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Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
(/ˌmɪltən ˈkiːnz/ ( listen) MIL-tən KEENZ), locally abbreviated to MK, is a large town[note 1] in the Borough of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, of which it is the administrative centre. It was formally designated as a new town on 23 January 1967,[2] with the design brief to become a "city" in scale. It is located about 45 miles (72 km) north-west of London. At designation, its 89 km2 (34 sq mi) area incorporated the existing towns of Bletchley, Wolverton, and Stony Stratford, along with another fifteen villages and farmland in between. It took its name from the existing village of Milton Keynes, a few miles east of the planned centre. At the 2011 census, the population of the Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
urban area, including the adjacent Newport Pagnell
Newport Pagnell
and Woburn Sands, was 229,941.[1] The population of the Borough in total was 248,800,[3] compared with a population of around 53,000 for the same area in 1961.[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Birth of a "New City" 1.2 Prior history

2 Urban design

2.1 Grid roads and grid squares 2.2 The Redways: a network of shared use paths 2.3 Height 2.4 Linear parks 2.5 "City in the forest" 2.6 Landscape 2.7 Further development plans

3 Culture

3.1 Music 3.2 Arts and literature 3.3 Public sculpture

4 Education 5 Government and infrastructure

5.1 Local government 5.2 Hospitals 5.3 UK government offices

6 Communications and media 7 Business 8 Sport 9 Centre 10 Other amenities 11 Original towns and villages 12 Economy, demography, geography and politics

12.1 Modern parishes, community councils and districts

13 Closest cities, towns and villages 14 Notable people

14.1 Bands

15 Transport 16 Twin towns 17 Climate 18 Notes 19 References 20 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Milton Keynes Birth of a "New City"[edit] In the 1960s, the UK Government decided that a further generation of new towns in the South East of England
England
was needed to relieve housing congestion in London.

Population trend of Borough and Urban Area 1801–2011

Since the 1950s, overspill housing for several London
London
boroughs had been constructed in Bletchley.[5][6][7] Further studies[8][9] in the 1960s identified north Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
as a possible site for a large new town, a new city,[10] encompassing the existing towns of Bletchley, Stony Stratford
Stony Stratford
and Wolverton. The New Town (informally and in planning documents, "New City") was to be the biggest yet, with a target population of 250,000,[11] in a "designated area" of 21,850 acres (34.1 sq mi; 88.4 km2).[12] The name "Milton Keynes" was taken from the existing village of Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
on the site.[13] On 23 January 1967, when the formal new town designation order was made,[2] the area to be developed was largely farmland and undeveloped villages. The site was deliberately located equidistant from London, Birmingham, Leicester, Oxford
Oxford
and Cambridge
Cambridge
with the intention[14] that it would be self-sustaining and eventually become a major regional centre in its own right. Planning control was taken from elected local authorities and delegated to the Milton Keynes Development Corporation (MKDC). Before construction began, every area was subject to detailed archaeological investigation: doing so has exposed a rich history of human settlement since Neolithic
Neolithic
times and has provided a unique insight into the history of a large sample of the landscape of north Buckinghamshire. The Corporation's strongly modernist designs featured regularly in the magazines Architectural Design and the Architects' Journal. MKDC was determined to learn from the mistakes made in the earlier New Towns and revisit the Garden City ideals. They set in place the characteristic grid roads that run between districts ('grid squares'), as well as the intensive planting, lakes and parkland that are so evident today. While still on the drawing board, planners noticed that the main streets near the proposed city centre would almost frame the rising sun on Midsummer's Day. Greenwich Observatory was consulted to obtain the exact angle required at the latitude of Central Milton Keynes, and they managed to persuade the engineers to shift the grid of roads a few degrees in response.[15] CMK was not intended to be a traditional town centre but a central business and shopping district to supplement Local Centres in most of the grid squares.[13] This non-hierarchical devolved city plan was a departure from the English New Towns
New Towns
tradition and envisaged a wide range of industry and diversity of housing styles and tenures across the city. The largest and almost the last of the British New Towns, Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
has 'stood the test of time far better than most, and has proved flexible and adaptable'.[16] The radical grid plan was inspired by the work of Californian urban theorist Melvin M. Webber (1921–2006), described by the founding architect of Milton Keynes, Derek Walker (1929–2015), as the "father of the city".[17] Webber thought that telecommunications meant that the old idea of a city as a concentric cluster was out of date and that cities which enabled people to travel around them readily would be the thing of the future achieving "community without propinquity" for residents.[18] The Government wound up MKDC in 1992, 25 years after the new town was founded, transferring control to the Commission for New Towns
New Towns
(CNT) and then finally to English Partnerships, with the planning function returning to local council control (since 1974 and the Local Government Act 1972, the Borough of Milton Keynes). From 2004-2011 a Government quango, the Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Partnership, had development control powers to accelerate the growth of Milton Keynes. Along with many other towns and boroughs, Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
competed for formal city status in the 2000, 2002 and 2012 competitions, but was unsuccessful. Nevertheless, the term "city" is generally used by its citizens, local media and bus services to describe itself, perhaps because the term "town" is taken to mean one of the constituent towns. Road signs refer to "Central Milton Keynes" or "Shopping" when directing traffic to its centre. Prior history[edit]

Reproductions of the Milton Keynes Hoard
Milton Keynes Hoard
( Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Museum)

The area that was to become Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
encompassed a landscape that has a rich historic legacy. The area to be developed was largely farmland and undeveloped villages, but with evidence of permanent settlement dating back to the Bronze Age. Before construction began, every area was subject to detailed archaeological investigation: doing so has provided a unique insight into the history of a large sample of the landscape of south-central England. There is evidence of Iron Age, Romano-British, Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman, Medieval
Medieval
and Industrial revolution settlements. Collections[19] of oral history covering the 20th century completes a picture that is described in detail in another article. Bletchley
Bletchley
Park, the site of World War II
World War II
British codebreaking and Colossus, the world's first programmable electronic digital computer, is a major component of MK's modern history. It is now a flourishing heritage attraction, receiving hundreds of thousands of visitors annually.[20] When the boundary of Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
was defined in 1967, some 40,000 people[21] lived in three towns and fifteen villages or hamlets in the "designated area" of 21,863 acres (8,848 ha). Urban design[edit]

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The concepts that heavily influenced the design of the town are described in detail in article urban planning – see 'cells' under Planning and aesthetics (referring to grid squares). See also article single-use zoning.

Since the radical plan form and large scale of Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
attracted international attention, early phases of development include work by celebrated architects, including Sir Richard MacCormac, Lord Norman Foster, Henning Larsen, Ralph Erskine, John Winter, and Martin Richardson.[22] Led by Lord Campbell of Eskan (Chairman) and Fred Roche (General Manager), the Corporation attracted talented young architects led by the young and charismatic Derek Walker. In the modernist Miesian tradition is the Shopping Building designed by Stuart Mosscrop and Christopher Woodward, a grade II listed building, which the Twentieth Century Society inter alia regards as the 'most distinguished' twentieth century retail building in Britain.[23][24] The contextual tradition that ran alongside it is exemplified by the Corporation's infill scheme at Cofferidge Close, Stony Stratford, designed by Wayland Tunley, which carefully inserts into a historic stretch of High Street a modern retail facility, offices and car park. The Development Corporation also led an ambitious Public art programme. The urban design has not been universally praised, however. Francis Tibbalds, president of the Royal Town Planning Institute, described the centre of Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
as "bland, rigid, sterile, and totally boring."[25] Grid roads and grid squares[edit]

The geography of Milton Keynes – the railway line, Watling Street, Grand Union Canal, M1 motorway – sets up a very strong north-south axis. If you've got to build a city between (them) it is very natural to take a pen and draw the rungs of a ladder. Ten miles by six is the size of this city – 22,000 acres. Do you lay it out like an American city, rigid orthogonal from side to side? Being more sensitive in 1966-7, the designers decided that the grid concept should apply but should be a lazy grid following the flow of land, its valleys, its ebbs and flows. That would be nicer to look at, more economical and efficient to build, and would sit more beautifully as a landscape intervention.

Professor David Lock, CBE[26]

Main articles: Milton Keynes grid road system
Milton Keynes grid road system
and List of districts in Milton Keynes The Milton Keynes Development Corporation planned the major road layout according to street hierarchy principles, using a grid pattern of approximately 1 km (0.62 mi) intervals, rather than on the more conventional radial pattern found in older settlements. Major internal roads run between communities, rather than through them: these distributor roads are known locally as grid roads and the spaces between them – the districts – are known as grid squares.[27] Intervals of 1 km (0.62 mi) were chosen so that people would always be within walking distance of a bus stop. Consequently, each grid square is a semi-autonomous community, making a unique collective of 100 clearly identifiable neighbourhoods within the overall urban environment. The grid squares have a variety of development styles, ranging from conventional urban development and industrial parks to original rural and modern urban and suburban developments. Most grid squares have Local Centres, intended as local retail hubs and most with community facilities as well. Originally intended under the masterplan to sit alongside the Grid Roads, the Local Centres were mostly in fact built embedded in the communities. Roundabout
Roundabout
junctions were built at intersections because the grid roads were intended to carry large volumes of traffic: this type of junction is efficient at dealing with these volumes. Some major roads are dual carriageway, the others are single carriageway. Along one side of each single carriageway grid road there is a (grassed) reservation to permit dualling or additional transport infrastructure at a later date. To date this has been limited. The edges of each grid square are landscaped and densely planted, some additionally have berms. Traffic movements are fast, with relatively little congestion since there are alternative routes to any particular destination other than during the (brief) peak periods. The national speed limit applies on the grid roads, although lower speed limits have been introduced on some stretches to reduce accident rates. Pedestrians rarely need to cross grid roads at grade, as underpasses and bridges exist in frequent places along each stretch of all of the grid roads. However, the new districts to be added by the expansion plans for Milton Keynes are departing from this model, with less separation and using 'at grade' crossings. This approach, which contradicts the original design ethos, has been a cause for conflict between residents and the Council who are often regarded as failing to preserve the unique development style of the city.[28] Monitoring station data[29] shows that pollution is lower than in other settlements of a similar size. The Redways: a network of shared use paths[edit]

Cycleway network in Milton Keynes. The national cycle routes are highlighted in red. (Extracted from Openstreetmap.org © OpenStreetMap contributors).

Main articles: Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
redway system, Segregated cycle facilities, and Shared use path There is a separate network (approximately 270 kilometres or 170 miles total length) of cycle and pedestrian routes, the "redways", that runs through the grid-squares and often runs alongside the grid-road network.[30] This was designed to segregate slow moving cycle and pedestrian traffic from fast moving motor traffic. In practice, it is mainly used for leisure cycling rather than commuting, perhaps because the cycle routes are shared with pedestrians, cross the grid-roads via bridge or underpass rather than at grade, and because some take meandering scenic routes rather than straight lines. It is so called because it is generally surfaced with red tarmac. The national Sustrans
Sustrans
national cycle network routes 6 and 51 take advantage of this system. Height[edit]

The Hub:MK, built between 2006 and 2008. The taller glass tower, Manhattan House, has fourteen stories.

The original design guidance declared that "no building [be] taller than the tallest tree". However, the Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Partnership, in its expansion plans for Milton Keynes, believed that Central Milton Keynes (and elsewhere) needed "landmark buildings" and subsequently lifted the height restriction for the area. As a result, high rise buildings have been built in the central business district. Four of the pedestrian underpasses were closed to 'normalise' the streetscape of Central Milton Keynes
Central Milton Keynes
and the character of the area was set to change under government pressure to increase densities of development. These changes are being opposed by pressure groups such as Urban Eden
Urban Eden
and the Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Forum. More recent local plans have protected the existing boulevard framework and underpasses following the dissolution of Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Partnership. Recent large-scale buildings include The Pinnacle:MK on Midsummer Boulevard and the Vizion development on Avebury Boulevard. The Pinnacle was the largest office building to be constructed in Milton Keynes in 25 years. More recently the Network Rail
Network Rail
National Centre has been built at the western limit of Silbury Boulevard; this building occupies a large land area but only rises to the equivalent of six storeys; a return towards the design of the original Central Milton Keynes developments. Linear parks[edit]

Caldecotte Lake, Milton Keynes

The flood plains of the Great Ouse and of its tributaries (the Ouzel and some brooks) have been protected as linear parks that run right through Milton Keynes. The Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal
is another green route (and demonstrates the level geography of the area – there is just one minor lock in its entire 10-mile (16 km) meandering route through from the southern boundary near Fenny Stratford
Fenny Stratford
to the "Iron Trunk" Aqueduct over the Ouse at Wolverton
Wolverton
at its northern boundary). The Park system
Park system
was designed by landscape architect Peter Youngman,[31] who also developed landscape precepts for all development areas: groups of grid squares were to be planted with different selections of trees and shrubs to give them distinct identities. However the landscaping of parks and of the grid roads was evolved under the leadership of Neil Higson,[32] who from 1977 took over as Chief Landscape Architect and made the original grand but not entirely practical landscape plan more subtle.[33] "City in the forest"[edit] The original Development Corporation design concept aimed[17] for a "forest city" and its foresters planted millions of trees from its own nursery in Newlands in the following years. As of 2006, the urban area has 20 million trees. Following the winding up of the Development Corporation, the lavish landscapes of the Grid Roads and of the major parks were transferred to The Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Parks Trust, a charity which is independent from the municipal authority and which was intended to resist pressures to build on the parks over time. The Parks Trust is endowed with a portfolio of commercial properties, the income of which pay for the upkeep of the green spaces.[34] Landscape[edit] The land on which Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
was built was originally hedges, marshes, ancient woodland and wildflower meadows. Today, roses in particular thrive in its heavy clay soils.[35] Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
has been dubbed Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
capital of shrubs by The Guardian newspaper[36]. Further development plans[edit]

One of the new 'city streets', an extension of H7 Chaffron Way, in Broughton Gate.

Main article: Expansion plans for Milton Keynes In January 2004, Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott
John Prescott
announced[37] the Government's plan to double the population of Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
by 2026. He appointed English Partnerships (EP) to do so, taking planning controls away from Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Borough Council and making EP the statutory planning authority. Their proposal for the next phase of expansion moves away from grid squares to large-scale, mixed use, higher-density development. The more detailed article expands on the details of their proposals. As the first stage in that plan, the Government expanded[38] the boundaries of the designated area, adding large green-field expansion sites to the east and west that were to be developed by 2015. In June 2004 Milton Keynes Partnership
Milton Keynes Partnership
Committee (MKPC), was created by the Government and was a committee of the Homes and Communities Agency (HCA), the national housing and regeneration agency for England. MKPC was created to ensure a co-ordinated approach to planning and delivery of growth and development in the ‘new city’. Milton Keynes Partnership
Milton Keynes Partnership
was disbanded in 2011,[39] holding its last meeting in March of that year. Its functions were folded back into the Homes and Communities Agency (HCA), with Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Council handling planning permission for established areas of MK. Culture[edit] Music[edit]

65,000 capacity by the Green Day
Green Day
Bullet in a Bible
Bullet in a Bible
concert at the National Bowl

The open-air National Bowl
National Bowl
is a 65,000-capacity venue for large-scale events. In Wavendon, the Stables provides a venue for jazz, blues, folk, rock, classical, pop and world music.[40] It was founded by jazz artists Cleo Laine
Cleo Laine
and the late John Dankworth and is now ranked in the UK's top 10 music venues by the Performing Right Society.[citation needed] It presents around 400 concerts and over 200 education events each year and also hosts the National Youth Music Camps summer camp for young musicians.[41] In 2010, it founded the biennial IF Milton Keynes International Festival, producing events in unusual spaces and places across Milton Keynes[42] MK11 Live Music Venue & Sports Bar, based in Kiln Farm near Stony Stratford, is a 330 capacity live music venue and sports bar that hosts over 200 live music events throughout the year. MK11 features local acts as well as more notable acts from a variety of musical genres. Some notable acts include The Blockheads, Big Country, The King Blues, The Hoosiers, Akala and Men at Works' Colin Hay. MK11 has also featured a number of influential US hip-hop artists such as Grandmaster Flash, Pharoahe Monch, KRS One and Dead Prez. MK11 was voted as "best live music pub" by readers of local culture magazine Monkey Kettle in 2014.[43] In addition to this award MK11 also won 'Bar of the Year 2017' at the Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Food & Leisure Awards. Arts and literature[edit] The municipal public art gallery, MK Gallery,[44] presents free exhibitions of international contemporary art. There are two museums:

Bletchley
Bletchley
Park complex which, as well as housing the museum of wartime cryptography, also hosts (separately) the National Museum of Computing including a working replica of the Colossus computer, and Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Museum, which includes the Stacey Hill Collection of rural life that existed before the foundation of MK and the original Concrete Cows.

The 1,400 seat Milton Keynes Theatre
Milton Keynes Theatre
opened in 1999. The theatre has an unusual feature: the ceiling can be lowered closing off the third tier (gallery) to create a more intimate space for smaller-scale productions. There are further performance spaces in Bletchley, Wolverton, Leadenhall, Shenley Church End, Stantonbury
Stantonbury
and Walton Hall. MK also has a literature scene, with groups like Speakeasy[45] meeting regularly and hosting performance events, and former poetry and arts magazine, Monkey Kettle which ran between 1999 and 2014. In addition, two performance poetry groups exist  – Poetry Kapow!,[46] an offshoot of Monkey Kettle though now independent of the parent organisation, specialising in live, multi-discipline, interactive poetry/art/music events, usually featuring slams; and Tongue in Chic,[47] a regular open mic poetry event which features headline poets such as John Hegley. In May 2011 the outgoing Mayor, Debbie Brock, announced the appointment of Mark Niel as the first official Milton Keynes' Poet Laureate.[48] Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Arts Centre is situated in the historic village of Great Linford in the north of MK, between Wolverton
Wolverton
and Newport Pagnell. Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Arts Centre offers a year-round exhibitions, families workshops and courses. Situated across many of Great Linford
Great Linford
Manor's exterior buildings (barns, Almshouses, Pavilions), the Arts Centre offers a special historical setting. The Westbury Arts Centre is situated in the west of MK, near Shenley Wood. It is based in a 16th-century grade II listed Farmhouse building. The Art Centre has been providing spaces for professional working artists to create work since 1994. The oldest part of the house was built in the sixteenth century and has been greatly extended over the years. It has several acres of garden and is home to several protected species of bats and newts. Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
also boasts several choirs – the Milton Keynes Chorale, the New English Singers, the Cornerstone Choir, Quorum,[49] the Open University
Open University
Choir, and others. There is a variety of amateur drama groups, and amateur musical theatre groups. Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Forum is the registered civic society for MK.[50] Public sculpture[edit]

Liz Leyh's iconic "Concrete Cows"

Public sculpture in Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
includes work by Elisabeth Frink, Philip Jackson, Nicolas Moreton and Ronald Rae.[51] Education[edit] The Open University's headquarters are in the Walton Hall district, though because this is a distance learning institution, the only students resident on campus are approximately 200 full-time postgraduates. Cranfield
Cranfield
University, an all-postgraduate institution, is in nearby Cranfield, Bedfordshire. Milton Keynes College provides further education up to foundation degree level, however a Postgraduate Certificate in Education[52] course is available; run in partnership with and accredited by Oxford
Oxford
Brookes University. In 1991 Leicester
Leicester
Polytechnic established a purpose-built polytechnic campus in Kents Hill in Milton Keynes, opposite the Open University's Walton Hall site, which was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
in 1992. This was originally branded 'The Polytechnic: Milton Keynes'. Later in 1992 Leicester
Leicester
Polytechnic gained university status and was renamed De Montfort University, and the site was rebranded 'De Montfort University
University
Milton Keynes'. However, DMU closed the MK site in 2003 and the Open University
Open University
has expanded to take over the buildings. Although Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
does not yet have its own conventional local university, its founders hope that the University
University
Campus Milton Keynes will be the seed for a future ' Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
University'. MK is currently the UK's largest population centre without its own university proper. Like most parts of the UK, the state secondary schools in Milton Keynes are Comprehensive schools, such as Stantonbury
Stantonbury
Campus and Denbigh School, although schools in the rest of Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
still use the Tripartite System. Results are above the national average, though below that of the rest of Buckinghamshire – but the demography of Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
is also far closer to the national average than is the latter. Access to selective schools is still possible in Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
as the grammar schools in Buckingham
Buckingham
and Aylesbury accept some pupils from within the unitary authority area, with Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
County Council operating bus services to ferry pupils to the schools. Private schools in Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
include the 3-to-18 mixed sex Webber Independent School[53] and the 2½-to-11 mixed sex Milton Keynes Preparatory School.[54] The Safety Centre
Safety Centre
is a purpose-built interactive centre which provides safety education to visiting schools and youth groups via its full-size interactive demonstrations known as Hazard Alley. Another educational organisation is the Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
City Discovery Centre[55] at Bradwell Abbey, which holds an extensive archive about Milton Keynes. MKCDC is therefore a research facility, as well as offering a broad education programme (with a focus on urban geography and local history) to schools, universities and professionals. MKCDC also holds an annual programme of events at the medieval priory site on which they are based. Government and infrastructure[edit] Local government[edit] The responsible local government is Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Council, which controls the Borough of Milton Keynes, a Unitary Authority. About 90% of the population of the Borough lives in the urban area. Hospitals[edit] Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
University
University
Hospital, in the Eaglestone district, is an NHS general hospital with an Accident and Emergency
Accident and Emergency
unit. It is associated for medical teaching purposes with the University
University
of Buckingham
Buckingham
medical school. The nearby BMI Saxon Clinic is a small private hospital. UK government offices[edit] The Legalisation Office of the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office – which issues Apostille
Apostille
certificates to prove that official documents are genuine – is located in Milton Keynes.[56] Government Communications Headquarters
Government Communications Headquarters
(GCHQ) previously had been located in Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
(at Bletchley
Bletchley
Park), but moved to Cheltenham in the early 1950s.[57] Communications and media[edit] Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
has two commercial radio stations, Heart Four Counties covering Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Northamptonshire, and MKFM. The first commercial radio station for Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
was established in 1989 under the name Horizon Radio. It was subsequently renamed Heart MK in 2009 after being bought out by Global Radio. Heart MK was merged with Heart Northants, Heart Dunstable
Heart Dunstable
and Heart Bedford
Heart Bedford
in 2010 to form Heart Four Counties. MKFM
MKFM
launched in 2011, initially broadcasting on internet, later on DAB Digital Radio full-time. The station launched on 106.3 FM on Monday 7 September 2015. BBC Three Counties Radio is the local BBC Radio
BBC Radio
station, covering Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire
and Hertfordshire, but has different programming from the Bow Brickhill transmitter at breakfast. CRMK[58] is a voluntary station broadcasting on the Internet. For television, the area is in the overlap between the Oxford
Oxford
and the Sandy transmitters and so receives BBC South and BBC East, and ITV Meridian and Anglia. As of October 2016[update], Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
has one free-to-residents local newspaper, the Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Citizen. Business[edit] Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
has consistently benefited from above-average economic growth. Outside of London
London
it is ranked as one of the most attractive places for business along with Oxford, Cambridge
Cambridge
and Manchester. In November 2012 the Milton Keynes Citizen reported ratings company Experian
Experian
as describing Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
as one of the leaders in a prospective economic recovery.[59] The same report quoted the Estate Gazette as placing it first outside the M25 for office property growth.[59] Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
is home to several national and international companies, including the UK headquarters of Argos, Domino's Pizza, Marshall Amplification, Mercedes-Benz, Suzuki, Volkswagen AG, Red Bull Racing, Network Rail
Network Rail
and Yamaha
Yamaha
Kemble.[60] In January 2015, it was announced that Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
had seen the highest growth in jobs out of the biggest 64 towns and cities in the UK during the preceding decade. Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
saw its number of jobs increase by 18.2 per cent between 2004 and 2013, followed by London
London
on 17.1 per cent.[61] Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Milton Keynes

Stadium
Stadium
MK (in 2007)

Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
has professional teams in football ( Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Dons F.C. at Stadium:mk), in ice hockey ( Milton Keynes Lightning
Milton Keynes Lightning
at Planet Ice Milton Keynes), and in Formula One
Formula One
(Red Bull Racing). Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
is also home to the Xscape indoor ski slope, the iFLY indoor sky diving facility, and the National Badminton Centre. Centre[edit] Main articles: Central Milton Keynes, Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Shopping Centre, and Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Central railway station As a key element of the New Town vision, Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
has a purpose built centre, with a very large "covered high street" shopping centre, theatre, art gallery, a multiplex cinema, hotels, business district, ecumenical church, Borough Council offices and central railway station. Other amenities[edit]

Part of the Blue Lagoon

Near the central station, the former Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
central bus station has become a youth club called 'the Buszy' with a purpose-built covered "urban skateboarding" arena, but the wide expanses and slopes of the station plaza remain very popular among skaters. There is a high security prison, HMP Woodhill, on the western boundary. Willen
Willen
Lakeside Park hosts watersports, and the North Lake is a bird sanctuary. The Blue Lagoon Local Nature Reserve
Blue Lagoon Local Nature Reserve
is in Bletchley.

Original towns and villages[edit]

During the Second World War, British, Polish and American cryptographers at Bletchley
Bletchley
Park broke a large number of Axis codes and ciphers, including the German Enigma machine.

The 1815 windmill near New Bradwell
New Bradwell
village, beside the playing fields

Stony Stratford
Stony Stratford
high street in festive mood

Peace Pagoda

Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
consists of many pre-existing towns and villages, as well as new infill developments. The designated area outside the four main towns (Bletchley, Newport Pagnell, Stony Stratford, Wolverton) was largely rural farmland but included many picturesque North Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
villages and hamlets: Bradwell village and its Abbey, Broughton, Caldecotte, Fenny Stratford, Great Linford, Loughton, Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Village, New Bradwell, Shenley Brook End, Shenley Church End, Simpson, Stantonbury, Tattenhoe, Tongwell, Walton, Water Eaton, Wavendon, Willen, Great and Little Woolstone, Woughton on the Green. The historical settlements have been focal points for the modern development of the new town. Every grid square has historical antecedents, if only in the field names. The more obvious ones are listed below and most have more detailed articles. Bletchley
Bletchley
was first recorded in the 12th century as Blechelai. Its station was a major Victorian junction (the London
London
and North Western Railway with the Oxford- Cambridge
Cambridge
Varsity Line), leading to the substantial urban growth in the town in that period. It expanded to absorb the villages of Water Eaton and Fenny Stratford. Bletchley
Bletchley
Park was home to the Government Code and Cypher School during the Second World War. The famous Enigma code
Enigma code
was cracked here, and the building housed what was arguably the world's first programmable computer, Colossus. The house is now a museum of war memorabilia, cryptography and computing. The Benedictine
Benedictine
Priory
Priory
of Bradwell Abbey
Bradwell Abbey
at Bradwell was of major economic importance in this area of north Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
before the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The routes of the medieval trackways (many of which are now Redways or bridleways) converge on the site from some distance. Nowadays there is only a small medieval chapel and a manor house occupying the site. Bradwell itself is a traditional village with earthworks of a Norman motte and bailey and parish church. There is a YHA hostel beside the church. New Bradwell, to the north of Bradwell and just across the canal and the railway to the east of Wolverton, was built specifically for railway workers. It has a working windmill, although technically this lies just a few yards outside of the parish boundary. The level bed of the old Wolverton
Wolverton
to Newport Pagnell
Newport Pagnell
Line ends here and has been converted to a Redway, making it a favourite route for cycling. Great Linford
Great Linford
appears in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
as Linforde, and features a church dedicated to Saint Andrew, dating from 1215. Today, the outer buildings of the 17th century manor house form an arts centre, and Linford Manor
Linford Manor
is a prestigious recording studio. Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Village is the original village to which the New Town owes its name. The original village is still evident, with a pleasant thatched pub, village hall, church and traditional housing. The area around the village has reverted to its original name of Middleton, as shown on old maps of the 1700s. The oldest[62] surviving domestic building in the area, a 14th-century manor house, is here. There has been a market in Stony Stratford
Stony Stratford
since 1194 (by charter of King Richard I). The Rose and Crown Inn at Stratford is reputedly the last place the Princes in the Tower
Princes in the Tower
were seen alive. The manor house of Walton village, Walton Hall, is the headquarters of the Open University
Open University
and the tiny parish church (deconsecrated) is in its grounds. The tiny Parish Church (1680) at Willen
Willen
contains the only unaltered building by the architect and physicist Robert Hooke. Nearby, there is a Buddhist
Buddhist
Temple and a Peace Pagoda
Peace Pagoda
which was built in 1980 and was the first in the western world.[63] The district borders the River Ouzel: there is a large balancing lake here, to capture flash floods before they cause problems downstream on the River Great Ouse. The north basin is a wildlife sanctuary and a favourite of migrating aquatic birds. The south basin is for leisure use, favoured by wind surfers and dinghy sailors. The circuit of the lakes is a favoured "fun run". The original Wolverton
Wolverton
was a medieval settlement just north and west of today's town. The ridge and furrow pattern of agriculture can still be seen in the nearby fields and the Saxon (rebuilt in 1819) Church of the Holy Trinity still stands next to the Norman Motte and Bailey site. Modern Wolverton
Wolverton
was a 19th-century New Town built to house the workers at the Wolverton
Wolverton
railway works, which built engines and carriages for the London
London
and North Western Railway. Economy, demography, geography and politics[edit] Main article: Borough of Milton Keynes Data on the economy, demography and politics of Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
are collected at the Borough level and are detailed at Economy of the Borough and Demographics of the Borough. However, since the urban area is predominant in the Borough, it is reasonable to assume that, other than for agriculture, the figures are broadly the same. Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
is one of the more successful (per capita) economies in the South East, with a gross value added per capita index that was 47% higher than the national average (2005 data).[64] Average wages place it in the top five nationally (2015 data).[65] With 99.4% SMEs, just 0.6% of businesses locally employ more than 250 people:[66] the more notable of these include the Open University, Santander UK, Volkswagen Group, Network Rail
Network Rail
and Mercedes Benz. Of the remaining enterprises, 81.5% employ fewer than 10 people.[66] The 'professional, scientific and technical sector' contributes the largest number of business units, 16.7%.[66] The retail sector is the largest contributor of employment.[66] Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
has one of the highest business start-ups in England
England
and the start-up levels remained high during the 2009/10 recession.[66] Although Education, Health and Public Administration are important contributors to employment, the contribution is significantly less than in England
England
or the South East as a whole.[66] The population is significantly younger than the national averages: 22.6% of the Borough population are aged under 16 compared with 19.0% in England; 12.1% are aged 65+ compared with 17.3% in England.[67] According to 2011 census, the ethnic group categories makeup of Milton Keynes Urban Area is: 78.4% White, 8.7% South Asian, 7.5% Black, 3.5% Mixed Race, 1.2% Chinese and other Asian, and 0.7% other ethnic group.[68] Modern parishes, community councils and districts[edit] The Borough of Milton Keynes is fully parished. These are the parishes, community councils and the districts they contain, within Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
itself. For a list of parishes in the Borough, see Borough of Milton Keynes (Rest of the borough)

Bletchley
Bletchley
and Fenny Stratford: Brick fields, Central Bletchley, Denbigh North, Denbigh East, Denbigh West, Fenny Lock, Fenny Stratford, Granby, Mount Farm, Newton Leys, Water Eaton Bradwell: Bradwell, Bradwell Common, Bradwell village, Heelands, Rooksley Bradwell Abbey: Bradwell Abbey, Kiln Farm, Stacey Bushes, Two Mile Ash, Wymbush Broughton and Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
(shared parish council): Atterbury, Brook Furlong, Broughton, Fox Milne, Middleton (including Milton Keynes Village), Northfield, Oakgrove, Pineham Campbell Park: Fishermead, Newlands, Oldbrook, Springfield, Willen
Willen
and Willen
Willen
Lake, Winterhill, Woolstone Central Milton Keynes: Central Milton Keynes
Central Milton Keynes
and Campbell Park Great Linford: Blakelands, Bolbeck Park, Conniburrow, Downs Barn, Downhead Park, Great Linford, Giffard Park, Neath Hill, Pennyland, Tongwell, Willen
Willen
Park Kents Hill, Monkston and Brinklow: Brinklow, Kents Hill, Kingston, Monkston Loughton: Loughton, Loughton Lodge, Great Holm, Knowlhill
Knowlhill
(including the Bowl) New Bradwell Old Woughton: Woughton on the Green, Woughton Park, Passmore (formerly Tinkers Bridge North). Shenley Brook End: Emerson Valley, Furzton, Kingsmead, Shenley Brook End, Snelshall, Tattenhoe, Tattenhoe
Tattenhoe
Park, Westcroft Shenley Church End: Crownhill, Grange Farm, Hazeley, Medbourne, Oakhill, Oxley Park, Shenley Church End, Woodhill Simpson: Ashland, Simpson, West Ashland Stantonbury: Bancroft/Bancroft Park, Blue Bridge, Bradville, Linford Wood, Oakridge Park, Stantonbury, Stantonbury
Stantonbury
Fields Stony Stratford: Fullers Slade, Galley Hill, Stony Stratford Walton: Brown's Wood, Caldecotte, Old Farm Park, Tilbrook, Tower Gate, Walnut Tree, Walton, Walton Hall, Walton Park, Wavendon
Wavendon
Gate.[69] West Bletchley: Far Bletchley, Old Bletchley, West Bletchley, Denbigh Hall Wolverton
Wolverton
and Greenleys: Greenleys, Hodge Lea, Stonebridge, Wolverton, Old Wolverton Woughton: Beanhill, Bleak Hall, Coffee Hall, Eaglestone, Elfield Park, Leadenhall, Netherfield, Peartree Bridge, Redmoor, Tinkers Bridge.

Closest cities, towns and villages[edit]

Destinations from Milton Keynes

Deanshanger, Towcester, Daventry, Coventry Roade, Northampton, Leicester Newport Pagnell, Olney, Wellingborough Cranfield, Bedford, Cambridge

Buckingham, Brackley, Banbury

Milton Keynes

Woburn Sands, Ridgmont, Ampthill

Bicester, Oxford Leighton Buzzard
Leighton Buzzard
or Winslow, Aylesbury Toddington, Dunstable, Luton, London

Notable people[edit]

Ed Slater, professional rugby player for Gloucester Rugby
Gloucester Rugby
who went to Two Mile Ash
Two Mile Ash
School and Denbigh Secondary School. Dele Alli, professional footballer for Tottenham Hostpur who started his career with Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Dons[70] Christopher B-Lynch, (visiting) Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Cranfield
Cranfield
University, responsible for inventing the eponymously named B-Lynch suture
B-Lynch suture
which is used to treat post-partum haemorrhage due to uterine atony worked at Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
General Hospital.[71][72] Andrew Baggaley, English table tennis champion.[73] Sam Baldock, professional footballer for Brighton and Hove Albion, who began his football career at MK Dons.[74] Errol Barnett, an anchor and correspondent for CNN
CNN
is from Milton Keynes. He lived in Crownhill and attended Holmwood First School and Two Mile Ash
Two Mile Ash
Middle School before moving to the US.[75] Emily Bergl, an actress famous for her roles in Desperate Housewives and Shameless. Bergl was born in Milton Keynes, to an Irish mother and an English architect father. Chris Clarke, English sprinter.[76] Adam Ficek, drummer of London
London
band Babyshambles.[77] Lee Hasdell, professional Mixed martial artist and Kickboxer, and pioneer of Mixed martial arts
Mixed martial arts
in the UK.[78] James Hildreth, cricketer who plays for Somerset
Somerset
and has played for England.[79] Shaun Hutson, Novelist of horror novels and dark urban thrillers, has lived in Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
for several years. Liam Kelly, professional footballer for Oldham Athletic. Jim Marshall (1923-2012), founder and CEO of Marshall Amplification was living in and ran his business from Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
when he died.[80] Gordon Moakes, the bassist for the London-based rock band Bloc Party.[81] Clare Nasir, the meteorologist, TV and radio personality, was born in Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
in 1970.[82] Craig Pickering, English sprinter.[83] Sarah Pinborough, English horror writer.[84] Ian Poulter, PGA & European Tour golf professional. Member of the 2010 and 2012 European Ryder Cup Teams.[85] Mark Randall, professional footballer for Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Dons.[86] Antonee Robinson, professional footballer for Everton, on loan to Bolton Wanderers. Greg Rutherford, long jump gold medallist for Team GB
Team GB
at the 2012 Olympic Games.[87] Jack Trevor Story, novelist, was a long-term resident of Milton Keynes.[88] Sam Tomkins, Wigan Warriors
Wigan Warriors
and England
England
international rugby league player, was born in Milton Keynes.[89] Alan Turing
Alan Turing
(1912-1954), played a significant role in the creation of the modern computer. He lodged at the Crown Inn, Shenley Brook End, while working at Bletchley
Bletchley
Park.[90] Nat Wei, Baron Wei, member of the House of Lords, (born Watford], was brought up and went to school in Milton Keynes. Kevin Whately
Kevin Whately
lives in Woburn Sands, in the Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
urban area. Dan Wheldon
Dan Wheldon
(1978-2011), Indy car driver.[91] George Williams, professional footballer for Fulham Pete Winkelman, Chairman of Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Dons Football Club, owner of Linford Manor
Linford Manor
recording studios, long term resident.[92] Ben Chilwell, professional footballer for Leicester

Bands[edit]

Capdown, the ska punk band, came from and formed in Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
in 1997.[93] Fellsilent, the metal band, come from and formed in Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
in 2003.[94] Tesseract, the djent band formed as a full live act in Milton Keynes in 2007. Tesseract's guitarist, songwriter and producer Acle Kahney is also a former member of Fellsilent. Hacktivist, the Grime, djent band formed in 2011. RavenEye, the rock band, formed in Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
in 2014.[95]

Transport[edit]

the Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal
passes over Grafton Street at Bradwell via the modern Bradwell Aqueduct

See also: Buses in Milton Keynes The Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal
between London
London
and Birmingham
Birmingham
provides a major axis in the design of Milton Keynes. Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
has five railway stations. Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Central is served by inter-city services. Wolverton, Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Central and Bletchley
Bletchley
stations are on the West Coast Main Line. Fenny Stratford and Bow Brickhill are on the Marston Vale Line. Woburn Sands
Woburn Sands
railway station, also on the Marston Vale line, is in the small town of Woburn Sands just inside the urban area. The M1 motorway
M1 motorway
runs along the east flank of MK and serves it from junctions 13, 14, and 15A. The A5 road runs right through MK as a grade separated dual carriageway. Other main roads are the A509, linking Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
with Wellingborough
Wellingborough
and Kettering, and the A421 and A422, both running west towards Buckingham
Buckingham
and east towards Bedford. Proximity to the M1 has led to construction of a number of distribution centres, including Magna Park at the A421/A5130 junction.[96] Many long-distance coaches stop at the Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
coachway,[97] (beside M1 Junction 14), some 3.3 miles (5.3 km) from the centre (or 4 mi or 6.4 km from Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Central railway station).[98] There is also a park and ride car park on the site. Regional coaches stop at Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Central. The main bus operator is Arriva Shires & Essex, providing a number of routes which mainly pass through or serve Central Milton Keynes. Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
is also served by Arriva-branded services from Aylesbury and Luton
Luton
as well and Stagecoach East
Stagecoach East
which operate routes to Oxford, Cambridge, Stagecoach Midlands
Stagecoach Midlands
which operates routes to Peterborough and Leicester. Some local services are run by independent operators such as Z&S International and Centrebus. Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
is served by (and provides part of) routes 6 and 51 on the National Cycle Network. The nearest international airport is London
London
Luton
Luton
Airport, accessible by Stagecoach route 99 from MK Central station, which runs with wheelchair-accessible coaches. There is a direct rail connection to Birmingham
Birmingham
International station for Birmingham
Birmingham
Airport. In addition, Cranfield
Cranfield
Airport, an airfield, is 6 miles (10 km) from the centre. (Although Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
is allocated an International Air Transport Association airport code of KYN,[99] it does not have an airport. Proposals in 1971 for a third London
London
airport at (relatively) nearby Cublington
Cublington
were rejected).[100] Twin towns[edit]

Almere, Netherlands[101]

Climate[edit] Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) similar to almost all of the United Kingdom. Recorded temperature extremes range from 34.6 °C (94.3 °F)[102] during July 2006, to as low as −20.6 °C (−5.1 °F)[103] on 25 February 1947. More recently the temperature fell to −16.3 °C (2.7 °F)[104] on 20 December 2010. The nearest Met Office
Met Office
weather station is in Woburn,[105] located just outside the south eastern fringe of the Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
urban area.

Climate data for Woburn 1981–2010 (Weather station 3 mi (5 km) to the SE of Central Milton Keynes)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 7.0 (44.6) 7.4 (45.3) 10.3 (50.5) 13.1 (55.6) 16.6 (61.9) 19.6 (67.3) 22.1 (71.8) 21.9 (71.4) 18.7 (65.7) 14.4 (57.9) 10.0 (50) 7.2 (45) 14.1 (57.4)

Average low °C (°F) 1.3 (34.3) 0.9 (33.6) 2.7 (36.9) 3.8 (38.8) 6.5 (43.7) 9.4 (48.9) 11.7 (53.1) 11.6 (52.9) 9.6 (49.3) 7.0 (44.6) 3.8 (38.8) 1.5 (34.7) 5.8 (42.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 54.2 (2.134) 41.7 (1.642) 45.3 (1.783) 52.1 (2.051) 54.3 (2.138) 53.2 (2.094) 53.1 (2.091) 55.4 (2.181) 57.5 (2.264) 70.3 (2.768) 63.0 (2.48) 57.3 (2.256) 657.4 (25.882)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 52.0 69.4 105.5 147.4 183.4 179.9 197.1 189.0 137.0 105.6 61.7 43.5 1,471.6

Source: Met Office[106]

Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
portal

Notes[edit]

^ Although Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
was specified to be a city in scale and the term "city" is used locally (inter alia to avoid confusion with its constituent towns), formally this title cannot be used. This is because conferment of city status in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is a Royal prerogative.

References[edit]

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Coachway, Park & Ride" (PDF). National Express Coaches. Retrieved 23 November 2012.  ^ "Google Maps". Maps.google.co.uk. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 23 November 2012.  ^ Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Airport – World-airport-codes.com accessed 9 June 2012 ^ "THIRD LONDON AIRPORT (ROSKILL COMMISSION REPORT)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. 4 March 1971.  ^ "Crescendo: Combined rational and renewable energy strategies in cities, for existing and new dwellings and optimal quality of life". Cordis.europe.eu. Retrieved 23 November 2012.  ^ "2006 Maximum". Metoffice.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011.  ^ "1947 minimum". doi:10.1002/wea.66.  ^ Rogers, Simon (21 December 2010). "2010 minimum". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 March 2011.  ^ "Synoptic and climate stations – February 2012 – Met Office". Met Office. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.  ^ "Woburn 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Milton Keynes.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Milton Keynes.

Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
news, what's on and community portal Official visitor website for Milton Keynes Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Council City Discovery Centre (MK urban studies centre) Urban Design magazine – " Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
at 40" Community Forum for Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
Borough Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
in 1968, on BFI Player Community information website

v t e

Ceremonial county of Buckinghamshire

Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire
Portal

Unitary authorities

Borough of Milton Keynes

Boroughs or districts

Aylesbury
Aylesbury
Vale Chiltern South Bucks Wycombe

Major settlements

Amersham Aylesbury Beaconsfield Buckingham Chesham Gerrards Cross High Wycombe Marlow Milton Keynes

including Bletchley Fenny Stratford Stony Stratford Wolverton

Newport Pagnell Olney Princes Risborough Wendover Winslow Woburn Sands See also: List of civil parishes in Buckinghamshire

Rivers

Chess Colne Frays Gade Great Ouse Jubilee Lyde Misbourne Ouzel Ray Thame Thames Tove Wraysbury Wye

Topics

Parliamentary constituencies Boundary changes Schools (Bucks) Schools (Milton Keynes) Places Sites of Special
Special
Scientific Interest Places of interest Country houses Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings History Lord Lieutenant High Sheriff Monastic houses Museums Railways Transport

v t e

River Great Ouse, England

Counties

Northamptonshire Buckinghamshire Bedfordshire Cambridgeshire Norfolk

Flows into

The Wash

Towns (upstream to downstream)

Brackley Buckingham Old Stratford Milton Keynes

Stony Stratford Wolverton New Bradwell

Newport Pagnell Olney Kempston Bedford St Neots Godmanchester Huntingdon St Ives Ely Littleport Downham Market King's Lynn

Major tributaries (upstream to downstream by confluence)

River Tove River Ouzel
River Ouzel
(or Lovat) River Ivel River Kym Old Bedford
Bedford
River New Bedford
Bedford
River River Cam River Lark River Little Ouse River Wissey

Major bridges (upstream to downstream)

Harrold bridge A428 Turvey bridge A428 Bromham bypass A6 Bedford
Bedford
Town Bridge A421 Bedford
Bedford
bypass Great Barford Bridge A428 Bridge St Neots St Neots
St Neots
Town Bridge Godmanchester
Godmanchester
Chinese Bridge A14 bridge, River Great Ouse Huntingdon
Huntingdon
Old Bridge St Ives Bridge

Longest UK rivers

Severn Thames Trent Great Ouse Wye Ure/Ouse Tay Spey Clyde Tweed Avon Nene Eden Dee

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 152452