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North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt. “North Africa”, particularly when used in North Africa
Africa
and the Middle East, often refers only to the countries of the Maghreb
Maghreb
and Libya. Egypt, due to its greater Middle Eastern
Middle Eastern
associations, is often considered separately. The U.S Census define North Africa
Africa
as Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia.[1][2][3][4] The countries of North Africa
Africa
share a common ethnic, cultural and linguistic identity that is unique to this region. The original inhabitants of North Africa
Africa
are the Berbers
Berbers
and the Egyptians. Between the A.D. 600s and 1000s, Arabs
Arabs
from the Middle East
Middle East
swept across the region in a wave of Muslim
Muslim
conquest. These peoples, physically quite similar, formed a single population in many areas, as Berbers
Berbers
and Egyptians
Egyptians
merged into Arab society. This process of Arabization and Islamization has defined the cultural landscape of North Africa
Africa
ever since. The distinction between North Africa
Africa
and Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
is historically and ecologically significant because of the effective barrier created by the Sahara
Sahara
Desert for much of modern history. The Sahara
Sahara
is the dominant feature of the North African landscape, and stretches across the southern part of the region. The Sahara
Sahara
serves as a geographical boundary between North Africa
Africa
and sub-Saharan Africa and marks a transition zone from the largely Arab population of North Africa
Africa
to black Africa
Africa
of the south. From 3500 BC, following the abrupt desertification of the Sahara
Sahara
due to gradual changes in the Earth's orbit, this barrier has culturally separated the North from the rest of the continent.[5] The overwhelming majority of the North African population is concentrated along the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Atlantic
Atlantic
coastlines and the Nile
Nile
river, while the Sahara
Sahara
desert is one of the most sparsely populated places on Earth. The Sahara
Sahara
desert has therefore played an important role in the history of North Africa. As the seafaring civilizations of the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs
Arabs
and others facilitated communication and migration across the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, the cultures of North Africa
Africa
became much more closely tied to Southwestern Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
than Sub-Saharan Africa. The Islamic influence in the area is also significant, and North Africa
Africa
is a major part of the Muslim world. Some researchers have postulated that North Africa
Africa
rather than East Africa
Africa
served as the exit point for the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent in the Out of Africa
Africa
migration.[6][7][8]

Contents

1 Geography 2 Definitions 3 People 4 Culture 5 History

5.1 Early history 5.2 Antiquity and ancient Rome 5.3 Arab conquest to modern times

6 Transport and industry 7 See also 8 Notes 9 External links

Geography[edit] North Africa
Africa
has three main geographic features: the Sahara
Sahara
desert in the south, the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
in the west, and the Nile
Nile
River and delta in the east. The Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
extend across much of northern Algeria Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia. These mountains are part of the fold mountain system that also runs through much of Southern Europe. They recede to the south and east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara
Sahara
desert, which covers more than 75 percent of the region. The tallest peaks are in the High Atlas range in south-central Morocco, which has many snowcapped peaks. South of the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
is the dry and barren expanse of the Sahara
Sahara
desert, which is the largest sand desert in the world.[9] In places the desert is cut by irregular watercourses called wadis—streams that flow only after rainfalls but are usually dry. The Sahara’s major landforms include ergs, large seas of sand that sometimes form into huge dunes; the hammada, a level rocky plateau without soil or sand; and the reg, a level plain of gravel or small stones. The Sahara
Sahara
covers the southern part of Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia, and most of Libya. Only two regions of Libya
Libya
are outside the desert: Tripolitania
Tripolitania
in the northwest and Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
in the northeast. Most of Egypt
Egypt
is also desert, with the exception of the Nile
Nile
River and the irrigated land along its banks. The Nile
Nile
Valley forms a narrow fertile thread that runs along the length of the country. Sheltered valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile
Nile
Valley and Delta, and the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast are the main sources of fertile farming land. A wide variety of valuable crops including cereals, rice and cotton, and woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Typical Mediterranean
Mediterranean
crops, such as olives, figs, dates and citrus fruits, also thrive in these areas. The Nile
Nile
Valley is particularly fertile, and most of the population in Egypt
Egypt
live close to the river. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve crop yields on the desert margins.

Definitions[edit]

Countries
Countries
and territories Area (2016) (km²) Population (2016) Density (2016) (per km²) Capital Total GDP (2016) [10] GDP per capita (2016) [11] Currency Government Official languages

 Algeria 2,381,740.00 40,606,052.00 17.05 Algiers $160,784 $15,281 Algerian dinar Presidential republic Arabic
Arabic
and Berber (both official), French is commonly used

 Egypt 1,001,450.00 95,688,681.00 96 Cairo $332,349 $12,554 Egyptian pound Semi-presidential republic Arabic

 Libya 1,759,540.00 6,293,253.00 3.58 Tripoli $33,157 $8,678 Libyan dinar Provisional authority Arabic

 Morocco 446,550.00 or 710,850 (including the disputed Western Sahara) 35,276,786.00 73.1 Rabat $103,615 $8,330 Moroccan dirham Constitutional monarchy Arabic
Arabic
and Berber (both official), French is commonly used

 Tunisia 163,610.00 11,403,248.00 63 Tunis $41,869 $11,634 Tunisian dinar Parliamentary republic Arabic, French is commonly used.

Source:

The World Bank[12]

In addition to the five countries listed above, Sudan
Sudan
and Western Sahara
Sahara
are considered to be part of the region by the United Nations,[13] while Western Sahara
Sahara
and Mauritania
Mauritania
(but not Sudan) are included by the African Union.[14] North Africa
Africa
is sometimes grouped with the Middle East
Middle East
under the acronym MENA (" Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa") or the geopolitical term Greater Middle East. Similarly, the traditional Arabic
Arabic
toponym Maghreb (meaning "the West") is commonly used to mean the African part of the Arab World, though usually with the exclusion of Egypt. The inhabitants of the Spanish Canary Islands
Canary Islands
are of mixed Spanish and North African Berber ancestry, and the people of Malta
Malta
are of North African ancestry and speak a derivative of Arabic. But these areas are not generally considered part of North Africa, but rather Southern Europe, due to their European-based cultures and religion. People[edit] Main articles: North African Arabs, Arabs, Copts, Maghrebis, Berbers, and Nubians

Beduin
Beduin
women in Tunisia

The inhabitants of North Africa
Africa
are roughly divided in a manner corresponding to the principal geographic regions of North Africa: the Maghreb, the Nile
Nile
valley, and the Sahel. The Maghreb
Maghreb
or western North Africa
Africa
on the whole is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers since at least 10,000 B.C.,[15] while the eastern part of North Africa or the Nile
Nile
Valley has mainly been home to the Egyptians. Ancient Egyptians
Egyptians
record extensive contact in their Western desert with people that appear to have been Berber or proto-Berber, as well as Nubians
Nubians
to the south. As the Tassili n'Ajjer
Tassili n'Ajjer
and other rock art findings in the Sahara
Sahara
have shown, the Sahara
Sahara
also hosted various populations before its rapid desertification in 3500 B.C and even today continues to host small populations of nomadic trans-Saharan peoples. In the eleventh century, the Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
invaded the North African plains and plateaus, but not the mountains ([[Kabylie, [ Rif]] or Aures) and brought with them Hilalian dialects of Arabic, which over the centuries have been in significant contact with other languages, including the languages of Europe. They have contributed to the Arabized Berber
Arabized Berber
populations.[citation needed] The official language or one of the official languages in all of the countries in North Africa
Africa
is Arabic. Today, the largest ethnic groups in North Africa
Africa
are Arabs, Berbers
Berbers
and West Africas. The region is predominantly Muslim
Muslim
with a Jewish minority in Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia
Tunisia
and significant Christian minority—the Copts—in Egypt, Algeria,[16] Morocco[17] and Tunisia.[18] Culture[edit]

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Main article: Culture of North Africa

Market of Biskra
Biskra
in Algeria, 1899

The people of the Maghreb
Maghreb
and the Sahara
Sahara
regions speak Berber languages and several varieties of Arabic
Arabic
and almost exclusively follow Islam. The Arabic
Arabic
and Berber languages
Berber languages
are distantly related, both being members of the Afroasiatic language family. The Tuareg Berber languages
Berber languages
are notably more conservative than those of the coastal cities. Over the years, Berbers
Berbers
have been influenced by contact with other cultures: Greeks, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The cultures of the Maghreb
Maghreb
and the Sahara
Sahara
therefore combine indigenous Berber, Arab and elements from neighboring parts of Africa
Africa
and beyond. In the Sahara, the distinction between sedentary oasis inhabitants and nomadic Bedouins and Tuaregs is particularly marked.

The kasbah of Aït Benhaddou
Aït Benhaddou
in Morocco

The diverse peoples of North Africa
Africa
are usually categorized along ethno-linguistic lines. In the Maghreb, where Arab and Berber identities are often integrated, these lines can be blurred. Some Berber-speaking North Africans may identify as "Arab" depending on the social and political circumstances, although substantial numbers of Berbers
Berbers
(or Amazighen) have retained a distinct cultural identity which in the 20th century has been expressed as a clear ethnic identification with Berber history and language. Arabic-speaking Northwest Africans, regardless of ethnic background, often identify with Arab history and culture and may share a common vision with other Arabs. This, however, may or may not exclude pride in and identification with Berber and/or other parts of their heritage. Berber political and cultural activists for their part, often referred to as Berberists, may view all Northwest Africans as principally Berber, whether they are primarily Berber- or Arabic-speaking. Egyptians
Egyptians
over the centuries have shifted their language from Egyptian (in its late form, varieties of Coptic) to modern Egyptian Arabic while retaining a sense of national identity that has historically set them apart from other people in the region. Most Egyptians
Egyptians
are Sunni Muslim, although there is a significant minority of Copts. The Maghreb
Maghreb
formerly had a significant Jewish population, almost all of whom emigrated to France or Israel
Israel
when the North African nations gained independence. Prior to the modern establishment of Israel, there were about 600,000–700,000 Jews
Jews
in Northern Africa, including both Sephardi Jews
Jews
(refugees from France, Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
from the Renaissance era) as well as indigenous Mizrahi Jews. Today, less than fifteen thousand remain in the region, almost all in Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia, and are mostly part of a French-speaking urban elite. (See Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim
Muslim
countries.) History[edit] Main articles: Prehistoric North Africa
Africa
and History of North Africa Early history[edit] Due to the recent African origin of modern humans, the history of Prehistoric North Africa
Africa
is important to the understanding of pre-hominid and early modern human history in Africa. Dated to more than 300,000 years old, Morocco
Morocco
is the birth land of the oldest human in Earth
Earth
which give Morocco
Morocco
the name of "Father homeland of Earth". The earliest inhabitants of central North Africa
Africa
have left behind significant remains: early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa, for example, were found in Ain el Hanech, near Saïda (c. 200,000 BCE); in fact, more recent investigations have found signs of Oldowan
Oldowan
technology there, and indicate a date of up to 1.8 million BC.[19] The cave paintings found at Tassili n'Ajjer, north of Tamanrasset, Algeria, and at other locations depict vibrant and vivid scenes of everyday life in central North Africa
Africa
during the Neolithic Subpluvial period (about 8000 to 4000 BCE). Some parts of North Africa
Africa
began to participate in the Neolithic revolution in the 6th millennium BC, just before the rapid desertification of the Sahara
Sahara
around 3500 B.C. due to a tilt in the Earth's orbit.[5] While Egypt
Egypt
due to the early civilizations of Ancient Egypt
Egypt
entered historicity by the Bronze Age, the Maghreb
Maghreb
remained in the prehistoric period longer. Some Phoenician and Greek colonies
Greek colonies
were established along the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast during the 7th century BC. Antiquity and ancient Rome[edit]

The first Roman emperor native to North Africa
Africa
was Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna in present-day Libya.

The most notable nations of antiquity in western North Africa
Africa
are Carthage
Carthage
and Numidia. The Phoenicians colonized much of North Africa including Carthage
Carthage
and parts of present-day Morocco
Morocco
(including Chellah, Essaouira
Essaouira
and Volubilis[20]). The Carthaginians were of Phoenician origin, with the Roman myth of their origin being that Dido, a Phoenician princess, was granted land by a local ruler based on how much land she could cover with a piece of cowhide. She ingeniously devised a method to extend the cowhide to a high proportion, thus gaining a large territory. She was also rejected by the Trojan prince Aeneas
Aeneas
according to Virgil, thus creating a historical enmity between Carthage
Carthage
and Rome, as Aeneas
Aeneas
would eventually lay the foundations for Rome. Ancient Carthage
Carthage
was a commercial power and had a strong navy, but relied on mercenaries for land soldiers. The Carthaginians developed an empire in the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily, the latter being the cause of First Punic War with the Romans. Over a hundred years and more, all Carthaginian territory was eventually conquered by the Romans, resulting in the Carthaginian North African territories becoming the Roman province of Africa
Africa
in 146 B.C.[21] This led to tension and eventually conflict between Numidia and Rome. The Numidian wars are notable for launching the careers of both Gaius Marius, and Sulla, and stretching the constitutional burden of the Roman republic, as Marius required a professional army, something previously contrary to Roman values to overcome the talented military leader Jugurtha.[22] North Africa
Africa
remained a part of the Roman Empire, which produced many notable citizens such as Augustine of Hippo, until incompetent leadership from Roman commanders in the early fifth century allowed the Germanic peoples, the Vandals, to cross the Strait of Gibraltar, whereupon they overcame the fickle Roman defense. The loss of North Africa
Africa
is considered a pinnacle point in the fall of the Western Roman Empire as Africa
Africa
had previously been an important grain province that maintained Roman prosperity despite the barbarian incursions, and the wealth required to create new armies. The issue of regaining North Africa
Africa
became paramount to the Western Empire, but was frustrated by Vandal victories. The focus of Roman energy had to be on the emerging threat of the Huns. In 468 AD, the Romans made one last serious attempt to invade North Africa
Africa
but were repelled. This perhaps marks the point of terminal decline for the Western Roman Empire. The last Roman emperor was deposed in 476 by the Heruli general Odoacer. Trade routes between Europe
Europe
and North Africa
Africa
remained intact until the coming of Islam. Some Berbers
Berbers
were members of the Early African Church (but evolved their own Donatist doctrine),[23] some were Berber Jews, and some adhered to traditional Berber religion. African pope
African pope
Victor I served during the reign of Roman emperor Septimius Severus Arab conquest to modern times[edit]

The Great Mosque of Kairouan
Great Mosque of Kairouan
in Tunisia, founded by Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670, is one of the oldest and most important mosques in North Africa.[24]

The early Muslim
Muslim
conquests included North Africa
Africa
by 640. By 670, most of North Africa
Africa
had come under Muslim
Muslim
rule. Indigenous Berbers subsequently started to form their own polities in response in places such as Fez and Sijilmasa. In the eleventh century, a reformist movement made up of members that called themselves the Almoravid dynasty expanded south into Sub-Saharan Africa. North Africa's populous and flourishing civilization collapsed after exhausting its resources in internal fighting and suffering devastation from the invasion of the Banu Sulaym and Banu Hilal. Ibn Khaldun noted that the lands ravaged by Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
invaders had become completely arid desert.[25]

1803 Cedid Atlas, showing the Ottoman held regions of North Africa

After the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the area was loosely under the control of the Ottoman Empire, except Morocco. The Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
conquered several coastal cities between the 16th and 18th centuries. After the 19th century, the imperial and colonial presence of France, the United Kingdom, Spain
Spain
and Italy
Italy
left the entirety of the region under one form of European occupation. In World War
War
II from 1940 to 1943 the area was the setting for the North African Campaign. During the 1950s and 1960s all of the North African states gained independence. There remains a dispute over Western Sahara
Sahara
between Morocco
Morocco
and the Algerian-backed Polisario Front. In 2010 – 2011 massive protests swept the region leading to the overthrow of the governments in Tunisia
Tunisia
and Egypt, as well as civil war in Libya. Large protests also occurred in Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco
Morocco
to a lesser extent. Many hundreds died in the uprisings.[26] Transport and industry[edit]

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Thousands of people in North Africa
Africa
depend on date palm trees for a living. Tunisia
Tunisia
in 1960

The economies of Algeria
Algeria
and Libya
Libya
were transformed by the discovery of oil and natural gas reserves in the deserts. Morocco's major exports are phosphates and agricultural produce, and as in Egypt
Egypt
and Tunisia, the tourist industry is essential to the economy. Egypt
Egypt
has the most varied industrial base, importing technology to develop electronics and engineering industries, and maintaining the reputation of its high-quality cotton textiles. Oil rigs are scattered throughout the deserts of Libya
Libya
and Algeria. Libyan oil is especially prized because of its low sulfur content, which means it produces much less pollution than other fuel oils. See also[edit]

Geography portal Africa
Africa
portal

European Digital Archive on Soil Maps of the World Sudan
Sudan
Military
Military
Railroad List of modern conflicts in North Africa

Notes[edit]

^ "Census Library" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-07.  ^ "US Census 2006 – Demographic Dimensions 2006" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-11-17.  ^ "United States Census".  ^ "US Census Bureau" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-15.  ^ a b "Sahara's Abrupt Desertification
Desertification
Started by Changes in Earth's Orbit, Accelerated by Atmospheric and Vegetation Feedbacks". Science Daily. 1999-07-12. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29.  ^ Was North Africa
Africa
the Launch Pad for Modern Human Migrations? Michael Balter, science 7 January 2011: 331 (6013), 20–23. doi:10.1126/science.331.6013.20 ^ A Revised Root for the Human Y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree: The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa. Fulvio Cruciani, Beniamino Trombetta, Andrea Massaia, Giovanni Destro-Bisol, Daniele Sellitto, Rosaria Scozzari, The American Journal of Human Genetics – 19 May 2011 ^ Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens, Tanya M. Smith, Paul Tafforeau, Donald J. Reid, Rainer Grün, Stephen Eggins, Mohamed Boutakiout, Jean-Jacques Hublin, doi:10.1073/pnas.0700747104 PNAS April 10, 2007 vol. 104 no. 15 6128–6133 ^ "Largest Desert in the World". Retrieved 30 December 2011.  ^ "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. 18 April 2017.  ^ World Economic Outlook Database, April 2016, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 12 April 2016. Accessed on 14 April 2016. ^ "The World Bank". The World Bank. 12 October 2017.  ^ Division, United Nations Statistics. "UNSD — Methodology". unstats.un.org.  ^ "The Assembly – African Union". au.int.  ^ Hsain Ilahiane, Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen)(2006), p. 112 ^ *(in French) Sadek Lekdja, Christianity in Kabylie, Radio France Internationale, 7 mai 2001 ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld – Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008–2011)".  ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin (2003). The Encyclopedia of Christianity: J-O. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2415-8.  ^ Sahnouni 1998 ^ C. Michael Hogan (December 18, 2007). " Volubilis
Volubilis
– Ancient Village or Settlement in Morocco". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 2010-05-23.  ^ The Punic Wars 264–146 BC, by Nigel Bagnall ^ Sallust, De Bello Iugurthino ^ The Berbers
Berbers
BBC World Service: The Story of Africa ^ Küng, Hans (2006). Tracing The Way: Spiritual Dimensions of the World Religions. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-8264-9423-8. , page 248 ^ Populations Crises and Population Cycles Archived 2013-05-27 at the Wayback Machine., Claire Russell and W.M.S. Russell, Galton Institute, March 1996 ^ Essa, Azad (February 21, 2011). "In search of an African revolution". Al Jazeera. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Northern Africa
Africa
and North Africa.

Human Rights for Indigenous Peoples North Africa's Weather Forecasts and Weather Conditions North Africa
Africa
news and analysis Africa
Africa
Interactive Map from the United States Army Africa

v t e

Countries
Countries
and territories of North Africa

Sovereign states

 Algeria  Egypt  Libya  Morocco  Sudan  Tunisia

Partially recognized state

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

Territories

Morocco/SADR

Western Sahara1

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta2 Melilla2 Alboran Alhucemas2 Chafarinas2 Vélez de la Gomera2

Portugal

Madeira Savage Islands3

Sudan/Egypt

Hala'ib Triangle4 Wadi Halfa Salient4 Bir Tawil5

Sudan/South Sudan

Abyei6 Kafia Kingi6

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Libya/Chad

Aouzou Strip7

Morocco/Spain

Perejil8

1Entirely claimed by both Morocco
Morocco
and the SADR. 2Spanish exclaves claimed by Morocco. 3Portuguese archipelago claimed by Spain. 4Disputed between Sudan
Sudan
and Egypt. 5 Terra nullius
Terra nullius
located between Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan. 6Disputed between Sudan
Sudan
and South Sudan. 7Part of Chad, formerly claimed by Libya. 8Disputed between Morocco
Morocco
and Spain

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad
Chad
Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile
Nile
Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile
Nile
Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic
Arabic
is an official language Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan
Sudan
(region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic
Atlantic
Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic
Atlantic
coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic
Atlantic
Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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