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Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus. Mozarabic descends from Late Latin
Late Latin
and early Romance dialects spoken in Hispania
Hispania
from the 5th to the 8th centuries and was spoken until the 13th century when it was displaced, mostly by Castilian (which became modern Spanish).[2] This set of Latin
Latin
dialects came to be called the Mozarabic language
Mozarabic language
by 19th-century Spanish scholars who studied medieval Al-Andalus, though there never was a common language standard. The term is inaccurate, because it refers to the Christians who spoke Andalusi Romance, as a part of the Romance dialectic linguistic continuum in the Iberian Peninsula, but it was also spoken by Jews, and Muslims, as large parts of the population converted to Islam. The word Mozarab
Mozarab
is a loanword from Andalusi Arabic
Andalusi Arabic
musta'rab, مُستَعرَب, Classical Arabic musta'rib, meaning "who adopts the ways of the Arabs".

Contents

1 Native name 2 Scripts 3 Morphology and phonetics 4 Documents in Andalusi Romance (Old Southern Iberian Romance) 5 Sample text (11th century) 6 Phonetic reconstruction and language comparison 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Native name[edit] The name Mozarabic is today used for many medieval Romance dialects, no longer spoken, such as those of Murcia
Murcia
or Seville.[3] The native name (autonym or endonym) of the language was not "Muzarab" or "Mozarab" but "Latina" (Latin). In Iberia, as in much of Western Europe, the various Romance languages
Romance languages
including Mozarabic were for many centuries thought of simply as dialects of Latin
Latin
and so their speakers referred to their languages as Latin, including the Mozarabs. They did not call themselves "Mozarabs" either.

At times between persecution, Christian communities prospered in Muslim Spain; these Christians are now usually referred to as Mozárabes, although the term was not in use at the time (Hitchcock 1978)

It was only in the 19th century that Spanish historians started to use the words "Mozarabs" and "Mozarabic" to refer to those Christian people and their language who lived under Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula in the Middle Ages. Another very common Arab exonym for this language was al-ajamiya ("stranger/foreign") that had the meaning of Romance language in Al-Andalus. So the words "Mozarabic" or "ajamiya" are exonyms and not autonyms of the language. Roger Wright, in his book about the evolution of early Romance languages in France and in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
Late Latin
Late Latin
and Early Romance in Spain and Carolingian France, page 156, states:

The Early Romance of Moslem Spain was known to its users as latinus. This word can lead to confusion; the Visigothic scholars used it to contrast with Greek or Hebrew, and Simonet (1888: XXIII-IV, XXXV-VII) established that in Moslem Spain it was used to refer to the non- Arabic
Arabic
vernacular (as was Arabic
Arabic
Al-Lathinī)

Also in the same book on page 158, the author states that:

The use of latinus to mean Latin-Romance, as opposed to Arabic, is also found north of the religious border

This means that the word Latinus or Latino had the meaning of spoken Romance language, and it was only contrasted with classical Latin (lingua Latina) a few centuries later. Contemporary Romance speakers of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
of that time saw their vernacular spoken language as "Latin". This happened because classical Latin
Latin
was seen as an educated speech, not as a different language. As Francisco Marcos-Marín (2015) has pointed out, following archaeological studies mainly by Juan Zozaya, Berber invaders could not have learnt to speak Arabic
Arabic
so soon. They used a continuum between Berber and Latin varieties. Latin
Latin
was the cultural language of the Roman provinces of Africa before Arabic
Arabic
and continued in use (at least for some registers) until the 11th century. The interaction of these Afro-Romance varieties and Ibero-Romance has yet to be studied. Those African speakers also referred to their language as "Latine". Both Ladino, the name that Sephardic Jews gave to their spoken Romance language in Iberia, and Ladin, the name that an Alpine Romance speaking people, the Ladins, gave to their language, mean Latin. In the Iberian Peninsula:

The word Ladino (< LATINUM) survived with the specific linguistic meaning of "Spanish written by Jews" (Roger Wright 1982, p. 158)

This is one of the main reasons why Iberian Jews (Sephardim) from central and southern regions called their everyday language Ladino - because this word had the sense of spoken Romance language (Ladino is today a Romance language more closely related to Spanish, mainly to Old Spanish, spoken by some Jews of Sephardic ancestry). For the same reason, speakers of Ladin, another Romance language (spoken in northern Italy in the Trentino Alto-Ádige/Südtirol and Veneto
Veneto
regions), call their own language Ladin i.e. "Latin". This word had the sense of spoken Romance language not only in Iberian Peninsula but also in other Romance language regions in early Middle Ages. Scripts[edit] Because Mozarabic was not a language of high culture, it had no official script. Unlike most Romance languages, Mozarabic was primarily written in the Arabic
Arabic
rather than the Latin
Latin
script, though it was also written in Latin
Latin
and to a lesser extent in the Hebrew alphabet. Mozarab
Mozarab
scholars wrote words of the Romance vernacular in alternative scripts in the margins or in the subtitles of Latin-language texts (glosses). The two languages of culture in Medieval Iberia were Latin
Latin
in the north (although it was also used in the south by Mozarab
Mozarab
scholars) and Arabic
Arabic
in the south (which was the principal literary language of Mozarab
Mozarab
scholars). These are the languages that constitute the great majority of written documents of the Peninsula at that time. Mozarabic is first documented in writing in the Peninsula as choruses (kharjas) (11th century) in Arabic
Arabic
lyrics called muwashshahs. As these were written in the Arabic
Arabic
script, the vowels had to be reconstructed when transliterating it into Latin
Latin
script. Morphology and phonetics[edit] The phonology of Mozarabic is more archaic than the other Romance languages in Spain, fitting with the general idea that language varieties in more isolated or peripheral areas act as "islands of conservatism". Based on the written documents that are identified as Mozarabic, some examples of these more archaic features are:

The preservation of the Latin
Latin
consonant clusters cl, fl, pl. The lack of lenition of intervocalic p, t, c (k), as in the Mozarabic words lopa (she-wolf), toto (all) and formica (ant). The representation of Latin
Latin
/kt/ as /ht/ (as in /nohte/ "night" < noctem), thought[by whom?] to have been an intermediate stage in the transition /kt/ > /jt/, but represented nowhere else ( Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
finished the transition, as shown by noite "night"). The preservation of palatalized /k(e)/, /k(i)/ as /tʃ/ (as in Italian and Romanian), rather than /ts/ as elsewhere in Western Romance languages (except Picard). The preservation (at least in some areas) of original /au/, /ai/.

The morphology of some words is closer to Latin
Latin
than other Iberian Romance or Romance languages
Romance languages
in general. This Romance variety had a significant impact in the formation of Spanish, especially Andalusian Spanish, which explains why this language has numerous words of Andalusian Arabic
Arabic
origin. It was spoken by Mozarabs
Mozarabs
(Christians living as dhimmis), Muladis (the native Iberian population converted to Islam) and some layers of the ruling Arabs and Berbers. The cultural language of Mozarabs
Mozarabs
continued to be Latin, but as time passed, young Mozarabs
Mozarabs
studied and even excelled in Arabic. Due to the northward migration of Mozarabs, Arabic placenames occur in areas where Islamic rule did not last long. With the deepening of Islamization and the advance of the Reconquista, Mozarabic was substituted either by Arabic
Arabic
or by Northern Romance varieties, depending on the area and century. Documents in Andalusi Romance (Old Southern Iberian Romance)[edit] Some texts found in manuscripts of poetry in Muslim Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus), although mainly written in Arabic, have however some stanzas in Andalusi Romance (Latino) or in what seems to be Andalusi Romance. These are important texts because there are few examples of written Andalusi Romance. Proper Mozarabic (i.e. Christian) texts were written in Latin
Latin
and are available in the accurate edition by Juan Gil. In Late Latin
Late Latin
and Early Romance Roger Wright also makes an analysis of these poetry texts known as kharjas:

Muslim Spain has acquired philological interest for a further reason: the kharjas. These are apparently bilingual (Arabic-Romance) or macaronic final stanzas of some verses in the Hispano-Arabic muwashshaha form discovered in some Arabic
Arabic
and Hebrew manuscripts (...). Analyses of these have been hampered in the past by the belief that we know too little about mozárabe Romance to discuss the "Romance" element on a sound basis; but this is not entirely true. (...) The detailed investigations by Galmés de Fuentes (e.g. 1977, 1980) on later documents and toponyms have established the main features of mozárabe phonology, and many features of its morphology (...). The conclusion seems to be that mozárabe Romance is not particularly different from that of other parts of Iberia.

However, a better knowledge of Andalusi Arabic, particularly due to the work of Federico Corriente, placed the xarajat (a term which should be preferred to kharjas) in the framework of Arabic
Arabic
Literature, and the linguistic diglossic situation of al-Andalus. Most xarajat, actually, were written in Andalusi Arabic. Those with Andalusi Romance elements usually combine them with Andalusi Arabic
Andalusi Arabic
forms. Sample text (11th century)[edit]

Mozarabic: Spanish: Catalan: Galician: Portuguese: Latin: Standard Arabic Arabic
Arabic
transliteration English

Mío sidi Ibrahim, ya nuemne dolye! vente mib de nojte. non, si non queris, iréme tib: garme a ob legarte.

Mi señor Ibrahim, ¡Oh tú, hombre dulce! Ven a mí de noche. Si no, si no quieres, yo me iré contigo, dime dónde encontrarte.

El meu senyor Ibrahim, oh tu, home dolç! Vine cap a mi de nit. Si no, si no vols, m'en aniré jo amb tu, diga'm a on trobar-te.

Meu señor Ibrahim, ou ti, home doce! ven onda min de noite. Senon, se non quixeres, irei onda ti, dime onde te atopar.

Meu senhor Ibrahim, ó tu, homem doce! Vem a mim de noite. Senão, se não quiseres, irei até ti, diz-me onde te encontrar.

O domine mi Abrahami, o tu, homo dulcis! Veni mihi nocte. Si non, si non vis, ibo tibi, dic mihi ubi te inveniam.

،سيدي إبراهيم .يا رجلاً حلواً تعال اليَّ .بالليل ،وإن كنت لا تريد .سآتي أنا إليك قل لي أين .أجدك

Sīdi ʾibrāhīm yā rajulan ħulwan! taʿāla ʾilay-ya bi-l-layli wa-ʾin kunta lā turīdu sa-ʾātīʾanā ilay-ka qul l-ī ʾayna ʾajidu-ka

My lord Ibrahim, O you, sweet man! Come to me at night. If not, if you do not want to come, I shall come to you, tell me where to find you.

Phonetic reconstruction and language comparison[edit] The Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer
/ Our Father:[4]

English Latin
Latin
(lingua latina) Mozarabic (latino) Aragonese (aragonés) Asturian (asturianu) Spanish / Castilian (español / castellano) Catalan (Català) Galician (galego) Portuguese (português) Occitan (occitan) French (français) Sicilian (sicilianu) Sardinian (campidanese)(sardu campidanesu) Italian (italiano) Romanian (limba română)

Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.

Pater noster, qui es in caelis: sanctificetur Nomen Tuum; adveniat Regnum Tuum; fiat voluntas Tua, sicut in caelo, et in terra. Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie; et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris; et ne nos inducas in tentationem; sed libera nos a Malo. Amen.

Padre nostro que yes en el ciel, santificat siad lo teu nomne. Venya a nos el teu regno. Fayadse la tua voluntade ansi en la terra como en el ciel. El nostro pan de cada dia danoslo hoi ed perdonanos las nostras offensas como nos perdonamos los qui nos offendent. Ed non nos layxes cader in tentatsion ed liberanos del mal. Amen.

Pai nuestro, que yes en o cielo, satificato siga o tuyo nombre, vienga ta nusatros o reino tuyo y se faiga la tuya voluntá en a tierra como en o cielo. O pan nuestro de cada diya da-lo-mos güei, perdona las nuestras faltas como tamién nusatros perdonamos a os que mos faltan, no mos dixes cayer en a tentación y libera-mos d'o mal. Amén.

Padre nuesu que tas en cielu: santificáu seya'l to nome, amiye'l to reinu, fáigase la to voluntá, lo mesmo na tierra qu'en cielu. El nuesu pan de tolos díes dánoslu güei, perdónanos les nueses ofienses, lo mesmo que nós facemos colos que nos faltaren; nun nos dexes cayer na tentación, y llíbranos del mal. Amén.

Padre nuestro que estás en el cielo, santificado sea tu nombre. Venga a nosotros tu Reino. Hágase tu voluntad, así en la tierra como en el cielo. El pan nuestro de cada día, dánoslo hoy y perdona nuestras ofensas, como también nosotros perdonamos a los que nos ofenden. Y no nos dejes caer en la tentación, y líbranos de mal. Amén.

Pare nostre, que sou al cel: Sigui santificat el vostre nom. Vingui a nosaltres el vostre regne. Faci's la vostra voluntat, així a la terra com es fa al cel. El nostre pa de cada dia, doneu-nos, Senyor, el dia d'avui. I perdoneu les nostres culpes, així com nosaltres perdonem els nostres deutors. I no permeteu que nosaltres caiguem en la temptació, ans deslliureu-nos de qualsevol mal. Amén.

Noso pai que estás no ceo, santificado sexa o teu nome, veña cara a nós o teu reino, fágase a túa vontade así na terra coma no ceo. O noso pan dacotío, dánolo hoxe; Perdoa-las nosas ofensas, cal nós perdoamos ós que nos teñan ofendido; E non deixes cairmos na tentazón, e mais líbranos do mal. Amén.

Pai nosso, que estais nos Céus, santificado seja o vosso nome; venha a nós o vosso reino; seja feita a vossa vontade assim na terra como no céu. O pão nosso de cada dia nos dai hoje; perdoai-nos as nossas ofensas, assim como nós perdoamos a quem nos tem ofendido; e não nos deixeis cair em tentação; mas livrai-nos do mal. Amém.

Paire nòstre que siès dins lo cèl, que ton nom se santifique, que ton rènhe nos avenga, que ta volontat se faga sus la tèrra coma dins lo cèl. Dona-nos nòstre pan de cada jorn, perdona-nos nòstres deutes coma nosautres perdonam als nòstres debitors e fai que tombèm pas dins la tentacion mas deliura-nos del mal. Amen.

Notre Père, qui es aux cieux, que ton nom soit sanctifié, que ton règne vienne, que ta volonté soit faite sur la terre comme au ciel. Donne-nous aujourd’hui notre pain de ce jour. Pardonne-nous nos offenses comme nous pardonnons aussi à ceux qui nous ont offensés. Et ne nous soumets pas à la tentation, mais délivre-nous du mal. Amen.

</poem> Patri nostru, ca siti nnô celu, Fussi santificatu lu nomu vostru. Vinissi n prescia lu regnu vostru, Fussi faciuta la vostra Divina Vuluntati, Comu nnô celu, d'accussì nnâ terra. Ni dati sta jurnata lu nostru panuzzu cutiddianu, E ni pirdunati li nostri piccati, D'accussì nautri li pirdunamu ê nostri dibbitura. E mancu ni lassati a cascari nnâ tintazzioni, Ma ni scanzati dû mali.

Babu nostu chi ses in su celu, su nomini tuu siat santificau; su Rennu tuu bengat, sa boluntadi tua sia fata, aici in celu e in terra. Su pani nostu fitianu dona-nosi, perdona-nosi is depidus nostus cumenti nosu ddus perdonaus a is depidoris nostus e no nosi impellas in tentatzioni ma libera-nosi de su mali. Amen.

Padre nostro che sei nei cieli, sia santificato il tuo nome; venga il tuo regno, sia fatta la tua volontà, come in cielo così in terra. Dacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano, rimetti a noi i nostri debiti, come noi li rimettiamo ai nostri debitori e non ci indurre in tentazione, ma liberaci dal male. Amen.

Tatăl nostru, care ești în ceruri, sfințească-se numele tău; Vie împărăția ta; Facă-se voia ta, precum în cer, așa și pe pământ; Pâinea noastră cea de toate zilele dă-ne-o astăzí. Și ne iartă nouă greșelile noastre, precum și noi iertăm greșiților noștri; Și nu ne duce pe noi în ispită; ci ne izbăvește de cel rău. Amin.

See also[edit]

Aljamiado, the practice of writing a Romance language with the Arabic script. Mozarab, the Christian population under Islamic rule. Mozarabic art Mozarabic Rite, the Christian liturgy preserved by the Mozarabs. Muwashshah, an Arabic
Arabic
poetic form. Kharja, xarjah, pl. xarajat, a part of the muwashshah. Ladino, the Spanish language
Spanish language
spoken by Sephardic Jews.

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mozarabic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ [Gómez-Ruiz, R. (2014). Mozarabs, Hispanics and Cross. Orbis Books.] ^ Leguay, Oliveira Marques, Rocha Beirante. Portugal das invasões germânicas à "reconquista". Editorial Presença, 1993. pg 209 ^ * Ibero-Romance examples. Latin
Latin
corrected to agree with standard version.

Further reading[edit]

Corriente Córdoba, Federico. (1993). "Nueva propuesta de lectura de las xarajât de la serie árabe con texto romance". Revista de filología española, ISSN 0210-9174, 73 / 1-2, 25-42 Gil, Juan. (1974) . Corpus scriptorum muzarabicorum. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. 2 v. Gil, Juan (1939-) & Instituto Antonio de Nebrija. "Corpus scriptorum muzarabicorum [Printed text]". Europeana. Archived from the original on 2015-02-04. Retrieved 2015-02-05.  Marcos Marín, Francisco. (1998). "Romance andalusí y mozárabe: dos términos no sinónimos", Estudios de Lingüística y Filología Españolas. Homenaje a Germán Colón. Madrid: Gredos, 335-341. https://www.academia.edu/5101871/Romance_andalusi_y_mozarabe_dos_terminos_no_sinonimos_ Marcos Marín, Francisco. (2015). "Notas sobre los bereberes, el afrorrománico y el romance andalusí", Hesperia.Culturas del Mediterráneo 19, 203-222. https://www.academia.edu/13142108/Notas_sobre_los_bereberes_el_afrorrom%C3%A1nico_y_el_romance_andalus%C3%AD Menéndez Pidal, Ramón. (2005). Historia de la Lengua Española (2 Vols.). Madrid: Fundación Ramón Menendez Pidal. ISBN 84-89934-11-8 Wright, Roger. (1982). Late Latin
Late Latin
and Early Romance in Spain and Carolingian France. Liverpool: University of Liverpool (Francis Cairns, Robin Seager). ISBN 0-905205-12-X

External links[edit]

Mozarabic overview [1] [2]

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