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The order Pilosa
Pilosa
is a group of placental mammals, extant today only in the Americas. It includes the anteaters and sloths, including the extinct ground sloths, which became extinct about 10,000 years ago. The name comes from the Latin
Latin
word for "hairy".[2] Pilosans are good examples of ecological harmony. Anteaters, for example, feed lightly and for a short time at any one ant nest, allowing the colony to regrow easily. Also, sloths' fur is home to many insects, as well as a type of algae that helps camouflage the sloths.[3] Origins and taxonomy[edit] The biogeographic origins of the Pilosa
Pilosa
are still unclear,[4] but they can be traced back in South America
South America
as far as the early Paleogene (about 60 million years ago, only a short time after the end of the dinosaur era). The presence of these animals in Central America
Central America
and their former presence in North America
North America
is a result of the Great American Interchange. A number of sloths were also formerly present on the Antilles, which they reached from South America
South America
by some combination of rafting or floating with the prevailing currents. Together with the armadillos, which are in the order Cingulata, pilosans are part of the larger superorder Xenarthra, a defining characteristic of which is the presence of xenarthrals (extra formations between lumbar vertebrae). In the past, Pilosa
Pilosa
was regarded as a suborder of the order Xenarthra, while some more recent classifications regard Pilosa
Pilosa
as an order within the superorder Xenarthra. Earlier still, both armadillos and pilosans were classified together with pangolins and the aardvark as the order Edentata (meaning toothless, because the members do not have front incisor teeth or molars, or have poorly developed molars). Edentata
Edentata
was subsequently realized to be polyphyletic; it contained unrelated families and was thus invalid. Classification[edit]

Restoration of the Shasta ground sloth, Nothrotheriops
Nothrotheriops
shastensis

Order Pilosa

Suborder Vermilingua

Family Cyclopedidae

Silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus

Family Myrmecophagidae

Giant anteater, Myrmecophaga tridactyla Northern tamandua, Tamandua
Tamandua
mexicana Southern tamandua, Tamandua
Tamandua
tetradactyla

Suborder Folivora

Family Bradypodidae: three-toed sloths

Pygmy three-toed sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus Brown-throated three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus Pale-throated three-toed sloth, Bradypus tridactylus Maned three-toed sloth, Bradypus torquatus

Family Megalonychidae: two-toed sloths and extinct megalonychid ground sloths

Hoffman's two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni Linnaeus's two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus

Family †Megatheriidae: megatheriid ground sloths Family †Mylodontidae: mylodontid ground sloths Family †Nothrotheriidae: nothrotheriid ground sloths

References[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Pilosa

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pilosa.

^ Gardner, A.L. (2005). "Order Pilosa". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 100–103. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Kidd, D.A. (1973). Collins Latin
Latin
Gem Dictionary. London: Collins. p. 248. ISBN 0-00-458641-7.  ^ George A. Feldhamer; Lee C. Drickamer; Stephen H. Vessey; Joseph F. Merritt; Carey Krajewski (1 January 2015). Mammalogy: Adaptation, Diversity, Ecology. JHU Press. pp. 343–. ISBN 978-1-4214-1588-8.  ^ A proposed clade, Atlantogenata, would include Xenarthra
Xenarthra
and early African mammals.

v t e

Extant mammal orders

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata (unranked) Amniota

Yinotheria

Australosphenida

Monotremata (Platypus and echidnas)

Theria

Metatheria ( Marsupial
Marsupial
inclusive)

Ameridelphia

Paucituberculata (Shrew opossums) Didelphimorphia (Opossums)

Australidelphia

Microbiotheria
Microbiotheria
(Monito del monte) Notoryctemorphia ( Marsupial
Marsupial
moles) Dasyuromorphia
Dasyuromorphia
(Quolls and dunnarts) Peramelemorphia
Peramelemorphia
(Bilbies and bandicoots) Diprotodontia
Diprotodontia
(Kangaroos and relatives)

Eutheria ( Placental
Placental
inclusive)

Atlantogenata

Xenarthra

Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa
Pilosa
(Anteaters and sloths)

Afrotheria

Afrosoricida
Afrosoricida
(Tenrecs and golden moles) Macroscelidea (Elephant shrews) Tubulidentata (Aardvark) Hyracoidea (Hyraxes) Proboscidea
Proboscidea
(Elephants) Sirenia
Sirenia
(Dugongs and manatees)

Boreoeutheria

Laurasiatheria

Eulipotyphla
Eulipotyphla
(Hedgehogs, shrews, moles and relatives) Chiroptera (Bats) Pholidota (Pangolins) Carnivora
Carnivora
(Dogs, cats and relatives) Perissodactyla (Odd-toed ungulates) Artiodactyla (Even-toed ungulates and cetaceans)

Euarchontoglires

Rodentia (Rodents) Lagomorpha
Lagomorpha
(Rabbits and pikas) Scandentia (Treeshrews) Dermoptera (Colugos) Primates

v t e

Extant Pilosa
Pilosa
species by suborder

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Infraclass Eutheria Superorder Xenarthra

Folivora
Folivora
(Sloths)

Bradypodidae

Bradypus (Three-toed sloths)

Pygmy three-toed sloth
Pygmy three-toed sloth
(B. pygmaeus) Maned sloth
Maned sloth
(B. torquatus) Pale-throated sloth
Pale-throated sloth
(B. tridactylus) Brown-throated sloth
Brown-throated sloth
(B. variegatus)

Megalonychidae

Choloepus (Two-toed sloths)

Linnaeus's two-toed sloth
Linnaeus's two-toed sloth
(C. didactylus) Hoffmann's two-toed sloth
Hoffmann's two-toed sloth
(C. hoffmanni)

Vermilingua
Vermilingua
(Anteaters)

Cyclopedidae

Cyclopes

Silky anteater
Silky anteater
(C. didactylus)

Myrmecophagidae

Myrmecophaga

Giant anteater
Giant anteater
(M. tridactyla)

Tamandua (Tamanduas)

Northern tamandua
Northern tamandua
(T. mexicana) Southern tamandua
Southern tamandua
(T. tetradactyla)

Category

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q143441 ADW: Pilosa EoL: 1660 EPPO: 1PILOO Fossilworks: 43594 GBIF: 1494 ITIS: 727502 MSW: 11800001