian Elephant
Elephant
( Elephas
Elephas
maximus) Borneo Elephant
Elephant
( Elephas
Elephas
maximus borneensis) Indian Elephant
Elephant
( Elephas
Elephas
maximus indicus) Sri Lankan Elephant
Elephant
( Elephas
Elephas
maximus maximus) Sumatran Elephant
Elephant
( Elephas
Elephas
maximus sumatranus)

Loxodonta (African elephants)

African Bush Elephant
Elephant
(L. africana) African Forest Elephant
Elephant
(L. cyclotis)

Category

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q26308 ADW: Proboscidea EoL: 1643 EPPO: 1PROBO Fossilworks: 105150 GBIF: 799 ITIS: 180674 MSW: 11500001 NCBI: 9779

Authority control

GND: 4309738-8 N