is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, furniture, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users and consumers. Manufacturing engineering
Manufacturing engineering
or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing, Pfizer, and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Yamaha, Panasonic, Mitsubishi, LG, Samsung
and Tata Motors.


1 History and development

1.1 Manufacturing
systems: changes in methods of manufacturing

2 Industrial policy

2.1 Economics of manufacturing 2.2 Manufacturing
and investment

3 Countries by manufacturing output using the most recent known data 4 Manufacturing
processes 5 Control 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

History and development[edit]

Finished regenerative thermal oxidizer at manufacturing plant

Assembly of Section 41 of a Boeing
787 Dreamliner

An industrial worker amidst heavy steel semi-products (KINEX BEARINGS, Bytča, Slovakia, c. 1995–2000)

A modern automobile assembly line

In its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture (and continues to do so in places). Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system. Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm.

systems: changes in methods of manufacturing[edit]

Engineering Agile manufacturing American system of manufacturing British factory system of manufacturing Craft or guild system Fabrication Flexible manufacturing Just-in-time manufacturing Lean manufacturing Mass customization (2000s) – 3D printing, design-your-own web sites for sneakers, fast fashion Mass production Ownership Packaging and labeling Prefabrication Putting-out system Rapid manufacturing Reconfigurable manufacturing system Soviet collectivism
Soviet collectivism
in manufacturing History of numerical control

Industrial policy[edit] Main article: Industrial policy Economics of manufacturing[edit] Emerging technologies
Emerging technologies
have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing
Belt in the United States. Manufacturing
provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals. The negative costs of manufacturing can also be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions
Labor unions
and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing. These are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are significantly lower than in "developed-world" economies. Manufacturing
and investment[edit]

Capacity utilization in manufacturing in the FRG and in the USA

Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as:

The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth; Competitiveness; and Attractiveness to foreign direct investors.

In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development. They have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors.[1][2] On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States
United States
to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand.[3] Further, while U.S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U.S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries.[4] A total of 3.2 million – one in six U.S. manufacturing jobs – have disappeared between 2000 and 2007.[5] In the UK, EEF the manufacturers organisation has led calls for the UK economy to be rebalanced to rely less on financial services and has actively promoted the manufacturing agenda. Countries by manufacturing output using the most recent known data[edit] List of top 20 manufacturing countries by total value of manufacturing in US dollars for its noted year according to Worldbank.[6][7]

Rank Country/Region Millions of $US Year

 World 12,578,627 2014

1  China 3,713,300 2014

9999999  European Union 7006256607000000000♠2,566,070 2014

2  United States 2,068,080 2014

9999999 Eurozone 7006194685700000000♠1,946,857 2014

3  Japan 850,902 2014

4  Germany 787,503 2014

5  South Korea 389,582 2014

6  India 321,721 2014

7  Italy 296,611 2014

8  France 283,664 2014

9  United Kingdom 282,675 2014

10  Russia 248,481 2014

11  Brazil 218,799 2014

12  Mexico 216,773 2014

13  Indonesia 186,744 2014

14  Spain 166,594 2014

15  Canada 162,074 2014

16   Switzerland 128,881 2014

17  Turkey 126,365 2014

18  Thailand 112,214 2014

19  Netherlands 95,683 2014

20  Australia 93,461 2016


List of manufacturing processes Manufacturing
Process Management



List of management topics Total quality management

Quality control

Six Sigma

See also[edit] Main article: Outline of manufacturing

List of largest manufacturing companies by revenue Industrial robot Manufacturing
engineering Manufacturing
in the United States Industrial engineering Advanced manufacturing Metal fabrication Microfabrication Optics fabrication Semiconductor device fabrication Biomanufacturing Mesoscale Manufacturing Cyber manufacturing Taylorism/Scientific management Fordism Manufacturing
Program of the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health


^ Manufacturing
& Investment Around The World: An International Survey Of Factors Affecting Growth & Performance, ISR Publications/Google Books, revised second edition, 2002. ISBN 978-0-906321-25-6. ^ Research, Industrial Systems (2002-05-20). " Manufacturing
and Investment Around the World: An International Survey of Factors Affecting Growth and Performance". ISBN 978-0-906321-25-6.  ^ Bailey, David and Soyoung Kim (June 26, 2009).GE's Immelt says U.S. economy needs industrial renewal. UK Guardian. Retrieved on June 28, 2009. ^ Brookings Institution, Why Does Manufacturing
Matter? Which Manufacturing
Matters?, February 2012 Archived 2012-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Factory jobs: 3 million lost since 2000". April 20, 2007. ^ "Manufacturing, value added (current US$)". access in February 20, 2013. ^ "Manufacturing, value added (current US$) for EU and Eurozone". access in February 20, 2013.


Kalpakjian, Serope; Steven Schmid (August 2005). Manufacturing, Engineering
& Technology. Prentice Hall. pp. 22–36, 951–88. ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 

External links[edit]

Look up manufacturing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manufacturing.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Manufacturing

How Everyday Things Are Made: video presentations Grant Thornton IBR 2008 Manufacturing
industry focus EEF, the manufacturers' organisation – industry group representing uk manufacturers Industry
Today – Industrial and Manufacturing
Methodologies Enabling the Digital Thread for Smart Manufacturing  "Manufactures". New International Encyclo