Parouse.com
 Parouse.com



1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Paris
Paris
(French pronunciation: ​[paʁi] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city in France, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015).[5] The city is a commune and department, and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de- France
France
region (colloquially known as the ' Paris
Paris
Region'), whose 2016 population of 12,142,802 represented roughly 18 percent of the population of France.[6] Since the 17th century, Paris
Paris
has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts. The Paris Region
Paris Region
had a GDP of €681 billion (US$850 billion) in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP
GDP
of France.[7] According to official estimates, in 2013-14 the Paris Region
Paris Region
had the third-highest GDP
GDP
in the world and the largest regional GDP
GDP
in the EU. The City
City
of Paris's administrative limits form an East-West oval centred on the island at its historical heart, the Île de la Cité; this island is near the top of an arc of the river Seine
Seine
that divides the city into southern Rive Gauche
Rive Gauche
(Left Bank) and northern Rive Droite regions. Paris
Paris
is the core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its limits: commonly referred to as the agglomération Parisienne, and statistically as a unité urbaine (a measure of urban area), the Paris
Paris
agglomeration's 2013 population of 10,601,122 made it the largest urban area in the European Union.[3][not in citation given] City-influenced commuter activity reaches well beyond even this in a statistical aire urbaine de Paris
Paris
(a measure of metropolitan area), that had a 2013 population of 12,405,426,[8] a number one-fifth the population of France,[9] the largest metropolitan area in the Eurozone. The city is a major rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris- Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(the second busiest airport in Europe
Europe
after London
London
Heathrow Airport with 63.8 million passengers in 2014) and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris
Paris
Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily,[10] and is the second busiest metro system in Europe
Europe
after Moscow
Moscow
Metro. Paris's Gare du Nord
Gare du Nord
is one of the ten busiest railway stations in the world, with 262 million passengers in 2015.[11] Paris
Paris
is especially known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre
Louvre
was the most visited art museum in the world in 2016, with 7.4 million visitors.[12] The Musée d'Orsay
Musée d'Orsay
and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist
Impressionist
art, and the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne
Musée National d'Art Moderne
has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe. The historical district along the Seine
Seine
in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris
Notre Dame de Paris
and The Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité; the Eiffel Tower, constructed for the Paris
Paris
Universal Exposition of 1889; the Grand Palais and Petit Palais, built for the Paris
Paris
Universal Exposition of 1900; the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
on the Champs-Élysées, and the Basilica of Sacré-Coeur on the hill of Montmartre. Paris
Paris
received 23 million visitors in 2017,[13] making it the world's top tourist destination.[14] The association football club Paris
Paris
Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français
Stade Français
are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris
Paris
in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris
Paris
hosts the annual French Open
French Open
Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris
Paris
hosted the Olympic Games in 1900, 1924 and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, and the 1960, 1984, and 2016 UEFA European Championships were also held in the city, and every July, the Tour de France
France
bicycle race finishes there.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 Middle Ages to Louis XIV 2.3 18th and 19th centuries 2.4 20th and 21st centuries

2.4.1 Terrorist attacks

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Administration

4.1 City
City
government 4.2 Métropole du Grand Paris 4.3 Regional government 4.4 National government 4.5 Police force

5 Cityscape

5.1 Urbanism and architecture 5.2 Housing 5.3 Paris
Paris
and its suburbs

6 Demographics

6.1 Migration 6.2 Religion

7 Economy

7.1 Employment 7.2 Incomes

8 Tourism

8.1 Monuments and attractions 8.2 Hotels

9 Culture

9.1 Painting and sculpture 9.2 Photography 9.3 Museums 9.4 Theatre 9.5 Literature 9.6 Music 9.7 Cinema 9.8 Restaurants and cuisine 9.9 Fashion 9.10 Holidays and festivals

10 Education

10.1 Libraries

11 Sports 12 Infrastructure

12.1 Transport

12.1.1 Railways 12.1.2 Métro, RER and tramway 12.1.3 Air 12.1.4 Motorways 12.1.5 Waterways 12.1.6 Cycling

12.2 Electricity 12.3 Water and sanitation 12.4 Parks and gardens 12.5 Cemeteries

13 Healthcare 14 Media 15 International relations

15.1 Twin towns and partner cities 15.2 Other relationships

16 See also 17 References

17.1 Notes 17.2 Footnotes 17.3 Bibliography

18 Further reading 19 External links

Etymology[edit] See Wiktionary for the name of Paris
Paris
in various languages other than English and French. The name "Paris" is derived from its early inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe.[15] The city's name is not related to the Paris
Paris
of Greek mythology. Paris
Paris
is often referred to as The City
City
of Light (La Ville Lumière),[16] both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment, and more literally because Paris
Paris
was one of the first European cities to adopt gas street lighting. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris
Paris
were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps.[17] Since the late 19th century, Paris
Paris
has also been known as Panam(e) (pronounced [panam]) in French slang.[18] Inhabitants are known in English as "Parisians" and in French as Parisiens ([paʁizjɛ̃] ( listen)). They are also pejoratively called Parigots ([paʁiɡo] ( listen)).[note 1][19] History[edit] Main articles: History of Paris
History of Paris
and Timeline of Paris Origins[edit] The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC.[20][21] One of the area's major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine
Seine
on the île de la Cité; this meeting place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town and an important trading centre.[22] The Parisii traded with many river towns, some as far away as the Iberian Peninsula, and minted their own coins for that purpose.[23]

Gold coins minted by the Parisii (1st century BC)

The Romans conquered the Paris Basin
Paris Basin
in 52 BC and,[24] after making the island a garrison camp, began extending their settlement in a more permanent way to Paris's Left Bank. The Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman
town was originally called Lutetia
Lutetia
(more fully, Lutetia
Lutetia
Parisiorum, " Lutetia
Lutetia
of the Parisii"). It became a prosperous city with a forum, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre.[25] By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would later become Paris
Paris
in French.[26] Christianity
Christianity
was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons
Mons
Martyrum (Latin "Hill of Martyrs"), later "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city; the place where he fell and was buried became an important religious shrine, the Basilica of Saint-Denis, and many French kings are buried there.[27] Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks
Franks
to Paris
Paris
and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de- France
France
failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris (885–86). In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris
Count of Paris
(comte de Paris) and Duke of the Franks
Franks
(duc des Francs), was elected King of the Franks (roi des Francs). Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris gradually became the largest and most prosperous city in France.[27] Middle Ages to Louis XIV[edit] See also: Paris
Paris
in the Middle Ages, Paris
Paris
in the 16th century, and Paris
Paris
in the 17th century By the end of the 12th century, Paris
Paris
had become the political, economic, religious, and cultural capital of France.[28] The Palais de la Cité, the royal residence, was located at the western end of the Île de la Cité. In 1163, during the reign of Louis VII, Maurice de Sully, bishop of Paris, undertook the construction of the Notre Dame Cathedral at its eastern extremity. Paris's cultural centre had begun to move to the Right Bank, the swampland there having been transformed into farmland. In 1137, a new city marketplace (today's Les Halles) replaced the two smaller ones on the Île de la Cité
Île de la Cité
and Place de la Grève (Hotel de Ville).[29] The latter location housed the headquarters of Paris's river trade corporation, an organisation that later became, unofficially (although formally in later years), Paris's first municipal government. In the late 12th century, Philip Augustus extended the Louvre
Louvre
fortress to defend the city against river invasions from the west, gave the city its first walls between 1190 and 1215, rebuilt its bridges to either side of its central island, and paved its main thoroughfares.[30] In 1190, he transformed Paris's former cathedral school into a student-teacher corporation that would become the University of Paris
University of Paris
and would draw students from all of Europe.[31][28]

The Palais de la Cité
Palais de la Cité
and Sainte-Chapelle, viewed from the Left Bank, from the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry
Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry
(month of June) (1410)

During the Hundred Years' War, Paris
Paris
was occupied by England-friendly Burgundian forces from 1418, before being occupied outright by the English when Henry V of England
Henry V of England
entered the French capital in 1420;[32] in spite of a 1429 effort by Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
to liberate the city,[33] it would remain under English occupation until 1436. In the late 16th-century French Wars of Religion, Paris
Paris
was a stronghold of the Catholic League, the organisers of 24 August 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
in which thousands of French Protestants were killed.[34][35] The conflicts ended when pretender to the throne Henry IV, after converting to Catholicism to gain entry to the capital, entered the city in 1594 and claimed the crown of France. This king made several improvements to the capital during his reign: he completed the construction of Paris's first uncovered, sidewalk-lined bridge, the Pont Neuf, built a Louvre
Louvre
extension connecting it to the Tuileries Palace, and created the first Paris residential square, the Place Royale, now Place des Vosges. The king would end his life in the capital, assassinated in a narrow street near Les Halles
Les Halles
marketplace in 1610.[36] During the 17th century, Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of Louis XIII, was determined to make Paris
Paris
the most beautiful city in Europe. He built five new bridges, a new chapel for the College of Sorbonne, and a palace for himself, the Palais Cardinal, which he bequeathed to Louis XIII. After Richelieu's death in 1642, it was the renamed the Palais-Royal.[37] Due to the Parisian uprisings during the Fronde
Fronde
civil war, Louis XIV moved his court to a new palace, Versailles, in 1682. Although no longer the capital of France, arts and sciences in the city flourished with the Comédie-Française, the Academy of Painting, and the French Academy of Sciences. To demonstrate that the city was safe from attack, the king had the city walls demolished and replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become the Grands Boulevards of today.[38] Other marks of his reign were the Collège des Quatre-Nations, the Place Vendôme, the Place des Victoires, and Les Invalides.[39] 18th and 19th centuries[edit] See also: Paris
Paris
in the 18th century, Paris
Paris
during the Second Empire, and Haussmann's renovation of Paris Paris
Paris
grew in population from about 400,000 in 1640 to 650,000 in 1780.[40] A new boulevard, the Champs-Élysées, extended the city west to Étoile,[41] while the working-class neighbourhood of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine
Faubourg Saint-Antoine
on the eastern site of the city grew more and more crowded with poor migrant workers from other regions of France.[42] Paris
Paris
was the centre of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity known as the Age of Enlightenment. Diderot and d'Alembert published their Encyclopédie
Encyclopédie
in 1751, and the Montgolfier Brothers launched the first manned flight in a hot-air balloon on 21 November 1783, from the gardens of the Château de la Muette. Paris
Paris
was the financial capital of continental Europe, the primary European centre of book publishing, fashion and the manufacture of fine furniture and luxury goods.[43]

The storming of the Bastille
Bastille
on 14 July 1789, by Jean-Baptiste Lallemand, (Musée de la Révolution française)

In the summer of 1789, Paris
Paris
became the centre stage of the French Revolution. On 14 July, a mob seized the arsenal at the Invalides, acquiring thousands of guns, and stormed the Bastille, a symbol of royal authority. The first independent Paris
Paris
Commune, or city council, met in the Hôtel de Ville and, on 15 July, elected a Mayor, the astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly.[44]

The Paris Opera
Paris Opera
was the centrepiece of Napoleon
Napoleon
III's new Paris. The architect, Charles Garnier, described the style simply as "Napoleon the Third."

Louis XVI and the royal family were brought to Paris
Paris
and made prisoners within the Tuileries Palace. In 1793, as the revolution turned more and more radical, the king, queen, and the mayor were guillotined, along with more than 16,000 others (throughout France), during the Reign of Terror.[45] The property of the aristocracy and the church was nationalised, and the city's churches were closed, sold or demolished.[46] A succession of revolutionary factions ruled Paris until 9 November 1799 (coup d'état du 18 brumaire), when Napoléon Bonaparte seized power as First Consul.[47]

The Jardin du Luxembourg, and the Panthéon
Panthéon
in the background

The population of Paris
Paris
had dropped by 100,000 during the Revolution, but between 1799 and 1815, it surged with 160,000 new residents, reaching 660,000.[48] Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte replaced the elected government of Paris
Paris
with a prefect reporting only to him. He began erecting monuments to military glory, including the Arc de Triomphe, and improved the neglected infrastructure of the city with new fountains, the Canal de l'Ourcq, Père Lachaise Cemetery
Père Lachaise Cemetery
and the city's first metal bridge, the Pont des Arts.[48]

Richelieu reading room, National Library of France

During the Restoration, the bridges and squares of Paris
Paris
were returned to their pre-Revolution names, but the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830 in Paris, (commemorated by the July Column
July Column
on Place de la Bastille), brought a constitutional monarch, Louis Philippe I, to power. The first railway line to Paris
Paris
opened in 1837, beginning a new period of massive migration from the provinces to the city.[48] Louis-Philippe was overthrown by a popular uprising in the streets of Paris
Paris
in 1848. His successor, Napoleon
Napoleon
III, and the newly appointed prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, launched a gigantic public works project to build wide new boulevards, a new opera house, a central market, new aqueducts, sewers, and parks, including the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes.[49] In 1860, Napoleon
Napoleon
III also annexed the surrounding towns and created eight new arrondissements, expanding Paris
Paris
to its current limits.[49]

In the 1860s, Paris
Paris
streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, giving it the name "The City
City
of Light."

During the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
(1870–1871), Paris
Paris
was besieged by the Prussian army. After months of blockade, hunger, and then bombardment by the Prussians, the city was forced to surrender on 28 January 1871. On 28 March, a revolutionary government called the Paris Commune seized power in Paris. The Commune held power for two months, until it was harshly suppressed by the French army during the "Bloody Week" at the end of May 1871.[50]

The Eiffel Tower, under construction in November 1888, startled Parisians and the world with its modernity.

Late in the 19th century, Paris
Paris
hosted two major international expositions: the 1889 Universal Exposition, was held to mark the centennial of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and featured the new Eiffel Tower; and the 1900 Universal Exposition, which gave Paris
Paris
the Pont Alexandre III, the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais
Petit Palais
and the first Paris
Paris
Métro line.[51] Paris
Paris
became the laboratory of Naturalism (Émile Zola) and Symbolism ( Charles Baudelaire
Charles Baudelaire
and Paul Verlaine), and of Impressionism in art (Courbet, Manet, Monet, Renoir).[52] 20th and 21st centuries[edit] See also: Paris
Paris
in the Belle Époque, Paris
Paris
during the First World War, Paris
Paris
between the Wars (1919–1939), Paris
Paris
in World War II, and History of Paris
History of Paris
(1946–2000) By 1901, the population of Paris
Paris
had grown to 2,715,000.[53] At the beginning of the century, artists from around the world including: Pablo Picasso, Modigliani, and Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
made Paris
Paris
their home. It was the birthplace of Fauvism, Cubism
Cubism
and abstract art,[54][55] and authors such as Marcel Proust
Marcel Proust
were exploring new approaches to literature.[56] During the First World War, Paris
Paris
sometimes found itself on the front line; 600 to 1,000 Paris
Paris
taxis played a small but highly important symbolic role in transporting 6,000 soldiers to the front line at the First Battle of the Marne. The city was also bombed by Zeppelins and shelled by German long-range guns.[57] In the years after the war, known as Les Années Folles, Paris
Paris
continued to be a mecca for writers, musicians and artists from around the world, including Ernest Hemingway, Igor Stravinsky, James Joyce, Josephine Baker, Sidney Bechet[58] and the surrealist Salvador Dalí.[59] In the years after the peace conference, the city was also home to growing numbers of students and activists from French colonies and other Asian and African countries, who later became leaders of their countries, such as Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
and Léopold Sédar Senghor.[60]

General Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
on the Champs-Élysées
Champs-Élysées
celebrating the liberation of Paris
Paris
(26 August 1944)

On 14 June 1940, the German army marched into Paris, which had been declared an "open city".[61] On 16–17 July 1942, following German orders, the French police and gendarmes arrested 12,884 Jews, including 4,115 children, and confined them during five days at the Vel d'Hiv (Vélodrome d'Hiver), from which they were transported by train to the extermination camp at Auschwitz. None of the children came back.[62][63] On 25 August 1944, the city was liberated by the French 2nd Armoured Division and the 4th Infantry Division of the United States
United States
Army. General Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
led a huge and emotional crowd down the Champs Élysées towards Notre Dame de Paris, and made a rousing speech from the Hôtel de Ville.[64] In the 1950s and the 1960s, Paris
Paris
became one front of the Algerian War for independence; in August 1961, the pro-independence FLN targeted and killed 11 Paris
Paris
policemen, leading to the imposition of a curfew on Muslims of Algeria
Algeria
(who, at that time, were French citizens). On 17 October 1961, an unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against the curfew led to violent confrontations between the police and demonstrators, in which at least 40 people were killed, including some thrown into the Seine. The anti-independence Organisation armée secrète
Organisation armée secrète
(OAS), for their part, carried out a series of bombings in Paris
Paris
throughout 1961 and 1962.[65][66]

The Centre Georges Pompidou, a museum of modern art (1977), put all its internal plumbing and infrastructure on the outside.

In May 1968, protesting students occupied the Sorbonne
Sorbonne
and put up barricades in the Latin Quarter. Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined the students, and the movement grew into a two-week general strike. Supporters of the government won the June elections by a large majority. The May 1968 events in France
France
resulted in the break-up of the University of Paris
University of Paris
into 13 independent campuses.[67] In 1975, the National Assembly changed the status of Paris
Paris
to that of other French cities and, on 25 March 1977, Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
became the first elected mayor of Paris
Paris
since 1793.[68] The Tour Maine-Montparnasse, the tallest building in the city at 57 storeys and 210 metres (689 feet) high, was built between 1969 and 1973. It was highly controversial, and it remains the only building in the centre of the city over 32 storeys high.[69] The population of Paris
Paris
dropped from 2,850,000 in 1954 to 2,152,000 in 1990, as middle-class families moved to the suburbs.[70] A suburban railway network, the RER (Réseau Express Régional), was built to complement the Métro, and the Périphérique expressway encircling the city, was completed in 1973.[71] Most of the postwar's Presidents of the Fifth Republic wanted to leave their own monuments in Paris; President Georges Pompidou
Georges Pompidou
started the Centre Georges Pompidou
Centre Georges Pompidou
(1977), Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
began the Musée d'Orsay
Musée d'Orsay
(1986); President François Mitterrand, in power for 14 years, built the Opéra Bastille
Bastille
(1985–1989), the new site of the Bibliothèque nationale de France
France
(1996), the Arche de la Défense (1985–1989), and the Louvre
Louvre
Pyramid with its underground courtyard (1983–1989); Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
(2006), the Musée du quad Branly.[72] In the early 21st century, the population of Paris
Paris
began to increase slowly again, as more young people moved into the city. It reached 2.25 million in 2011. In March 2001, Bertrand Delanoë
Bertrand Delanoë
became the first Socialist Mayor of Paris. In 2007, in an effort to reduce car traffic in the city, he introduced the Vélib', a system which rents bicycles for the use of local residents and visitors. Bertrand Delanoë also transformed a section of the highway along the Left Bank of the Seine
Seine
into an urban promenade and park, the Promenade des Berges de la Seine, which he inaugurated in June 2013.[73] In 2007, President Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
launched the Grand Paris
Grand Paris
project, to integrate Paris
Paris
more closely with the towns in the region around it. After many modifications, the new area, named the Metropolis of Grand Paris, with a population of 6.7 million, was created on 1 January 2016.[74] In 2011, the City
City
of Paris
Paris
and the national government approved the plans for the Grand Paris
Grand Paris
Express, totalling 205 kilometres (127 miles) of automated metro lines to connect Paris, the innermost three departments around Paris, airports and high-speed rail (TGV) stations, at an estimated cost of €35 billion.[75] The system is scheduled to be completed by 2030.[76] On 5 April 2014, Anne Hidalgo, a Socialist, was elected the first female Mayor of Paris.[77] Terrorist attacks[edit] Further information: Charlie Hebdo shooting, November 2015 Paris attacks, Louvre
Louvre
machete attack, March 2017 Île-de- France
France
attacks, and April 2017 Champs-Élysées
Champs-Élysées
attack

Anti-terrorism demonstration on the Place de la République
Place de la République
after the Charlie Hebdo shooting, 11 January 2015

On 7 January 2015, two French Muslim extremists attacked the Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo and killed thirteen people, in an attack claimed by Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula,[78] and on 9 January, a third terrorist, who claimed he was part of ISIL, killed four hostages during an attack at a Jewish grocery store at Porte de Vincennes.[79] On 11 January an estimated 1.5 million people marched in Paris
Paris
in a show of solidarity against terrorism and in support of freedom of speech.[80] On 13 November of the same year, a series of coordinated bomb and gunfire terrorist attacks in Paris
Paris
and Saint-Denis, claimed by ISIL,[81] killed 130 people and injured more than 350.[82] On 3 February 2017, a two-backpack-carrying, machete-wielding attacker shouting "Allahu Akbar" attacked soldiers guarding the Louvre
Louvre
museum after they stopped him because of his bags; the assailant was shot, and no explosives were found.[83] On 18 March of the same year, in a Vitry-sur- Seine
Seine
bar, a man held patrons hostage, then fled to later hold a gun to the head of an Orly Airport
Orly Airport
French soldier, shouting "I am here to die in the name of Allah", and was shot dead by the soldier's comrades.[84] On 20 April, a man shot dead French police officer on the Champs-Élysées, and was later shot dead himself.[85] On 19 June, a man rammed his weapons-and-explosives-laden vehicle into a police van on the Champs-Élysées, but the car only burst into flames.[86] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Paris

Parisian hills and hydrology

Paris
Paris
is located in northern central France. By road, it is 450 kilometres (280 mi) southeast of London, 287 kilometres (178 mi) south of Calais, 305 kilometres (190 mi) southwest of Brussels, 774 kilometres (481 mi) north of Marseille, 385 kilometres (239 mi) northeast of Nantes, and 135 kilometres (84 mi) southeast of Rouen.[87] Paris
Paris
is located in the north-bending arc of the river Seine
Seine
and includes two islands, the Île Saint-Louis
Île Saint-Louis
and the larger Île de la Cité, which form the oldest part of the city. The river's mouth on the English Channel
English Channel
(La Manche) is about 233 mi (375 km) downstream from the city. The city is spread widely on both banks of the river.[88] Overall, the city is relatively flat, and the lowest point is 35 m (115 ft) above sea level. Paris
Paris
has several prominent hills, the highest of which is Montmartre at 130 m (427 ft).[89] Montmartre
Montmartre
gained its name from the martyrdom of Saint Denis, first bishop of Paris, atop the Mons Martyrum, "Martyr's mound", in 250. Excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne
Bois de Boulogne
and Bois de Vincennes, Paris
Paris
covers an oval measuring about 87 km2 (34 sq mi) in area, enclosed by the 35 km (22 mi) ring road, the Boulevard Périphérique.[90] The city's last major annexation of outlying territories in 1860 not only gave it its modern form but also created the 20 clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs). From the 1860 area of 78 km2 (30 sq mi), the city limits were expanded marginally to 86.9 km2 (33.6 sq mi) in the 1920s. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes
Bois de Vincennes
forest parks were officially annexed to the city, bringing its area to about 105 km2 (41 sq mi).[91] The metropolitan area of the city is 2,300 km2 (890 sq mi).[88] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Paris

Autumn in Paris

Paris
Paris
has a typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb ) which is affected by the North Atlantic Current. The overall climate throughout the year is mild and moderately wet.[92] Summer days are usually warm and pleasant with average temperatures between 15 and 25 °C (59 and 77 °F), and a fair amount of sunshine.[93] Each year, however, there are a few days when the temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F). Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur, such as the heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) for weeks, reached 40 °C (104 °F) on some days and seldom cooled down at night.[94] Spring and autumn have, on average, mild days and fresh nights but are changing and unstable. Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently in both seasons.[95] In winter, sunshine is scarce; days are cool, nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F).[96] Light night frosts are however quite common, but the temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) for only a few days a year. Snow falls every year, but rarely stays on the ground. The city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulation.[97] Paris
Paris
has an average annual precipitation of 641 mm (25.2 in), and experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout the year. However the city is known for intermittent abrupt heavy showers. The highest recorded temperature is 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) on 28 July 1947, and the lowest is −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) on 10 December 1879.[98]

Climate data for Paris
Paris
(Parc Montsouris), 1981–2010 averages, extremes 1872–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.1 (61) 21.4 (70.5) 25.7 (78.3) 30.2 (86.4) 34.8 (94.6) 37.6 (99.7) 40.4 (104.7) 39.5 (103.1) 36.2 (97.2) 28.9 (84) 21.6 (70.9) 17.1 (62.8) 40.4 (104.7)

Average high °C (°F) 7.2 (45) 8.3 (46.9) 12.2 (54) 15.6 (60.1) 19.6 (67.3) 22.7 (72.9) 25.2 (77.4) 25.0 (77) 21.1 (70) 16.3 (61.3) 10.8 (51.4) 7.5 (45.5) 16.0 (60.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 4.9 (40.8) 5.6 (42.1) 8.8 (47.8) 11.5 (52.7) 15.2 (59.4) 18.3 (64.9) 20.5 (68.9) 20.3 (68.5) 16.9 (62.4) 13.0 (55.4) 8.3 (46.9) 5.5 (41.9) 12.4 (54.3)

Average low °C (°F) 2.7 (36.9) 2.8 (37) 5.3 (41.5) 7.3 (45.1) 10.9 (51.6) 13.8 (56.8) 15.8 (60.4) 15.7 (60.3) 12.7 (54.9) 9.6 (49.3) 5.8 (42.4) 3.4 (38.1) 8.8 (47.8)

Record low °C (°F) −14.6 (5.7) −14.7 (5.5) −9.1 (15.6) −3.5 (25.7) −0.1 (31.8) 3.1 (37.6) 2.7 (36.9) 6.3 (43.3) 1.8 (35.2) −3.8 (25.2) −14.0 (6.8) −23.9 (−11) −23.9 (−11)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.0 (2.008) 41.2 (1.622) 47.6 (1.874) 51.8 (2.039) 63.2 (2.488) 49.6 (1.953) 62.3 (2.453) 52.7 (2.075) 47.6 (1.874) 61.5 (2.421) 51.1 (2.012) 57.8 (2.276) 637.4 (25.094)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9.9 9.0 10.6 9.3 9.8 8.4 8.1 7.7 7.8 9.6 10.0 10.9 111.1

Average snowy days 3.0 3.9 1.6 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 2.1 11.9

Average relative humidity (%) 83 78 73 69 70 69 68 71 76 82 84 84 75.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.5 79.2 128.9 166.0 193.8 202.1 212.2 212.1 167.9 117.8 67.7 51.4 1,661.6

Percent possible sunshine 22 28 35 39 42 42 43 49 43 35 26 21 35.4

Source #1: Meteo France,[99][100] Infoclimat.fr (humidity 1961–1990)[101]

Source #2: Weather Atlas (percent sunshine) [102]

Administration[edit] City
City
government[edit] See also: Arrondissements of Paris
Arrondissements of Paris
and List of mayors of Paris

Map of the arrondissements of Paris

For almost all of its long history, except for a few brief periods, Paris
Paris
was governed directly by representatives of the king, emperor, or president of France. The city was not granted municipal autonomy by the National Assembly until 1974.[103] The first modern elected mayor of Paris
Paris
was Jacques Chirac, elected 20 March 1977, becoming the city's first mayor since 1793. The current mayor is Anne Hidalgo, a socialist, elected 5 April 2014.[77] The mayor of Paris
Paris
is elected indirectly by Paris
Paris
voters; the voters of each arrondissement elect the Conseil de Paris (Council of Paris), composed of 163 members. Each arrondissement has a number of members depending upon its population, from 10 members for each of the least-populated arrondissements (1st through 9th) to 36 members for the most populated (the 15th). The elected council members select the mayor. Sometimes the candidate who receives the most votes citywide is not selected if the other candidate has won the support of the majority of council members. Mayor Bertrand Delanoë
Bertrand Delanoë
(2001–2014) was elected by only a minority of city voters, but a majority of council members.

The Hôtel de Ville, or city hall, has been at the same site since 1357.

Once elected, the council plays a largely passive role in the city government; it meets only once a month. The current council is divided between a coalition of the left of 91 members, including the socialists, communists, greens, and extreme left; and 71 members for the centre right, plus a few members from smaller parties.[104] Each of Paris's 20 arrondissements has its own town hall and a directly elected council (conseil d'arrondissement), which, in turn, elects an arrondissement mayor.[105] The council of each arrondissement is composed of members of the Conseil de Paris and also members who serve only on the council of the arrondissement. The number of deputy mayors in each arrondissement varies depending upon its population. There are a total of 20 arrondissement mayors and 120 deputy mayors.[103] The budget of the city for 2013 was €7.6 billion, of which €5.4 billion went for city administration, while €2.2 billion went for investment. The largest part of the budget (38 percent) went for public housing and urbanism projects; 15 percent for roads and transport; 8 percent for schools (which are mostly financed by the state budget); 5 percent for parks and gardens; and 4 percent for culture. The main source of income for the city is direct taxes (35 percent), supplemented by a 13 percent real estate tax; 19 percent of the budget comes in a transfer from the national government.[106] The number of city employees, or agents, grew from 40,000 in 2000 to 73,000 in 2013. The city debt grew from €1.6 billion in 2000 to 3.1 billion in 2012, with a debt of €3.65 billion expected for 2014.[107] As a result of the growing debt, the bond rating of the city was lowered from AAA to AA+ in both 2012 and 2013. In September 2014, Mayor Hidalgo announced that the city would have budget shortfall of €400 million, largely because of a cut in support from the national government.[108] Métropole du Grand Paris[edit]

Map of the Greater Paris
Paris
Metropolis (Métropole du Grand Paris) and its 131 communes.

The Métropole du Grand Paris, or simply Grand Paris, formally came into existence on 1 January 2016.[109] It is an administrative structure for co-operation between the City
City
of Paris
Paris
and its nearest suburbs. It includes the City
City
of Paris, plus the communes or towns of the three departments of the inner suburbs (Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint- Denis
Denis
and Val-de-Marne), plus seven communes in the outer suburbs, including Argenteuil
Argenteuil
in Val d'Oise
Val d'Oise
and Paray-Vieille-Poste
Paray-Vieille-Poste
in Essonne, which were added to include the major airports of Paris. The Metropole covers 814 square kilometres (314 square miles) and has a population of 6.945 million persons.[110][111] The new structure is administered by a Metropolitan Council of 210 members, not directly elected, but chosen by the councils of the member Communes. By 2020 its basic competencies will include urban planning, housing and protection of the environment.[109][111] The first president of the metropolitan council, Patrick Ollier, a Republican and the mayor of the town of Rueil-Malmaison, was elected on 22 January 2016. Though the Metropole has a population of nearly seven million persons and accounts for 25 percent of the GDP
GDP
of France, it has a very small budget; just 65 million Euros, compared with eight billion Euros for the City
City
of Paris.[112] Regional government[edit] The Region of Île de France, including Paris
Paris
and its surrounding communities, is governed by the Regional Council, which has its headquarters in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. It is composed of 209 members representing the different communes within the region. On 15 December 2015, a list of candidates of the Union of the Right, a coalition of centrist and right-wing parties, led by Valérie Pécresse, narrowly won the regional election, defeating a coalition of Socialists and ecologists. The Socialists had governed the region for seventeen years. The regional council has 121 members from the Union of the Right, 66 from the Union of the Left and 22 from the extreme right National Front.[113] National government[edit]

The Élysée Palace, residence of the French President

As the capital of France, Paris
Paris
is the seat of France's national government. For the executive, the two chief officers each have their own official residences, which also serve as their offices. The President of the French Republic resides at the Élysée Palace
Élysée Palace
in the 8th arrondissement,[114] while the Prime Minister's seat is at the Hôtel Matignon
Hôtel Matignon
in the 7th arrondissement.[115][116] Government ministries are located in various parts of the city; many are located in the 7th arrondissement, near the Matignon.[117] The two houses of the French Parliament are located on the Left Bank. The upper house, the Senate, meets in the Palais du Luxembourg
Palais du Luxembourg
in the 6th arrondissement, while the more important lower house, the Assemblée Nationale, meets in the Palais Bourbon
Palais Bourbon
in the 7th arrondissement. The President of the Senate, the second-highest public official in France
France
(the President of the Republic being the sole superior), resides in the "Petit Luxembourg", a smaller palace annexe to the Palais du Luxembourg.[118]

The Palais-Royal, residence of the Conseil d'État

France's highest courts are located in Paris. The Court of Cassation, the highest court in the judicial order, which reviews criminal and civil cases, is located in the Palais de Justice on the Île de la Cité,[119] while the Conseil d'État, which provides legal advice to the executive and acts as the highest court in the administrative order, judging litigation against public bodies, is located in the Palais-Royal
Palais-Royal
in the 1st arrondissement.[120] The Constitutional Council, an advisory body with ultimate authority on the constitutionality of laws and government decrees, also meets in the Montpensier wing of the Palais Royal.[121] Paris
Paris
and its region host the headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Chamber of Commerce, the Paris
Paris
Club, the European Space Agency, the International Energy Agency, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the European Union
European Union
Institute for Security Studies, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the International Exhibition Bureau, and the International Federation for Human Rights. Following the motto "Only Paris
Paris
is worthy of Rome; only Rome
Rome
is worthy of Paris";[122] the only sister city of Paris
Paris
is Rome, although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around the world.[122] Police force[edit]

Police officers and police vehicles in Paris

The security of Paris
Paris
is mainly the responsibility of the Prefecture of Police of Paris, a subdivision of the Ministry of the Interior of France. It supervises the units of the National Police who patrol the city and the three neighbouring departments. It is also responsible for providing emergency services, including the Paris
Paris
Fire Brigade. Its headquarters is on Place Louis Lépine
Place Louis Lépine
on the Île de la Cité.[123] There are 30,200 officers under the prefecture, and a fleet of more than 6,000 vehicles, including police cars, motorcycles, fire trucks, boats and helicopters. In addition to traditional police duties, the local police monitors the number of discount sales held by large stores (no more than two a year are allowed) and verify that, during summer holidays, at least one bakery is open in every neighbourhood.[123] The national police has its own special unit for riot control and crowd control and security of public buildings, called the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité
Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité
(CRS), a unit formed in 1944 right after the liberation of France. Vans of CRS agents are frequently seen in the centre of the city when there are demonstrations and public events. The police are supported by the National Gendarmerie, a branch of the French Armed Forces, though their police operations now are supervised by the Ministry of the Interior. The traditional kepis of the gendarmes were replaced in 2002 with caps, and the force modernised, though they still wear kepis for ceremonial occasions.[124] Crime in Paris
Paris
is similar to that in most large cities. Violent crime is relatively rare in the city centre. Political violence is uncommon, though very large demonstrations may occur in Paris
Paris
and other French cities simultaneously. These demonstrations, usually managed by a strong police presence, can turn confrontational and escalate into violence.[125] Cityscape[edit]

Panorama of Paris
Paris
as seen from the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
as full 360-degree view (river flowing from north-east to south-west, right to left)

Urbanism and architecture[edit] See also: Architecture of Paris, Haussmann's renovation of Paris, Religious buildings in Paris, and List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris
Paris
region

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, 1897, Hermitage Museum

Rue de Rivoli

Place des Vosges

Most French rulers since the Middle Ages made a point of leaving their mark on a city that, contrary to many other of the world's capitals, has never been destroyed by catastrophe or war. In modernising its infrastructure through the centuries, Paris
Paris
has preserved even its earliest history in its street map.[126] At its origin, before the Middle Ages, the city was composed around several islands and sandbanks in a bend of the Seine; of those, two remain today: the île Saint-Louis, the île de la Cité; a third one is the 1827 artificially created île aux Cygnes. Modern Paris
Paris
owes much to its late 19th century Second Empire remodelling by the Baron Haussmann: many of modern Paris's busiest streets, avenues and boulevards today are a result of that city renovation. Paris
Paris
also owes its style to its aligned street-fronts, distinctive cream-grey " Paris
Paris
stone" building ornamentation, aligned top-floor balconies, and tree-lined boulevards. The high residential population of its city centre makes it much different from most other western global cities.[127] Paris's urbanism laws have been under strict control since the early 17th century,[128] particularly where street-front alignment, building height and building distribution is concerned. In recent developments, a 1974–2010 building height limitation of 37 metres (121 ft) was raised to 50 m (160 ft) in central areas and 180 metres (590 ft) in some of Paris's peripheral quarters, yet for some of the city's more central quarters, even older building-height laws still remain in effect.[128] The 210 metres (690 ft) Montparnasse tower was both Paris
Paris
and France's tallest building until 1973,[129] but this record has been held by the La Défense
La Défense
quarter Tour First tower in Courbevoie
Courbevoie
since its 2011 construction. A new project for La Défense, called Hermitage Plaza, launched in 2009, proposes to build two towers, 85 and 86 stories or 320 metres (1,050 feet) high, which would be the tallest buildings in the European Union, just slightly shorter than the Eiffel Tower. They were scheduled for completion in 2019 or 2020, but as of January 2015 construction had not yet begun, and there were questions in the press about the future of the project.[130][131] Parisian examples of European architecture date back more than a millennium; including the Romanesque church of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés
Saint-Germain-des-Prés
(1014–1163); the early Gothic Architecture of the Basilica of Saint- Denis
Denis
(1144), the Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345), the Flamboyant Gothic
Flamboyant Gothic
of Saint Chapelle
Saint Chapelle
(1239–1248), the Baroque
Baroque
churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis
Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis
(1627–1641) and Les Invalides
Invalides
(1670–1708). The 19th century produced the neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842); the Palais Garnier
Palais Garnier
Opera House (1875); the neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919), and the exuberant Belle Époque
Belle Époque
modernism of the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
(1889). Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include the Centre Georges Pompidou
Georges Pompidou
by Richard Rogers
Richard Rogers
and Renzo Piano
Renzo Piano
(1977), and the Louvre
Louvre
Pyramid by I. M. Pei
I. M. Pei
(1989). Contemporary architecture includes the Musée du quad Branly by Jean Nouvel
Jean Nouvel
(2006) and the new contemporary art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation
Louis Vuitton Foundation
by Frank Gehry (2014).[132] Housing[edit]

Social housing in Paris
Paris
as of 2012[update]

Paris
Paris
is the fifth most expensive city in the world for luxury housing: €18,499 per square metre (€1,720/sq ft) in 2014.[133] According to a 2012 study for the La Tribune newspaper, the most expensive street is the quai des Orfèvres in the 1st arrondissement, with an average price of €20,665 per square metre (€1,920/sq ft), against €3,900 per square metre (€360/sq ft) for rue Pajol in the 18th arrondissement.[134] The total number of residences in the city of Paris
Paris
in 2011 was 1,356,074, up from a former high of 1,334,815 in 2006. Among these, 1,165,541 (85.9 percent) were main residences, 91,835 (6.8 percent) were secondary residences, and the remaining 7.3 percent were empty (down from 9.2 percent in 2006).[135] Paris
Paris
urban tissue began to fill and overflow its 1860 limits from around the 1920s, and because of its density, it has seen few modern constructions since then. Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from 1949 and before, 20 percent were built between 1949 and 1974, and only 18 percent of the buildings remaining were built after that date.[136] Two-thirds of the city's 1.3 million residences are studio and two-room apartments. Paris
Paris
averages 1.9 people per residence, a number that has remained constant since the 1980s, but it is much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average. Only 33 percent of principal residence Parisians own their habitation (against 47 percent for the entire Île-de-France): the major part of the city's population is a rent-paying one.[136] Social housing represents a little more than 17 percent of the city's total residences, but these are rather unevenly distributed throughout the capital: the vast majority of these are concentrated in a crescent formed by Paris's south-western to northern periphery arrondissements.[137] In 2012 the Paris
Paris
agglomeration (urban area) counted 28,800 people without a fixed residence, an increase of 84 percent since 2001; it represents 43 percent of the homeless in all of France. Forty-one percent were women, and 29 percent were accompanied by children. Fifty-six percent of the homeless were born outside France, the largest number coming from Africa and Eastern Europe.[138] The city of Paris
Paris
has sixty homeless shelters, called Centres d'hébergement et de réinsertion sociale or CHRS, which are funded by the city and operated by private charities and associations.[139] Paris
Paris
and its suburbs[edit]

Paris
Paris
and its suburbs seen from the Spot Satellite

Paris
Paris
skyline, 2014

Aside from the 20th-century addition of the Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes
Vincennes
and Paris
Paris
heliport, Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860. The Seine
Seine
département had been governing Paris
Paris
and its suburbs since its creation in 1790, but the rising suburban population had made it difficult to govern as a unique entity. This problem was 'resolved' when its parent "District de la région parisienne" ( Paris
Paris
region) was reorganised into several new departments from 1968: Paris
Paris
became a department in itself, and the administration of its suburbs was divided between the three departments surrounding it. The Paris
Paris
region was renamed "Île-de-France" in 1977, but the " Paris
Paris
region" name is still commonly used today.[140] Long-intended measures to unite Paris
Paris
with its suburbs began on 1 January 2016, when the Métropole du Grand Paris
Paris
came into existence.[109] Paris's disconnect with its suburbs, its lack of suburban transportation, in particular, became all too apparent with the Paris agglomeration's growth. Paul Delouvrier
Paul Delouvrier
promised to resolve the Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of the Paris
Paris
region in 1961:[141] two of his most ambitious projects for the Region were the construction of five suburban "villes nouvelles" ("new cities")[142] and the RER commuter train network.[143] Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between the 1960s and 1970s to provide a low-cost solution for a rapidly expanding population:[144] these districts were socially mixed at first,[145] but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible to the middle classes only from the 1970s).[146] Their poor construction quality and their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed to their desertion by those able to move elsewhere and their repopulation by those with more limited possibilities.[146] These areas, quartiers sensibles ("sensitive quarters"), are in northern and eastern Paris, namely around its Goutte d'Or
Goutte d'Or
and Belleville neighbourhoods. To the north of the city, they are grouped mainly in the Seine-Saint- Denis
Denis
department, and to a lesser extreme to the east in the Val-d'Oise
Val-d'Oise
department. Other difficult areas are located in the Seine
Seine
valley, in Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes
Corbeil-Essonnes
(Essonne), in Mureaux, Mantes-la-Jolie
Mantes-la-Jolie
(Yvelines), and scattered among social housing districts created by Delouvrier's 1961 "ville nouvelle" political initiative.[147] The Paris
Paris
agglomeration's urban sociology is basically that of 19th century Paris: its fortuned classes are situated in its west and southwest, and its middle-to-lower classes are in its north and east. The remaining areas are mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due to reasons of historical importance, namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés
Saint-Maur-des-Fossés
to the east and Enghien-les-Bains
Enghien-les-Bains
to the north of Paris.[148] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Paris

2012 Census Paris
Paris
Region[149][150]

Country/territory of birth Population

Metropolitan France 9,115,215

Algeria 289,826

Portugal 241,385

Morocco 227,903

Tunisia 109,349

Guadeloupe 80,402

Martinique 76,586

Turkey 69,338

China 61,806

Mali 55,466

Italy 55,057

Côte d'Ivoire 48,532

Senegal 46,365

Spain 46,359

Democratic Republic of Congo 42,872

Poland 39,482

Other countries/territories

Romania 38,865

Cameroon 38,093

Sri Lanka 36,918

Vietnam 36,084

Haiti 33,417

Republic of the Congo 33,223

Cambodia 32,120

  Réunion 30,341

Serbia 27,317

India 24,318

Germany 22,880

Mauritius 19,903

Lebanon 19,616

United Kingdom 19,029

Madagascar 18,504

United States 18,117

Russia 16,493

Pakistan 16,055

Belgium 14,942

Other countries and territories 795,871

The official population of the city of Paris
Paris
was 2,206,488 in 2015, a decline of 37,345 (- 1,66 %), from 2014. This drop was attributed partly to a lower birth rate, and partly to the possible loss of housing in the city due to short-term rentals for tourism.[151][152] Paris
Paris
is the fifth largest municipality in the European Union, following London, Berlin, Madrid
Madrid
and Rome. Eurostat, the statistical agency of the EU, places Paris
Paris
(6.5 million people) second behind London
London
(8 million) and ahead of Berlin
Berlin
(3.5 million), based on the 2012 populations of what Eurostat
Eurostat
calls "urban audit core cities".[153] The Paris
Paris
Urban Area, or "unité urbaine", is a statistical area created by the French statistical agency INSEE to measure the population of built-up areas around the city. It is slightly smaller than the Paris
Paris
Region. According to INSEE, the Paris Urban Area had a population of 10,550,350 at the January 2012 census,[3][not in citation given] the most populous in the European Union, and third most populous in Europe, behind Istanbul
Istanbul
and Moscow.[154] The Paris Metropolitan Area
Paris Metropolitan Area
is the second most populous in the European Union
European Union
after London
London
with a population of 12,341,418 at the Jan. 2012 census.[8]

City
City
proper, urban area, and metropolitan area population from 1800 to 2010

The population of Paris
Paris
today is lower than its historical peak of 2.9 million in 1921. The principal reasons were a significant decline in household size, and a dramatic migration of residents to the suburbs between 1962 and 1975. Factors in the migration included de-industrialisation, high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices, and greater affluence among working families. The city's population loss came to an end in the 21st century; the population estimate of July 2004 showed a population increase for the first time since 1954, and the population reached 2,234,000 by 2009.[155] According to Eurostat, the EU statistical agency, in 2012 the Commune of Paris
Paris
was the most densely populated city in the European Union, with 21,616 people per square kilometre within the city limits (the NUTS-3 statistical area), ahead of Inner London
London
West, which had 10,374 people per square kilometre. According to the same census, three departments bordering Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint- Denis
Denis
and Val-de-Marne, had population densities of over 10,000 people per square kilometre, ranking among the 10 most densely populated areas of the EU.[156] Migration[edit] According to the 2012 French census, 586,163 residents of the City
City
of Paris, or 26.2 percent, and 2,782,834 residents of the Paris
Paris
Region (Île-de-France), or 23.4 percent, were born outside of Metropolitan France
France
(the last figure up from 22.4% at the 2007 census).[149] 26,700 of these in the City
City
of Paris
Paris
and 210,159 in the Paris
Paris
Region were people born in Overseas France
France
(more than two-thirds of whom in the French West Indies) and are therefore not counted as immigrants since they were legally French citizens at birth.[149] A further 103,648 in the City
City
of Paris
Paris
and in 412,114 in the Paris Region were born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth.[149] This concerns in particular the many Christians and Jews from North Africa who moved to France
France
and Paris
Paris
after the times of independence and are not counted as immigrants due to their being born French citizens. The remaining group, people born in foreign countries with no French citizenship at birth, are those defined as immigrants under French law. According to the 2012 census, 135,853 residents of the city of Paris
Paris
were immigrants from Europe, 112,369 were immigrants from the Maghreb, 70,852 from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt, 5,059 from Turkey, 91,297 from Asia
Asia
(outside Turkey), 38,858 from the Americas, and 1,365 from the South Pacific.[157] Note that the immigrants from the Americas
Americas
and the South Pacific in Paris
Paris
are vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in these regions of the world.[149] In the Paris
Paris
Region, 590,504 residents were immigrants from Europe, 627,078 were immigrants from the Maghreb, 435,339 from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt, 69,338 from Turkey, 322,330 from Asia
Asia
(outside Turkey), 113,363 from the Americas, and 2,261 from the South Pacific.[158] These last two groups of immigrants are again vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in the Americas
Americas
and the South Pacific.[149] In 2012, there were 8,810 British citizens and 10,019 US citizens living in the City
City
of Paris
Paris
(Ville de Paris), and 20,466 British citizens and 16,408 US citizens living in the entire Paris
Paris
Region (Île-de-France).[159][160] Religion[edit] See also: Religious buildings in Paris

The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Basilique du Sacré-Cœur

Minaret of the Grand Mosque of Paris

French census data does not contain information about religious affiliation.[161] According to a 2011 survey by IFOP, a French public opinion research organisation, 61 percent of residents of the Paris Region (Île-de-France) identified themselves as Roman Catholic, though just 15 percent said they were practising Catholics, while 46 percent were non-practicing. In the same survey, 7 percent of residents identified themselves as Muslims, 4 percent as Protestants, 2 percent as Jewish, and 25 percent as without religion.[162] According to INSEE, the French government statistical office, between 4 and 5 million French residents were born or had at least one parent born in a predominately Muslim country, particularly Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. An IFOP survey in 2008 reported that, of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries, 25 percent went to the mosque regularly; 41 percent practised the religion, and 34 percent were believers but did not practice the religion.[163][164] In 2012 and 2013, it was estimated that there were almost 500,000 Muslims in the City
City
of Paris, 1.5 million Muslims in the Île-de- France
France
region, and 4 to 5 million Muslims in France.[165][166] The Jewish population of the Paris Region
Paris Region
was estimated in 2014 to be 282,000, the largest concentration of Jews in the world outside of Israel
Israel
and the United States.[167] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Paris

La Défense, the largest dedicated business district in Europe.[168]

Top companies with world headquarters in the Paris Region
Paris Region
for 2016 (ranked by revenues) with Region and World ranks

Paris

corporation

World

1

Total S.A.

24

2

AXA

33

3

BNP Paribas

39

4

Société Générale

43

5

Carrefour

73

6

Crédit Agricole

77

7

EDF

80

8

Engie

89

9

Peugeot

140

10

Groupe BPCE

155

Full table at Economy of Paris

Financial services
Financial services
firms in green

Source: Fortune Global 500 (2016)

The economy of the City
City
of Paris
Paris
is today is based largely on services and commerce; of the 390,480 enterprises in the city, 80.6 percent are engaged in commerce, transportation, and diverse services, 6.5 percent in construction, and just 3.8 percent in industry.[169] The story is similar in the Paris
Paris
Region, or Île-de-France. 76.7 percent of enterprises are engaged in commerce and services, and 3.4 percent in industry.[170] At the 2012 census, 59.5% of jobs in the Paris Region
Paris Region
were in market services (12.0% in wholesale and retail trade, 9.7% in professional, scientific, and technical services, 6.5% in information and communication, 6.5% in transportation and warehousing, 5.9% in finance and insurance, 5.8% in administrative and support services, 4.6% in accommodation and food services, and 8.5% in various other market services), 26.9% in non-market services (10.4% in human health and social work activities, 9.6% in public administration and defence, and 6.9% in education), 8.2% in manufacturing and utilities (6.6% in manufacturing and 1.5% in utilities), 5.2% in construction, and 0.2% in agriculture.[171][172] The Paris Region
Paris Region
had 5.4 million salaried employees in 2010, of whom 2.2 million were concentrated in 39 pôles d'emplois or business districts. The largest of these, in terms of number of employees, is known in French as the QCA, or quartier central des affaires; it is in the western part of the City
City
of Paris, in the 2nd, 8th, 9th, 16th, and 18th arrondissements. In 2010, it was the workplace of 500,000 salaried employees, about 30 percent of the salaried employees in Paris
Paris
and 10 percent of those in the Île-de-France. The largest sectors of activity in the central business district were finance and insurance (16 percent of employees in the district) and business services (15 percent). The district also includes a large concentration of department stores, shopping areas, hotels and restaurants, as well a government offices and ministries.[173] The second-largest business district in terms of employment is La Défense, just west of the city, where many companies installed their offices in the 1990s. In 2010, it was the workplace of 144,600 employees, of whom 38 percent worked in finance and insurance, 16 percent in business support services. Two other important districts, Neuilly-sur- Seine
Seine
and Levallois-Perret, are extensions of the Paris business district and of La Défense. Another district, including Boulogne-Billancourt, Issy-les-Moulineaux
Issy-les-Moulineaux
and the southern part of the 15th arrondissement, is a centre of activity for the media and information technology.[173] The top ten French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 for 2015 all have their headquarters in the Paris
Paris
Region; six in the central business district of the City
City
of Paris; and four close to the city in the Hauts-de- Seine
Seine
Department, three in La Défense
La Défense
and one in Boulogne-Billancourt. Some companies, like Société Générale, have offices in both Paris
Paris
and La Défense. The Paris Region
Paris Region
is France's leading region for economic activity, with a GDP
GDP
of €681 billion (~US$850 billion) and €56,000 (~US$70,000) per capita.[7] In 2011, its GDP
GDP
ranked second among the regions of Europe
Europe
and its per-capita GDP
GDP
was the 4th highest in Europe.[174][175] While the Paris
Paris
region's population accounted for 18.8 percent of metropolitan France
France
in 2011,[176] the Paris
Paris
region's GDP
GDP
accounted for 30 percent of metropolitan France's GDP.[177] In 2015, it hosts the world headquarters of 29 of the 31 Fortune Global 500 companies located in France.[178] The Paris Region
Paris Region
economy has gradually shifted from industry to high-value-added service industries (finance, IT services) and high-tech manufacturing (electronics, optics, aerospace, etc.).[179] The Paris
Paris
region's most intense economic activity through the central Hauts-de- Seine
Seine
department and suburban La Défense
La Défense
business district places Paris's economic centre to the west of the city, in a triangle between the Opéra Garnier, La Défense
La Défense
and the Val de Seine.[179] While the Paris
Paris
economy is dominated by services, and employment in manufacturing sector has declined sharply, the region remains an important manufacturing centre, particularly for aeronautics, automobiles, and "eco" industries.[179] In the 2017 worldwide cost of living survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit, based on a survey made in September 2016, Paris ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world, and the second most expensive in Europe, after Zurich.[180] Employment[edit]

Employment by economic sector in the Paris
Paris
area (pétite couronne), with population and unemployment figures (2012)

According to 2012 INSEE figures, 68 percent of employees in the City of Paris
Paris
work in commerce, transportation, and services; 24.4 percent in public administration, health and social services; 4.4 percent in industry, and 0.1 percent in agriculture.[181] The majority of Paris's salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs, concentrated in the north-western 8th, 16th and 17th arrondissements.[182] Paris's financial service companies are concentrated in the central-western 8th and 9th arrondissement banking and insurance district.[182] Paris's department store district in the 1st, 6th, 8th and 9th arrondissements employ ten percent of mostly female Paris
Paris
workers, with 100,000 of these registered in the retail trade.[182] Fourteen percent of Parisians work in hotels and restaurants and other services to individuals.[182] Nineteen percent of Paris
Paris
employees work for the State in either in administration or education. The majority of Paris's healthcare and social workers work at the hospitals and social housing concentrated in the peripheral 13th, 14th, 18th, 19th and 20th arrondissements.[182] Outside Paris, the western Hauts-de- Seine
Seine
department La Défense
La Défense
district specialising in finance, insurance and scientific research district, employs 144,600,[179] and the north-eastern Seine-Saint-Denis audiovisual sector has 200 media firms and 10 major film studios.[179] Paris's manufacturing is mostly focused in its suburbs, and the city itself has only around 75,000 manufacturing workers, most of which are in the textile, clothing, leather goods, and shoe trades.[179] Paris region manufacturing specialises in transportation, mainly automobiles, aircraft and trains, but this is in a sharp decline: Paris
Paris
proper manufacturing jobs dropped by 64 percent between 1990 and 2010, and the Paris
Paris
region lost 48 percent during the same period. Most of this is due to companies relocating outside the Paris
Paris
region. The Paris
Paris
region's 800 aerospace companies employed 100,000.[179] Four hundred automobile industry companies employ another 100,000 workers: many of these are centred in the Yvelines
Yvelines
department around the Renault and PSA-Citroen plants (this department alone employs 33,000),[179] but the industry as a whole suffered a major loss with the 2014 closing of a major Aulnay-sous-Bois
Aulnay-sous-Bois
Citroen assembly plant.[179] The southern Essonne
Essonne
department specialises in science and technology,[179] and the south-eastern Val-de-Marne, with its wholesale Rungis food market, specialises in food processing and beverages.[179] The Paris
Paris
region's manufacturing decline is quickly being replaced by eco-industries: these employ about 100,000 workers.[179] In 2011, while only 56,927 construction workers worked in Paris
Paris
itself,[183] its metropolitan area employed 246,639,[181] in an activity centred largely around the Seine-Saint- Denis
Denis
(41,378)[184] and Hauts-de- Seine
Seine
(37,303)[185] departments and the new business-park centres appearing there. Incomes[edit]

Median income in Paris
Paris
and its nearest departments

The average net household income (after social, pension and health insurance contributions) in Paris
Paris
was €36,085 for 2011.[186] It ranged from €22,095 in the 19th arrondissement[187] to €82,449 in the 7th arrondissement.[188] The median taxable income for 2011 was around €25,000 in Paris
Paris
and €22,200 for Île-de-France.[189] Generally speaking, incomes are higher in the Western part of the city and in the western suburbs than in the northern and eastern parts of the urban area.[190] Unemployment
Unemployment
was estimated at 8.2 percent in the city of Paris
Paris
and 8.8 percent in the Île-de- France
France
region in the first trimester of 2015. It ranged from 7.6 percent in the wealthy Essonne
Essonne
department to 13.1 percent in the Seine-Saint-Denis department, where many recent immigrants live.[191] While Paris
Paris
has some of the richest neighbourhoods in France, it also has some of the poorest, mostly on the eastern side of the city. In 2012, 14 percent of households in the city earned less than €977 per month, the official poverty line. Twenty-five percent of residents in the 19th arrondissement lived below the poverty line; 24 percent in the 18th, 22 percent in the 20th and 18 percent in the 10th. In the city's wealthiest neighbourhood, the 7th arrondissement, 7 percent lived below the poverty line; 8 percent in the 6th arrondissement; and 9 percent in the 16th arrondissement.[192] Tourism[edit]

Tourists from around the world make the Louvre
Louvre
the most visited art museum in the world.

Tourism in Paris
Paris
continued to suffer in 2016, after two terrorist attacks in Paris
Paris
in 2015 and an attack in Nice
Nice
in 2016. The number of foreign visitors in Grand Paris
Grand Paris
( Paris
Paris
plus the three surrounding departments) dropped by 11.5 percent in 2016.[14] The largest drops were in tourists from Japan
Japan
(46.9 percent), Russia
Russia
(35.5 percent), Italy
Italy
(31.9 percent), and China
China
(17.9 percent).[193] The drops were particularly noticeable in the city's museums, especially the Louvre, where 70 percent of the visitors are from abroad. Attendance at the Louvre
Louvre
dropped by 15 percent in 2016: 61 percent fewer Japanese visitors, 47 percent fewer Brazilian visitors, and 31 percent fewer Chinese visitors. Visitors from the United States
United States
were down by 5.7 percent. Similar drops were reported at the Musee d'Orsay
Musee d'Orsay
(visitors down by 13 percent from 2015) and the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
(down by 15 percent).[194] Greater Paris
Paris
received 36.5 million visitors in 2016, measured by hotel stays.[14] The largest numbers of foreign tourists in 2015, measured by airport arrivals, came from the United States
United States
(1.8 million), the UK (1.08 million), Germany
Germany
(725,000), Italy
Italy
(622,000), and Spain
Spain
(609,000). Arrivals from Russia
Russia
numbered 211,000, while arrivals from the rest of Europe
Europe
numbered 1 million. 746,000 visitors came from China, while 481,000 came from Japan. Arrivals from the Near and Middle East numbered 535,000. Arrivals from the Americas
Americas
outside the US numbered 910,000, 395,000 arrived from Africa, and 1,065,000 arrived from Asia
Asia
and Oceania
Oceania
excluding China
China
and Japan.[195] In 2016, measured by the MasterCard Global Cities Destination Index, Paris
Paris
was the third busiest airline destination in the world, with 18.03 million visitors, behind Bangkok
Bangkok
(21.47 million) and London (19.88 million).[196] According to the Paris
Paris
Convention and Visitors Bureau, 393,008 workers in Greater Paris, or 12.4 percent of the total workforce, are engaged in tourism-related sectors such as hotels, catering, transport, and leisure.[195] Monuments and attractions[edit] Main articles: Landmarks in Paris, Historical quarters of Paris, and List of tourist attractions in Paris See also: List of most visited museums

Passage Jouffroy

The city's top tourist attraction was the Notre Dame Cathedral, which welcomed 12 million visitors in 2016.[195] The Louvre
Louvre
museum had 7.3 million visitors in 2016, making it the most visited art museum in the world.[197] After the Louvre, the other top museums in Paris
Paris
in 2016 were the Centre Pompidou
Centre Pompidou
(3.3 million visitors), Musée d'Orsay
Musée d'Orsay
(3 million visitors), and the National Museum of Natural History (1.5 million visitors).[197] Other top sites in 2016 were the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur (10 million visitors), the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
(5.9 million visitors), and the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
(1.3 million visitors).[195]

Paris, Banks of the Seine

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Criteria Cultural: i, ii, iv

Reference 600

Inscription 1991 (15th Session)

Area 365 ha

The centre of Paris
Paris
contains the most visited monuments in the city, including the Notre Dame Cathedral and the Louvre
Louvre
as well as the Sainte-Chapelle; Les Invalides, where the tomb of Napoleon
Napoleon
is located, and the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
are located on the Left Bank south-west of the centre. The banks of the Seine
Seine
from the Pont de Sully
Pont de Sully
to the Pont d'Iéna have been listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
since 1991.[198]

The Axe historique, pictured here from Concorde to Grande Arche
Grande Arche
of La Défense

Hôtel national des Invalides

Other landmarks are laid out east to west along the historical axis of Paris, which runs from the Louvre
Louvre
through the Tuileries Garden, the Luxor Column in the Place de la Concorde, and the Arc de Triomphe, to the Grande Arche
Grande Arche
of La Défense. Several other much-visited landmarks are located in the suburbs of the city; the Basilica of St Denis, in Seine-Saint-Denis, is the birthplace of the Gothic style of architecture and the royal necropolis of French kings and queens.[199] The Paris
Paris
region hosts three other UNESCO
UNESCO
Heritage sites: the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
in the west,[200] the Palace of Fontainebleau
Palace of Fontainebleau
in the south,[201] and the medieval fairs site of Provins
Provins
in the east.[202] In the Paris
Paris
region, Disneyland Paris, in Marne-la-Vallée, 32 kilometres (20 miles) east of the centre of Paris, was the most visited tourist attraction in France, with 13.4 million visitors in fiscal year 2016, though this was a drop of ten percent from visitors in fiscal year 2015.[203] Hotels[edit] As of 2013[update] the City
City
of Paris
Paris
had 1,570 hotels with 70,034 rooms, of which 55 were rated five-star, mostly belonging to international chains and mostly located close to the centre and the Champs-Élysées. Paris
Paris
has long been famous for its grand hotels. The Hotel Meurice, opened for British travellers in 1817, was one of the first luxury hotels in Paris.[204] The arrival of the railways and the Paris
Paris
Exposition of 1855 brought the first flood of tourists and the first modern grand hotels; the Hôtel du Louvre
Louvre
(now an antiques marketplace) in 1855; the Grand Hotel (now the InterContinental Paris Le Grand Hotel) in 1862; and the Hôtel Continental in 1878. The Hôtel Ritz on Place Vendôme
Place Vendôme
opened in 1898, followed by the Hôtel Crillon in an 18th-century building on the Place de la Concorde
Place de la Concorde
in 1909; the Hotel Bristol on the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré
Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré
in 1925; and the Hotel George V
Hotel George V
in 1928.[205] In addition to hotels, in July 2017 Paris
Paris
had 65,000 homes registered with Airbnb, the biggest single market for the company. Under French law, renters of these units must pay the Paris
Paris
tourism tax. The company paid the city government 7.3 million Euros in 2016.[206] Culture[edit] Painting and sculpture[edit] Main article: Art in Paris

Pierre Mignard, Self-portrait, between 1670 and 1690, oil on canvas, 235 cm × 188 cm (93 in × 74 in), Louvre

For centuries, Paris
Paris
has attracted artists from around the world, who arrive in the city to educate themselves and to seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources and galleries. As a result, Paris has acquired a reputation as the " City
City
of Art".[207] Italian artists were a profound influence on the development of art in Paris
Paris
in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly in sculpture and reliefs. Painting and sculpture became the pride of the French monarchy and the French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists to adorn their palaces during the French Baroque
Baroque
and Classicism era. Sculptors such as Girardon, Coysevox and Coustou acquired reputations as the finest artists in the royal court in 17th-century France. Pierre Mignard became the first painter to King Louis XIV during this period. In 1648, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture
Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture
(Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture) was established to accommodate for the dramatic interest in art in the capital. This served as France's top art school until 1793.[208]

Auguste Renoir, Bal du moulin de la Galette, 1876, oil on canvas, 131 cm × 175 cm (52 in × 69 in), Musée d'Orsay

Paris
Paris
was in its artistic prime in the 19th century and early 20th century, when it had a colony of artists established in the city and in art schools associated with some of the finest painters of the times: Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, Paul Gauguin, Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Renoir
and others. The French Revolution
French Revolution
and political and social change in France
France
had a profound influence on art in the capital. Paris
Paris
was central to the development of Romanticism
Romanticism
in art, with painters such as Gericault.[208] Impressionism, Art Nouveau, Symbolism, Fauvism, Cubism
Cubism
and Art Deco
Art Deco
movements all evolved in Paris.[208] In the late 19th century, many artists in the French provinces and worldwide flocked to Paris
Paris
to exhibit their works in the numerous salons and expositions and make a name for themselves.[209] Artists such as Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Henri Rousseau, Marc Chagall, Amedeo Modigliani
Amedeo Modigliani
and many others became associated with Paris. Picasso, living in Le Bateau-Lavoir
Le Bateau-Lavoir
in Montmartre, painted his famous La Famille de Saltimbanques and Les Demoiselles d'Avignon between 1905 and 1907.[210] Montmartre
Montmartre
and Montparnasse
Montparnasse
became centres for artistic production. The most prestigious names of French and foreign sculptors, who made their reputation in Paris
Paris
in the modern era, are Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi ( Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
- Liberty Enlightening the World), Auguste Rodin, Camille Claudel, Antoine Bourdelle, Paul Landowski (statue of Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro) and Aristide Maillol. The Golden Age of the School of Paris
School of Paris
ended between the two world wars. Photography[edit] The inventor Nicéphore Niépce
Nicéphore Niépce
produced the first permanent photograph on a polished pewter plate in Paris
Paris
in 1825, and then developed the process with Louis Daguerre.[208] The work of Étienne-Jules Marey
Étienne-Jules Marey
in the 1880s contributed considerably to the development of modern photography. Photography came to occupy a central role in Parisian Surrealist activity, in the works of Man Ray and Maurice Tabard.[211][212] Numerous photographers achieved renown for their photography of Paris, including Eugène Atget, noted for his depictions of street scenes, Robert Doisneau, noted for his playful pictures of people and market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of the romantic vision of Paris), Marcel Bovis, noted for his night scenes, and others such as Jacques-Henri Lartigue and Cartier-Bresson.[208] Poster art
Poster art
also became an important art form in Paris
Paris
in the late nineteenth century, through the work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jules Chéret, Eugène Grasset, Adolphe Willette, Pierre Bonnard, Georges de Feure, Henri-Gabriel Ibels, Gavarni, and Alphonse Mucha.[208] Museums[edit] Main article: List of museums in Paris

The Louvre

Musée d'Orsay

The Louvre
Louvre
was the most visited art museum in the world in 2017, with 8.1 million visitors.[213] Its treasures include the Mona Lisa
Mona Lisa
(La Joconde), the Venus de Milo
Venus de Milo
statue, Liberty Leading the People, and many other notable works. The second-most visited museum in the city, with 3.3 million visitors, was the Centre Georges Pompidou, also known as Beaubourg, which houses the Musée National d'Art Moderne. The third most visited Paris
Paris
museum, in a building constructed for the Universal Exhibition of 1900 as the Orsay railway station, was the Musée d'Orsay, which had 3.0 million visitors in 2016. The Orsay displays French art of the 19th century, including major collections of the Impressionists
Impressionists
and Post-Impressionists. The Musée de l'Orangerie, near both the Lourve and the Orsay, also exhibits Impressionists
Impressionists
and Post-Impressionists, including most of Claude Monet's large Water Lilies murals. The Musée national du Moyen Âge, or Cluny Museum, presents Medieval art, including the famous tapestry cycle of The Lady and the Unicorn. The Guimet Museum, or Musée national des arts asiatiques, has one of the largest collections of Asian art in Europe. There are also notable museums devoted to individual artists, including the Picasso Museum the Rodin Museum, and the Musée national Eugène Delacroix.

Musée du quai Branly

Paris
Paris
hosts one of the largest science museums in Europe, the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie at La Villette. It attracted 2.2 million visitors in 2016, making it the fourth most popular national museum in the city.[214] The National Museum of Natural History, on the Left Bank, attracted 1.6 million visitors in 2016, making it the fifth most popular Parisian national museum.[214] It is famous for its dinosaur artefacts, mineral collections, and its Gallery of Evolution. The military history of France, from the Middle Ages to World War II, is vividly presented by displays at the Musée de l'Armée
Musée de l'Armée
at Les Invalides, near the tomb of Napoleon. In addition to the national museums, run by the French Ministry of Culture, the City
City
of Paris operates 14 museums, including the Carnavalet Museum
Carnavalet Museum
on the history of Paris; Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris; Palais de Tokyo; the House of Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
and House of Balzac, and the Catacombs of Paris.[215] There are also notable private museums; The Contemporary Art museum of the Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton
Foundation, designed by architect Frank Gehry, opened in October 2014 in the Bois de Boulogne.[216] Theatre[edit]

The Opéra Bastille

The largest opera houses of Paris
Paris
are the 19th-century Opéra Garnier (historical Paris
Paris
Opéra) and modern Opéra Bastille; the former tends toward the more classic ballets and operas, and the latter provides a mixed repertoire of classic and modern.[217] In middle of the 19th century, there were three other active and competing opera houses: the Opéra-Comique (which still exists), Théâtre-Italien, and Théâtre Lyrique (which in modern times changed its profile and name to Théâtre de la Ville).[218] Philharmonie de Paris, the modern symphonic concert hall of Paris, opened in January 2015. Another musical landmark is the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, where the first performances of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes
Ballets Russes
took place in 1913.

The Comédie Française
Comédie Française
(Salle Richelieu)

Theatre traditionally has occupied a large place in Parisian culture, and many of its most popular actors today are also stars of French television. The oldest and most famous Paris
Paris
theatre is the Comédie-Française, founded in 1680. Run by the French government, it performs mostly French classics at the Salle Richelieu in the Palais-Royal
Palais-Royal
at 2 rue de Richelieu, next to the Louvre.[219] of Other famous theatres include the Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe, next to the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Gardens, also a state institution and theatrical landmark; the Théâtre Mogador, and the Théâtre de la Gaîté-Montparnasse.[220] The music hall and cabaret are famous Paris
Paris
institutions. The Moulin Rouge was opened in 1889. It was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill on its roof, and became the birthplace of the dance known as the French Cancan. It helped make famous the singers Mistinguett
Mistinguett
and Édith Piaf
Édith Piaf
and the painter Toulouse-Lautrec, who made posters for the venue. In 1911, the dance hall Olympia Paris
Olympia Paris
invented the grand staircase as a settling for its shows, competing with its great rival, the Folies Bergère. Its stars in the 1920s included the American singer and dancer Josephine Baker. Later, Olympia Paris presented Dalida, Edith Piaf, Marlene Dietrich, Miles Davis, Judy Garland, and the Grateful Dead. The Casino de Paris
Casino de Paris
presented many famous French singers, including Mistinguett, Maurice Chevalier, and Tino Rossi. Other famous Paris
Paris
music halls include Le Lido, on the Champs-Élysées, opened in 1946; and the Crazy Horse Saloon, featuring strip-tease, dance and magic, opened in 1951. A half dozen music halls exist today in Paris, attended mostly by visitors to the city.[221] Literature[edit] Main article: Writers in Paris

Victor Hugo

The first book printed in France, Epistolae ("Letters"), by Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza), was published in Paris
Paris
in 1470 by the press established by Johann Heynlin. Since then, Paris
Paris
has been the centre of the French publishing industry, the home of some of the world's best-known writers and poets, and the setting for many classic works of French literature. Almost all the books published in Paris
Paris
in the Middle Ages were in Latin, rather than French. Paris
Paris
did not become the acknowledged capital of French literature until the 17th century, with authors such as Boileau, Corneille, La Fontaine, Molière, Racine, several coming from the provinces, and the foundation of the Académie française.[222] In the 18th century, the literary life of Paris
Paris
revolved around the cafés and salons, and was dominated by Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Pierre de Marivaux, and Beaumarchais. During the 19th century, Paris
Paris
was the home and subject for some of France's greatest writers, including Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Mérimée, Alfred de Musset, Marcel Proust, Émile Zola, Alexandre Dumas, Gustave Flaubert, Guy de Maupassant
Guy de Maupassant
and Honoré de Balzac. Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame
The Hunchback of Notre Dame
inspired the renovation of its setting, the Notre-Dame de Paris.[223] Another of Victor Hugo's works, Les Misérables, written while he was in exile outside France
France
during the Second Empire, described the social change and political turmoil in Paris
Paris
in the early 1830s.[224] One of the most popular of all French writers, Jules Verne, worked at the Theatre Lyrique and the Paris
Paris
stock exchange, while he did research for his stories at the National Library.[225][citation not found]

Jean-Paul Sartre

In the 20th century, the Paris
Paris
literary community was dominated by figures such as Colette, André Gide, François Mauriac, André Malraux, Albert Camus, and, after World War II, by Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre. Between the wars it was the home of many important expatriate writers, including Ernest Hemingway, Samuel Beckett, and, in the 1970s, Milan Kundera. The winner of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature, Patrick Modiano
Patrick Modiano
(who lives in Paris), based most of his literary work on the depiction of the city during World War II and the 1960s–1970s.[226] Paris
Paris
is a city of books and bookstores. In the 1970s, 80 percent of French-language publishing houses were found in Paris, almost all on the Left Bank in the 5th, 6th and 7th arrondissements. Since that time, because of high prices, some publishers have moved out to the less expensive areas.[227] It is also a city of small bookstores. There are about 150 bookstores in the 5th arrondissement alone, plus another 250 book stalls along the Seine. Small Paris
Paris
bookstores are protected against competition from discount booksellers by French law; books, even e-books, cannot be discounted more than five percent below their publisher's cover price.[228] Music[edit] Main articles: Music in Paris
Music in Paris
and History of music in Paris

Olympia, a famous music hall

In the late 12th century, a school of polyphony was established at Notre-Dame. Among the Trouvères of northern France, a group of Parisian aristocrats became known for their poetry and songs. Troubadours, from the south of France, were also popular. During the reign of François I, in the Renaissance era, the lute became popular in the French court. The French royal family and courtiers "disported themselves in masques, ballets, allegorical dances, recitals, and opera and comedy", and a national musical printing house was established.[208] In the Baroque-era, noted composers included Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, and François Couperin.[208] The Conservatoire de Musique de Paris
Paris
was founded in 1795.[229] By 1870, Paris
Paris
had become an important centre for symphony, ballet and operatic music. Romantic-era composers (in Paris) include Hector Berlioz
Hector Berlioz
(La Symphonie fantastique), Charles Gounod
Charles Gounod
(Faust), Camille Saint-Saëns
Camille Saint-Saëns
(Samson et Delilah), Léo Delibes
Léo Delibes
(Lakmé) and Jules Massenet
Jules Massenet
(Thaïs), among others.[208] Georges Bizet's
Georges Bizet's
Carmen premiered 3 March 1875. Carmen
Carmen
has since become one of the most popular and frequently-performed operas in the classical canon.[230][231] Among the Impressionist
Impressionist
composers who created new works for piano, orchestra, opera, chamber music and other musical forms, stand in particular, Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy
(Suite bergamasque, and its well-known third movement, Clair de lune, La Mer, Pelléas et Mélisande), Erik Satie
Erik Satie
(Gymnopédies, "Je te veux", Gnossiennes, Parade) and Maurice Ravel
Maurice Ravel
(Miroirs, Boléro, La valse, L'heure espagnole). Several foreign-born composers, such as Frédéric Chopin (Poland), Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
(Hungary), Jacques Offenbach
Jacques Offenbach
(Germany), Niccolò Paganini (Italy), and Igor Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky
(Russia), established themselves or made significant contributions both with their works and their influence in Paris.

Charles Aznavour

Bal-musette
Bal-musette
is a style of French music and dance that first became popular in Paris
Paris
in the 1870s and 1880s; by 1880 Paris
Paris
had some 150 dance halls in the working-class neighbourhoods of the city.[232] Patrons danced the bourrée to the accompaniment of the cabrette (a bellows-blown bagpipe locally called a "musette") and often the vielle à roue (hurdy-gurdy) in the cafés and bars of the city. Parisian and Italian musicians who played the accordion adopted the style and established themselves in Auvergnat bars especially in the 19th arrondissement,[233] and the romantic sounds of the accordion has since become one of the musical icons of the city. Paris
Paris
became a major centre for jazz and still attracts jazz musicians from all around the world to its clubs and cafés.[234] Paris
Paris
is the spiritual home of gypsy jazz in particular, and many of the Parisian jazzmen who developed in the first half of the 20th century began by playing Bal-musette
Bal-musette
in the city.[233] Django Reinhardt rose to fame in Paris, having moved to the 18th arrondissement in a caravan as a young boy, and performed with violinist Stéphane Grappelli
Stéphane Grappelli
and their Quintette du Hot Club de France
France
in the 1930s and 1940s.[235] Immediately after the War the Saint-Germain-des-Pres
Saint-Germain-des-Pres
quarter and the nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home to many small jazz clubs, mostly found in cellars because of a lack of space; these included the Caveau des Lorientais, the Club Saint-Germain, the Rose Rouge, the Vieux-Colombier, and the most famous, Le Tabou. They introduced Parisians to the music of Claude Luter, Boris Vian, Sydney
Sydney
Bechet, Mezz Mezzrow, and Henri Salvador. Most of the clubs closed by the early 1960s, as musical tastes shifted toward rock and roll.[236] Some of the finest manouche musicians in the world are found here playing the cafés of the city at night.[235] Some of the more notable jazz venues include the New Morning, Le Sunset, La Chope des Puces and Bouquet du Nord.[234][235] Several yearly festivals take place in Paris, including the Paris
Paris
Jazz
Jazz
Festival(fr) and the rock festival Rock en Seine.[237] The Orchestre de Paris was established in 1967.[238] On 19 December 2015, Paris
Paris
and other worldwide fans commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Edith Piaf—a French cabaret singer, songwriter and actress who became widely regarded as France's national chanteuse, as well as being one of France's greatest international stars.[239] Other singers—of similar style—include Maurice Chevalier, Charles Aznavour, Yves Montand, and Charles Trenet. Paris
Paris
has a big hip hop scene. This music became popular during the 1980s.[240] The presence of a large African and Caribbean community helped to its development, it gave a voice, a political and social status for many minorities.[241] Cinema[edit] See also: List of films set in Paris

Le Grand Rex
Grand Rex
tower

The movie industry was born in Paris
Paris
when Auguste and Louis Lumière projected the first motion picture for a paying audience at the Grand Café on 28 December 1895.[242] Many of Paris's concert/dance halls were transformed into cinemas when the media became popular beginning in the 1930s. Later, most of the largest cinemas were divided into multiple, smaller rooms. Paris's largest cinema room today is in the Grand Rex
Grand Rex
theatre with 2,700 seats.[243] Big multiplex cinemas have been built since the 1990s. UGC Ciné Cité Les Halles
Les Halles
with 27 screens, MK2 Bibliothèque with 20 screens and UGC Ciné Cité Bercy with 18 screens are among the largest.[244] Parisians tend to share the same movie-going trends as many of the world's global cities, with cinemas primarily dominated by Hollywood-generated film entertainment. French cinema comes a close second, with major directors (réalisateurs) such as Claude Lelouch, Jean-Luc Godard, and Luc Besson, and the more slapstick/popular genre with director Claude Zidi as an example. European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated.[245] On 2 February 2000, Philippe Binant realised the first digital cinema projection in Europe, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by Texas Instruments, in Paris.[246] Restaurants and cuisine[edit] See also: French cuisine

Dining room of the Vagenende

Since the late 18th century, Paris
Paris
has been famous for its restaurants and haute cuisine, food meticulously prepared and artfully presented. A luxury restaurant, La Taverne Anglaise, opened in 1786 in the arcades of the Palais-Royal
Palais-Royal
by Antoine Beauvilliers; it featured an elegant dining room, an extensive menu, linen tablecloths, a large wine list and well-trained waiters; it became a model for future Paris restaurants. The restaurant Le Grand Véfour
Le Grand Véfour
in the Palais-Royal
Palais-Royal
dates from the same period.[247] The famous Paris
Paris
restaurants of the 19th century, including the Café de Paris, the Rocher de Cancale, the Café Anglais, Maison Dorée and the Café Riche, were mostly located near the theatres on the Boulevard des Italiens; they were immortalised in the novels of Balzac and Émile Zola. Several of the best-known restaurants in Paris
Paris
today appeared during the Belle Epoque, including Maxim's
Maxim's
on Rue Royale, Ledoyen
Ledoyen
in the gardens of the Champs-Élysées, and the Tour d'Argent
Tour d'Argent
on the Quai de la Tournelle.[248] Today, due to Paris's cosmopolitan population, every French regional cuisine and almost every national cuisine in the world can be found there; the city has more than 9,000 restaurants.[249] The Michelin Guide has been a standard guide to French restaurants since 1900, awarding its highest award, three stars, to the best restaurants in France. In 2015, of the 29 Michelin three-star restaurants in France, nine are located in Paris. These include both restaurants which serve classical French cuisine, such as L'Ambroisie in the Place des Vosges, and those which serve non-traditional menus, such as L'Astrance, which combines French and Asian cuisines. Several of France's most famous chefs, including Pierre Gagnaire, Alain Ducasse, Yannick Alléno
Yannick Alléno
and Alain Passard, have three-star restaurants in Paris.[250][251]

Les Deux Magots
Les Deux Magots
café on Boulevard Saint-Germain

In addition to the classical restaurants, Paris
Paris
has several other kinds of traditional eating places. The café arrived in Paris
Paris
in the 17th century, when the beverage was first brought from Turkey, and by the 18th century Parisian cafés were centres of the city's political and cultural life. The Café Procope
Café Procope
on the Left Bank dates from this period. In the 20th century, the cafés of the Left Bank, especially Café de la Rotonde
Café de la Rotonde
and Le Dôme Café
Le Dôme Café
in Montparnasse
Montparnasse
and Café de Flore and Les Deux Magots
Les Deux Magots
on Boulevard Saint Germain, all still in business, were important meeting places for painters, writers and philosophers.[248] A bistro is a type of eating place loosely defined as a neighbourhood restaurant with a modest decor and prices and a regular clientele and a congenial atmosphere. Its name is said to have come in 1814 from the Russian soldiers who occupied the city; "bistro" means "quickly" in Russian, and they wanted their meals served rapidly so they could get back their encampment. Real bistros are increasingly rare in Paris, due to rising costs, competition from cheaper ethnic restaurants, and different eating habits of Parisian diners.[252] A brasserie originally was a tavern located next to a brewery, which served beer and food at any hour. Beginning with the Paris
Paris
Exposition of 1867; it became a popular kind of restaurant which featured beer and other beverages served by young women in the national costume associated with the beverage, particular German costumes for beer. Now brasseries, like cafés, serve food and drinks throughout the day.[253] Fashion[edit] Main article: French fashion

Magdalena Frackowiak
Magdalena Frackowiak
at Paris Fashion Week
Paris Fashion Week
(Fall 2011)

Paris
Paris
has been an international capital of high fashion since the 19th century, particularly in the domain of haute couture, clothing hand-made to order for private clients.[254] It is home of some of the largest fashion houses in the world, including Dior and Chanel, and of many well-known fashion designers, including Karl Lagerfeld, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Christophe Josse, and Christian Lacroix. Paris
Paris
Fashion Week, held in January and July in the Carrousel du Louvre
Louvre
and other city locations, is among the top four events of the international fashion calendar, along with the fashion weeks in Milan, London
London
and New York.[255][256] Paris
Paris
is also the home of the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oréal, and three of the five top global makers of luxury fashion accessories; Louis Vuitton, Hermés, and Cartier.[257] Holidays and festivals[edit]

Republican Guards parading on Bastille
Bastille
Day

Bastille
Bastille
Day, a celebration of the storming of the Bastille
Bastille
in 1789, the biggest festival in the city, is a military parade taking place every year on 14 July on the Champs-Élysées, from the Arc de Triomphe to Place de la Concorde. It includes a flypast over the Champs Élysées by the Patrouille de France, a parade of military units and equipment, and a display of fireworks in the evening, the most spectacular being the one at the Eiffel Tower.[258] Some other yearly festivals are Paris-Plages, a festive event that lasts from mid-July to mid-August when the Right Bank of the Seine
Seine
is converted into a temporary beach with sand, deck chairs and palm trees;[258] Journées du Patrimoine, Fête de la Musique, Techno Parade, Nuit Blanche, Cinéma au clair de lune, Printemps des rues, Festival d'automne, and Fête des jardins. The Carnaval de Paris, one of the oldest festivals in Paris, dates back to the Middle Ages. Education[edit] Main article: Education in Paris

The former main building of the University of Paris
University of Paris
is now used by classes from Paris-Sorbonne University
Paris-Sorbonne University
and other autonomous campuses

Paris
Paris
is the département with the highest proportion of highly educated people. In 2009, around 40 percent of Parisians held a licence-level diploma or higher, the highest proportion in France,[259] while 13 percent have no diploma, the third-lowest percentage in France. Education in Paris
Education in Paris
and the Île-de- France
France
region employs approximately 330,000 people, 170,000 of whom are teachers and professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children and students in around 9,000 primary, secondary, and higher education schools and institutions.[260] The University of Paris, founded in the 12th century, is often called the Sorbonne
Sorbonne
after one of its original medieval colleges. It was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities in 1970, following the student demonstrations in 1968. Most of the campuses today are in the Latin Quarter where the old university was located, while others are scattered around the city and the suburbs.[261][citation not found]

The Lycée Louis-le-Grand

The Paris
Paris
region hosts France's highest concentration of the grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside the public university structure. The prestigious public universities are usually considered grands établissements. Most of the grandes écoles were relocated to the suburbs of Paris
Paris
in the 1960s and 1970s, in new campuses much larger than the old campuses within the crowded city of Paris, though the École Normale Supérieure
École Normale Supérieure
has remained on rue d'Ulm in the 5th arrondissement.[262] There are a high number of engineering schools, led by the Paris
Paris
Institute of Technology which comprises several colleges such as École Polytechnique, École des Mines, AgroParisTech, Télécom Paris, Arts et Métiers, and École des Ponts et Chaussées. There are also many business schools, including HEC, INSEAD, ESSEC, and ESCP Europe. The administrative school such as ENA has been relocated to Strasbourg, the political science school Sciences-Po is still located in Paris's 7th arrondissement and the most prestigious university of economics and finance, Paris-Dauphine, is located in Paris's 16th. The Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of the Paris-Sorbonne University
Paris-Sorbonne University
is located in Neuilly-sur-Seine.[263] Paris
Paris
is also home to several of France's most famous high-schools such as Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Lycée Henri-IV, Lycée Janson de Sailly
Lycée Janson de Sailly
and Lycée Condorcet. The National Institute of Sport and Physical Education, located in the 12th arrondissement, is both a physical education institute and high-level training centre for elite athletes. Libraries[edit] Main article: Libraries in Paris

Sainte-Geneviève Library

The Bibliothèque nationale de France
France
(BnF) operates public libraries in Paris, among them the François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
Library, Richelieu Library, Louvois, Opéra Library, and Arsenal Library.[264] There are three public libraries in the 4th arrondissement. The Forney Library, in the Marais district, is dedicated to the decorative arts; the Arsenal Library occupies a former military building, and has a large collection on French literature; and the Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris, also in Le Marais, contains the Paris
Paris
historical research service. The Sainte-Geneviève Library
Sainte-Geneviève Library
is in 5th arrondissement; designed by Henri Labrouste
Henri Labrouste
and built in the mid-1800s, it contains a rare book and manuscript division.[265] Bibliothèque Mazarine, in the 6th arrondissement, is the oldest public library in France. The Médiathèque Musicale Mahler in the 8th arrondissement opened in 1986 and contains collections related to music. The François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
Library (nicknamed Très Grande Bibliothèque) in the 13th arrondissement was completed in 1994 to a design of Dominique Perrault
Dominique Perrault
and contains four glass towers.[265] There are several academic libraries and archives in Paris. The Sorbonne
Sorbonne
Library in the 5th arrondissement is the largest university library in Paris. In addition to the Sorbonne
Sorbonne
location, there are branches in Malesherbes, Clignancourt-Championnet, Michelet-Institut d'Art et d'Archéologie, Serpente-Maison de la Recherche, and Institut des Etudes Ibériques.[266] Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library, Leonardo da Vinci University Library, Paris
Paris
School of Mines Library, and the René Descartes University Library.[267] Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Paris

Stade de France

Paris's most popular sport clubs are the association football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
and the rugby union clubs Stade Français
Stade Français
and Racing 92, the last of which is based just outside the city proper. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris
Paris
in the commune of Saint-Denis.[268] It is used for football, rugby union and track and field athletics. It hosts the French national football team for friendlies and major tournaments qualifiers, annually hosts the French national rugby team's home matches of the Six Nations Championship, and hosts several important matches of the Stade Français
Stade Français
rugby team.[268] In addition to Paris Saint-Germain FC, the city has a number of other professional and amateur football clubs: Paris
Paris
FC, Red Star, RCF Paris
RCF Paris
and Stade Français Paris.

2010 Tour de France, Champs Élysées

Paris
Paris
hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics
1924 Summer Olympics
and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games. The city also hosted the finals of the 1938 FIFA World Cup
1938 FIFA World Cup
(at the Stade Olympique de Colombes), as well as the 1998 FIFA World Cup
1998 FIFA World Cup
and the 2007 Rugby World Cup
2007 Rugby World Cup
Final (both at the Stade de France). Two UEFA Champions League Finals in the current century have also been played in the Stade de France: the 2000 and 2006 editions.[269] Paris
Paris
has most recently been the host for UEFA Euro
Euro
2016, both at the Parc des Princes in the city proper and also at Stade de France, with the latter hosting the opening match and final. The final stage of the most famous bicycle racing in the world, Tour de France, always finishes in Paris. Since 1975, the race has finished on the Champs-Elysées.[270] Tennis
Tennis
is another popular sport in Paris
Paris
and throughout France; the French Open, held every year on the red clay of the Roland Garros National Tennis
Tennis
Centre,[271] is one of the four Grand Slam events of the world professional tennis tour. The 17,000-seat Bercy Arena (officially named AccorHotels Arena
AccorHotels Arena
and formerly known as the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy) is the venue for the annual Paris
Paris
Masters ATP Tour
ATP Tour
tennis tournament and has been a frequent site of national and international tournaments in basketball, boxing, cycling, handball, ice hockey, show jumping and other sports. The Bercy Arena also hosted the 2017 IIHF World Ice Hockey Championship, together with Cologne, Germany. The final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1999
EuroBasket 1999
were also played at the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy. The basketball team Levallois Metropolitans
Levallois Metropolitans
plays some of its games at the 4,000 capacity Stade Pierre de Coubertin.[272] Another top-level professional team, Nanterre
Nanterre
92, plays in Nanterre. Infrastructure[edit] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Paris See also: List of railway stations in Paris

The Gare du Nord
Gare du Nord
railway station is the busiest in Europe

Paris
Paris
is a major rail, highway, and air transport hub. The Île-de- France
France
Mobilités, formerly Syndicat des transports d'Île-de- France
France
(STIF), and before that theSyndicat des transports parisiens (STP), oversees the transit network in the region.[273] The syndicate coordinates public transport and contracts it out to the RATP (operating 347 bus lines, the Métro, eight tramway lines, and sections of the RER), the SNCF
SNCF
(operating suburban rails, one tramway line and the other sections of the RER) and the Optile consortium of private operators managing 1,176 bus lines.[274] Railways[edit] See also: List of railway stations in Paris A central hub of the national rail network, Paris's six major railway stations (Gare du Nord, Gare de l'Est, Gare de Lyon, Gare d'Austerlitz, Gare Montparnasse, Gare Saint-Lazare) and a minor one (Gare de Bercy) are connected to three networks: the TGV
TGV
serving four high-speed rail lines, the normal speed Corail trains, and the suburban rails (Transilien). Métro, RER and tramway[edit] Main article: Paris
Paris
Métro

The Paris Métro
Paris Métro
is the busiest subway network in the European Union

Since the inauguration of its first line in 1900, Paris's Métro (subway) network has grown to become the city's most widely used local transport system; today it carries about 5.23 million passengers daily[275] through 16 lines, 303 stations (385 stops) and 220 km (136.7 mi) of rails. Superimposed on this is a 'regional express network', the RER, whose five lines (A, B, C, D, and E), 257 stops and 587 km (365 mi) of rails connect Paris
Paris
to more distant parts of the urban area.[276] Over €26.5 billion will be invested over the next 15 years to extend the Métro network into the suburbs,[276] with notably the Grand Paris Express project. In addition, the Paris
Paris
region is served by a light rail network of nine lines, the tramway: Line T1 runs from Asnières- Gennevilliers
Gennevilliers
to Noisy-le-Sec, Line T2 runs from Pont de Bezons
Bezons
to Porte de Versailles, Line T3a runs from Pont du Garigliano to Porte de Vincennes, Line T3b runs from Porte de Vincennes
Porte de Vincennes
to Porte de la Chapelle, Line T5 runs from Saint- Denis
Denis
to Garges-Sarcelles, Line T6 runs from Châtillon to Viroflay, Line T7 runs from Villejuif
Villejuif
to Athis-Mons, Line T8 runs from Saint- Denis
Denis
to Épinay-sur- Seine
Seine
and Villetaneuse, all of which are operated by the RATP Group,[277] and line T4 runs from Bondy
Bondy
RER to Aulnay-sous-Bois, which is operated by the state rail carrier SNCF.[276] Five new light rail lines are currently in various stages of development.[278] Air[edit]

Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport
Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport
is the busiest airport in continental Europe.[279]

Busiest destinations from Paris airports (CDG, ORY, BVA) in 2014

Domestic destinations Passengers

Toulouse 3,158,331

Nice 2,865,602

Bordeaux 1,539,478

Marseille 1,502,196

Pointe-à-Pitre 1,191,437

Saint- Denis
Denis
(Réunion) 1,108,964

Fort-de-France 1,055,770

Other domestic destinations

Montpellier 807,482

Biarritz 684,578

Lyon 613,395

International destinations Passengers

Italy 7,881,497

Spain 7,193,481

United States 6,495,677

Germany 4,685,313

United Kingdom 4,177,519

Morocco 3,148,479

Portugal 3,018,446

Algeria 2,351,402

China 2,141,527

Other international destinations

Switzerland 1,727,169

Paris
Paris
is a major international air transport hub with the 5th busiest airport system in the world. The city is served by three commercial international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Paris-Orly and Beauvais-Tillé. Together these three airports recorded traffic of 96.5 million passengers in 2014.[280] There is also one general aviation airport, Paris-Le Bourget, historically the oldest Parisian airport and closest to the city centre, which is now used only for private business flights and air shows. Orly Airport, located in the southern suburbs of Paris, replaced Le Bourget as the principal airport of Paris
Paris
from the 1950s to the 1980s.[281] Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
Airport, located on the edge of the northern suburbs of Paris, opened to commercial traffic in 1974 and became the busiest Parisian airport in 1993.[282] For the year 2016 it was the 5th busiest airport in the world by international traffic and it is the hub for the nation's flag carrier Air France.[276] Beauvais-Tillé Airport, located 69 kilometres (43 miles) north of Paris's city centre, is used by charter airlines and low-cost carriers such as Ryanair. Domestically, air travel between Paris
Paris
and some of France's largest cities such as Lyon, Marseille, or Strasbourg
Strasbourg
has been in a large measure replaced by high-speed rail due to the opening of several high-speed TGV
TGV
rail lines from the 1980s. For example, after the LGV Méditerranée opened in 2001, air traffic between Paris
Paris
and Marseille declined from 2,976,793 passengers in 2000 to 1,502,196 passengers in 2014.[283] After the LGV Est
LGV Est
opened in 2007, air traffic between Paris and Strasbourg
Strasbourg
declined from 1,006,327 passengers in 2006 to 157,207 passengers in 2014.[283] Internationally, air traffic has increased markedly in recent years between Paris
Paris
and the Gulf airports, the emerging nations of Africa, Russia, Turkey, Portugal, Italy, and mainland China, whereas noticeable decline has been recorded between Paris
Paris
and the British Isles, Egypt, Tunisia, and Japan.[284][285] Motorways[edit]

Ring roads of Paris

The city is also the most important hub of France's motorway network, and is surrounded by three orbital freeways: the Périphérique,[90] which follows the approximate path of 19th-century fortifications around Paris, the A86 motorway in the inner suburbs, and finally the Francilienne
Francilienne
motorway in the outer suburbs. Paris
Paris
has an extensive road network with over 2,000 km (1,243 mi) of highways and motorways. Waterways[edit] The Paris
Paris
region is the most active water transport area in France, with most of the cargo handled by Ports of Paris
Paris
in facilities located around Paris. The rivers Loire, Rhine, Rhone, Meuse, and Scheldt can be reached by canals connecting with the Seine, which include the Canal Saint-Martin, Canal Saint-Denis, and the Canal de l'Ourcq.[286] Cycling[edit]

Vélib'
Vélib'
at Place de la Bastille

There are 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths and routes in Paris. These include piste cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic by physical barriers such as a kerb) and bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted by a painted path on the road). Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes are free to be used by cyclists, with a protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles.[287] Cyclists have also been given the right to ride in both directions on certain one-way streets. Paris
Paris
offers a bike sharing system called Vélib'
Vélib'
with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed at 1,800 parking stations,[288] which can be rented for short and medium distances including one way trips. Electricity[edit] Electricity is provided to Paris
Paris
through a peripheral grid fed by multiple sources. As of 2012[update], around 50% of electricity generated in the Île-de- France
France
comes from cogeneration energy plants located near the outer limits of the region; other energy sources include the Nogent nuclear power plant (35%), trash incineration (9% – with cogeneration plants, these provide the city in heat as well), methane gas (5%), hydraulics (1%), solar power (0.1%) and a negligible amount of wind power (0.034 GWh).[289] A quarter of Paris's district heating is to come from a plant in Saint-Ouen, burning a 50/50-mix of coal and 140,000 tonnes of wood pellets from USA per year.[290] Water and sanitation[edit]

A view of the Seine, the Île de la Cité
Île de la Cité
and a Bateau Mouche

Paris
Paris
in its early history had only the rivers Seine
Seine
and Bièvre for water. From 1809, the Canal de l'Ourcq
Canal de l'Ourcq
provided Paris
Paris
with water from less-polluted rivers to the north-east of the capital.[291] From 1857, the civil engineer Eugène Belgrand, under Napoleon
Napoleon
III, oversaw the construction of a series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around the city to several reservoirs built atop the Capital's highest points of elevation.[292] From then on, the new reservoir system became Paris's principal source of drinking water, and the remains of the old system, pumped into lower levels of the same reservoirs, were from then on used for the cleaning of Paris's streets. This system is still a major part of Paris's modern water-supply network. Today Paris
Paris
has more than 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of underground passageways[293] dedicated to the evacuation of Paris's liquid wastes. In 1982, Mayor Chirac introduced the motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte to remove dog faeces from Paris
Paris
streets.[294] The project was abandoned in 2002 for a new and better enforced local law, under the terms of which dog owners can be fined up to €500 for not removing their dog faeces.[295] The air pollution in Paris, from the point of view of particulate matter (PM10), is the highest in France
France
with 38 µg/m³.[296] Parks and gardens[edit] Main articles: List of parks and gardens in Paris
List of parks and gardens in Paris
and History of Parks and Gardens of Paris

The lawns of the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont
Parc des Buttes-Chaumont
on a sunny day

Paris
Paris
today has more than 421 municipal parks and gardens, covering more than 3,000 hectares and containing more than 250,000 trees.[297][verification needed] Two of Paris's oldest and most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden, created in 1564 for the Tuileries Palace, and redone by André Le Nôtre
André Le Nôtre
between 1664 and 1672,[298] and the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Garden, for the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Palace, built for Marie de' Medici in 1612, which today houses the French Senate.[299] The Jardin des Plantes was the first botanical garden in Paris, created in 1626 by Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse
Guy de La Brosse
for the cultivation of medicinal plants.[300] Between 1853 and 1870, the Emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
III and the city's first director of parks and gardens, Jean-Charles Alphand, created the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes, Parc Montsouris
Parc Montsouris
and the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont, located at the four points of the compass around the city, as well as many smaller parks, squares and gardens in the Paris's quarters.[301] Since 1977, the city has created 166 new parks, most notably the Parc de la Villette
Parc de la Villette
(1987), Parc André Citroën (1992), and Parc de Bercy
Parc de Bercy
(1997).[302] One of the newest parks, the Promenade des Berges de la Seine
Seine
(2013), built on a former highway on the Left Bank of the Seine
Seine
between the Pont de l'Alma and the Musée d'Orsay, has floating gardens and gives a view of the city's landmarks. Cemeteries[edit]

The Paris
Paris
Catacombs hold the remains of approximately 6 million people

In Paris's Roman era, its main cemetery was located to the outskirts of the Left Bank settlement, but this changed with the rise of Catholicism, where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds for use by their parishes. With Paris's growth many of these, particularly the city's largest cemetery, les Innocents, were filled to overflowing, creating quite unsanitary conditions for the capital. When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786, the contents of all Paris's parish cemeteries were transferred to a renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside the "Porte d'Enfer" city gate, today place Denfert-Rochereau in the 14th arrondissement.[303][304] The process of moving bones from Cimetière des Innocents to the catacombs took place between 1786 and 1814;[305] part of the network of tunnels and remains can be visited today on the official tour of the catacombs. After a tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries, the Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte provided a more definitive solution in the creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside the city limits.[306] Open from 1804, these were the cemeteries of Père Lachaise, Montmartre, Montparnasse, and later Passy; these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbouring communes to the inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications in 1860. New suburban cemeteries were created in the early 20th century: The largest of these are the Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen, the Cimetière parisien de Pantin (also known as Cimetière parisien de Pantin-Bobigny), the Cimetière parisien d'Ivry, and the Cimetière parisien de Bagneux.[307] Some of the most famous people in the world are buried in Parisian cemeteries. Healthcare[edit]

The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, the oldest hospital in the city

Health care and emergency medical service in the city of Paris
Paris
and its suburbs are provided by the Assistance publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), a public hospital system that employs more than 90,000 people (including practitioners, support personnel, and administrators) in 44 hospitals.[308] It is the largest hospital system in Europe. It provides health care, teaching, research, prevention, education and emergency medical service in 52 branches of medicine. The hospitals receive more than 5.8 million annual patient visits.[308] One of the most notable hospitals is the Hôtel-Dieu, founded in 651, the oldest hospital in the city.[309] Other hospitals include Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital
Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital
(one of the largest in Europe), Hôpital Cochin, Hôpital Bichat, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Bicêtre Hospital, Beaujon Hospital, the Curie Institute, Lariboisière Hospital, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Hôpital de la Charité
Hôpital de la Charité
and the American Hospital of Paris. Media[edit]

Agence France-Presse
Agence France-Presse
Headquarters in Paris

Paris
Paris
and its close suburbs is home to numerous newspapers, magazines and publications including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération, Le Nouvel Observateur, Le Canard enchaîné, La Croix, Pariscope, Le Parisien (in Saint-Ouen), Les Échos, Paris
Paris
Match (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Réseaux & Télécoms, Reuters
Reuters
France, and L'Officiel des Spectacles.[310] France's two most prestigious newspapers, Le Monde
Le Monde
and Le Figaro, are the centrepieces of the Parisian publishing industry.[311] Agence France-Presse is France's oldest, and one of the world's oldest, continually operating news agencies. AFP, as it is colloquially abbreviated, maintains its headquarters in Paris, as it has since 1835.[312] France
France
24 is a television news channel owned and operated by the French government, and is based in Paris.[313] Another news agency is France
France
Diplomatie, owned and operated by the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, and pertains solely to diplomatic news and occurrences.[314] The most-viewed network in France, TF1, is in nearby Boulogne-Billancourt. France
France
2, France
France
3, Canal+, France
France
5, M6 (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Arte, D8, W9, NT1, NRJ 12, La Chaîne parlementaire, France
France
4, BFM TV, and Gulli
Gulli
are other stations located in and around the capital.[315] Radio France, France's public radio broadcaster, and its various channels, is headquartered in Paris's 16th arrondissement. Radio France
France
Internationale, another public broadcaster is also based in the city.[316] Paris
Paris
also holds the headquarters of the La Poste, France's national postal carrier.[317] International relations[edit] Twin towns and partner cities[edit]

Column dedicated to Paris
Paris
near the Baths of Diocletian
Baths of Diocletian
in Rome.

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities of Paris Since 9 April 1956, Paris
Paris
is exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with:[318][319]

Rome, Italy, 1956

Seule Paris
Paris
est digne de Rome; seule Rome
Rome
est digne de Paris. (in French) Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi. (in Italian) "Only Paris
Paris
is worthy of Rome; only Rome
Rome
is worthy of Paris."[320]

Other relationships[edit] Paris
Paris
has agreements of friendship and co-operation with:[318]

Algiers, 2003 Amman, 1987 Athens, 2000 Beijing, 1997 Beirut, 1992 Berlin, 1987 Buenos Aires, 1999 Casablanca, 2004 Cairo, 1985 Chicago, 1996 Copenhagen, 2005 Geneva, 2002 Jakarta, 1995 Kyoto, 1958 Lisbon, 1998 London, 2001 Madrid, 2000 Mexico
Mexico
City, 1999 Montreal, 2006 Moscow, 1992 New York City, 2007 Porto
Porto
Alegre, 2001 Prague, 1997 Quebec City, 2003 Rabat, 2004 Riyadh, 1997 Saint Petersburg, 1997 Sana'a, 1987 San Francisco, 1996 Santiago, 1997 São Paulo, 2004 Seoul, 1991 Sofia, 1998 Sydney, 1998 Tbilisi, 1997 Tehran, 2004 Tokyo, 1982 Tunis, 2004 Warsaw, 1999 Washington, D.C., 2000 Yerevan, 1998

See also[edit]

Paris
Paris
portal France
France
portal European Union
European Union
portal

C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts
International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts
held in Paris
Paris
in 1925 Megacity Outline of France Paris
Paris
syndrome

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ The word was most likely created by Parisians of the lower popular class who spoke *argot*, then *parigot* was used in a provocative manner outside the Parisian region and throughout France
France
to mean Parisians in general.

Footnotes[edit]

^ INSEE local statistics[permanent dead link], including Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes. ^ INSEE. "Résumé statistique – Département de Paris
Paris
(75)" (in French). Retrieved 7 January 2018.  ^ a b c INSEE. "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – Unité urbaine
Unité urbaine
de Paris
Paris
(00851)" (in French). Retrieved 25 September 2016.  ^ "Les 60 premières aires urbaines en 2013". insee.fr. Insee.  ^ " Paris
Paris
perd ses habitants, la faute à la démographie et aux… meublés touristiques pour la Ville." Le Parisien, 28 December 2017 ^ INSEE. "Estimation de population au 1er janvier, par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Année 2016" (in French). Retrieved 4 April 2017.  ^ a b "Regional GDP
GDP
per capita ranged from 29% to 611% of the EU average in 2016" (Press release). Eurostat. 28 February 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2018.  ^ a b INSEE. "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – Aire urbaine de Paris
Paris
(001)" (in French). Retrieved 25 September 2016.  ^ INSEE. "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – France" (in French). Retrieved 25 September 2016.  ^ "Métro2030". RATP ( Paris
Paris
metro operator). Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2016.  ^ "The 51 busiest train stations in the world– All but 6 located in Japan". Japan
Japan
Today. 6 February 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2017.  ^ The Art Newspaper Visitor Figures 2016, 29 March 2016 ^ Vers une fréquentation touristique record à Paris
Paris
en 2017 on Les Echos ^ a b c "Tourism in Paris, Key Figures (2017)". Paris
Paris
Convention and Visitors Bureau.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ Margerison 2011, p. 167. ^ Robertson 2010, p. 37. ^ Du Camp 1875, p. 596. ^ Leclanche 1998, p. 55. ^ Dottin 1920, p. 535. ^ Arbois de Jubainville & Dottin 1889, p. 132. ^ Cunliffe 2004, p. 201. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 25. ^ Schmidt 2009, pp. 65–70. ^ Schmidt 2009, pp. 88–104. ^ Schmidt 2009, pp. 154–167. ^ Meunier 2014, p. 12. ^ a b Schmidt 2009, pp. 210–11. ^ a b Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 27. ^ John Frederick Hinnebusch 1972, p. 262. ^ Sarmant 2012, pp. 36–40. ^ Sarmant 2012, pp. 28–9. ^ Du Fresne de Beaucourt, G., Histoire de Charles VII, Tome I: Le Dauphin (1403–1422), Librairie de la Société bibliographiqque, 35 Rue de Grenelle, Paris, 1881, pp. 32 & 48 ^ Fierro 1996, pp. 52–53. ^ "Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 23 November 2014.  ^ Bayrou 1994, pp. 121–130. ^ Fierro 1996, p. 577. ^ Fierro 1996, p. 582. ^ Combeau 2003, pp. 42–3. ^ Fierro 1996, pp. 590–591. ^ Durant, Will; Durant, Ariel (1975). The Story of Civilization XI The Age of Napoleon. Simon and Schuster. p. 3. ISBN 9780671219888. Retrieved 11 February 2016.  ^ Combeau 2003, pp. 45–7. ^ Sarmant 2012, pp. 129–133. ^ Sarmant 2012, p. 120. ^ Paine 1998, p. 453. ^ Fierro 1996, p. 674. ^ Sarmant 2012, p. 144. ^ Sarmant 2012, p. 147. ^ a b c Sarmant 2012, p. 148. ^ a b De Moncan 2012, pp. 7–35. ^ Rougerie 2014, p. 118. ^ Fraser & Spalding 2011, p. 117. ^ Fierro 1996, pp. 490–491. ^ Combeau 2003, p. 61. ^ Fierro 1996, p. 497. ^ Dan Franck, Bohemian Paris: Picasso, Modigliani, Matisse, and the Birth of Modern Art, Grove Press, 2003 ISBN 0-8021-9740-X ^ Fierro 1996, p. 491. ^ Fierro 1996, p. 750. ^ William A. Shack, Harlem in Montmartre, A Paris
Paris
Jazz
Jazz
Story between the Great Wars, University of California Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-520-22537-4, ^ Meisler, Stanley (April 2005). "The Surreal World of Salvador Dalí". Smithsonian.com. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 12 July 2014.  ^ Goebel, Anti-Imperial Metropolis. ^ Sarmant 2012, p. 217. ^ Fierro 1996, p. 637. ^ Sarmant 2012, p. 218. ^ Fierro 1996, pp. 242–243. ^ Kim Willsher. " France
France
remembers Algerian massacre 50 years on". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ Fierro 1996, p. 658. ^ Sarmant 2012, pp. 226. ^ Fierro 1996, p. 260. ^ Sarmant 2012, p. 222. ^ Combeau 2003, pp. 107–108. ^ Bell & de-Shalit 2011, p. 247. ^ Sarmant 2012, pp. 226–230. ^ "Les berges de Seine
Seine
rendues aux Parisiens". Le Moniteur (in French). 19 June 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2014.  ^ Lichfield, John (29 April 2009). "Sarko's €35bn rail plan for a 'Greater Paris'". London: The Independent. Retrieved 12 June 2009.  ^ "€26.5bn Grand Paris
Grand Paris
metro expansion programme confirmed". Railway Gazette International. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.  ^ "Le Metro du Grand Paris" (in French). Site of Grand Paris
Grand Paris
Express. Retrieved 27 November 2014.  ^ a b " Anne Hidalgo
Anne Hidalgo
is new Mayor of Paris". City
City
of Paris. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.  ^ Library, C. N. N. "2015 Charlie Hebdo Attacks Fast Facts". CNN. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ "Attentats terroristes : les questions que vous nous avez le plus posées". Le Monde
Le Monde
(in French). 15 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.  ^ "Les politiques s'affichent à la marche républicaine". Le Figaro (in French). 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.  ^ "Islamic State claims Paris
Paris
attacks that killed 127". Reuters. 14 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.  ^ Le Figaro
Le Figaro
on-line, Le Monde
Le Monde
on-line, AP, Reuters, 22 November 2015 0700 Paris
Paris
time ^ Foster, Alice (19 June 2017). "Terror attacks timeline: From Paris
Paris
and Brussels
Brussels
terror to most recent attacks in Europe". Express.co.uk. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ " Paris
Paris
Orly airport attacker was 'radicalised Muslim'". The Independent. 18 March 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ " Paris
Paris
shooting: Marine Le Pen calls for all French terror suspects to be expelled after Champs Elysees attack". The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ CNN, Melissa Bell, Saskya Vandoorne and Joe Sterling. "Car rams police van on Champs-Elysees, armed suspect dead". CNN. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ Google Maps, Retrieved 6 July 2013 ^ a b "Paris". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 4 July 2013.  ^ Blackmore & McConnachie 2004, p. 153. ^ a b Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 69. ^ "Key figures for Paris". Mairie de Paris. Paris.fr. 15 November 2007. Archived from the original on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ "Climate". Paris.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.  ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 309. ^ Goldstein 2005, p. 8. ^ "Climate in Paris". ParisInfo. Paris
Paris
Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on 5 December 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2013.  ^ Courtney Traub (31 January 2018). "Visiting Paris
Paris
in the Winter: A Complete Guide". tripsavvy. Retrieved 27 February 2018.  ^ Kelby Carr (30 November 2017). "Weather in France
France
- Climate and Temperatures of French Cities". tripsavvy. Retrieved 27 February 2018.  ^ "Géographie de la capitale – Le climat" (in French). Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. Archived from the original on 3 October 2006. Retrieved 24 May 2006 – via Paris.fr.  ^ "Climatological Information for Paris, France". Meteo France. August 2011.  ^ "Paris–Montsouris (984)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 26 February 2018.  ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Paris-Montsouris (75) - altitude 75m" (in French). Infoclimat. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ "Paris, France
France
- Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ a b Fierro 1996, p. 334. ^ "List of members of the Council of Paris". City
City
of Paris. Retrieved 29 November 2014.  ^ Shales 2007, p. 16. ^ "Projet de Budget Primitif De l'exercice 2014" [Draft Primitive Budget FY 2014] (PDF) (in French). Maire de Paris. 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2014.  ^ Les Echos, 16 June 2014. ^ "Municipales : Anne Hidalgo
Anne Hidalgo
vous promet 200 millions de déficit en plus dès 2015" [Municipal: Anne Hidalgo
Anne Hidalgo
promises 200 million more deficit as of 2015] (in French). EconomieMatin. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.  ^ a b c "Code général des collectivités territoriales - Article L5219-1" [General Code of Territorial Communities - Article L5219-1] (in French). Legifrance. Retrieved 29 November 2015.  ^ "Décret n° 2015-1212 du 30 septembre 2015 constatant le périmètre fixant le siège et désignant le comptable public de la métropole du Grand Paris" [Decree n° 2015-1212 of September 30, 2015 noting the perimeter fixing the seat and designating the public accountant of the metropolis of Greater Paris] (in French). Legifrance. Retrieved 27 February 2018.  ^ a b Nathalie Moutarde (17 July 2015). "La métropole du Grand Paris verra le jour le 1er janvier 2016" [The metropolis of Greater Paris will be born 1 January 2016]. Le Moniteur (in French). Retrieved 3 December 2015.  ^ Manon Rescan (22 January 2016). "Du Grand Paris
Grand Paris
à la Métropole du Grand Paris" [From Greater Paris
Paris
to Greater Paris
Paris
Metropolis]. Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2016.  ^ "Régionales 2015 : les chiffres clés du scrutin" [Results of 2015 Regional Elections] (in French). Regional Council of Île-de-France. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015.  ^ "Le Palais de L'Élysée et son histoire" [The Elysée Palace and its history] (in French). Elysee.fr. Retrieved 16 June 2013.  ^ "Matignon Hotel". Embassy of France, Washington. 1 December 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2013.  ^ Knapp & Wright 2006, p. 93–94. ^ Borrus 2012, p. 288. ^ "A la découverte du Petit Luxembourg" [Discovering Petit Luxembourg] (in French). Senat.fr. Retrieved 3 May 2013.  ^ "Introduction". Cour de Cassation Court of Cassation] (in French). Retrieved 27 April 2013.  ^ "Histoire & Patrimoine" [History & Heritage] (in French). Conseil d'Etat. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2013.  ^ "Le siège du Conseil constitutionnel" [The seat of the Constitutional Council] (PDF) (in French). Conseil Constitutionnel. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2013.  ^ a b " Special
Special
partners". Mairie de Paris. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2007.  ^ a b "Présentation générale" [General Presentation] (in French). Police nationale — Ministère de l'intèrieur [National Police — Ministry of the Interior]. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  ^ "Accueil" [Home] (in French). Gendarmerie nationale — Ministère de l'intèrieur [ National Gendarmerie
National Gendarmerie
— Ministry of the Interior]. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  ^ "France". Travel.State.Gov. U.S. Department of State.  ^ " Paris
Paris
Street Evolution". Nature.com. Retrieved 4 April 2017.  ^ Braimoh & Vlek 2008, p. 12. ^ a b "Plan des hauteurs". Mairie de Paris
Paris
(in French). Paris.fr. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.  ^ "Plan Local d'Urbanisme – Règlement à la parcelle". Mairie de Paris. Retrieved 31 August 2010.  ^ "Will the Hermitage Plaza see day in La Défense?". batiweb.com. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2015.  ^ "Paris's La Défense
La Défense
Again Reaches For The Sky With Hermitage Plaza". International Business Times. 16 March 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2014.  ^ "Inside Frank Gehry's Spectacular Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton
Foundation". Business Week. Bloomberg. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ "World's most expensive cities". Globalpropertyguide.com. Retrieved 1 November 2014.  ^ "Palmarès des prix des rues à Paris: le quai des Orfèvres grand gagnant!". La Tribune. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2014.  ^ "Chiffres Cléfs Logements (2011) – Département de Paris
Paris
(75)". INSEE. 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2014.  ^ a b "Un territoire ancien et de petite taille" (PDF) (in French). www.notaires.paris-idf.fr. February 2012. p. 11. Retrieved 1 November 2014.  ^ "L'accés au logement social à Paris" (PDF) (in French). APUR. 8 September 2013. p. 9. Retrieved 20 November 2014.  ^ "Number of Homeless in Paris
Paris
has increased 84 percent in ten years". Metronews. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2014.  ^ "List of CHRS in Paris" (in French). Retrieved 27 November 2014.  ^ "Une brève histoire de l'aménagement de Paris
Paris
et sa région Du District à la Région Île-de-France" (PDF) (in French). DRIEA Île-de-France. Retrieved 26 November 2014.  ^ Masson 1984, p. 536. ^ Yarri 2008, p. 407. ^ Gordon 2006, pp. 46–7. ^ Castells 1983, p. 75. ^ Tomas et al. 2003, p. 237. ^ a b "Les Politiques Nationales du Logement et le Logement dans les Villes Nouvelles" (PDF). Laburba.fr. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ "Atlas des Zones urbaines sensibles (Zus)". SIG du secretariat générale du SIV (in French). Ministère de l'Egalité des Territoires et du Logement. Retrieved 10 November 2014.  ^ "Une forte hétérogénéité des revenus en Île-de-France" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 26 November 2014.  ^ a b c d e f INSEE. "Données harmonisées des recensements de la population de 1968 à 2012" (in French). Retrieved 19 November 2015.  ^ INSEE. "Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance - Région d'Île-de- France
France
(11)" (in French). Retrieved 2015-11-19.  ^ " Paris
Paris
perd ses habitants, la faute à la démographie et aux… meublés touristiques pour la Ville." Le Parisien, 28 December 2017 ^ "Évolution de la population au 1er janvier 2014". INSEE. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.  ^ "Statistics on European cities". Eurostat. Retrieved 28 November 2014.  ^ The 30 Largest Urban Agglomerations Ranked by Population Size at Each Point in Time, 1950–2030, World Urbanization Prospects, the 2014 revision, Population Division of the United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved 22 February 2015. ^ Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Commune : Paris
Paris
(75056) – Thème : Évolution et structure de la population" (in French). Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.  ^ "Population statistics at regional level". Eurostat. 25 March 2015. Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ INSEE. "Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance – Département de Paris
Paris
(75)" (in French). Retrieved 19 November 2015.  ^ INSEE. "Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance – Région d'Île-de- France
France
(11)" (in French). Retrieved 19 November 2015.  ^ INSEE. "Population par sexe, âge et nationalité – Région d'Île-de- France
France
(11)" (in French). Retrieved 20 November 2015.  ^ INSEE. "Population par sexe, âge et nationalité – Département de Paris
Paris
(75)" (in French). Retrieved 20 November 2015.  ^ Burchardt, Marian; Michalowski, Ines (26 November 2014). After Integration: Islam, Conviviality and Contentious Politics in Europe. Springer. ISBN 9783658025946.  ^ IFOP (April 2011). "Les Français et la croyance religieuse" [Religious belief in France] (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 13 November 2015.  ^ "que pese l'Islam en France". Le Monde
Le Monde
(in French). Retrieved 13 November 2015.  ^ "How does France
France
count its muslim population?". Le Figaro. Retrieved 30 October 2015.  ^ "Interview with Dalil Boubakeur". Le Soir (in French). Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.  ^ Riou, Mathilde (29 April 2013). "Le manque de mosquée en Ile-de-France". France
France
3. Retrieved 17 November 2017.  ^ Berman Jewish Databank. "World Jewish Population 2014". Retrieved 13 November 2015.  ^ "La Défense, Europe's largest business district". France.fr. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2013.  ^ "Department of Paris; Complete Dossier" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 25 November 2015.  ^ "Île-de- France
France
Region – Complete dossier" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 25 November 2015.  ^ "EMP2 – Emplois au lieu de travail par sexe, statut et secteur d'activité économique – Région d'Île-de- France
France
(11)" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 26 November 2015.  ^ "La nomenclature agrégée – NA, 2008" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 26 November 2015.  ^ a b "En Île-de-France, 39 poles d'emploi structurent l'economie régionale". INSEE. Retrieved 7 December 2015.  ^ "L'Île-de-France, une des régions les plus riches d'Europe". Insee.  ^ "The Most Dynamic Cities of 2025". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2 November 2014.  ^ "Estimation de population au 1er janvier, par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge". Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (in French). Retrieved 5 May 2013.  ^ "Produits Intérieurs Bruts Régionaux (PIBR) en valeur en millions d'euros" (XLS) (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 2 August 2015.  ^ "2015 Fortune Global 500". Fortune. Retrieved 22 July 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "L'Industrie en Île-de-France, Principaux Indicateurs Régionaux" (PDF). INSEE. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
Worldwide Cost of Living Survey, based on September 2016 data, retrieved July 2017 ^ a b "Commune de Paris
Paris
(75056) – Dossier complet" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 25 November 2015.  ^ a b c d e "Île-de- France
France
– A la Page Nº288 – INSEE 2007" (PDF) (Press release). November 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ "Emplois au lieu de travail – Département de Paris
Paris
(75)". INSEE. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015.  ^ "EMP2 – Emplois au lieu de travail par sexe, statut et secteur d'activité économique – Département de la Seine-Saint- Denis
Denis
(93)" (in French). INSEE. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2014.  ^ "EMP2 – Emplois au lieu de travail par sexe, statut et secteur d'activité économique – Département des Hauts-de- Seine
Seine
(92)" (in French). INSEE. Archived from the original on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2014.  ^ "Département de Paris
Paris
(75)" (in French). INSEE. Archived from the original on 18 July 2014.  ^ "Arrondissement municipal de Paris
Paris
19e Arrondissement (75119)" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 11 August 2013.  ^ "Arrondissement municipal de Paris
Paris
7e Arrondissement (75107)" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 11 August 2013.  ^ Taxable income by "consumption unit" as defined by INSEE, see "Revenu fiscal annuel en 2011" (in French). INSEE. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2013.  ^ "Structure et distribution des revenus, inégalité des niveaux de vie en 2013". insee.fr. Retrieved 4 April 2017.  ^ " Unemployment
Unemployment
by Departement" (in French). INSEE. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.  ^ "Neighborhoods of Paris
Paris
with more than 40 percent living below poverty line" (in French). Metronews. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2013.  ^ Le Figaro, 19 December 2016 ^ "La frequentation touristique de Paris
Paris
chute de 6 pct". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 27 January 2017.  ^ a b c d "Tourism in Paris
Paris
- Key Figures 2016". Paris
Paris
Convention and Visitors Bureau. 9 August 2017. Retrieved 2018-02-18.  ^ "Mastercard Destination Cities Index". MasterCard. Retrieved 25 January 2017.  ^ a b Marnie Hunter (22 June 2017). "The world's 20 most popular museums". CNN Travel. CNN.  ^ " Paris
Paris
banks of the Seine". UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ "Saint- Denis
Denis
Basilica, royal necropolis of France". Seine-Saint- Denis
Denis
Tourisme. Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ "Palace and Park of Versailles". UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ "Palace and Parks of Fontainebleau". UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ "Provins, Town of Medieval Fairs". UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ " Disneyland Paris
Disneyland Paris
visitor numbers down after attacks". Radio France International. 2 October 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ Fierro 1996, pp. 938. ^ Fierro 1996, pp. 937–8. ^ Fortune Magazine, 5 July 2017 ^ Montclos 2003. ^ a b c d e f g h i Michelin 2011. ^ Perry 1995, p. 19. ^ Dictionnaire historique de Paris, p. 68 ^ Department of Photographs, Photography and Surrealism, Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2000 ^ Hazan 2011, p. 362. ^ "8,1 millions de visiteurs au Louvre
Louvre
en 2017" [8.1 million visitors to the Louvre
Louvre
in 2017] (in French). Musée du Louvre. 8 January 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.  ^ a b 2016 Museum Index of the Themed Entertainment Association (TEA)(June 2017) ^ "Municipal museums". Maire de Paris. Retrieved 23 November 2014.  ^ Giovannini, Joseph (20 October 2014). "An Architect's Big Parisian Moment: Two Shows for Frank Gehry, as His Vuitton Foundation Opens". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 October 2014.  ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 178. ^ Schumacher 1996, p. 60. ^ Fierro 1996, p. 1173. ^ Who's Where. 1961. p. 304. Retrieved 2 July 2013.  ^ Fierro 1996, pp. 1005–1006. ^ Fierro 1996, p. 488. ^ "Notre Dame Renovations". Adoremus Organization. Retrieved 4 July 2013.  ^ "Les Miserables". Preface. Gutenberg Organization. 1862. Retrieved 4 July 2013.  ^ Petit Robert 2-Dictionnaire Universel des noms propres, p. 1680. ^ "Official site of the Nobel Prize". Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Fierro 1996, p. 840. ^ "The French Still Flock to Bookstores", New York Times, 20 June 2012 ^ Damschroeder & Williams 1990, p. 157. ^ Georges Bizet: Carmen, Susan McClary, p. 120 ^ Dubal, David (2003). The Essential Canon of Classical Music. Macmillan. p. 346. ISBN 978-1-4668-0726-6. Retrieved 12 October 2016.  ^ Dregni 2004, p. 19. ^ a b Dregni 2008, p. 32. ^ a b Mroue 2006, p. 260. ^ a b c "Best Gypsy jazz
Gypsy jazz
bars in Paris". The Guardian. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ Bezbakh 2004, p. 872. ^ "Rock en Seine
Seine
'13". Efestivals.co.uk. Retrieved 23 April 2013.  ^ Andante (2004). "Orchestre de Paris". Andante.com. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ Huey, Steve. Édith Piaf
Édith Piaf
biography at AllMusic. Retrieved 22 December 2015. ^ "Hip-Hop à la Française". New York Times. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2015.  ^ Meghelli, Samir (2012). Between New York and Paris: Hip Hop and the Transnational Politics of Race, Culture, and Citizenship. Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University. pp. 54–108.  ^ Lester 2006, p. 278. ^ "The Grand Rex
Grand Rex
… and its Etoiles". RFI. Retrieved 5 October 2015.  ^ "Le Cinéma à Paris". Paris.fr. Retrieved 5 October 2015.  ^ "2 Tamil Films in 1st SAFF in Paris". The Times of India. 27 December 2012. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.  ^ "N/A". Cahiers du cinéma n°hors-série. Paris. April 2000. p. 32.  (cf. also Histoire des communications (PDF) (in French). 2011. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2012. ) ^ Fierro 1996, pp. 1136–8. ^ a b Fierro 1996, p. 1137. ^ Dominé 2014. ^ Le Monde, 2 February 2015 ^ "Michelin Guide". Michelin Guide. Retrieved 23 November 2014.  ^ Fierro 1996, p. 715. ^ Fierro 1996, p. 773. ^ Carr-Allinson, Rowena. "11 Ways to Look like a Local in Paris". iExplore.com. Inside-Out Media. Retrieved 16 September 2016.  ^ Bradford, Julie (2014). Fashion Journalism. Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 9781136475368.  ^ Dillon, Susan (2011). The Fundamentals of Fashion Management. A&C Black. p. 115. ISBN 9782940411580.  ^ "Global ranking of manufacturers of luxury goods". Insidermonkey.com. Retrieved 16 January 2015.  ^ a b BlackmoreMcConnachie 2004, p. 204. ^ "Indicateurs départementaux et régionaux sur les diplômes et la formation en 2009". INSEE. Retrieved 29 June 2013.  ^ La Préfecture de la Région d'Île-de-France. "L'enseignement" (in French). Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2007.  ^ Combeau 2013, pp. 213–214. ^ "Contact and Maps" (in French). École Normale Supérieure. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.  ^ "Accès" (in French). Celsa.fr. Retrieved 16 June 2013.  ^ "How to find us". Bibliothèque nationale de France. Archived from the original on 16 October 2005.  ^ a b Woodward, Richard B. (5 March 2006). "At These Parisian Landmarks, Shhh Is the Word". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2013.  ^ "Paris- Sorbonne
Sorbonne
libraries". Paris- Sorbonne
Sorbonne
University. Retrieved 4 July 2013.  ^ "French Libraries and Archives". University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Libraries. Retrieved 5 July 2013.  ^ a b Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, pp. 300–301. ^ "Arsenal aim to upset the odds". London: BBC Sport. 16 June 2006. Retrieved 21 April 2013.  ^ "2013 route". Le Tour. Retrieved 21 April 2013.  ^ "Roland-Garros". Roland Garros.  ^ "Stade Pierre de Coubertin (Paris)". Equipement-Paris. Retrieved 4 April 2017 ^ Syndicat des Transports d'Île-de- France
France
(STIF). "Le web des voyageurs franciliens" (in French). Archived from the original on 11 April 2006. Retrieved 10 April 2006.  ^ " Optile en bref". Optile. Retrieved 27 November 2015.  ^ "Métro2030, notre nouveau métro de Paris". RATP. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2015.  ^ a b c d Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, pp. 278–83. ^ "RATP's tram network in Île-de-France". RATP. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.  ^ "tramway". STIF. Retrieved 27 November 2015.  ^ Airports Council International
Airports Council International
(20 July 2015). "Passenger Traffic for past 12 months". Retrieved 27 November 2015.  ^ "Bulletin statistique, trafic aérien commercial – année 2014" (PDF). Direction générale de l'Aviation civile. p. 15. Retrieved 28 November 2015.  ^ "Histoire d' Aéroports de Paris
Aéroports de Paris
de 1945 à 1981". Aéroports de Paris. Retrieved 27 November 2015.  ^ "Trafic aéroportuaire 1986–2013". Direction générale de l'Aviation civile. pp. 15–17. Retrieved 27 November 2015.  ^ a b Eurostat. "Air passenger transport between the main airports of France
France
and their main partner airports (routes data)". Retrieved 29 November 2015.  ^ Eurostat. "International intra-EU air passenger transport by main airports in each reporting country and EU partner country". Retrieved 29 November 2015.  ^ Eurostat. "International extra-EU air passenger transport by main airports in each reporting country and partner world regions and countries". Retrieved 29 November 2015.  ^ Jefferson 2009, p. 114. ^ Hart 2004, p. 355. ^ Rand 2010, p. 165. ^ "La production électrique en IdF" (PDF). La DRIEE – Prefet de la région d'Île-de-France. Retrieved 11 November 2015.  ^ " Paris
Paris
to be heated with US wood pellets". Global Wood Markets Info.  ^ "Historique des égouts" (in French). Paris.fr. Retrieved 18 June 2013.  ^ Burchell 1971, p. 93. ^ "Les égouts parisiens". Mairie de Paris
Paris
(in French). Archived from the original on 3 October 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2006.  ^ "Merde! Foul Paris
Paris
goes to the dogs". The Guardian. 21 October 2001. Retrieved 29 June 2013.  ^ Henley, Jon (12 April 2002). "Merde most foul". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 29 July 2010.  ^ Air pollution
Air pollution
in Paris
Paris
according to L'internaute ^ Jarrassé 2007, p. 6. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 125. ^ Lawrence & Gondrand 2010, p. 208. ^ "Le Jardin de Plantes". Retrieved 22 June 2013.  ^ Jarrassé 2007, pp. 122–161. ^ Jarrassé 2007, pp. 242–256. ^ Whaley 2012, p. 101. ^ Broadwell 2007, p. 92. ^ Andia & Brialy 2001, p. 221. ^ Ayers 2004, p. 271. ^ "Les 20 cimetières Parisiens". Paris.fr. Retrieved 4 April 2017.  ^ a b "Rapport Annuel 2008" (in French). Rapport Activite. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2013.  ^ "Hotel Dieu". London
London
Science Museum. Retrieved 21 April 2013.  ^ "French and Francophone Publications". French.about.com. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ "Paris's Top Newspapers". About-France.com. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ "Agence France-Presse". Agence France-Presse
Agence France-Presse
website. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ " France
France
24". France24.com. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ " France
France
Diplomatie". Diplomatie.gouv.fr. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ "French and Francophone TV Stations". French.about.com. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ "France's Radio Stations". Listenlive.eu. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ "La Poste". Laposte.com. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ a b "Friendship and cooperation agreements". Mairie de Paris. Paris.fr. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016.  ^ "Twinning Rome
Rome
- Paris" (PDF) (in French). 30 January 1956.  "Roma – Relazioni Internazionali Bilaterali" (in Italian). Commune Roma. Retrieved 10 September 2016.  ^ "Hey, is San Francisco
San Francisco
Really a "Sister City" of Paris, France? No – Was It Before? No, Not At All – Here's Why". San Francisco Citizen. Retrieved 27 February 2018. 

Bibliography[edit]

Andia, Béatrice de; Brialy, Jean-Claude (2001). Larousse Paris. Larousse. ISBN 978-2-03-585012-6.  Arbois de Jubainville, Henry; Dottin, George (1889). Les premiers habitants de l'Europe. E. Thorin.  Ayers, Andrew (2004). The Architecture of Paris. Axel Mendes. ISBN 978-3-930698-96-7.  Bayrou, François (1994). Henri IV: le roi libre. le Grand livre du mois. ISBN 978-2-7028-3282-0.  Beevor, Antony; Cooper, Artemis (4 October 2007). Paris
Paris
After the Liberation: 1944–1949: 1944–1949. Penguin Books
Penguin Books
Limited. ISBN 978-0-14-191288-2.  Bell, Daniel A.; de-Shalit, Avner (2011). The Spirit of Cities: Why the Identity of a City
City
Matters in a Global Age. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-3972-8.  Berg, Leo van den; Braun, Erik (2012). National Policy Responses to Urban Challenges in Europe. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4094-8725-8.  Bernard, Léon (1970). The emerging city: Paris
Paris
in the age of Louis XIV. Duke University Press.  Bezbakh, Pierre (2004). Petit Larousse de l'histoire de France. Larousse. ISBN 2-03505369-2.  Blackmore, Ruth; McConnachie, James (2003). Rough Guide to Paris
Paris
(9th ed.). Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-078-7.  Blackmore, Ruth; McConnachie, James (2004). Rough Guide Paris Directions. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-317-7.  Blanchard, Pascal; Deroo, Eric; El Yazami, Driss; Fournié, Pierre; Manceron, Gilles (2003). Le Paris
Paris
Arabe. La Découverte. ISBN 2-7071-3904-1.  Blum, Carol (2002). Strength in Numbers: Population, Reproduction, and Power in Eighteenth-Century France. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6810-8.  Boogert, Kate van der (2012). Frommer's Paris
Paris
2013. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-33143-9.  Borrus, Kathy (27 March 2012). Five Hundred Buildings of Paris. Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers. ISBN 978-1-60376-267-0.  Braimoh, Ademola K.; Vlek, Paul L. G., eds. (2 February 2008). Land Use and Soil Resources. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 212–. ISBN 978-1-4020-6778-5.  Broadwell, Valerie (2007). City
City
of Light, City
City
of Dark: Exploring Paris
Paris
Below. Valerie Broadwell. ISBN 978-1-4257-9022-6.  Burchell, S. C. (1971). Imperial Masquerade: The Paris
Paris
of Napoleon III. Atheneum.  Byrne, Jim (1987). Conflict and Change: Europe
Europe
1870–1966. Educational Company.  Byrne, Joseph P. (2012). Encyclopedia of the Black Death. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-254-8.  Castells, Manuel (1 January 1983). The City
City
and the Grassroots: A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-05617-6.  Castells, Manuel (1 January 1983). The City
City
and the Grassroots: A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-05617-6.  Chisholm, Hugh (1911). The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.  Clark, Linda L. (17 April 2008). Women and Achievement in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-65098-4.  Combeau, Yvan (2003). Histoire de Paris
Paris
(in French). Presses universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-053865-3.  Compayré, Gabriel (2004). Abelard And the Origin And Early History of Universities. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-4646-4.  Cunliffe, Barry (2004). Iron Age communities in Britain : an account of England, Scotland and Wales from the seventh century BC until the Roman conquest (4th ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-34779-2.  Daniel Jay Grimminger Ph.D. (15 November 2010). Paris. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4396-4101-9.  Damschroeder, David; Williams, David Russell (1990). Music Theory from Zarlino to Schenker: A Bibliography and Guide. Pendragon Press. ISBN 978-0-918728-99-9.  De Moncan, Patrice (2007). Les jardins du Baron Haussmann. Paris: Les Éditions du Mécène. ISBN 978-2-907970-914.  De Moncan, Patrice (2012). Le Paris
Paris
d'Haussmann. Paris: Les Editions du Mecene. ISBN 978-2-9079-70983.  Dominé, André (2014). Culinaria France. Cologne: Könemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbh. ISBN 978-3-8331-1129-7.  Dosch, Dee Davidson (2010). A Summer in '69. Strategic Book Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60976-878-2. Retrieved 12 October 2016.  Dottin, George (1920). La Langue Gauloise : Grammaire, Textes et Glossaire (in French). Paris: C. Klincksieck. ISBN 2051002088.  Dregni, Michael (1 November 2004). Django : The Life and Music of a Gypsy Legend: The Life and Music of a Gypsy Legend. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-803743-9.  Dregni, Michael (20 March 2008). Gypsy Jazz : In Search of Django Reinhardt and the Soul of Gypsy Swing: In Search of Django Reinhardt and the Soul of Gypsy Swing. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-804262-4.  Du Camp, Maxim (1875). Paris: ses organes, ses fonctions et sa vie jusqu'en 1870. G. Rondeau.  Dutton, Paul Edward (1994). The Politics of Dreaming in the Carolingian Empire. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-1653-2.  Esther Singleton (1912). Paris
Paris
as Seen and Described by Famous Writers ... Dodd, Mead & Company.  Evans, Graeme (2002). Cultural Planning: An Urban Renaissance?. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-45974-4.  Fallon, Steve; Williams, Nicola (2008). Paris
Paris
(7 ed.). Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-850-4.  Fierro, Alfred (1996). Histoire et dictionnaire de Paris. Lafont. ISBN 978-0-7859-9300-1.  Forsyth, David (1867). Marie Antoinette in the Conciergerie, a lecture.  Franck, Dan (March 2003). Bohemian Paris: Picasso, Modigliani, Matisse, and the Birth of Modern Art. Grove/Atlantic, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-8021-3997-9.  Fraser, Benjamin; Spalding, Steven D. (2011). Trains, Culture, and Mobility: Riding the Rails. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-6749-6.  Freundschuh, Aaron. The Courtesan and the Gigolo: The Murders in the Rue Montaigne and the Dark Side of Empire in Nineteenth-Century Paris (2017, Stanford University Press). ISBN 1-50360-082-3 Frommer's (22 May 2012). AARP Paris
Paris
2012. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-26621-2.  Garrioch, David (2002). The making of revolutionary Paris
Paris
[electronic resource]. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24327-9.  Goebel, Michael (2015). Anti-Imperial Metropolis: Interwar Paris
Paris
and the Seeds of Third World Nationalism. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107073050.  Goldstein, Natalie (2005). Droughts And Heat Waves: A Practical Survival Guide. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4042-0536-9.  Goodman, David C. (1999). The European Cities and Technology Reader: Industrial to Post-industrial City. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-20082-0.  Gordon, David (2006). Planning Twentieth Century Capital Cities. New York, NY: Routlege. ISBN 0-415-28061-3.  Haine, W. Scott (1998). The World of the Paris
Paris
Café: Sociability Among the French Working Class, 1789–1914. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6070-6.  Hall, Peter; Pain, Kathy (25 June 2012). The Polycentric Metropolis: Learning from Mega- City
City
Regions in Europe. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-54768-3.  Harding, Vanessa (2002). The Dead and the Living in Paris
Paris
and London, 1500–1670. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81126-2.  Hart, Alan (2004). Going to Live in Paris: How to Live and Work in France's Great Capital. How To Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85703-985-6.  Hargreaves, Alec Gordon; Kelsay, John; Twiss, Sumner B. (2007). Politics and Religion in France
France
and the United States. Rowman & Littlefield Pub Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-7391-1930-3.  Hassell, James E. (1991). Russian Refugees in France
France
and the United States Between the World Wars. American Philosophical Society. ISBN 978-0-87169-817-9.  Hazan, Eric (23 May 2011). The Invention of Paris: A History in Footsteps. Verso Books. ISBN 978-1-84467-800-6.  Hervé, Peter (1818). A Chronological Account of the History of France.  Higonnet, Patrice L. R. (30 June 2009). Paris: Capital of the World. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03864-6.  Horne, Alistair (2003). Seven Ages of Paris. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-45481-0.  d'Istria, Robert Colonna (2002). Paris
Paris
and Versailles. Editions Marcus. ISBN 978-2-7131-0202-8.  Jefferson, David (2009). Through the French Canals (12th ed.). ISBN 978-1-4081-0381-4.  Jones, Colin (2006). Paris: Biography of a City. Penguin Adult. ISBN 978-0-14-028292-4.  Jarrassé, Dominique (2007). Grammaire des jardins parisiens: de l'héritage des rois aux créations contemporaines (in French). Parigramme.  Kaberry, Rachel; Brown, Amy K. (2001). Paris. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-679-2.  Korgen, Kathleen Odell; White, Jonathan Michael (2008). The Engaged Sociologist: Connecting the Classroom to the Community. Pine Forge Press. ISBN 978-1-4129-6900-0.  Knapp, Andrew; Wright, Vincent (2006). The Government and Politics of France. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-35732-6.  Krinsky, Carol Herselle (1996). Synagogues of Europe: Architecture, History, Meaning. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-29078-6.  Lawrence, Rachel; Gondrand, Fabienne (2010). Paris
Paris
( City
City
Guide) (12th ed.). London: Insight Guides. ISBN 9789812820792.  Leclanche, Maria Spyropoulou (1998). Le refrain dans la chanson française: de Bruant à Renaud. Presses Univ. Limoges. ISBN 978-2-84287-096-6.  Lester, Paul Martin (2006). Visual Communication: Images with Messages. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-534-63720-0.  Madge, Charles; Willmott, Peter (2006). Inner City
City
Poverty in Paris and London. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-41762-4.  Margerison, Charles (19 April 2011). Amazing People of Paris: Inspirational Stories. Amazing People Club. ISBN 978-1-921752-37-7.  Martin, Michel (2013). Windows 8: Le guide de référence. Pearson Education France. ISBN 978-2-7440-2543-3.  Masson, Jean-Louis (1984). Provinces, départements, régions: l'organisation administrative de la France. Fernand Lanore.  Mehra, Ajay K.; Levy, Rene (2011). The Police, State and Society: Perspectives from India
India
and France. Pearson Education India. ISBN 978-81-317-3145-1.  Metzelthin, Pearl Violette Newfield (1981). Gourmet. Condé Nast Publications.  Meunier, Florian (2014). Le Paris
Paris
du Moyen Âge (in French). Éditions Ouest-France. ISBN 978-2737362170.  Michelin (1 April 2011). Paris
Paris
Green Guide Michelin 2012–2013. Michelin. ISBN 978-2-06-718220-2.  Montclos, Jean-Marie Perouse De (28 October 2003). Paris, City
City
of Art. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 978-0-86565-226-2.  Modood, Tariq; Triandafyllidou, Anna; Zapata-Barrero, Ricard (2012). Multiculturalism, Muslims and Citizenship: A European Approach. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-25561-0.  Mroue, Haas (2006). Frommer's Memorable Walks in Paris. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-03712-6.  Nevez, Catherine Le (1 October 2010). Paris
Paris
Encounter. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74220-503-8.  Newman, Peter; Thornley, Andy (12 April 2002). Urban Planning in Europe: International Competition, National Systems and Planning Projects. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-203-42794-1.  Oscherwitz, Dayna (2010). Past Forward: French Cinema and the Post-Colonial Heritage. SIU Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-8093-8588-1.  Overy, Richard (2006). Why the Allies Won. Pimlico. ISBN 1-84595-065-8.  Paine, Thomas (1998). Rights of Man, Common Sense, and Other Political Writings. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-283557-4.  Papayanis, Nicholas (2004). Planning Paris
Paris
Before Haussmann. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-7930-2.  Perry, Gillian (January 1995). Women Artists and the Parisian Avant-garde: Modernism and 'feminine Art' Art, 1900 to the Late 1920s. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-4165-5.  Perry, Marvin; Chase, Myrna; Jacob, James R.; Jacob, Margaret C.; Von Laue, Theodore H. (2011). Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society: from 1600: Ideas, Politics, and Society: From the 1600s (10th ed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-111-83171-4.  Phillips, Betty Lou (2005). The French Connection. Gibbs Smith. ISBN 978-1-58685-529-1.  Rand, Tom (2010). Kick the Fossil Fuel Habit: 10 Clean Technologies to Save Our World. Greenleaf Book Group. ISBN 978-0-9812952-0-6.  Robb, Graham (2010). Parisians: An Adventure History of Paris. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-330-52254-0.  Robertson, Jamie Cox (2010). A Literary Paris: Hemingway, Colette, Sedaris, and Others on the Uncommon Lure of the City
City
of Light. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-1-4405-0740-3.  Rodgers, Eamonn J. (1999). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-415-13187-2.  Rougerie, Jacques (2014). La Commune de 1871. Paris: Presses universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-062078-5.  Rousseau, George Sebastian (2004). Yourcenar. Haus Bublishing. ISBN 978-1-904341-28-4.  Ruth Blackmore; James McConnachie (2004). Rough Guide Paris Directions. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-317-7.  Ryersson, Scot D.; Yaccarino, Michael Orlando (2004). Infinite variety: the life and legend of the Marchesa Casati. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4520-6.  Sarmant, Thierry (2012). Histoire de Paris: politique, urbanisme, civilisation (in French). Editions Gisserot. ISBN 978-2-7558-0330-3.  Schmidt, Joël (2009). Lutèce: Paris, des origines à Clovis. Perrin. ISBN 978-2-262-03015-5.  Schumacher, Claude (26 September 1996). Naturalism and Symbolism in European Theatre 1850–1918. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23014-8.  Shack, William A., Harlem in Montmartre, A Paris
Paris
Jazz
Jazz
Story between the Great Wars, University of California Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-520-22537-4, Shales, Melissa (2007). Paris. New Holland Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84537-661-1.  Simmer (1997). Innovation Networks and Learning Regions?. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-11-702360-4.  Steele, Valerie (1 December 1998). Paris
Paris
Fashion: A Cultural History. Berg. ISBN 978-1-85973-973-0.  Sutherland, Cara (2003). The Statue of Liberty. Barnes & Noble Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7607-3890-0.  Tallett, Frank; Atkin, Nicholas (1991). Religion, Society and Politics in France
France
Since 1789. Continuum. ISBN 978-1-85285-057-9.  Tellier, Luc-Normand (2009). Urban World History: An Economic and Geographical Perspective. PUQ. ISBN 978-2-7605-2209-1.  Tomas, François; Blanc, Jean-Noël; Bonilla, Mario; IERP (2003). Les grands ensembles: une histoire qui continue. Université de Saint-Étienne. p. 237. ISBN 978-2-86272-260-3.  Jacques (de Vitry); Jacobus de Vitriaco; John Frederick Hinnebusch (1972). The Historia Occidentalis of Jacques de Vitry. Saint-Paul. GGKEY:R8CJPKJJK4D.  Weingardt, Richard (2009). Circles in the Sky: The Life and Times of George Ferris. ASCE Publications. ISBN 978-0-7844-1010-3.  Whaley, Joachim (2012). Mirrors of Mortality (Routledge Revivals): Social Studies in the History of Death. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-81060-2.  Woolley, Reginald Maxwell (1915). Coronation Rites. Cambridge University Press.  Yarri, Monique (2008). Rethinking the French City: Architecture, Dwelling, and Display After 1968. Amsterdam, New York: Editions Rodopi B.V. ISBN 978-90-420-2500-4.  Zarka, Yves Charles; Taussig, Sylvie; Fleury, Cynthia (2004). "Les contours d'une population susceptible d'être musulmane d'après la filiation". L'Islam en France. Presses universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-053723-6. 

Further reading[edit] Main article: Bibliography of Paris

Vincent Cronin
Vincent Cronin
(1989). Paris
Paris
on the Eve, 1900–1914. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-312-04876-9.  Vincent Cronin
Vincent Cronin
(1994). Paris: City
City
of Light, 1919–1939. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-215191-X.  Jean Favier (23 April 1997). Paris
Paris
(in French). Fayard. ISBN 2-213-59874-6.  Jacques Hillairet (22 April 2005). Connaissance du Vieux Paris
Paris
(in French). Rivages. ISBN 2-86930-648-2.  Colin Jones (2004). Paris: The Biography of a City. New York: Penguin Viking. ISBN 0-670-03393-6.  Bernard Marchand (1993). Paris, histoire d'une ville : XIXe-XXe siècle (in French). Paris: Le Seuil. ISBN 978-2-02-012864-3.  Rosemary Wakeman (2009). The Heroic City: Paris, 1945–1958. University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. ISBN 978-0-226-87023-6. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutParisat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official website (in French) Expatriates Magazine – Printed Publication circulated inside Paris Paris
Paris
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) History of Paris

Administrative structures

v t e

Communes in the Metropolitan Area of Paris

Population over 2 million

City
City
of Paris

Population over 100,000

Argenteuil Boulogne-Billancourt Montreuil Saint-Denis

Population over 75,000

Asnières-sur-Seine Aubervilliers Aulnay-sous-Bois Champigny-sur-Marne Colombes Courbevoie Créteil Nanterre Rueil-Malmaison Versailles Vitry-sur-Seine

Population over 50,000

Antony Le Blanc-Mesnil Bondy Cergy Chelles Clamart Clichy Drancy Épinay-sur-Seine Évry Fontenay-sous-Bois Issy-les-Moulineaux Ivry-sur-Seine Levallois-Perret Maisons-Alfort Meaux Neuilly-sur-Seine Noisy-le-Grand Pantin Saint-Maur-des-Fossés Sarcelles Sartrouville Sevran Villejuif

Population over 25,000

Alfortville Athis-Mons Bagneux Bagnolet Bezons Bobigny Bois-Colombes Brunoy Bussy-Saint-Georges Cachan Charenton-le-Pont Châtenay-Malabry Châtillon Chatou Le Chesnay Choisy-le-Roi Clichy-sous-Bois Conflans-Sainte-Honorine Corbeil-Essonnes La Courneuve Draveil Élancourt Ermont Franconville Fresnes Gagny La Garenne-Colombes Garges-lès-Gonesse Gennevilliers Gonesse Goussainville Grigny Guyancourt L'Haÿ-les-Roses Herblay Houilles Le Kremlin-Bicêtre Livry-Gargan Malakoff Mantes-la-Jolie Massy Melun Meudon Montfermeil Montigny-le-Bretonneux Montrouge Les Mureaux Neuilly-sur-Marne Nogent-sur-Marne Noisy-le-Sec Palaiseau Le Perreux-sur-Marne Pierrefitte-sur-Seine Plaisir Le Plessis-Robinson Poissy Pontault-Combault Pontoise Puteaux Rambouillet Ris-Orangis Romainville Rosny-sous-Bois Saint-Cloud Saint-Germain-en-Laye Saint-Ouen Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Sannois Savigny-sur-Orge Savigny-le-Temple Stains Sucy-en-Brie Suresnes Taverny Thiais Trappes Tremblay-en-France Vanves Vigneux-sur-Seine Villemomble Villeneuve-la-Garenne Villeneuve-Saint-Georges Villeparisis Villepinte Villiers-le-Bel Villiers-sur-Marne Vincennes Viry-Châtillon Yerres

Population under 25,000

1,669 other communes

v t e

Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint- Denis
Denis
(Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Prefectures of the regions of France

Metropolitan France

Lyon
Lyon
(Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Dijon
Dijon
(Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) Rennes
Rennes
(Brittany) Orléans
Orléans
(Centre-Val de Loire) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corsica) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Grand Est) Lille
Lille
(Hauts-de-France) Paris
Paris
(Île-de-France) Rouen
Rouen
(Normandy) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Nouvelle-Aquitaine) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Occitanie) Nantes
Nantes
(Pays de la Loire) Marseille
Marseille
(Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur)

Overseas regions

Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte) Saint- Denis
Denis
(Réunion)

v t e

Departments of France

01 Ain 02 Aisne 03 Allier 04 Alpes-de-Haute-Provence 05 Hautes-Alpes 06 Alpes-Maritimes 07 Ardèche 08 Ardennes 09 Ariège 10 Aube 11 Aude 12 Aveyron 13 Bouches-du-Rhône 14 Calvados 15 Cantal 16 Charente 17 Charente-Maritime 18 Cher 19 Corrèze 2A Corse-du-Sud 2B Haute-Corse 21 Côte-d'Or 22 Côtes-d'Armor 23 Creuse 24 Dordogne 25 Doubs 26 Drôme 27 Eure 28 Eure-et-Loir 29 Finistère 30 Gard 31 Haute-Garonne 32 Gers 33 Gironde 34 Hérault 35 Ille-et-Vilaine 36 Indre 37 Indre-et-Loire 38 Isère 39 Jura 40 Landes 41 Loir-et-Cher 42 Loire 43 Haute-Loire 44 Loire-Atlantique 45 Loiret 46 Lot 47 Lot-et-Garonne 48 Lozère 49 Maine-et-Loire 50 Manche 51 Marne 52 Haute-Marne 53 Mayenne 54 Meurthe-et-Moselle 55 Meuse 56 Morbihan 57 Moselle 58 Nièvre 59 Nord 60 Oise 61 Orne 62 Pas-de-Calais 63 Puy-de-Dôme 64 Pyrénées-Atlantiques 65 Hautes-Pyrénées 66 Pyrénées-Orientales 67 Bas-Rhin 68 Haut-Rhin 69D Rhône 70 Haute-Saône 71 Saône-et-Loire 72 Sarthe 73 Savoie 74 Haute-Savoie 75 Paris 76 Seine-Maritime 77 Seine-et-Marne 78 Yvelines 79 Deux-Sèvres 80 Somme 81 Tarn 82 Tarn-et-Garonne 83 Var 84 Vaucluse 85 Vendée 86 Vienne 87 Haute-Vienne 88 Vosges 89 Yonne 90 Territoire de Belfort 91 Essonne 92 Hauts-de-Seine 93 Seine-Saint-Denis 94 Val-de-Marne 95 Val-d'Oise

Overseas departments 971 Guadeloupe 972 Martinique 973 French Guiana 974 Réunion 976 Mayotte

Metropolis with territorial collectivity statute 69M Lyon

v t e

Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest

History Host cities Languages Presenters Rules Voting Winners Winners discography

Contests

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Countries

Active

Albania Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Inactive

Andorra Bosnia and Herzegovina Luxembourg Monaco Morocco Slovakia Turkey

Former

Lebanon Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro Yugoslavia

Relations

Armenia–Azerbaijan Russia–Ukraine

National selections

Current

Albania Armenia Belarus Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Former

Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Finland Greece

Ellinikós Telikós Eurosong - A MAD Show

Ireland

The Late Late Show You're a Star

Israel Latvia

Eirodziesma Dziesma

Lithuania Macedonia Malta Montenegro Netherlands Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Yugoslavia

Other awards

Marcel Bezençon Awards OGAE

OGAE
OGAE
Video Contest OGAE
OGAE
Second Chance Contest

Barbara Dex Award

Television and concerts

Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest Best of Eurovision Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest's Greatest Hits

Category Portal

Paris
Paris
in the European Union

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia
Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago
Santiago
de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City
City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

Tourism in Paris

Landmarks

Arc de Triomphe Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
du Carrousel Arènes de Lutèce Bourse Catacombs Conciergerie Eiffel Tower Flame of Liberty Grand Palais
Grand Palais
and Petit Palais Institut de France Jeanne d'Arc Les Invalides Louvre
Louvre
Pyramid Luxor Obelisk Odéon Opéra Bastille Opéra Garnier Panthéon Philharmonie de Paris Porte Saint-Denis Porte Saint-Martin Sorbonne Tour Montparnasse

Museums

Bibliothèque nationale Carnavalet Centre Pompidou/Beaubourg Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie Jeu de Paume Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton
Foundation Musée des Arts Décoratifs Musée des Arts et Métiers Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Musée Cognacq-Jay Musée Grévin Musée Guimet Maison de Victor Hugo Musée Jacquemart-André Musée du Louvre Musée Marmottan Monet Musée de Montmartre Musée National d'Art Moderne Musée national Eugène Delacroix Musée national Gustave Moreau Musée national des Monuments Français Muséum national d'histoire naturelle Musée national du Moyen Âge Musée de l'Orangerie Musée d'Orsay Musée Pasteur Musée Picasso Musée du quai Branly Musée Rodin Palais de la Légion d'Honneur

Musée de la Légion d'honneur

Musée de la Vie Romantique

Religious buildings

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral American Cathedral American Church Chapelle expiatoire Grand Mosque Grand Synagogue La Madeleine Notre-Dame de Paris Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle Notre-Dame-de-Lorette Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Sacré-Cœur Saint Ambroise Saint-Augustin Saint-Étienne-du-Mont Saint-Eustache Saint-François-Xavier Saint-Germain-des-Prés Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois Saint-Gervais-Saint-Protais Saint-Jacques Tower Saint-Jean-de-Montmartre Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis Saint-Pierre de Montmartre Saint-Roch Saint-Sulpice Saint-Vincent-de-Paul Sainte-Chapelle Sainte-Clotilde Sainte-Trinité Temple du Marais Val-de-Grâce

Hôtels particuliers and palaces

Élysée Palace Hôtel de Beauvais Hôtel de Charost Hôtel de Crillon Hôtel d'Estrées Hôtel de la Païva Hôtel de Pontalba Hôtel de Sens Hôtel de Soubise Hôtel de Sully Hôtel de Ville Hôtel Lambert Hôtel Matignon Luxembourg Palace
Luxembourg Palace
(Petit Luxembourg) Palais Bourbon Palais de Justice Palais-Royal

Areas, bridges, streets and squares

Avenue Foch Avenue George V Champ de Mars Champs-Élysées Covered passages

Galerie Véro-Dodat Choiseul Panoramas Galerie Vivienne Havre Jouffroy Brady

Latin Quarter Le Marais Montmartre Montparnasse Place Dauphine Place de la Bastille Place de la Concorde Place de la Nation Place de la République Place Denfert-Rochereau Place des États-Unis Place des Pyramides Place des Victoires Place des Vosges Place du Carrousel Place du Châtelet Place du Tertre Place Saint-Michel Place Vendôme Pont Alexandre III Pont d'Iéna Pont de Bir-Hakeim Pont des Arts Pont Neuf Rive Gauche Rue de Rivoli Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré Saint-Germain-des-Prés Trocadéro

Parks and gardens

Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Jardin d'Acclimatation Jardin du Luxembourg Parc des Buttes Chaumont Parc Montsouris Tuileries Garden

Cemeteries

Montmartre
Montmartre
Cemetery Montparnasse
Montparnasse
Cemetery Passy Cemetery Père Lachaise Cemetery Picpus Cemetery

Région parisienne

Chantilly La Défense

Grande Arche

Disneyland Paris Écouen Fontainebleau France
France
Miniature Malmaison Musée de l’air et de l’espace Musée Fragonard d'Alfort Parc Astérix Provins Rambouillet La Roche-Guyon Basilica of St Denis Saint-Germain-en-Laye Sceaux Stade de France U Arena Vaux-le-Vicomte Palace and Gardens of Versailles Vincennes

Events and traditions

Bastille
Bastille
Day military parade Fête de la Musique Nuit Blanche Paris
Paris
Air Show Paris-Plages Republican Guard

Other

Le Bateau-Lavoir La Ruche Café des 2 Moulins Café Procope Les Deux Magots Maxim's Moulin de la Galette Moulin Rouge

Related

Paris
Paris
Musées Axe historique

Paris
Paris
Métro Bateaux Mouches

v t e

Paris
Paris
transport network

Métro

Planned

RER

Transilien

Paris
Paris
Est Paris
Paris
Nord Paris
Paris
Saint-Lazare Paris
Paris
La Défense
La Défense
Paris
Paris
Montparnasse
Montparnasse
Paris
Paris
Sud-Est

Tramway

Planned

Bus

RATP Noctilien

Others

CDGVAL Orlyval Montmartre
Montmartre
Funicular

Projects

Grand Paris
Grand Paris
Express CDG Express

Admin and finance

Île-de- France
France
Mobilités RATP Group SNCF Optile Keolis Transkeo Transdev

Fares and tickets Versement transport

Related articles

Architecture Ghost stations Ticket "t+"

v t e

Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
host cities

1896: Athens 1900: Paris 1904: St. Louis 1908: London 1912: Stockholm 1916: None[c1] 1920: Antwerp 1924: Paris 1928: Amsterdam 1932: Los Angeles 1936: Berlin 1940: None[c2] 1944: None[c2] 1948: London 1952: Helsinki 1956: Melbourne 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Mexico
Mexico
City 1972: Munich 1976: Montreal 1980: Moscow 1984: Los Angeles 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II

v t e

Summer Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
host cities

1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Tel Aviv 1972: Heidelberg 1976: Toronto

1980: Arnhem 1984: New York City
City
/ Stoke Mandeville 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona
Barcelona
/ Madrid 1996: Atlanta

2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London

2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City
City
(Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 158822968 LCCN: n79058874 ISNI: 0000 0001 2114 268X GND: 4044660-8 SUDOC: 080467008 BNF: cb152821567 (data) HDS: