Otto (Greek: Όθων, Óthon; 1 June 1815 – 26 July 1867) was a Bavarian prince who became the first modern King of Greece
in 1832 under the Convention of London. He reigned until he was deposed in 1862. The second son of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, Otto ascended the newly created throne of Greece
while still a minor. His government was initially run by a three-man regency council made up of Bavarian court officials. Upon reaching his majority, Otto removed the regents when they proved unpopular with the people and he ruled as an absolute monarch. Eventually his subjects' demands for a Constitution
proved overwhelming, and in the face of an armed but bloodless insurrection Otto in 1843 granted a constitution. Throughout his reign Otto was unable to resolve Greece's poverty and prevent economic meddling from outside. Greek politics in this era was based on affiliations with the three Great Powers, and Otto's ability to maintain the support of the powers was key to his remaining in power. To remain strong, Otto had to play the interests of each of the Great Powers' Greek adherents against the others, while not aggravating the Great Powers. When Greece
was blockaded by the British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
in 1850 and again in 1854, to stop Greece
from attacking the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
during the Crimean War, Otto's standing amongst Greeks suffered. As a result, there was an assassination attempt on the Queen, and finally in 1862 Otto was deposed while in the countryside. He died in exile in Bavaria
in 1867.


1 Early life and reign 2 Parties, finances and the church 3 3 September 1843 Revolution 4 Crimean War 5 Exile and death 6 Ancestors 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Early life and reign[edit]

A portrait by Gottlieb Bodmer

Further information: Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ioannis Kapodistrias
and Augustinos Kapodistrias Otto was born as Prince Otto Friedrich Ludwig of Bavaria
at Schloss Mirabell in Salzburg
(when it briefly belonged to the Kingdom of Bavaria),[1] as second son of Crown Prince Ludwig I of Bavaria
Ludwig I of Bavaria
and Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen. His father served there as Bavarian governor-general. Through his ancestor, the Bavarian Duke John II, Otto was a descendant of the Byzantine imperial dynasties of Komnenos and Laskaris. When he was elected king, the Great Powers
Great Powers
extracted a pledge from Otto's father to restrain him from hostile actions against the Ottoman Empire. They also insisted that his title be "King of Greece", rather than "King of the Hellenes", because the latter would imply a claim over the millions of Greeks then still under Turkish rule. Aged not quite 18, the young prince arrived in Greece
with 3,500 Bavarian troops (the Bavarian Auxiliary Corps) and three Bavarian advisors aboard the British frigate HMS Madagascar. Although he did not speak Greek, he immediately endeared himself to his adopted country by adopting the Greek national costume and Hellenizing his name to "Othon" (some English sources, such as Encyclopædia Britannica, call him "Otho"). Otto's reign is usually divided into three periods:

The years of Regency: 1832–1835 The years of Absolute Monarchy: 1835–1843 The years of Constitutional Monarchy: 1843–1862

The Bavarian advisors were arrayed in a Regency Council, headed by Count Josef Ludwig von Armansperg, who, in Bavaria
as minister of finance, had recently succeeded in restoring Bavarian credit, at the cost of his popularity. Von Armansperg was the President of the Privy Council, and the first representative (or Prime Minister) of the new Greek government. The other members of the Regency Council were Karl von Abel and Georg Ludwig von Maurer, with whom von Armansperg often clashed. After the King reached his majority in 1835, von Armansperg was made Arch-Secretary, but was called Arch-Chancellor by the Greek press.

Map showing the original territory of the Kingdom of Greece, as laid down in the treaty of 1832 (in dark blue)

Britain and the Rothschild bank, who were underwriting the Greek loans, insisted on financial stringency from Armansperg. The Greeks were soon more heavily taxed than under Turkish rule;[2] as the people saw it, they had exchanged a hated Ottoman tyranny,[speculation?] which they understood, for government by a foreign bureaucracy, the "Bavarocracy" (Βαυαροκρατία), which they despised. In addition, the regency showed little respect for local customs. As a Roman Catholic, Otto himself was viewed as a heretic by many pious Greeks; however, his heirs would have to be Orthodox, according to the terms of the 1843 Constitution.[3] King Otto brought his personal brewmaster with him, Herr Fuchs, a Bavarian who stayed in Greece
after Otto's departure, and introduced Greece
to beer, under the label "Fix".[4] Popular heroes and leaders of the Greek Revolution, such as Generals Theodoros Kolokotronis
Theodoros Kolokotronis
and Yiannis Makriyiannis, who opposed the Bavarian-dominated regency, were charged with treason, put in jail and sentenced to death. They were later pardoned under popular pressure, while Greek judges who resisted Bavarian pressure and refused to sign the death warrants ( Anastasios Polyzoidis
Anastasios Polyzoidis
and Georgios Tertsetis, for instance), were saluted as heroes. Otto's early reign was also notable for his moving the capital of Greece
from Nafplion
to Athens. His first task as king was to make a detailed archaeological and topographic survey of Athens. He assigned Gustav Eduard Schaubert
Gustav Eduard Schaubert
and Stamatios Kleanthis[5] to complete this task. At that time, Athens
had a population of roughly 4,000–5,000 people, located mainly in what today covers the district of Plaka in Athens.

"The Entry of King Otto in Athens" by Peter von Hess, 1839

Men of the Royal Gendarmerie Corps which was established after the enthronement of Otto in 1833

was chosen as the Greek capital for historical and sentimental reasons, not because it was a large city. At the time, it was a town consisting of only 400 houses at the foot of the Acropolis. A modern city plan was laid out, and public buildings erected. The finest legacy of this period are the buildings of the University of Athens (1837, under the name Othonian University), the Athens
Polytechnic University (1837, under the name Royal School of Arts), the National Gardens of Athens
(1840), the National Library of Greece
National Library of Greece
(1842), the Old Royal Palace
Old Royal Palace
(now the Greek Parliament Building, 1843), and the Old Parliament Building (1858). Schools and hospitals were established all over the (still small) Greek dominion, Due to the negative feelings of the Greek people toward non-Greek rule, historical attention to this aspect of his reign has been neglected. During 1836–37, Otto visited Germany, marrying a beautiful and talented 17-year-old, Duchess Amalia (Amelie) of Oldenburg
(21 December 1818 to 20 May 1875). The wedding took place not in Greece, but in Oldenburg, on 22 November 1836; the marriage did not produce an heir, and the new queen made herself unpopular by interfering in the government and maintaining her Lutheran
faith. Otto was unfaithful to his wife, and had a liaison with Jane Digby, a notorious woman his father had previously taken as a lover.[6] Due to his having overtly undermined the king, Armansperg was dismissed from his duties by King Otto immediately upon his return from Germany. However, despite high hopes on the part of the Greeks, the Bavarian Rudhart was appointed chief minister, and the granting of a constitution was again postponed. The attempts of Otto to conciliate Greek sentiment through efforts to enlarge the frontiers of his kingdom, for example, by the suggested acquisition of Crete
in 1841, failed in their objective, and only succeeded in embroiling him in conflict with the Great Powers.[citation needed] Parties, finances and the church[edit] Main article: Early Greek Parties

Personal coat of arms of Otto

Throughout his reign, King Otto found himself confronted by a recurring series of problems: partisanship of the Greeks, financial uncertainty, and ecclesiastical disputes. Greek parties in the Othonian era were based on two factors: the political activities of the diplomatic representatives of the Great Powers: Russia, United Kingdom and France and the affiliation of Greek political figures with these diplomats.[citation needed]

A romantic portrayal of Otto in Evzonas uniform, in front of ancient Greek ruins, by Gottlieb Bodmer

Financial uncertainty of the Othonian monarchy was the result of

1) Greece's poverty, 2) the concentration of land in the hands of a small number of wealthy "primates" like the Mavromichalis family of Mani,


3) the promise of 60,000,000 francs in loans from the Great Powers, which kept these nations involved in Greek internal affairs and the Crown constantly seeking to please one or the other power to ensure the flow of funds.[3]

The political machinations of the Great Powers
Great Powers
were personified in their three legates in Athens: the French Theobald Piscatory, the Russian Gabriel Catacazy, and the English Edmund Lyons. They informed their home governments on the activities of the Greeks, while serving as advisers to their respective allied parties within Greece. Otto pursued policies, such as balancing power among all the parties and sharing offices among the parties, ostensibly to reduce the power of the parties while trying to bring a pro-Othon party into being. The parties, however, became the entree into government power and financial stability. The effect of his (and his advisors') policies was to make the Great Powers' parties more powerful, not less. The Great Powers
Great Powers
did not support curtailing Otto's increasing absolutism, however, which resulted in a near permanent conflict between Otto's absolute monarchy and the power bases of his Greek subjects.[2] Otto found himself confronted by a number of intractable ecclesiastical issues: 1) monasticism, 2) Autocephaly, 3) the king as head of the Church and 4) toleration of other churches. His regents, Armansperg and Rundhart, established a controversial policy of suppressing the monasteries. This was very upsetting to the Church hierarchy. Russia was self-considered as stalwart defender of Orthodoxy but Orthodox believers were found in all three parties. Once he rid himself of his Bavarian advisers, Otto allowed the statutory dissolution of the monasteries to lapse. By tradition dated back to the Byzantine era, the king was regarded by the Church as part of her head. On the issue of Church's Autocephaly and his role as king within the Church, Otto was overwhelmed by the arcana of Orthodox Church doctrine and popular discontent with his Roman Catholicism[2] (while the Queen was Protestant). In 1833, the regents had unilaterally declared the Autocephaly
of the Church of Greece. This was a recognition of the de facto political situation, as the Patriarch of Constantinople was partially under the political control of the Ottoman Empire. However, faithful people—concerned that having a Catholic as the head of the Church of Greece
would weaken the Orthodox Church—criticised the unilateral declaration of Autocephaly
as non-canonical. For the same reason, they likewise resisted the foreign, mostly Protestant, missionaries who established schools throughout Greece.

Otto with Amalia on a ride through Athens

Tolerance of other religions was over-supported by some in the English Party and others educated in the West as a symbol of Greece's progress as a liberal European state. In the end, power over the Church and education was ceded to the Russian Party, while the King maintained a veto over the decision of the Synod
of Bishops. This was to keep balance and avoid discrediting Greece
in the eyes of Western Europe as a backward, religiously intolerant society.[2] Greek society was in reality very tolerant of other religions. But after 400 years of religious oppression by the Ottomans, Greeks were very suspicious of imposed "Liberal European progress". Such forced "progress" was viewed as one more attempt against their faith and against their own understanding of freedom, as the main motto of the Greek Revolution was "for the holy faith of Christ and the freedom of the homeland"; home and faith were inseparable, given also that the Church was the main contributor to the survival of the Greek language and Greek consciousness during Turkish occupation. Catholic communities were already established in Greece
since the 13th century (Athens, Cyclades, Chios, Crete). Jewish communities also existed in the country, those arriving after the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492) joining the earlier Romaniotes, Jews who had been living there since the times of Apostle Paul.[7] Muslim families were still living in Greece
during Otto's reign, since hostility was mainly against the Ottoman state and its depressive mechanisms and not against Muslim people. 3 September 1843 Revolution[edit] Main article: 3 September 1843 Revolution

A painting representing the 3 September 1843 Revolution

Although King Otto tried to function as an absolute monarch, as Thomas Gallant writes, he "was neither ruthless enough to be feared, nor compassionate enough to be loved, nor competent enough to be respected."[8] By 1843, public dissatisfaction with him had reached crisis proportions and there were demands for a Constitution. Initially Otto refused to grant a Constitution, but as soon as Bavarian troops were withdrawn from the kingdom, a popular revolt was launched. On 3 September 1843, the infantry led by Colonel Dimitris Kallergis and the respected Revolutionary captain and former President of the Athens
City Council General Yiannis Makriyiannis
Yiannis Makriyiannis
assembled in Palace Square in front of the Palace in Athens.[3] Eventually joined by much of the population of the small capital, the rebellion refused to disperse until the King agreed to grant a Constitution, which would require that there be Greeks in the Council, that he convene a permanent National Assembly and that Otto personally thank the leaders of the uprising. Left with little recourse now that his German troops were gone, King Otto gave in to the pressure and agreed to the demands of the crowd over the objections of his opinionated Queen. This square was renamed Constitution
Square (Πλατεία Συντάγματος) to commemorate (through to the present) the events of September 1843—and to feature many later tumultuous events of Greek history.[9] Now for the first time, the king had Greeks in his Council and the French Party, the English Party and the Russian Party (according to which of the Great Powers' culture they most esteemed) vied for rank and power. The King's prestige, which was based in large part on his support by the combined Great Powers, but mostly the support of the British, suffered in the Pacifico incident of 1850, when British Foreign Secretary Palmerston sent the British fleet to blockade the port of Piraeus
with warships, to exact reparation for injustice done to a British subject.[10] Crimean War[edit] See also: Epirus revolt of 1854 The Great Idea (Μεγάλη Ιδέα), the dream of uniting all Greek populations of the Ottoman Empire, thereby restoring the Byzantine Empire under Christian rule, led him to contemplate entering the Crimean War
Crimean War
on the side of Russia against Turkey and its British and French allies in 1853; the enterprise was unsuccessful, and resulted in renewed intervention by the two Great Powers
Great Powers
and a second blockade of Piraeus
port, forcing Greece
to neutrality. In 1861, a student named Aristeidis Dosios (son of politician Konstantinos Dosios)[11] attempted to murder Queen Amalia, and was openly hailed as a hero. His attempt, however, also prompted spontaneous feelings of monarchism and sympathy towards the royal couple among the Greek population.[11] Exile and death[edit] Main article: 23 October 1862 Revolution

The expulsion of Otto in 1862 as portrayed in a popular colour lithography

Otto in Bavaria, 1865

While on a visit to the Peloponnese
in 1862 a new coup was launched and this time a Provisional Government was set up and summoned a National Convention. Ambassadors of the Great Powers
Great Powers
urged King Otto not to resist, and the king and queen took refuge on a British warship and returned to Bavaria
aboard (the same way they had come to Greece) taking with them the Greek royal regalia which they had brought from Bavaria
in 1832. It has been suggested that had Otto and Amalia borne an heir, then the King would not have been overthrown, as succession was also a major unresolved question at the time.[12] It is also true, however, that the Constitution
of 1843 made provision for his succession by his two younger brothers and their descendants. He died in the palace of the former bishops of Bamberg, Germany, and was buried in the Theatiner Church in Munich. During his retirement, he would still wear the Greek traditional uniform, nowadays worn only by the evzones (Presidential Guards). Αccording to witnesses, Otto's last words were "Greece, my Greece, my beloved Greece".[13] Ancestors[edit]

Ancestors of Otto of Greece

16. Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken

8. Frederick Michael, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken

17. Countess Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken

4. Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria

18. Joseph Charles, Hereditary Prince of Sulzbach

9. Countess Palatine Maria Franziska of Sulzbach

19. Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste Sofie of Neuburg

2. Ludwig I of Bavaria

20. Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt

10. Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt

21. Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg

5. Princess Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt

22. Count Christian Karl Reinhard of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg

11. Countess Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg

23. Countess Katharina Polyxena of Solms-Rödelheim

1. Otto I of Greece

24. Ernest Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen

12. Ernest Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen

25. Countess Caroline of Erbach-Fürstenau

6. Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg

26. Ernest Augustus I, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

13. Princess Ernestine of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

27. Princess Sophie Charlotte of Brandenburg-Bayreuth

3. Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen

28. Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

14. Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

29. Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen

7. Duchess Charlotte Georgine of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

30. Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt
Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt
(= 10)

15. Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt

31. Countess Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg (= 11)


^ "Salzburger Schlosskonzerte website". Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2010.  ^ a b c d Petropulos, John A. (1968). Politics and Statecraft in the Kingdom of Greece. Princeton University Press.  ^ a b c Clogg, Richard (1979). A Short History of Modern Greece. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-32837-3.  ^ ^ Tung, Anthony (2001). Preserving the World's Great Cities: The Destruction and Renewal of the Historic Metropolis. New York: Three RIvers Press. pp. 256–260. ISBN 0-609-80815-X.  ^ Lovell, Mary S., A Scandalous Life: The Biography of Jane Digby (Fourth Estate, 1996) ISBN 978-1-85702-469-2 ^ Bowman, "The Jews of Greece", 421–422 (PDF) ^ Gallant, Thomas W., Modern Greece
(Oxford University Press, 2003) ISBN 0-340-76336-1 ^ Tompkinson, John L., Athens: The City (Anagnosis Books, 1996) ISBN 960-87186-0-0 ^ Pacifico was a Jew of Portuguese nationality, merchant and the Portuguese Consul in Athens, who accidentally was also British citizen because he was born in Gibraltar. After a robbery in his shop he asked for compensation from the Greek state but nobody paid attention to him, not even the Portuguese government. Finally, he asked for help from the British ambassador, and his case was turned into the blockade of the port of Piraeus
by the British Fleet. ^ a b Brekis, Spyros (2003). Ίστορια της Νεώτερας Ελλάδος [History of Modern Greece] (in Greek).  ^ John Van der Kiste, Kings of the Hellenes (Sutton Publishing, 1994) ISBN 0-7509-2147-1 ^ Gallant 2015: 142-3; 2016: 73


Bower, Leonard, and Gordon Bolitho. Otho I, King of Greece: A Biography. London: Selwyn & Blount, 1939 Dümler, Christian, and Kathrin Jung. Von Athen nach Bamberg: König Otto von Griechenland, Begleitheft zur Ausstellung in der Neuen Residenz Bamberg, 21. Juni bis 3. November 2002. München: Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung, 2002. ISBN 3-932982-45-2. Hyland, M. Amalie, 1818–1875: Herzogin von Oldenburg, Königin von Griechenland. Oldenburg: Isensee, 2004. ISBN 978-3-89995-122-6. Murken, Jan, and Saskia Durian-Ress. König-Otto-von-Griechenland-Museum der Gemeinde Ottobrunn. Bayerische Museen, Band 22. München: Weltkunst, 1995. ISBN 3-921669-16-2.

External links[edit]

Media related to Otto of Greece
at Wikimedia Commons

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Otto". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Otto of Greece House of Wittelsbach Born: 1 June 1815 Died: 26 July 1867

Regnal titles

New title King of Greece 1832–1862 Succeeded by George I as King of the Hellenes

Titles in pretence

Loss of title — TITULAR — King of Greece 1862–1867 Succeeded by Luitpold

v t e

Reign of Otto (1832–1862)

Notable People

Bavarians: Josef Ludwig von Armansperg Ignaz von Rudhart Georg Ludwig von Maurer Karl von Abel Carl Wilhelm von Heideck

Greeks: Dimitrios Kallergis Constantine Kanaris Theodoros Kolokotronis Ioannis Kolettis Yiannis Makriyiannis Andreas Metaxas Anastasios Polyzoidis Spyridon Trikoupis Theoklitos Farmakidis

Architects: Eduard Schaubert Stamatios Kleanthis Panagis Kalkos Theophil Hansen Christian Hansen (architect) Friedrich von Gärtner Leo von Klenze

Early Greek Parties

Russian Party French Party English Party


London Conference of 1832 3 September 1843 Revolution Greek Constitution
of 1844 Crimean War Epirus Revolt of 1854 23 October 1862 Revolution


Greek legal system Greek academic art of the 19th century


National Gardens of Athens Old Royal Palace National Observatory of Athens Syntagma Square Old Parliament House, Athens


Bavarian Auxiliary Corps Church of Greece Hellenic Gendarmerie National Bank of Greece Greek Archaeological Service Court of Cassation Council of State Court of Audit Athens
School of Fine Arts Archaeological Society of Athens Greek Evangelical Church

v t e

Kingdom of Greece


House of Wittelsbach: Otto House of Glücksburg: George I Constantine I Alexander George II Paul Constantine II


3 September 1843 Revolution Greek Constitution
of 1844 23 October 1862 Revolution 1862 head of state referendum Greek Constitution
of 1864 1896 Summer Olympics Greco-Turkish War (1897) Macedonian Struggle Goudi coup Greek Constitution
of 1911 Balkan Wars National Schism Greece
in WWI Asia Minor Campaign 1920 referendum Great Fire of Smyrna 11 September 1922 Revolution Republic referendum 1924 Monarchy referendum 1935 4th of August Regime Greece
in WWII Monarchy referendum 1946 Greek Civil War 1967 Greek coup d'état Greek military junta of 1967–1974 Republic referendum 1973 Republic referendum 1974

Notable PM

Josef Ludwig von Armansperg Ioannis Kolettis Alexandros Koumoundouros Epameinondas Deligeorgis Charilaos Trikoupis Theodoros Diligiannis Eleftherios Venizelos Dimitrios Gounaris Ioannis Metaxas Georgios Papandreou Nikolaos Plastiras Alexandros Papagos Konstantinos Karamanlis Georgios Papadopoulos
Georgios Papadopoulos
(coup d'état)


Order of the Redeemer Order of St. George & Constantine Order of St. Olga & Sophia Order of George I Order of the Phoenix Order of Beneficence


Basileus Kings Regents Coat of arms Crown Jewels Crown Prince Duke of Sparta Royal family

v t e

Heads of state of Greece

1st Republic (1827–1832)

Ioannis Kapodistrias Augustinos Kapodistrias Governing Councils

Monarchy (1832–1924)

Otto Regency Council George I Constantine I Alexander Pavlos Kountouriotis1 Queen Olga1 Constantine I George II Pavlos Kountouriotis1

2nd Republic (1924–1935)

Pavlos Kountouriotis Theodoros Pangalos2 Pavlos Kountouriotis Alexandros Zaimis

Monarchy (1935–1973)

Georgios Kondylis1 2 George II Archbishop Damaskinos1 George II Paul Constantine II3

Military Junta (1967–1974)

Georgios Zoitakis1 2 Georgios Papadopoulos1 2 Phaedon Gizikis2

3rd Republic (since 1974)4

Michail Stasinopoulos1 Konstantinos Tsatsos Constantine Karamanlis Ioannis Alevras1 Christos Sartzetakis Constantine Karamanlis Konstantinos Stephanopoulos Karolos Papoulias Prokopis Pavlopoulos

1 Regent
or interim President 2 Heading or appointed by military regime 3 Fled Greece
on 13 December 1967; de jure head of state until the abolition of the monarchy in 1973/74 4 The 1973–74 junta-proclaimed Republic is not officially recognised.

v t e

Heads of government of Greece

First Hellenic Republic (1822–1832)

Mavrokordatos P. Mavromichalis Kountouriotis And. Zaimis I. Kapodistrias A. Kapodistrias

Kingdom of Greece
Kingdom of Greece
(Wittelsbach) (1833–1862)

Sp. Trikoupis Mavrokordatos Kolettis von Armansperg von Rudhart King Otto Mavrokordatos King Otto A. Metaxas Kanaris Mavrokordatos Kolettis Tzavelas Kountouriotis Kanaris Kriezis Mavrokordatos D. Voulgaris Miaoulis Kolokotronis

Kingdom of Greece
Kingdom of Greece
(Glücksburg) (1863–1924)

D. Voulgaris Moraitinis Z. Valvis Kyriakos Roufos D. Voulgaris Kanaris Z. Valvis Kanaris Koumoundouros Deligeorgis Roufos D. Voulgaris Koumoundouros Deligeorgis Roufos D. Voulgaris Koumoundouros Moraitinis D. Voulgaris Thr. Zaimis Deligeorgis Koumoundouros Thr. Zaimis D. Voulgaris Deligeorgis D. Voulgaris Ch. Trikoupis Koumoundouros Deligeorgis Koumoundouros Deligeorgis Koumoundouros Kanaris Koumoundouros Ch. Trikoupis Koumoundouros Ch. Trikoupis Koumoundouros Ch. Trikoupis Diligiannis D. Valvis Ch. Trikoupis Diligiannis Konstantopoulos Ch. Trikoupis Sotiropoulos Ch. Trikoupis Deligiannis Diligiannis D. Rallis Al. Zaimis G. Theotokis Al. Zaimis Diligiannis G. Theotokis D. Rallis G. Theotokis Diligiannis D. Rallis G. Theotokis D. Rallis K. Mavromichalis Dragoumis El. Venizelos Gounaris El. Venizelos Al. Zaimis Skouloudis Al. Zaimis Kalogeropoulos El. Venizelos2 Lambros Al. Zaimis El. Venizelos D. Rallis Kalogeropoulos Gounaris Stratos Protopapadakis Triantafyllakos Charalambis Krokidas Gonatas El. Venizelos Kafantaris

Second Hellenic Republic (1924–1935)

Papanastasiou Sofoulis Michalakopoulos Pangalos1 Eftaxias1 Kondylis3 Al. Zaimis El. Venizelos Papanastasiou El. Venizelos P. Tsaldaris El. Venizelos Othonaios3 P. Tsaldaris

Kingdom of Greece
Kingdom of Greece
(Glücksburg) (1935–1973)

Kondylis1 Demertzis I. Metaxas1 Koryzis Tsouderos2 Tsolakoglou4 Logothetopoulos4 I. Rallis4 Bakirtzis2 S. Venizelos2 Svolos2 G. Papandreou (Sr.) Plastiras P. Voulgaris Archbishop Damaskinos Kanellopoulos Sofoulis Poulitsas3 K. Tsaldaris Maximos K. Tsaldaris Sofoulis Vafeiadis2 Zachariadis2 Partsalidis2 Diomidis I. Theotokis3 S. Venizelos Plastiras S. Venizelos Plastiras Kiousopoulos3 Papagos K. Karamanlis (Sr.) Georgakopoulos3 K. Karamanlis (Sr.) Dovas3 K. Karamanlis (Sr.) Pipinelis Sty. Mavromichalis3 G. Papandreou (Sr.) Paraskevopoulos3 G. Papandreou (Sr.) Novas Tsirimokos Stefanopoulos Paraskevopoulos3 Kanellopoulos3

Military Junta (1967–1974)

Kollias1 Papadopoulos1 Markezinis1 Androutsopoulos1

Third Hellenic Republic (since 1974)

K. Karamanlis (Sr.) G. Rallis A. Papandreou Tzannetakis Grivas3 Zolotas Mitsotakis A. Papandreou Simitis K. Karamanlis (Jr.) G. Papandreou (Jr.) Papademos3 Pikrammenos3 Samaras Tsipras Thanou3 Tsipras

1Head of military/dictatorial government. 2Head of rival government not controlling Athens. 3Head of emergency or caretaker government. 4Head of collaborationist government during the Axis occupation (1941–44).

v t e

Princes of Bavaria

The generations are numbered from the ascension of Maximilian I Joseph as King of Bavaria
in 1806.

1st generation

Ludwig I Prince Karl Theodor Prince Karl Friedrich

2nd generation

Maximilian II Otto, King of Greece Luitpold, Prince Regent
of Bavaria Prince Adalbert

3rd generation

Ludwig II Otto Ludwig III Prince Leopold Prince Arnulf Prince Ludwig Ferdinand Prince Alfons

4th generation

Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria Prince Karl Prince Franz Prince Georg Prince Konrad Prince Heinrich Prince Wolfgang Prince Ferdinand≠§ Prince Adalbert Prince Joseph

5th generation

Prince Luitpold Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria Prince Rudolf Prince Heinrich Prince Ludwig Prince Rasso Prince Eugen Luis Alfonso§ José Eugenio§ Prince Konstantin Prince Alexander

6th generation

Franz, Duke of Bavaria Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria Prince Luitpold Prince Franz-Josef Prince Wolfgang Prince Christoph Prince Leopold Prince Adalbert

7th generation

Prince Ludwig Prince Heinrich Prince Karl Prince Tassilo Prince Richard Prince Philip Prince Corbinian Prince Stanislaus Prince Marcello Prince Manuel Prince Konstantin Prince Hubertus

8th generation

Prince Leopold Prince Gabriel

≠ renounced the title of Prince and rights to the throne of Bavaria § also an Infante of Spain

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 15029079 LCCN: n81085496 ISNI: 0000 0001 2276 8713 GND: 118787411 SELIBR: 209845 SUDOC: 125196679 BNF: cb1463