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 Parouse.com



1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Le Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
(pronounced [lə mɔ̃ sɛ̃ mi.ʃɛl]; Norman: Mont Saint Miché, English: Saint Michael's Mount) is an island commune in Normandy, France. It is located about one kilometre (0.6 miles) off the country's northwestern coast, at the mouth of the Couesnon
Couesnon
River near Avranches
Avranches
and is 100 hectares (247 acres) in size. As of 2009[update], the island has a population of 44.[1] The island has held strategic fortifications since ancient times and since the 8th century AD has been the seat of the monastery from which it draws its name. The structural composition of the town exemplifies the feudal society that constructed it: on top, God, the abbey and monastery; below, the great halls; then stores and housing; and at the bottom, outside the walls, houses for fishermen and farmers. The commune's position — on an island just 600 metres from land — made it accessible at low tide to the many pilgrims to its abbey, but defensible as an incoming tide stranded, drove off, or drowned would-be assailants. The Mont remained unconquered during the Hundred Years' War; a small garrison fended off a full attack by the English in 1433.[2] The reverse benefits of its natural defence were not lost on Louis XI, who turned the Mont into a prison. Thereafter the abbey began to be used more regularly as a jail during the Ancien Régime. One of France's most recognizable landmarks, visited by more than 3 million people each year, Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
and its bay are on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.[3] Over 60 buildings within the commune are protected in France
France
as monuments historiques.[4]

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Formation 1.2 Tides 1.3 Tidal island

2 History

2.1 Abbey
Abbey
design 2.2 Development

3 Administration 4 Population 5 The Monastic Fraternities of Jerusalem 6 People and places of note 7 Economy 8 Twin towns and sister cities 9 In popular culture 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Geography[edit] Formation[edit] Now a rocky tidal island, the Mont occupied dry land in prehistoric times. As sea levels rose, erosion reshaped the coastal landscape, and several outcrops of granite emerged in the bay, having resisted the wear and tear of the ocean better than the surrounding rocks. These included Lillemer, the Mont-Dol, Tombelaine
Tombelaine
(the island just to the north), and Mont Tombe, later called Mont Saint-Michel. Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
consists of leucogranite, which solidified from an underground intrusion of molten magma about 525 million years ago, during the Cambrian
Cambrian
period, as one of the younger parts of the Mancellian granitic batholith.[5] (Early studies of Mont Saint-Michel by French geologists sometimes describe the leucogranite of the Mont as "granulite", but this granitic meaning of granulite is now obsolete).[6] The Mont has a circumference of about 960 m (3,150 ft) and its highest point is 92 m (302 ft) above sea level.[7] Tides[edit] The tides can vary greatly, at roughly 14 metres (46 ft) between high and low water marks. Popularly nicknamed "St. Michael in peril of the sea" by medieval pilgrims making their way across the flats, the mount can still pose dangers for visitors who avoid the causeway and attempt the hazardous walk across the sands from the neighbouring coast. Polderisation and occasional flooding have created salt marsh meadows that were found to be ideally suited to grazing sheep. The well-flavoured meat that results from the diet of the sheep in the pré salé (salt meadow) makes agneau de pré-salé (salt meadow lamb), a local specialty that may be found on the menus of restaurants that depend on income from the many visitors to the mount. Tidal island[edit]

Low tide in 2005

Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
in 2014 with the new bridge

The connection between Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
and the mainland has changed over the centuries. Previously connected by a tidal causeway (a path uncovered only at low tide), this was converted into a raised (permanently dry) causeway in 1879, preventing the tide from scouring the silt around the mount. The coastal flats have also been polderised to create pastureland, decreasing the distance between the shore and the island, and the Couesnon
Couesnon
River has been canalised, reducing the dispersion of the flow of water. These factors all encouraged silting-up of the bay. On 16 June 2006, the French prime minister and regional authorities announced a €164 million project (Projet Mont-Saint-Michel)[8] to build a hydraulic dam using the waters of the river Couesnon
Couesnon
and the tides to help remove the accumulated silt, and to make Mont Saint-Michel an island again. The construction of the dam began in 2009. The project also includes the removal of the causeway and its visitor car park. Since 28 April 2012, the new car park on the mainland has been located 2.5 kilometres (1.6 miles) from the island. Visitors can walk or use shuttles to cross the causeway. On 22 July 2014, the new bridge by architect Dietmar Feichtinger
Dietmar Feichtinger
was opened to the public. The light bridge allows the waters to flow freely around the island and improves the efficiency of the now operational dam. The project, which cost €209 million, was officially opened by President François Hollande.[9] On rare occasions, tidal circumstances produce an extremely high "supertide". The new bridge was completely submerged on 21 March 2015 by the highest sea level for at least 18 days, as crowds gathered to snap photos.[10] History[edit] The original site was founded by an Irish hermit, who gathered a following from the local community. Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
was used in the sixth and seventh centuries as an Armorican stronghold of Gallo-Roman culture and power until it was ransacked by the Franks, thus ending the trans-channel culture that had stood since the departure of the Romans in 460. From roughly the fifth to the eighth century, Mont Saint-Michel belonged to the territory of Neustria
Neustria
and, in the early ninth century, was an important place in the marches of Neustria.

Inside the walls of Mont Saint-Michel

Before the construction of the first monastic establishment in the 8th century, the island was called Mont Tombe (Latin: tumba). According to legend, the archangel Michael appeared in 708 to Aubert of Avranches, the bishop of Avranches, and instructed him to build a church on the rocky islet.[11] Unable to defend his kingdom against the assaults of the Vikings, the king of the Franks
Franks
agreed to grant the Cotentin peninsula and the Avranchin, including Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
traditionally linked to the city of Avranches, to the Bretons
Bretons
in the Treaty of Compiègne (867). This marked the beginning of the brief period of Breton possession of the Mont. In fact, these lands and Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
were never really included in the duchy of Brittany
Brittany
and remained independent bishoprics from the newly created Breton archbishopric of Dol. When Rollo confirmed Franco as archbishop of Rouen, these traditional dependences of the Rouen archbishopric were retained in it. The mount gained strategic significance again in 933 when William I Longsword annexed the Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
from the weakened Duchy of Brittany. This made the mount definitively part of Normandy, and is depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry, which commemorates the 1066 Norman conquest of England. Harold Godwinson
Harold Godwinson
is pictured on the tapestry rescuing two Norman knights from the quicksand in the tidal flats during a battle with Conan II, Duke of Brittany. Norman ducal patronage financed the spectacular Norman architecture
Norman architecture
of the abbey in subsequent centuries.

Bayeux Tapestry
Bayeux Tapestry
scenes 16 and 17: William and Harold at Mont Saint-Michel (at top centre); Harold rescuing knights from quicksand

In 1067, the monastery of Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
gave its support to William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
in his claim to the throne of England. This he rewarded with properties and grounds on the English side of the Channel, including a small island off the southwestern coast of Cornwall
Cornwall
which was modelled after the Mount and became a Norman priory named St Michael's Mount
St Michael's Mount
of Penzance.

Cannons abandoned by Thomas de Scales, 7th Baron Scales
Thomas de Scales, 7th Baron Scales
at Mont Saint-Michel on June 17, 1434. As of June 2013, only the second cannon, the one closer to the wall, is on display inside the entrance to the Mont's outer wall.

During the Hundred Years' War, the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
made repeated assaults on the island but were unable to seize it due to the abbey's improved fortifications. The English initially besieged the Mont in 1423–24, and then again in 1433–34 with English forces under the command of Thomas de Scales, 7th Baron Scales. Two wrought-iron bombards that Scales abandoned when he gave up his siege are still on site. They are known as les Michelettes. Mont Saint-Michel's resolute resistance inspired the French, especially Joan of Arc. When Louis XI of France
France
founded the Order of Saint Michael
Order of Saint Michael
in 1469, he intended that the abbey church of Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
become the chapel for the Order, but because of its great distance from Paris, his intention could never be realised.

Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
and its Bay

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Criteria Cultural: i, iii, vi

Reference 80

Inscription 1979 (3rd Session)

Area 6,560 ha

Buffer zone 57,510 ha

The wealth and influence of the abbey extended to many daughter foundations, including St. Michael's Mount in Cornwall. However, its popularity and prestige as a centre of pilgrimage waned with the Reformation, and by the time of the French Revolution
French Revolution
there were scarcely any monks in residence. The abbey was closed and converted into a prison, initially to hold clerical opponents of the republican regime. High-profile political prisoners followed, but by 1836, influential figures—including Victor Hugo—had launched a campaign to restore what was seen as a national architectural treasure. The prison was finally closed in 1863, and the mount was declared a historic monument in 1874. Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
and its bay were added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1979, and it was listed with criteria such as cultural, historical, and architectural significance, as well as human-created and natural beauty.[3] Abbey
Abbey
design[edit] See also: Mont Saint Michel Abbey

Plan of the mount by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc

In the 11th century, William of Volpiano, the Italian architect who had built Fécamp Abbey
Abbey
in Normandy, was chosen by Richard II, Duke of Normandy, to be the building contractor. He designed the Romanesque church of the abbey, daringly placing the transept crossing at the top of the mount. Many underground crypts and chapels had to be built to compensate for this weight; these formed the basis for the supportive upward structure that can be seen today. Today Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
is seen as a building of Romanesque architecture. Robert de Thorigny, a great supporter of Henry II of England (who was also Duke of Normandy), reinforced the structure of the buildings and built the main façade of the church in the 12th century. In 1204, Guy of Thouars, regent for the Duchess of Brittany, as vassal of the King of France, undertook a siege of the Mount. After having set fire to the village and having massacred the population, he was obliged to beat a retreat under the powerful walls of the abbey. Unfortunately, the fire which he himself lit extended to the buildings, and the roofs fell prey to the flames. Horrified by the cruelty and the exactions of his Breton ally, Philip Augustus offered Abbot Jordan a grant for the construction of a new Gothic architectural set which included the addition of the refectory and cloister.[12] Charles VI is credited with adding major fortifications to the abbey-mount, building towers, successive courtyards, and strengthening the ramparts.

Development[edit]

10th century

11th to 12th century

17th to 18th century

19th to 21st century

Administration[edit]

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The cloister

The islet belongs to the French commune of Le Mont-Saint-Michel, in the département of Manche, in Normandy. Population (1999): 46. The nearest major town, with an SNCF
SNCF
train station, is Pontorson. Mont Saint-Michel belongs to the Organization of World Heritage Cities. Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
has also been the subject of traditional jealousy from the Bretons. Bretons
Bretons
claim that since the Couesnon
Couesnon
River marks the traditional boundary between Normandy
Normandy
and Brittany, it is only because the river has altered its course over the centuries that the mount is on the Norman side of the border. This legend amuses the area's inhabitants, who state that the border is not located on the Couesnon
Couesnon
River itself but on the mainland, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to the west, at the foot of the solid mass of Saint-Brelade. Population[edit]

Historical population of Le Mont-Saint-Michel

Year Pop. ±%

1793 234 —    

1800 234 +0.0%

1806 282 +20.5%

1821 904 +220.6%

1831 390 −56.9%

1836 385 −1.3%

1841 1,082 +181.0%

1846 1,100 +1.7%

1851 1,182 +7.5%

1856 1,153 −2.5%

1861 1,056 −8.4%

1866 203 −80.8%

Year Pop. ±%

1872 193 −4.9%

1876 184 −4.7%

1881 209 +13.6%

1886 211 +1.0%

1891 199 −5.7%

1896 230 +15.6%

1901 235 +2.2%

1906 238 +1.3%

1911 232 −2.5%

1921 230 −0.9%

1926 247 +7.4%

1931 250 +1.2%

Year Pop. ±%

1936 231 −7.6%

1946 186 −19.5%

1954 268 +44.1%

1962 132 −50.7%

1968 105 −20.5%

1975 114 +8.6%

1982 80 −29.8%

1990 72 −10.0%

1999 46 −36.1%

2006 41 −10.9%

2009 44 +7.3%

2015 50 +13.6%

From the year 1962 on: No double counting—residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel) are counted only once. Since 2004, as for any city with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants, censuses are every five years, in years ending in 1 and 6 for this city,[13] other counts are from annual population surveys. Source: EHESS[14] and Insee[15] · [16]

Births

1956–1962 1962–1968 1968–1975 1975–1982 1982–1990 1990–1999

xx 13 16 8 6 4

Deaths

1956–1962 1962–1968 1968–1975 1975–1982 1982–1990 1990–1999

xx 6 6 4 5 3

Up to 20,000 people[citation needed] visit the city during the summer months. Among the 43 inhabitants as of 2006[update], 5 were monks and 7 nuns. The Monastic Fraternities of Jerusalem[edit] Since 2001, a community of monks and nuns of the Monastic Fraternities of Jerusalem, sent from the mother-house of St-Gervais-et-St-Protais in Paris, have been living as a community on Mont Saint-Michel. They replaced the Benedictine monks who returned to the Mount in 1966. They are tenants of the centre for national monuments and are not involved in the management of the abbey. The community meets four times a day to recite the liturgical office in the abbey itself (or in the crypt of Notre-Dame des Trente Cierges in winter). In this way, the building keeps its original purpose as a place of prayer and singing the glory of God. The presence of the community attracts many visitors and pilgrims who come to join in the various liturgical celebrations. In 2012, the community undertook the renovation of a house on the Mount, the Logis Saint-Abraham, which is used as a guest house for pilgrims on retreat. People and places of note[edit]

Robert of Torigni, famous abbot of the Mount; Guillaume de Saint Pair, monk of the abbey and author of the novel Mont-Saint-Michel; The Duke of Chartres (later Louis-Philippe I) came to demolish the "iron cage"; Mathurin Bruneau, shoemaker, rogue, and fake Louis XVII, prisoner in 1821-1822; Louis Auguste Blanqui, political prisoner in the Mount; Armand Barbès, political prisoner in the Mount; Monsignor Bravard, restorer of the abbey; La Mère Poulard, famous omelet restaurant; Émile Couillard, writer, historian of the Mount, and abbot of the Mont-Saint-Michel.

Economy[edit] Le Mont-Saint-Michel has long "belonged" to some families who shared the businesses in the town, and succeeded to the village administration. Tourism is the main and even almost unique source of income of the commune. There are about fifty shops for 3 million tourists, while only 25 people sleep every night on the Mount (monks included), except in hotels. Nowadays, the main institutions of the city are shared by:

Eric Vannier, owner of the group the Mère Poulard (holding half of restaurants, shops, hotels and three museums); Jean-Yves Vételé, CEO of Sodetour (five hotels, a supermarket and shops -all extramural-, including Mercury Barracks); Patrick Gaul, former elected official, hotelier and intramural restaurateur; Independent merchants

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima, Japan, where Itsukushima Shrine—another island-temple and UNESCO World Heritage Site—is located.[17][18][19]

Historically, Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
was the Norman counterpart of St Michael's Mount in Cornwall, UK, which was given to the Benedictines, religious order of Mont Saint-Michel, by Edward the Confessor in the 11th century. The two mounts share the same tidal island characteristics and the same conical shape, though St Michael's Mount is much smaller.[20] In popular culture[edit]

Statue of Archangel Michael
Archangel Michael
atop the spire

Main article: Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
in popular culture

In 1904, the American intellectual Henry Adams
Henry Adams
privately published Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres[21] celebrating the unity of medieval society, especially as represented in the great cathedrals of France. French composer Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy
frequented the island and possibly drew inspiration from not only the legend of the mythical city of Ys, but also Mont Saint-Michel's cathedral for his piano prelude La Cathédrale Engloutie.[22] 1991: Mindwalk[23] 1995: the island is the capital of the reign of Benoic in the Bernard Cornwell's novel The Winter King. The site is called Ynys Trebes at the time of the story.[24] 2003: Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
was the inspiration for the design of Minas Tirith in the film The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King.[25] 2010: Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
served as the artistic inspiration for the Disney hit Tangled. The castle and surrounding town are easily recognizable.[26] 2011: The design of Dark Souls
Dark Souls
location New Londo Ruins is inspired by Mont Saint-Michel.[27] 2012: The film To the Wonder, by Terrence Malick is featured as the primary image of the film. The protagonist and his lover are featured in the rose garden as the Prelude to Wagner's Parsifal plays. The lovers are shown along the beach, as the liminal space of the monastery and the sea acts as a symbol of their love.

See also[edit]

France
France
portal Normandy
Normandy
portal Middle Ages portal

Mont Saint Michel Abbey Carolingian architecture Carolingian art La Mère Poulard List of Carolingian monasteries Manoir de Brion Saint Michael in the Catholic Church St Michael's Mount, Cornwall

References[edit]

^ " Insee – Populations légales 2009 – 50353-Le Mont-Saint-Michel". insee.fr. 2012. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2012.  ^ "Mont Saint-Michel". xenophongroup.com. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2015.  ^ a b "UNESCO". UNESCO. 13 December 2006. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ French government website Archived 12 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine. (in French) ^ L'Homer, A.; et al. (1999). Notice explicative, Carte géologique de la France
France
(1/50 000), feuille Baie du mont-Saint-Michel (208) (PDF) (in French). Orléans: BRGM. ISBN 2-7159-1208-0. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2015.  ^ "Carnets géologique de Philippe Glangeaud - Glossaire" (in French). Archived from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2015.  ^ Chantal Bonnot-Courtois, La Baie Du Mont-Saint-Michel et l'estuaire de la Rance: environnements sédimentaires, aménagements et évolution récente. Editor Technip. 2002. pages 15–20 ^ "Official website of the restoring operation of the Mont-saint-Michel's maritime character". www.projetmontsaintmichel.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2015.  ^ "Mont-Saint-Michel reclaims its island status". rfi.  ^ Galimberti, Katy (31 March 2015). "PHOTOS: Supertide Turns Mont Saint-Michel Into Island
Island
in a Once in 18-Year Spectacle". AccuWeather. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2015.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Mont-St-Michel". Newadvent.org. 1 October 1911. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ Adams, Henry (1913). Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres: A Study of Thirteenth-Century Unity. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 37–38.  ^ "Département de la Manche". Insee.fr. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2013-07-10.  ^ "Le Mont-Saint-Michel - Notice Communale". Cassini.ehess.fr. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ "Historique des populations par commune depuis le recensement de 1962". Insee.fr. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ " Insee - Populations légales 2006 - 50353-Le Mont-Saint-Michel". Insee.fr. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ "Le Mont-Saint-Michel – Jumelage" (in French). Wikimanche.fr. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ "Nishihiroshima Times". L-co.co.jp. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ "Miyajima Grand Hotel Info". Miyajima-arimoto.co.jp. 16 May 2009. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ Henderson, Charles (1925). Cornish Church Guide. Truro: Oscar Blackford. pp. 160–61.  ^ Adams, Henry (1904). Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres. self-published. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016.  ^ Debussy's: La Cathedrale Engloutie ^ " Mindwalk (Philosophical Films)". University of Tennessee at Martin. Philfilms.utm.edu. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ Cornwell, Bernard (2015). The Winter King. Brazil: Record. pp. 273–314. ISBN 9788501061140.  ^ "Making Of" featurette on The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, Extended Edition DVD. ^ "10 Real Life Locations That Inspired Disney Films". Buzzfeed. buzzfeed.com. 20 October 2013. Archived from the original on 29 April 2017.  ^ "Translation of the Design Works Interview with Hidetaka Miyazaki". Giant Bomb. giantbomb.com. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mont-Saint-Michel.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Le Mont Saint-Michel.

Mont-Saint-Michel Celebrates 1,300 yrs of History Official Mont-Saint Michel Tourist site (English version) Virtual recreation of Mont St. Michel in Second Life Pano at 360° of Mont St Michel High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
Art Atlas INSEE population figures

v t e

World Heritage Sites in France

Île-de-France

Palace and Park of Versailles Fontainebleau Palace and Park Paris: Banks of the Seine Provins

Parisian basin

Amiens Cathedral Belfries of Belgium and France1 Bourges Cathedral Champagne hillsides, houses and cellars Chartres Cathedral Climats and terroirs of Burgundy Reims: Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Abbey
Abbey
of Saint-Remi, Palace of Tau Abbey
Abbey
of Fontenay Le Havre Vézelay Church and hill

Nord-Pas-de-Calais

Belfries of Belgium and France1 Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin

East

Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains
Salins-les-Bains
and Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans Nancy: Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance Strasbourg: Grande Île, Neustadt Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3

West

Abbey
Abbey
Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
and its bay

South West

Episcopal city, Albi Port of the Moon, Bordeaux Prehistoric sites and decorated caves of the Vézère valley Pyrénées – Mont Perdu2 Saint-Émilion

Centre East

Chauvet Cave Lyon

Mediterranean

Roman and Romanesque monuments, Arles Carcassonne citadel Gulf of Porto: Calanches de Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble, Avignon Bridge Pont du Gard Orange: Roman Theatre and environs, Triumphal Arch

Multiple regions

The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier Canal du Midi Fortifications of Vauban Loire Valley
Loire Valley
between Sully-sur-Loire
Sully-sur-Loire
and Chalonnes-sur-Loire Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France

Overseas departments and territories

Lagoons of New Caledonia Pitons, cirques and remparts of Réunion Taputapuātea

1Shared locally with other region/s and with Belgium 2Shared with Spain 3Shared with Austria, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland

v t e

Communes of Manche
Manche

Agneaux Agon-Coutainville Airel Amigny Ancteville Anctoville-sur-Boscq Anneville-en-Saire Anneville-sur-Mer Annoville Appeville Aucey-la-Plaine Audouville-la-Hubert Aumeville-Lestre Auvers Auxais Avranches Azeville Bacilly La Baleine Barenton Barfleur Barneville-Carteret La Barre-de-Semilly Baubigny Baudre Baupte Beauchamps Beaucoudray Beauficel Beauvoir Belval Benoîtville Bérigny Beslon Besneville Beuvrigny Beuzeville-la-Bastille Biéville Biniville Blainville-sur-Mer Blosville La Bloutière Boisyvon La Bonneville Bourguenolles Bourgvallées Boutteville Brainville Brécey Bréhal Bretteville Bretteville-sur-Ay Breuville Bréville-sur-Mer Bricquebec-en-Cotentin Bricquebosq Bricqueville-la-Blouette Bricqueville-sur-Mer Brillevast Brix Brouains Brucheville Buais-les-Monts Cambernon Cametours Camprond Canisy Canteloup Canville-la-Rocque Carantilly Carentan-les-Marais Carneville Carolles Carquebut Catteville Catz Cavigny Céaux Cérences Cerisy-la-Forêt Cerisy-la-Salle La Chaise-Baudouin Champeaux Champrepus Chanteloup La Chapelle-Cécelin La Chapelle-Urée Chaulieu Chavoy Cherbourg-en-Cotentin Chérencé-le-Héron Clitourps La Colombe Colomby Condé-sur-Vire Contrières Coudeville-sur-Mer Coulouvray-Boisbenâtre Courcy Courtils Coutances Couvains Couville Crasville Créances Les Cresnays Crollon Crosville-sur-Douve Cuves Dangy Denneville Le Dézert Digosville Domjean Donville-les-Bains Doville Dragey-Ronthon Ducey-les-Chéris Écausseville Émondeville Équilly Éroudeville L'Étang-Bertrand Étienville La Feuillie Fermanville Feugères Fierville-les-Mines Flamanville Fleury Flottemanville Folligny Fontenay-sur-Mer Fourneaux Le Fresne-Poret Fresville Gathemo Gatteville-le-Phare Gavray Geffosses Genêts Ger La Godefroy La Gohannière Golleville Gonfreville Gonneville-le-Theil Gorges Gouvets Gouville-sur-Mer Graignes-Mesnil-Angot Le Grand-Celland Grandparigny Granville Gratot Grimesnil Le Grippon Grosville Guéhébert Le Guislain La Hague Le Ham Hambye Hamelin Hardinvast Hauteville-la-Guichard Hauteville-sur-Mer Hautteville-Bocage La Haye La Haye-Bellefond La Haye-d'Ectot La Haye-Pesnel Héauville Helleville Hémevez Hérenguerville Heugueville-sur-Sienne Hiesville Hocquigny Le Hommet-d'Arthenay Huberville Hudimesnil Huisnes-sur-Mer Isigny-le-Buat Joganville Juilley Jullouville Juvigny les Vallées Lamberville La Lande-d'Airou Lapenty Laulne Lengronne Lessay Lestre Liesville-sur-Douve Lieusaint Lingeard Lingreville Les Loges-Marchis Les Loges-sur-Brécey Lolif Longueville Le Loreur Le Lorey La Lucerne-d'Outremer Le Luot La Luzerne Magneville Marcey-les-Grèves Marchésieux Marcilly Margueray Marigny-le-Lozon Martinvast Maupertuis Maupertus-sur-Mer La Meauffe Méautis Le Mesnil Le Mesnil-Adelée Le Mesnil-Amand Le Mesnil-Amey Le Mesnil-Aubert Le Mesnil-au-Val Le Mesnilbus Le Mesnil-Eury Le Mesnil-Garnier Le Mesnil-Gilbert Le Mesnil-Herman Le Mesnillard Le Mesnil-Ozenne Le Mesnil-Rogues Le Mesnil-Rouxelin Le Mesnil-Véneron Le Mesnil-Villeman La Meurdraquière Millières Les Moitiers-d'Allonne Montabot Montaigu-la-Brisette Montaigu-les-Bois Montbray Montcuit Montebourg Montfarville Monthuchon Montjoie-Saint-Martin Montmartin-en-Graignes Montmartin-sur-Mer Montpinchon Montrabot Montreuil-sur-Lozon Mont Saint-Michel Montsenelle Montsurvent Moon-sur-Elle Morigny Morsalines Mortain-Bocage Morville La Mouche Moulines Moyon-Villages Muneville-le-Bingard Muneville-sur-Mer Nay Négreville Néhou Le Neufbourg Neufmesnil Neuville-au-Plain Neuville-en-Beaumont Nicorps Notre-Dame-de-Cenilly Notre-Dame-de-Livoye Nouainville Octeville-l'Avenel Orglandes Orval-sur-Sienne Ouville Ozeville Le Parc Percy-en-Normandie Périers La Pernelle Perriers-en-Beauficel Le Perron Le Petit-Celland Picauville Pierreville Les Pieux Pirou Le Plessis-Lastelle Poilley Pontaubault Pont-Hébert Pontorson Ponts Portbail Précey Quettehou Quettreville-sur-Sienne Quibou Quinéville Raids Rampan Rauville-la-Bigot Rauville-la-Place Ravenoville Reffuveille Regnéville-sur-Mer Reigneville-Bocage Remilly-les-Marais Réville Rocheville Romagny-Fontenay Roncey La Ronde-Haye Le Rozel Sacey Saint-Amand-Villages Saint-André-de-Bohon Saint-André-de-l'Épine Saint-Aubin-de-Terregatte Saint-Aubin-des-Préaux Saint-Aubin-du-Perron Saint-Barthélemy Saint-Brice Saint-Brice-de-Landelles Saint-Christophe-du-Foc Saint-Clair-sur-l'Elle Saint-Clément-Rancoudray Saint-Cyr Saint-Cyr-du-Bailleul Saint-Denis-le-Gast Saint-Denis-le-Vêtu Sainte-Cécile Sainte-Colombe Sainte-Geneviève Sainte-Marie-du-Mont Sainte-Mère-Église Sainte-Suzanne-sur-Vire Saint-Floxel Saint-Fromond Saint-Georges-d'Elle Saint-Georges-de-la-Rivière Saint-Georges-de-Livoye Saint-Georges-de-Rouelley Saint-Georges-Montcocq Saint-Germain-d'Elle Saint-Germain-de-Tournebut Saint-Germain-de-Varreville Saint-Germain-le-Gaillard Saint-Germain-sur-Ay Saint-Germain-sur-Sèves Saint-Gilles Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouët Saint-Hilaire-Petitville Saint-Jacques-de-Néhou Saint-James Saint-Jean-de-Daye Saint-Jean-de-la-Haize Saint-Jean-de-la-Rivière Saint-Jean-d'Elle Saint-Jean-de-Savigny Saint-Jean-des-Champs Saint-Jean-du-Corail-des-Bois Saint-Jean-le-Thomas Saint-Joseph Saint-Laurent-de-Cuves Saint-Laurent-de-Terregatte Saint-Lô Saint-Lô-d'Ourville Saint-Louet-sur-Vire Saint-Loup Saint-Malo-de-la-Lande Saint-Marcouf Saint-Martin-d'Aubigny Saint-Martin-d'Audouville Saint-Martin-de-Bonfossé Saint-Martin-de-Cenilly Saint-Martin-des-Champs Saint-Martin-de-Varreville Saint-Martin-le-Bouillant Saint-Martin-le-Gréard Saint-Maur-des-Bois Saint-Maurice-en-Cotentin Saint-Michel-de-la-Pierre Saint-Michel-de-Montjoie Saint-Nicolas-de-Pierrepont Saint-Nicolas-des-Bois Saint-Ovin Saint-Pair-sur-Mer Saint-Patrice-de-Claids Saint-Pierre-d'Arthéglise Saint-Pierre-de-Coutances Saint-Pierre-de-Semilly Saint-Pierre-Église Saint-Pierre-Langers Saint-Planchers Saint-Pois Saint-Quentin-sur-le-Homme Saint-Sauveur-de-Pierrepont Saint-Sauveur-la-Pommeraye Saint-Sauveur-Lendelin Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte Saint-Sébastien-de-Raids Saint-Senier-de-Beuvron Saint-Senier-sous-Avranches Saint-Vaast-la-Hougue Saint-Vigor-des-Monts Sartilly-Baie-Bocage Saussemesnil Saussey Savigny Savigny-le-Vieux Sébeville Sénoville Servigny Servon Sideville Siouville-Hague Sortosville Sortosville-en-Beaumont Sottevast Sotteville Soulles Sourdeval Sourdeval-les-Bois Subligny Surtainville Taillepied Tamerville Tanis Le Tanu Le Teilleul Terre-et-Marais Tessy-Bocage Teurthéville-Bocage Teurthéville-Hague Thèreval Théville Tirepied Tocqueville Tollevast Torigny-les-Villes Tourville-sur-Sienne Tréauville Trelly Tribehou La Trinité Turqueville Urville Vains Valcanville Valognes Le Val-Saint-Père Varenguebec Varouville Le Vast Vaudreville Vaudrimesnil La Vendelée Ver Vernix Vesly Le Vicel Vicq-sur-Mer Videcosville Vierville Villebaudon Villedieu-les-Poêles-Rouffigny Villiers-Fossard Virandeville Yquelon Yvetot-Bocage

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 159458718 LCCN: n81100655 GND: 4040122-4 SUDOC: 167715658 BNF: