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Mangalore, officially known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 352 km (219 mi) west of the state capital, Bengaluru, between the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
and the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
mountain range. The population of the urban agglomeration was 623,841, according to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India. Mangalore
Mangalore
developed as a port in the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
during ancient times and became a major port of India. This port handles 75 per cent of India's coffee and cashew exports. The port is used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast. This coastal city was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Alupas, Vijayanagar Empire, Keladi
Keladi
Nayaks and the Portuguese. The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore
Mysore
rulers, Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and Tipu Sultan. Eventually annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
until India's independence in 1947. The city was unified with the state of Mysore
Mysore
(now called Karnataka) in 1956. Mangalore
Mangalore
is the largest city and administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
district, and is one of the most multicultural non-metro cities of India. It is also the largest city in the Coastal and Malnad regions of Karnataka, besides being a commercial, industrial, educational and healthcare hub on the West Coast
Coast
of India. This port city has the second largest airport in Karnataka. Mangalore city urban agglomeration extends from Ullal
Ullal
in the south to Mulki in the north, covering a distance of over 40 km (25 mi). The city's landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings. The city has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level. Mangalore
Mangalore
has a tropical monsoon climate, and is under the influence of the Southwest monsoon.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early and medieval history 2.2 Foundation and early modern history 2.3 Later modern and contemporary history

3 Geography and climate 4 Economy 5 Demographics 6 Culture 7 Civic administration 8 Education 9 Transport

9.1 Air 9.2 Road 9.3 Rail 9.4 Sea

10 Sports 11 Media 12 Utility services 13 Cuisine 14 Tourism 15 Sister cities 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links

Etymology[edit]

Mangalore
Mangalore
is named after the Hindu goddess Mangaladevi.

Mangalore
Mangalore
was named after the deity Mangaladevi, the presiding deity of the Mangaladevi
Mangaladevi
temple[7] or a synonym of Tara Bhagvati of the Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhist
Buddhist
sect.[8] According to local legend, a princess from Malabar named Parimala or Premaladevi renounced her kingdom and became a disciple of Matsyendranath, the founder of the Nath
Nath
tradition. Having converted Premaladevi to the Nath
Nath
sect, Matsyendranath
Matsyendranath
renamed her Mangaladevi. She arrived in the area with Matsyendranath, but had to settle near Bolar in Mangalore
Mangalore
as she fell ill on the way. Eventually she died, and the Mangaladevi
Mangaladevi
temple was consecrated in her honour at Bolar by the local people after her death.[9] The city got its name from the temple.[10] One of the earliest references to the city's name was made in 715 CE by the Pandyan King Chettian, who called the city Mangalapuram. The city and the coastal region was a part of the Pandyan Kingdom.[11] According to K.V. Ramesh, President of the Place Names Society of India, Mangaluru was first heard in 1345 CE during the Vijayanagar rule. Many shilashasanas (stones) of Vijayanagar period refer the city as Mangalapura. Even before that, during the Alupa dynasty
Alupa dynasty
period, it was referred to as Mangalapura (Mangala means 'auspicious'). The city is well known as Mangaluru in Kannada, a reference to Mangaladevi
Mangaladevi
(the suffix uru means town or city). During the British occupation from 1799, Mangalore
Mangalore
(anglicised from Mangaluru), stuck as the official appellation.[12] However, according to historian George M. Moraes, the word "Mangalore" is the Portuguese corruption of Mangaluru.[13]:2 The name of this town also appears in maps as early as the 1652 Sanson Map of India.[14] Mangalore's diverse communities have different names for the city in their languages. In Tulu, the primary spoken language, the city is called Kudla, meaning "junction", since the city is situated at the confluence of the Netravati
Netravati
and Gurupura
Gurupura
rivers.[15] In Konkani, Mangalore
Mangalore
is referred to as Kodiyal, while in Malayalam, Mangalore
Mangalore
is called Mangalapuram and the Beary
Beary
name for the city is Maikala.[16] History[edit] Main article: History of Mangalore Early and medieval history[edit] Mangalore's historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign travellers. During the first century CE, Pliny the Elder, a Roman historian, made references to a place called Nitrias, as a very undesirable place for disembarkation, on account of the pirates which frequent its vicinity,[17] while Greek historian Ptolemy
Ptolemy
in the second century CE referred to a place called Nitra. Ptolemy's and Pliny the Elder's references were probably made to the Netravati
Netravati
River, which flows through Mangalore.[18] Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk, in his 6th century work Christian Topography
Topography
mentions Malabar as the chief seat of the pepper trade, and Mangarouth (port of Mangalore) as one of the five pepper marts which exported pepper.[19][20]

The Sultan Battery in Mangalore
Mangalore
was built in 1784 by Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
to defend the city from British warships entering the Gurupura river.[21][22]

Mangalore
Mangalore
is the heart of a distinct multilinguistic—cultural region: South Canara, the homeland of the Tulu-speaking people.[23] In the third century BCE, the town formed part of the Maurya
Maurya
Empire, ruled by the Buddhist
Buddhist
emperor, Ashoka
Ashoka
of Magadha.[24]:176 From the third century CE to sixth century CE, the Kadamba dynasty, whose capital was based in Banavasi
Banavasi
in North Canara, ruled over the entire Canara region as independent rulers.[25] From the middle of the seventh century to the end of the 14th century, the South Canara region was ruled by its own native Alupa rulers. The Alupas
Alupas
ruled over the region as feudatories of major regional dynasties like the Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
of Manyakheta, Chalukyas of Kalyani, and Hoysalas
Hoysalas
of Dwarasamudra.[26]:17 During the reign of the Alupa king Kavi Alupendra (1110–1160), the city was visited by the Tunisian Jewish merchant Abraham Ben Yiju, who travelled between the Middle East
Middle East
and India
India
during the 12th century.[27] The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta, who had visited the town in 1342, referred to it as Manjarur, and stated that the town was situated on a large estuary, called the "estuary of the wolf", and was the greatest estuary in the country of Malabar.[28][29]:30 By 1345, the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
rulers brought the region under their control.[26]:17 During the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
period (1345–1550), South Canara
South Canara
was divided into Mangalore
Mangalore
and Barkur
Barkur
rajyas (provinces), and two governors were appointed to look after each of them from Mangalore
Mangalore
and Barkur. But many times only one governor ruled over both Mangalore
Mangalore
and Barkur rajyas, and when the authority passed into the hands of Keladi
Keladi
rulers (1550–1763), they had a governor at Barkur
Barkur
alone.[26]:19 In 1448, Abdur Razzaq, the Persian ambassador of Sultan Shah Rukh of Samarkand, visited Mangalore, en route to the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
court.[29]:31 The Italian traveller, Ludovico di Varthema, who visited India
India
in 1506 says that he witnessed nearly sixty ships laden with rice ready for sail in the port of Mangalore.[26]:20 Foundation and early modern history[edit]

A pen and ink drawing of Mangalore
Mangalore
Fort made in 1783, after it had been taken over by the British East India
India
Company

European influence in Mangalore
Mangalore
can be traced back to 1498, when the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
landed at St Mary's Islands near Mangalore.[30] In the 16th century, the Portuguese came to acquire substantial commercial interests in Canara. Krishnadevaraya (1509–1529), the then ruler of the Vijaynagara empire maintained friendly relations with the Portuguese. The Portuguese trade was gradually gathering momentum and they were striving to destroy the Arab
Arab
and Moplah
Moplah
trade along the coast. In 1524, when Vasco da Gama heard that the Muslim
Muslim
merchants of Calicut
Calicut
had agents at Mangalore
Mangalore
and Basrur, he ordered the rivers to be blockaded. In 1526, the Portuguese under the viceroyship of Lopo Vaz de Sampaio
Lopo Vaz de Sampaio
took possession of Mangalore. The coastal trade passed out of Muslim
Muslim
hands into Portuguese hands.[26]:20 In 1550, the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
ruler, Sadashiva Raya, entrusted the work of administering the coastal region of Canara to Sadashiv Nayaka of Keladi. By 1554, he was able to establish political authority over South Canara. The disintegration of the Vijaynagara Empire in 1565 gave the rulers of Keladi
Keladi
greater power in dealing with the coastal Canara region.[26]:27 They continued the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
administrative system. The two provinces of Mangalore
Mangalore
and Barkur
Barkur
continued to exist. The governor of Mangalore
Mangalore
also acted as the governor of the Keladi
Keladi
army in his province.[26]:30 In 1695, the town was torched by Arabs in retaliation to Portuguese restrictions on Arab trade.[31] Hyder Ali, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, conquered Mangalore
Mangalore
in 1763,[32] consequently bringing the city under his administration until 1767. Mangalore
Mangalore
was ruled by the British East India
India
Company from 1767 to 1783,[33] but was subsequently wrested from their control in 1783 by Hyder Ali's son, Tipu Sultan; who renamed it Jalalabad.[34][35] The Second Anglo– Mysore
Mysore
War ended with the Treaty of Mangalore, signed between Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784.[36] After the defeat of Tipu at the Fourth Anglo– Mysore
Mysore
War, the city remained in control of the British, headquartering the South Canara
South Canara
district under the Madras Presidency.[12][37][38]

St. Paul's Church was built by the British army in 1843.

The Light House Hill
Light House Hill
tower in Light House Hill, Hampankatta, served as a watchtower for the British Navy.[39]

According to the Scottish physician Francis Buchanan
Francis Buchanan
who visited Mangalore
Mangalore
in 1801, Mangalore
Mangalore
was a rich and prosperous port with flourishing trading activity.[40] Rice was the grand article of export, and was exported to Muscat, Bombay, Goa
Goa
and Malabar. Supari or Betel-nut was exported to Bombay, Surat
Surat
and Kutch. Pepper and Sandalwood
Sandalwood
were exported to Bombay. Turmeric
Turmeric
was exported to Muscat, Kutch, Surat
Surat
and Bombay, along with Cassia Cinnamon, Sugar, Iron, Saltpeter, Ginger, Coir
Coir
and Timber.[40] The British colonial government did not support industrialisation in the region, and local capital remained invested mostly in land and money lending, which led to the later development of banking in the region. With the arrival of European missionaries in the early 19th century, the region saw the development of educational institutions and a modern industrial base, modelled on European industries.[41] The opening of the Lutheran
Lutheran
Swiss Basel Mission
Basel Mission
in 1834 was central to the industrialisation process.[42] Printing press, cloth-weaving mills and factories manufacturing Mangalore tiles
Mangalore tiles
were set up by the missionaries.[23] When Canara (part of the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
until this time) was bifurcated into North Canara
North Canara
and South Canara
South Canara
in 1859, Mangalore
Mangalore
was transferred into South Canara
South Canara
and became its headquarters.[43]:5 South Canara
South Canara
remained under Madras Presidency, while North Canara
North Canara
was detached from Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
and transferred to Bombay
Bombay
Presidency in 1862.[43]:6 Later modern and contemporary history[edit] The enactment of the Madras Town Improvement Act (1865) mandated the establishment of the Municipal council
Municipal council
on 23 May 1866, which was responsible for urban planning and providing civic amenities.[13]:178 The Italian Jesuits, who arrived in Mangalore
Mangalore
in 1878, played an important role in education, economy, health, and social welfare of the city.[44] The linking of Mangalore
Mangalore
in 1907 to the Southern Railway, and the subsequent proliferation of motor vehicles in India, further increased trade and communication between the city and the rest of the country.[45] By the early 20th century, Mangalore
Mangalore
had become a major supplier of educated manpower to Bombay, Bangalore, and the Middle East.[23] As a result of the States Reorganisation Act
States Reorganisation Act
(1956), Mangalore
Mangalore
(part of the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
until this time) was incorporated into the dominion of the newly created Mysore State
Mysore State
(now called Karnataka).[46][47]:415 Mangalore
Mangalore
is the fourth largest city of Karnataka
Karnataka
in terms of population, and eighth largest port of India, providing Karnataka
Karnataka
with access to the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
coastline.[23] Mangalore
Mangalore
experienced significant growth in the decades 1970–80, with the opening of New Mangalore
Mangalore
Port
Port
in 1974 and commissioning of Mangalore
Mangalore
Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited in 1976.[48][49] Geography and climate[edit]

Sunset at Panambur
Panambur
beach

Sunset at Netravati
Netravati
Bridge

Mangalore
Mangalore
is located at 12°52′N 74°53′E / 12.87°N 74.88°E / 12.87; 74.88 in the Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
district of Karnataka.[50] It has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level.[51] It is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
district, the largest urban coastal centre of Karnataka.[52] Mangalore
Mangalore
is situated on the west coast of India, and is bounded by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to its west and the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
to its east.[50] Mangalore
Mangalore
city, as a municipal entity, spans an area of 132.45 km2 (51.14 sq mi).[2] Mangalore
Mangalore
experiences moderate to gusty winds during day time and gentle winds at night.[53] The topography of the city is plain up to 30 km (18.64 mi) inside the coast, and changes to undulating hilly terrain sharply towards the east in Western Ghats.[54] The geology of the city is characterised by hard laterite in hilly tracts and sandy soil along the seashore.[52] The Geological Survey of India
India
has identified Mangalore
Mangalore
as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorised the city in the Seismic III Zone.[55]

A schematic map showing the tourist places in Mangalore
Mangalore
city.

The Netravati
Netravati
and Gurupura
Gurupura
rivers rivers encircle the city, with the Gurupura
Gurupura
flowing around the north and the Netravati
Netravati
flowing around the south of the city.[56]The rivers form an estuary at the south-western region of the city and subsequently flow into the Arabian sea.[57] Coconut
Coconut
trees, palm trees, and Ashoka
Ashoka
trees comprise the primary vegetation of the city.[56] Under the Köppen climate classification, Mangalore
Mangalore
has a tropical monsoon climate and is under the direct influence of the Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon.[58] It receives about 95 per cent of its total annual rainfall within a period of about six months from May to October, while remaining extremely dry from December to March.[58] The average annual precipitation in Mangalore
Mangalore
is 3,796.9 millimetres (149 in).[59][60] Humidity
Humidity
is approximately 75 per cent on average, and peaks during May, June and July.[61] The maximum average humidity is 93 per cent in July and average minimum humidity is 56 per cent in January.[61] The driest and least humid months are from December to February.[62] During this period, temperatures during the day stay below 34 °C (93 °F) and drop to about 19 °C (66 °F) at night.[63] The lowest recorded temperature at Panambur
Panambur
is 15.6 °C (60 °F) on January 8, 1992, and at Bajpe
Bajpe
it is 15.9 °C (61 °F) on November 19, 1974.[64] In Mangalore, the temperature has never touched 40 °C (104 °F), according to the India
India
Meteorological Department (IMD).[65] The highest ever recorded temperature in Mangalore
Mangalore
is 38.1 °C (101 °F) on March 13, 1985.[66][64] The summer gives way to the monsoon season, when the city experiences the highest precipitation among all urban centres in India, due to the influence of the Western Ghats.[67] The rains subside in September, with the occasional rainfall in October.[68] The highest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 330.8 millimetres (13 in) on 22 June 2003.[64] In the year 1994, Mangalore
Mangalore
received very heavy annual rainfall of 5,018.52 millimetres (198 in).[69]

Climate data for Mangalore, India

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 36.3 (97.3) 37.8 (100) 38.1 (100.6) 36.6 (97.9) 36.7 (98.1) 34.4 (93.9) 35.5 (95.9) 32.2 (90) 34.6 (94.3) 35.0 (95) 35.6 (96.1) 35.6 (96.1) 38.1 (100.6)

Average high °C (°F) 32.8 (91) 33.0 (91.4) 33.5 (92.3) 34.0 (93.2) 33.3 (91.9) 29.7 (85.5) 28.2 (82.8) 28.4 (83.1) 29.5 (85.1) 30.9 (87.6) 32.3 (90.1) 32.8 (91) 31.5 (88.7)

Average low °C (°F) 20.8 (69.4) 21.8 (71.2) 23.6 (74.5) 25.0 (77) 25.1 (77.2) 23.4 (74.1) 22.9 (73.2) 23.0 (73.4) 23.1 (73.6) 23.1 (73.6) 22.4 (72.3) 21.2 (70.2) 22.9 (73.2)

Record low °C (°F) 16.1 (61) 17.3 (63.1) 18.8 (65.8) 19.7 (67.5) 20.4 (68.7) 20.5 (68.9) 19.8 (67.6) 19.4 (66.9) 20.2 (68.4) 19.1 (66.4) 15.9 (60.6) 16.1 (61) 15.9 (60.6)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.1 (0.043) 0.2 (0.008) 2.9 (0.114) 24.4 (0.961) 183.2 (7.213) 1,027.2 (40.441) 1,200.4 (47.26) 787.3 (30.996) 292.1 (11.5) 190.8 (7.512) 70.9 (2.791) 16.4 (0.646) 3,796.9 (149.484)

Average rainy days 0.2 0 0.3 1.6 7 23.5 27.4 24.9 13.7 9.1 3.6 0.6 111.9

Average relative humidity (%) 62 66 68 71 71 87 89 88 85 79 73 65 75.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours 313 296 299 292 276 119 94 133 178 226 271 292 2,789

Source #1: India
India
Meteorological Department – Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall[70]

Source #2: Weather-And-Climate ( Humidity
Humidity
and Sunshine hours)[71][72]

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Mangalore Mangalore's economy comprises industrial, commercial, agricultural processing and port-related activities.[73] The New Mangalore
Mangalore
Port
Port
is India's eighth largest port, in terms of cargo handling.[74] It handles 75 per cent of India's coffee exports and the bulk of its cashew nuts.[75] During 2000–01, Mangalore
Mangalore
generated a revenue of ₹33.47 crore (US$5.13 million) to the state.[76] Imports through Mangalore
Mangalore
harbour include crude oil, edible oil, LPG, and timber.[77] The city along with Tuticorin
Tuticorin
is also one of two points for import of wood to South India.[78]

The Infosys
Infosys
campus in Mangalore

The city's major petrochemical industries include BASF, Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd. (MRPL), Mangalore
Mangalore
Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd. (MCF), Kudremukh Iron
Iron
Ore Company Ltd. (KIOCL), Hindustan Petroleum
Hindustan Petroleum
Corporation Ltd. (HPCL), Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL), JBF Petrochemicals[79] and Total Oil India Limited.[80] The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
(ONGC) plans to invest over ₹35,000 crore (US$5.36 billion) in a new 15 million-tonne refinery, petrochemical plant and power, as well as LNG plants at the Mangalore
Mangalore
Special
Special
Economic Zone.[81] Indian Strategic Petroleum
Petroleum
Reserves Ltd, a special purpose vehicle under the Oil Industry Development Board, has developed strategic crude oil reserves in Mangalore
Mangalore
and two other places in India.[82][83] Out of the 5 million metric tonnes (MMT) storage, 1.5 MMT is stored at Mangalore.[84] India
India
has built 5.33 million tons of strategic crude oil storages at Mangalore, Padur (near Udupi) in Karnataka
Karnataka
and at Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
to ensure energy security.[85][86][87] Bharati Shipyard Ltd (BSL) (now known as Bharati Defence and Infrastructure Limited) has established its ship building site near Tannirbavi
Tannirbavi
in Mangalore.[88]

A Mangalore tile
Mangalore tile
manufactured by J. H. Morgan & Sons (Mangalore)

Major information technology (IT) and outsourcing companies like Infosys,[89][90] Cognizant Technology Solutions[91][92] and Endurance International Group[93][94] have their branches at Mangalore.[75] Mphasis
Mphasis
BPO has one of its branches at Mangalore.[95] Two I.T. parks, namely, (Export Promotion Industrial park
Industrial park
(EPIP) at Ganjimutt and Special Economic Zone
Special Economic Zone
(SEZ) near Mangalore
Mangalore
University) have been constructed.[96] There is an IT Tech Park by the name Soorya Infratech park situated in Mudipu.[97] Corporation Bank,[98] Canara Bank[99] and Vijaya Bank[100] were the three nationalised banks established in Mangalore
Mangalore
during the first half of the 20th century. Mangalore
Mangalore
is the headquarters of Corporation Bank
Corporation Bank
and Karnataka
Karnataka
Bank.[101] The Mangalore
Mangalore
Catholic Co-operative Bank (MCC Bank) Ltd,[102] Mangalore Cooperative Town Bank Ltd[103] and SCDCC Bank[104] were the scheduled banks established in Mangalore. The leaf spring industry has its presence in Mangalore, with Canara Workshops Ltd. and Lamina Suspension Products Ltd. in the city.[73] The Old Mangalore
Mangalore
Port
Port
is a fishing port located at Bunder in Mangalore, where a large number of mechanised boats anchor.[105] The traffic at this port was 122,000 tonnes during the years 2003–04.[106] Fishing is a traditional occupation, and the products are exported to the surrounding regions.[107] Mangalorean
Mangalorean
firms have a major presence in the tile, beedi, coffee, and cashew nut industry, although the tile industry has declined due to concrete being preferred in modern construction.[75][73] The Albuquerque tile factory in Mangalore
Mangalore
is one of India's oldest red roof tile manufacturing factories.[108][109] The Ullal
Ullal
suburb of Mangalore
Mangalore
produces hosiery and coir yarns, while beedi rolling is an important source of revenue to many in the city.[73] Demographics[edit]

Religions in Mangalore
Mangalore
city

source: Mangalore
Mangalore
City Census 2011 data   Hindus (68.99%)   Muslims (17.40%)   Christians (13.15%)   Jains (0.21%)   Not Stated (0.12%)   Sikh (0.08%)    Buddhist
Buddhist
(0.05%)   Other (0.00%)

Prayer Hall of Jumma Mazjid, Zeenath Baksh, Bunder, Mangalore

Gokarnatheshwara Temple
Gokarnatheshwara Temple
in Kudroli

Mangalore
Mangalore
is known as Kudla in Tulu, Kodial in Konkani, Maikāla in Beary
Beary
and Mangaluru in Kannada.[110] The city has a population of 623,841 as per the 2011 census of India.[111][112] Male literacy rate was 96.49%, while the female literacy rate was 91.63%.[1] About 8.5% population was under six years of age.[1] The Human Development Index (HDI) of Mangalore
Mangalore
city is 0.83.[5] The death rate and infant mortality rate were at 3.7% and 1.2% respectively.[113] According to the 2011 census, 7726 people reside in slums in Mangalore
Mangalore
city, which is 1.55% of the total population.[114][115] The four main languages in Mangalore
Mangalore
are Tulu, Konkani, Beary
Beary
and Kannada.[116] Hinduism
Hinduism
is the largest religion in Mangalore, with Devadiga, Mogaveera, Billavas, Ganigas, Bunts, Kota Brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Havyaka Brahmins, Sthanika Brahmins, Goud Saraswat Brahmins (GSBs), and Chitpavan
Chitpavan
Brahmins, Daivadnyas are the major communities in Hindus.[117] Christians form a sizeable section of Mangalorean society, with Mangalorean
Mangalorean
Catholics accounting for the largest Christian community.[118] Protestants in Mangalore
Mangalore
typically speak Kannada.[119] Anglo-Indians were also part of the Mangalorean Christian Community.[120] Mangalore
Mangalore
has one of the highest percentage of Muslims as compared to other cities in Karnataka.[121] Most Muslims in Mangalore
Mangalore
are Bearys, who speak the Beary
Beary
language.[122] Majority of them follow the Shafi'i school of Fiqh
Fiqh
(Islamic Jurisprudence).[123] Mangalore
Mangalore
also has a small group of Urdu-speaking Dakhini Muslims.[124] There is also a small community of Tuluva
Tuluva
Jains and Gujaratis.[23] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Mangalore

Bhuta Kola

Yakshagana
Yakshagana
is one of the popular dance forms in Mangalore

Many classical dance forms and folk art are practised in the city. The Yakshagana, a night-long dance and drama performance, is held in Mangalore,[125] while Pilivesha (literally, tiger dance), a folk dance unique to the city, is performed during Dasara and Krishna Janmashtami.[126] Karadi Vesha (literally, bear dance) is another well known dance performed during Dasara.[127] Paddanas (Ballad-like epics passed on through generations by word of mouth) are sung by a community of impersonators in Tulu and are usually accompanied by the rhythmic drum beats.[127] The Bearys' unique traditions are reflected in such folk songs as kolkai (sung during kolata, a valour folk-dance during which sticks used as props), unjal pat (traditional lullaby), moilanji pat, and oppune pat (sung at weddings).[128] The Evkaristik Purshanv (Konkani: Eucharistic procession) is an annual Catholic religious procession led on the first Sunday of each year.[127] The Shreemanti Bai Memorial Government Museum in Bejai is the only museum in Mangalore.[129] Most of the popular Indian festivals are celebrated in the city, the most important being Dasara, Diwali, Christmas, Easter, Eid and Ganesh Chaturthi. Kodial Theru, also known as Mangaluru Rathotsava (Mangalore Car Festival) is a festival unique to the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community, and is celebrated at the Sri Venkatramana Temple in Mangalore.[130][131] The Mangalorean
Mangalorean
Catholics community's unique festivals include Monti Fest
Monti Fest
(Mother Mary's feast), which celebrates the Nativity feast and the blessing of new harvests.[132] The Jain Milan, a committee comprising Jain families of Mangalore, organises the Jain food festival annually,[133] while festivals such as Mosaru Kudike, which is part of Krishna Janmashtami
Krishna Janmashtami
festival, is celebrated by the whole community.[134][135] Aati, a festival worshiping Kalenja, a patron spirit of the city, occurs during the Aashaadha month of Hindu calendar.[136] Festivals such as Karavali
Karavali
Utsav and Kudlotsava are highlighted by national and state-level performances in dance, drama and music.[137] Bhuta Kola
Bhuta Kola
(spirit worship), is usually performed by the Tuluva
Tuluva
community at night.[138] Nagaradhane
Nagaradhane
(snake worship) is performed in the city in praise of Naga Devatha (the serpent king), who is said to be the protector of all snakes.[139] An ancient ritual associated with the Hindu temples in rural areas—Kori Katta—[140][141] a religious and spiritual cockfight, is held at the temples and also allowed if organised as part of religious or cultural events.[142] Civic administration[edit] Main article: Mangalore
Mangalore
City Corporation The Mangalore City Corporation
Mangalore City Corporation
(MCC) is the municipal corporation in charge of the civic and infrastructural assets of the city. Mangalore has a city area of 132.45 km2 (51.14 sq mi).[2] Municipal limits begin with Mukka
Mukka
in the north, to Netravati
Netravati
river bridge in the south and western sea shore to Vamanjoor
Vamanjoor
in the east.[143] The MCC council comprises 60 elected representatives, called corporators, one from each of the 60 wards (localities) of the city.[144] A corporator from the majority party is selected as a Mayor.[145] The headquarters of Mangalore City Corporation
Mangalore City Corporation
is at Lalbagh.[143] Until the revision of Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
and the legislative constituencies by the Delimitation commission, Mangalore
Mangalore
contributed two members to the Lok Sabha, one for the southern part of the city which fell under the Mangalore
Mangalore
Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituency, and another for the northern part of the city which fell under the Udupi
Udupi
Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituency.[146] Additionally, Mangalore
Mangalore
sent three members to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly. With the revision, the entire Mangalore
Mangalore
taluk now falls under the Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituency, resulting in Mangalore
Mangalore
contributing only one Member of Parliament (MP).[147][148] The Mangalore
Mangalore
City Police Department is headed by a Commissioner of Police.[149] Mangalore
Mangalore
is also the headquarters of the Western Range Police, covering the western districts of Karnataka, which is headed by an Inspector General of Police (IGP).[150] Education[edit] Main article: List of educational institutions in Mangalore

National Institute of Technology (Karnataka) in Surathkal
Surathkal
is among the premier institutes of India.

The pre-collegiate mediums of instruction in schools are predominantly English and Kannada, and the medium of instruction in educational institutions after matriculation is English.[151] Schools and colleges in Mangalore
Mangalore
are either government-run or run by private trusts and individuals. The schools are affiliated with either the Karnataka State Board, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) and the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) boards.[152][153][154] The earliest schools established in Mangalore
Mangalore
were the Canara High School (1891), Basel Evangelical School (1838) and Milagres School (1848).[24] The Kasturba Medical College established in 1953, was India's first private medical college.[155] Popular educational institutions in the city are National Institute of Technology (Karnataka), University College (1868),[156][157] Nitte Education Trust, Srinivas Institute of Technology, Sahyadri Educational Institutions – College of Engineering & Management at Adyar, KS Hegde Medical Academy, A. J. Institute of Medical Science, Father Muller Medical College, Father Muller Homeopathic Medical College, Yenepoya Medical College, Srinivas Medical College, Mangalore Institute of Technology & Engineering (MITE), Bearys Institute of Technology, St. Joseph Engineering College, P.A. College of Engineering, St.Agnes, St. Aloysius College (1879), Mount Carmel Central School[158] Sharada Vidyalaya, Alva's Educational Institutions, Canara High School, Canara College, Canara Engineering College, KVG College of Engineering[159] Alvas Education foundation, Yenepoya Institute of Technology, A J Institute of Engineering and Technology,[160] S.D.M. College, Sri Sathya Sai Loka Seva Trust Educational Institutions at Alike,[161] Karnataka
Karnataka
(Govt.) Polytechnic[162] and Delhi Public School. A public library run by the Corporation Bank, is located at Mannagudda in Mangalore.[163] Mangalore University
Mangalore University
was established on 10 September 1980.[164] It caters to the higher educational needs of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi
Udupi
and Kodagu
Kodagu
districts,[165] and is a National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) accredited four-star level institution.[166] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Mangalore Air[edit] Mangaluru International Airport (IATA: IXE) is an international airport which is located near Bajpe
Bajpe
/ Kenjar, and is located about 13 kilometres (8 mi) north-east of the Mangaluru city centre.[167] It operates regular scheduled flights to major cities in India
India
and the Middle East.[168][169] It is the second largest and second busiest airport in the state of Karnataka.[170] The new terminals and runways at the airport accommodate both cargo and passenger requirements.[171] State-run government buses Vajra Volvo ply between the city and the airport.[172] Road[edit] Main article: Mangalore
Mangalore
City Bus routes

Airport Road in Mangalore

The Netravati
Netravati
railway bridge serves as the gateway to Mangalore.

Five National Highways pass through Mangalore.[173] NH-66 (previously known as NH-17[174]), which runs from Panvel
Panvel
(in Maharashtra) to Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
(in Tamil Nadu), passes through Mangalore
Mangalore
in a north–south direction and connects with Udupi, Bhatkal, Karwar, Goa, etc. in north and Kannur, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram, etc. in the south while NH-75 (previously known as NH-48) runs eastward to Bangalore
Bangalore
and Vellore.[175] NH-169 (previously known as NH-13) runs north-east from Mangalore
Mangalore
to Shimoga.[176] NH-73, a 315-km long National Highway connects Mangalore
Mangalore
to Tumkur.[177] NH-275 also connects Mangalore
Mangalore
with Bangalore
Bangalore
via Mysore.[178] National Highways Authority of India
India
(NHAI) is upgrading the national highways connecting New Mangalore
Mangalore
Port
Port
to Surathkal
Surathkal
on NH-66 and BC Road junction on NH-75.[179] Under the port connectivity programme of the National Highways Development Project (NHDP), a 37.5-kilometre (23.3 mi) stretch of these highways will be upgraded from two-lane to four-lane roads.[180] Even though Mangalore's city bus service is dominated by private operators, with routes covering the full extent of the city and beyond, Karnataka
Karnataka
State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) is plying buses in multiple routes.[181] Two distinct sets of routes for the buses exist—city routes are covered by city buses, while intercity routes are covered by service and express buses.[182] KSRTC operates long distance bus services from Mangalore
Mangalore
to other parts of the state.[183] The other key players who run bus services from Mangalore are the Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
Bus Operators Association (DKBOA) and the Canara Bus Operators Association (CBOA).[184] There are also KSRTC JnNurm green colour city buses from State Bank bus stand.[185] These buses travel to different parts of the city and its suburbs.[186] Cab providers like Ola Cabs
Ola Cabs
and Uber also offer transport services in the city, and their services are extended to the Mangalore Airport.[187][188] Rail[edit]

Mangalore Central
Mangalore Central
railway station

Rail connectivity in Mangalore
Mangalore
was established in 1907.[189] Mangalore was also the starting point of India's longest rail route.[45] The city has two railway stations— Mangalore Central
Mangalore Central
(at Hampankatta) and Mangalore Junction
Mangalore Junction
(at Kankanadi).[190] A railway track, built through the Western Ghats, connects Mangalore
Mangalore
with Hassan. The broad gauge track connecting Mangalore
Mangalore
to Bangalore
Bangalore
via Hassan was opened to freight traffic in May 2006[191] and passenger traffic in December 2007.[192] Mangalore
Mangalore
is also connected to Chennai, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, and Kollam
Kollam
through the Southern Railway and to Mumbai, Bhatkal, Karwar, Gujarat, Ajmer
Ajmer
and Goa
Goa
via the Konkan Railway.[193][194] Sea[edit] The Mangalore
Mangalore
Harbour has shipping, storage, and logistical services, while the New Mangalore
Mangalore
Port
Port
handles dry, bulk, and fluid cargoes.[195] The New Mangalore
Mangalore
Port
Port
is also equipped to handle petroleum oil lubricants, crude products and LPG containers.[196] It is also the station for the coast guard.[197] This artificial harbour is India's eighth largest port, in terms of cargo handling, and is the only major port in Karnataka.[198][74] Foreigners can enter Mangalore through the New Mangalore
Mangalore
Port
Port
with the help of Electronic visa (e-visa).[199] Cruise ships from Europe, North America
North America
and UAE
UAE
arrive at New Mangalore
Mangalore
Port.[200][201] Sports[edit] Cricket
Cricket
is a popular sport in the city. Mangala Stadium and B.R. Ambedkar Cricket
Cricket
Stadium (near NMPT) are Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
district's full-fledged cricket stadiums, situated in Mangalore.[202][203] The Sports Authority of India
India
(SAI) has also set up a sports training centre at the stadium.[204]

Cricket

Mangalore United is a Mangalore-based Karnataka
Karnataka
Premier League (KPL) franchise owned by Fiza Developers.[205] Mangalore
Mangalore
Premier League (MPL) is a cricket tournament organized by the Karnataka
Karnataka
Regional Cricket
Cricket
Academy.[206] The Central Maidan or Nehru Maidan in Mangalore is another important venue hosting domestic tournaments and many inter-school and collegiate tournaments.[207] The Mangalore
Mangalore
Sports Club (MSC) is a popular organisation in the city and has been elected as the institutional member for the Mangalore
Mangalore
Zone of the Karnataka State Cricket
Cricket
Association (KSCA).[208][209] Lokesh Rahul, commonly known as KL Rahul and Budhi Kunderan, a former Indian wicket keeper are from Mangalore.[210] Ravi Shastri, who represented India
India
for several years in international cricket as an all-rounder and captained the team, is of Mangalorean
Mangalorean
descent.[211]

Surfing

Mangalore
Mangalore
hosted the first edition of Indian Open of Surfing
Surfing
in 2016.[212][213] Mantra Surf Club, located at Mulki has trained surfers to represent India
India
at the International Surfing
Surfing
Association (ISA) World SUP and Paddleboard Championship, held in Fiji.[214] The second edition of Indian Open of Surfing
Surfing
was also held in Mangalore.[215][216]

Football

Football is also quite popular in the city and is usually played in the maidans (grounds), with the Nehru Maidan being the most popular venue for domestic tournaments.[217] Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
District Football Association (DKDFA), annually organizes the "Independence Day Cup" on the occasion of Independence Day at District Football Grounds adjacent to Nehru Maidan.[218] Various schools and colleges from across Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, and Kodagu
Kodagu
districts participate and the matches are conducted under seven categories — higher primary school (boys and girls), high school (boys and girls), P.U.C. boys, college boys, P.U.C girls, and college girls.[219]

Chess

Chess
Chess
is also a popular indoor sport in the city.[220] Mangalore
Mangalore
is headquarters to the South Kanara
Kanara
District Chess
Chess
Association (SKDCA), which has hosted two All India
India
Open Chess
Chess
tournaments.[221][222][223]

Traditional sports

The Kambala
Kambala
race of Kadri is a distinctive feature of Tuluva
Tuluva
culture.

Traditional sports like Kambala
Kambala
(buffalo race), contested in water filled paddy fields,[224] and Korikatta (Cockfight) are very popular in the city.[225] The Kambala
Kambala
of Kadri is a traditional sports event organized within the city limits.[226] A locality in Mangalore
Mangalore
named "Kadri Kambla", is named after this sport.[227] Plikula Kambala
Kambala
is yet another Kambala
Kambala
event organized within the city.[228]

Other sports

Mangalore
Mangalore
Golf Course at Pilikula

Other sports such as tennis, squash, billiards, badminton, table tennis and golf are played in the numerous clubs and gymkhanas.[229] Pilikula Nisargadhama, an integrated theme park, has a fully functional nine-hole golf course at Vamanjoor.[230][231]

Kite festivals

International Kite festivals are organized in Panambur Beach
Panambur Beach
which attract kite enthusiasts from countries like France, Germany, Netherlands, Australia
Australia
and United Kingdom.[232] The city's own group of kite enthusiasts — Team Mangalore — participates with kites named Kathakali, Yaksha, Gajaraja, Bhoota Kola, Pushpaka Vimana, Garuda and Vibhishana.[233] Media[edit]

All India
India
Radio's FM tower at Kadri

Mangalooru Samachara, the first ever newspaper in Kannada, was brought out by Rev. Hermann Friedrich Mögling of the Basel mission in 1843.[234][235] The first ever Kannada
Kannada
to English dictionary was published in Mangalore
Mangalore
by Ferdinand Kittel
Ferdinand Kittel
in 1894.[236] Major national English language
English language
newspapers such as Times of India, The Hindu, The New Indian Express, Deccan Herald and Daijiworld[237][238] publish localised Mangalore
Mangalore
editions.[239][240] The Madipu, Mogaveera, Samparka (Contact) and Saphala (Fulfillment) are well-known Tulu periodicals in Mangalore.[241] Popular Konkani language
Konkani language
periodicals published in the city are Raknno (Guardian), Konknni Dirvem (Konkani Treasure) and Kannik (Offering).[239] Beary
Beary
periodicals like Jyothi (Light) and Swatantra Bharata (Independent India) are also published from Mangalore.[239] Among Kannada
Kannada
newspapers, Udayavani (Morning Voice), Vijaya Karnataka
Karnataka
(Victory of Karnataka), Prajavani (Voice of the People), Kannada
Kannada
Prabha, Varthabharathi (Indian News), Samyukta Karnataka
Karnataka
(United Karnataka) and Hosa Digantha (New Horizon) are popular.[239][242] Evening newspapers such as Karavali Ale
Karavali Ale
(Waves from the Coast), Mangalooru Mitra (Friend of Mangalore), Sanjevani (Evening Voice) and Jayakirana (Rays of Victory) are also published in the city.[243] The Konkani language
Konkani language
newspaper Kodial Khabar is released fortnightly.[239] Malayalam
Malayalam
newspapers such as Malayala Manorama
Malayala Manorama
and Madhyamam (Medium) publish localised Mangalore
Mangalore
editions.[244] The state run, nationally broadcast Doordarshan
Doordarshan
provides both national and localised television coverage.[245] Cable television also provides broadcast cable channels of independently owned private networks.[246] Canara TV and V4 Digital infotech network ( local Multi System Operator) transmits daily video news channels, Live events and cultural programs happening in and around Mangalore
Mangalore
through local channels.[247] Conditional access system (CAS) is available to all the television viewers in Mangalore
Mangalore
city.[248] Direct-to-Home (DTH) services are available in Mangalore
Mangalore
via Dish TV, Tata Sky, Sun Direct DTH, Airtel digital TV, Reliance BIG TV and Videocon d2h.[249] All India
India
Radio (AIR) has a studio at Kadri (with frequency 100.3 MHz) that airs program during scheduled hours.[250] Mangalore's private FM stations include Radio Mirchi
Radio Mirchi
98.3 FM, Big 92.7 FM[251] and Red 93.5 FM.[252] Radio SARANG 107.8 is a community radio run by St. Aloysius College.[253] There are multiple local TV channels which telecast programmes, news in Tulu, Konkani, Beary, and Kannada.[254] Namma TV, V4 News and Spandana are some of the local TV channels.[255] Namma Kudla[256] and Posa Kural[257] are the Tulu channels dedicated to Tulu programs. Mangalore
Mangalore
is home to the Tulu film industry, which releases one film per month on average.[258] Popular Tulu films include Kadala Mage (Son of the Sea) and Suddha (The Cleansing Rites).[259] Tulu dramas, mostly played in the Town Hall at Hampankatta, are very popular.[155] In 2006, a Tulu film festival was organised in Mangalore.[260] Tulu Cinemotsava 2015 was organized in January 2015.[261] Utility services[edit]

The Kadri Park
Kadri Park
in Kadri

Seaside trees at Tannirbhavi Beach

Geese
Geese
wandering the Pilikula botanical garden around the lake

Electricity in Mangalore
Mangalore
is regulated by the Karnataka
Karnataka
Power Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL) and distributed through Mangalore Electricity Supply Company (MESCOM).[262][263][264] Major industries like Mangalore
Mangalore
Refinery and Petrochemicals (MRPL) and Mangalore
Mangalore
Chemicals & Fertilizers (MCF) operate their own captive power plants.[265][266] Potable water to the city is supplied from the vented dam, constructed across the Netravati River
Netravati River
at Thumbe, 14 kilometres (9 mi) from Mangalore.[267][268][269] The Karnataka
Karnataka
Urban Development and Coastal Environment Management Project (KUDCEMP) aims to improve safe water supply systems and reduce leakage and losses in the distribution system in Mangalore.[268] The official garbage dumping ground of Mangalore
Mangalore
is in Vamanjoor.[270] The city generates an average of 175 tons per day of waste, which is handled by the health department of the Mangalore
Mangalore
City Corporation.[271] Fixed Line telecom services are offered alongside GSM
GSM
and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services.[272] Mangalore
Mangalore
is the headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
Telecom District, the second largest telecom district in Karnataka.[273] Prominent broadband internet service providers in the city include Tata indicom, Airtel and DataOne by BSNL.[274] Bharti Airtel, Vodafone India, Reliance Jio and Idea Cellular[275] have launched 4G LTE service in the city. Cuisine[edit] Main article: Mangalorean
Mangalorean
cuisine

Neer dosa, a variant of dosa and pundi (rice ball), are native to Mangalore.

Mangalorean
Mangalorean
cuisine is largely influenced by South Indian cuisine, with several cuisines being unique to the diverse communities of the region.[276] Coconut
Coconut
and curry leaves are common ingredients to most Mangalorean
Mangalorean
curry, as are ginger, garlic and chili.[277] Well-known Mangalorean
Mangalorean
dishes include Kori Rotti, Neer dosa, Pundi, Patrode, Mangalore
Mangalore
Buns, Mangalore
Mangalore
bajji, Macaroon
Macaroon
etc.[278][279] Mangalorean Cuisine is also known for Fish and chicken dishes like Bangude Pulimunchi (spicy sour silver-grey mackerels), Boothai Gasi (Sardine Semi-Gravy), Anjal fry, Mangalorean
Mangalorean
Chicken
Chicken
Sukka, Kori rotti, Chicken Ghee Roast etc.[280][281] Since Mangalore
Mangalore
is a coastal city, fish forms the staple diet of most people.[282][283] The Konkani
Konkani
Hindu community's specialties include Daali thoy, Bibbe-upkari (cashew based), Val val, Avnas ambe sasam, Kadgi chakko, Paagila podi, and Chane gashi.[284] Mangalorean
Mangalorean
Catholics' Sanna-Dukra Maas (Sanna—idli fluffed with toddy or yeast; Dukra Maas—Pork), Pork Bafat, Sorpotel
Sorpotel
and the Mutton Biryani
Biryani
of the Beary
Beary
Muslims are well-known dishes.[285] Pickles such as Happala, Sandige and Puli munchi are unique to Mangalore. Shendi (toddy), a country liquor prepared from coconut flower sap, is popular.[127] Vegetarian cuisine in Mangalore, also known as Udupi
Udupi
cuisine, is known throughout the state and region.[286] Tourism[edit]

Panambur
Panambur
beach

Main article: Tourist attractions in Mangalore The city is called the Gateway of Karnataka[287] and lies between the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
and the Western Ghats.[288] The various temples and buildings in Mangalore
Mangalore
include the Mangaladevi
Mangaladevi
Temple, Kadri Manjunatha temple, St Aloysius Chapel, the Rosario Cathedral, Milagres Church, Dargah of Hazrat Shareef ul Madni at Ullal
Ullal
and the Zeenath Baksh Jumma Masjid in Bunder.[289][290]

Interior of the St. Aloysius Chapel

The city is also known for beaches such as Panambur, Tannirbavi, NITK beach, Sasihithlu beach, Someshwara beach, Ullal
Ullal
beach, Kotekar
Kotekar
beach and Batapady beach.[291][292] Panambur
Panambur
and Thannirbhavi beaches attract tourists from across the country.[293] Panambur
Panambur
beach has many facilities including jet ski rides, Boating, dolphin viewing,[294] food stalls, besides trained beach lifeguards and patrol vehicles to ensure the safety of the visitors.[295] Saavira Kambada Basadi
Saavira Kambada Basadi
is situated 34 km (21 mi) northeast of Mangalore
Mangalore
in the town of Moodabidri.[296] The Sultan Battery watch tower, built by Tipu Sultan, situated in Boloor, is on the banks of Gurupura River where one can take the ferry ride by paying small amount across the river and reach Tannirbhavi Beach.[297] Adyar waterfalls is at the outskirts at about 12 km (7.5 mi) from the city.[298] The city has developed and maintains public parks such as Pilikula Nisargadhama,[299] Kadri Park
Kadri Park
at Kadri, Tagore Park at Light House Hill, Gandhi Park at Gandhinagar,[300] and Corporation Bank
Corporation Bank
Park at Nehru Maidan. Pilikula comprises the zoo, botanical garden, lake, water park (Manasa) and a golf course (Pilikula golf course) which is set in an area of 35 acres.[301][302][303][304] Mangalore
Mangalore
Dasara, a ten-day festival at Sri Gokarnatheswara temple attracts devotees from various states of India
India
who visit Mangalore
Mangalore
to witness Dasara.[305] Mangaladevi
Mangaladevi
Temple is another temple which attracts devotees from all over India
India
during Navaratri.[306] Sister cities[edit] Mangalore
Mangalore
is twinned with two Canadian cities:

Hamilton, Ontario
Hamilton, Ontario
(since 1968)[307] Delta, British Columbia
Delta, British Columbia
(since 2010)[308]

See also[edit]

Karnataka
Karnataka
portal

Economy of Mangalore List of tallest buildings in Mangalore List of beaches near Mangalore Dakshina Kannada Mangaluru Airport New Mangalore
Mangalore
Port

Notes[edit]

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Mangalore
City Population Census 2011 – Karnataka". Census 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2016.  ^ a b c " Mangalore
Mangalore
City Corporation". Mangalore
Mangalore
City Corporation. Retrieved 20 February 2017.  ^ " Mangalore
Mangalore
Metropolitan Urban Region Population 2011 Census". Census 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2016.  ^ "Pincode Locator Tool". PINcode.Net.In. Retrieved 16 December 2011.  ^ a b "Human Development Index: DC exhorts officials to aim high". The Hindu. 2 January 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.  ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 4 October 2015.  ^ Kameshwar, G. (2004). Tulu tales: a soota chronicle. Rupa & Co. p. 8. ISBN 978-81-291-0427-4.  ^ Sadasivan, S.N. (2000). A social history of India. New Delhi: APH Pub. Corp. pp. 207–208. ISBN 81-7648-170-X.  ^ Venkataraya Narayan Kudva (1972). History of the Dakshinatya Saraswats. Samyukta Gowda Saraswata Sabha. p. 260.  ^ Temple India. Vivekananda Prakashan Kendra. 1981. p. 160.  ^ "New names invoke a hoary past". The Times of India. 19 October 2014. Retrieved 2015-02-23.  ^ a b Raghuram, M. (18 July 2007). "Mangaluru: it has come a long way". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2008.  ^ a b Farias, Kranti K. (1999). The Christian Impact on South Kanara. Church History Association of India.  ^ "1652 Sanson Map of India". Retrieved 19 March 2012.  ^ Sukumaran, Thippeswamy. "A study of the Prawn fishery of Netravati-Gurupur estuary, Mangalore" (PDF). Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Centre (CMFRI), Mangalore. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ "Filled with lore". The Hindu. 9 June 2008. Retrieved 23 February 2015.  ^ Bostock, John (1855). "26 (Voyages to India)". Pliny the Elder, The Natural History. London: Taylor and Francis.  ^ Prasad, Om P. (1989). Decay and Revival of Urban Centres in Medieval South India: (c. A.D. 600–1200). Volume 4 of Series in Indian history, art, and culture. Commonwealth Publishers. p. 163. ISBN 9788171690060.  ^ Indicopleustes, Cosmas (1897). Christian Topography. 11. United Kingdom: The Tertullian Project. pp. 358–373.  ^ Das, Santosh Kumar (2006). The Economic History of Ancient India. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 301. ISBN 9788130704234.  ^ "Worst-Case Scenario". The Times of India. 30 November 2006. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2008.  ^ Kunal Bhatia (26 February 2008). "Mangalore: Of cultural institutions, tiles and religious spots". Mumbai
Mumbai
Mirror. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2008.  ^ a b c d e Gavin Shatkin (14 August 2013). "Chapter 10 : Planning Mangalore: Garbage Collection in a Small Indian City". Contesting the Indian City: Global Visions and the Politics of the Local. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-29584-7.  ^ a b Fedrick Sunil Kumar N.I (2006). "Chapter 6 : The Basel Mission in South Canara". The basel mission and social change-Malabar and south canara a case study (1830–1956)" (PDF) (Ph.D.). University of Calicut.  ^ K. Puttaswamaiah (1980). Economic Development of Karnataka: A Treatise in Continuity and Change. Oxford & IBH. p. 33.  ^ a b c d e f g Bhat, N. Shyam (1998). South Kanara, 1799–1860: a study in colonial administration and regional response. Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-586-9.  ^ Ghosh 2002, p. 189 ^ Lee 1829, Perils and detours in Malabar ^ a b A. Wahab Doddamane (1993). Muslims in Dakshina Kannada: A Historical Study up to 1947 and Survey of Recent Developments. Green Words Publication.  ^ Kamath, J. (16 September 2002). "Where rocks tell a tale". The Hindu Business Line. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2008.  ^ Muthanna, I. M. (1977). Karnataka, History, Administration & Culture. Lotus Printers. p. 235.  ^ South Kanara
Kanara
District Gazetteer 1973, p. 62 ^ Thornton 1859, p. 114 ^ Thornton 1859, p. 170 ^ Lal 2002, p. 22 ^ Forrest 1887, pp. 314–316 ^ Townsend 1867, p. 628 ^ Riddick 2006, p. 28 ^ Raghuram, M. (18 June 2005). "Feeling on top of the world". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  ^ a b Prabhu 1999, p. 152 ^ "175 glorious years for Basel Mission
Basel Mission
Press". The Hindu. 5 December 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2017.  ^ "175th anniversary of Basel Mission
Basel Mission
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Chemicals & Fertilizers (MCF). Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2008.  ^ "No funds crunch to tackle water scarcity in Dakshina Kannada". The Hindu Business Line. 21 April 2005. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2008.  ^ a b Budhya, Gururaja. "'Social relevance of decision making' – A case study of water supply and waste water management in Mangalore, Coastal Karnataka, India" (PDF). Asian Educational Services: 1–2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2008.  ^ " Karnataka
Karnataka
Coastal Project" (PDF) (October–December 2004). Duraline Pipes: 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2006. Retrieved 27 July 2008.  ^ " Vamanjoor
Vamanjoor
dumpyard turns killer". The Times of India. 8 December 2002. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2008.  ^ Mangalore
Mangalore
City Corporation, p. 10 ^ "Tata Docomo expands 3G network in Karnataka". Business Line. 19 June 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ "South Kannada
Kannada
Telecom District". Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited ( Karnataka
Karnataka
Telecom Circle). Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2008.  ^ "BSNL launches broadband service". The Hindu. 17 June 2005. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2008.  ^ " Idea Cellular
Idea Cellular
– Cell Phone Services 3G, Prepaid, Postpaid & Wireless Internet". www.ideacellular.com. Idea Cellular. Retrieved 12 November 2016.  ^ "Exploring Mangalorean
Mangalorean
cuisine for Christmas". The Times of India. 24 December 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ "Culmination of cuisines". The Hindu. 19 June 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ " Mangalorean
Mangalorean
Recipes Archives – Indian food recipes – Food and cooking blog". Indian food recipes – Food and cooking blog. Retrieved 1 November 2016.  ^ "RCI: Udupi
Udupi
& Mangalorean
Mangalorean
Cuisine Round-up". Monsoon
Monsoon
Spice Unveil the Magic of Spices... 2009-10-14. Retrieved 1 November 2016.  ^ "This weekend, make an iconic dish: Mangalorean
Mangalorean
Chicken
Chicken
Ghee Roast". The Indian Express. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ "Flavours from the coast". The Hindu. 30 March 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ "Oh fish! Rainy days are here". The Times of India. 16 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ "Typically home". The Hindu. 11 August 2007. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2008.  ^ "Have you had these seven iconic Mangalore
Mangalore
dishes?". The Indian Express. 18 April 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.  ^ "This Ramzan, biryani variety is the spice of life in Mangalore". The Times of India. 3 July 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ " Karnataka
Karnataka
food on the platter". The Hindu. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2017.  ^ " Mangalore
Mangalore
Diary: Highrises, malls & beautiful Bunt women". CNN-News18. 13 July 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2016.  ^ " Mangalore
Mangalore
- Karnataka
Karnataka
India
India
-mangalore-karnataka.com". www.mangalore-karnataka.com. Retrieved 1 December 2016.  ^ "Sunday story: The Buddha towers in Karnataka's coast too". Deccan Chronicle. 5 November 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2017.  ^ "Etched in wood, Masjid is an oasis of peace". The Hindu. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2017.  ^ " Ullal
Ullal
Beach Mangalore
Mangalore
Beach". Karnataka.com. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2016.  ^ "Virgin Sasihithlu beach beckons tourists". The Hindu. 16 November 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2016.  ^ "Tannirbhavi beach gets a new look". Deccan Herald. 22 January 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2016.  ^ "Mangalore: Dolphin Sighting Turns Panambur Beach
Panambur Beach
More Adventurous". Daijiworld. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2016.  ^ "Adventure sports hotting up along Mangalore
Mangalore
coast". The Times of India. 1 February 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2016.  ^ " Saavira Kambada Basadi
Saavira Kambada Basadi
Jain Temples in Karnataka
Karnataka
Moodabidri". Karnataka.com. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2016.  ^ "Sultan Battery, Sultan Battery Mangalore, Sultan Battery History". www.mangaluruonline.in. Mangaluru Online. Retrieved 1 December 2016.  ^ "Weekend getaway: Plan a day's outing to Adyar waterfalls". Daijiworld. 17 September 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2016.  ^ "About Place". Pilikula Nisargadhama. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 3 July 2008.  ^ Pinto, Stanly (7 September 2003). "Gandhi Nagar park gets a new lease of life". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2008.  ^ "Mangaluru: Sentosa-like island in Pilikula – Plan on". Bangalore Mirror. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ "Reviving local traditions". Deccan Herald. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ "Pilikula provides perfect weekend getaway". The Times of India. 19 February 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.  ^ "The Times of India
India
– Pilikula". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 October 2016.  ^ "City spruced up for Mangaluru Dasara". The Hindu. 1 November 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.  ^ " Mangalore Dasara
Mangalore Dasara
culminates in grand cultural cavalcade". Daijiworld. 4 October 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2016.  ^ "Hamilton's Twin Cities". The Hamilton Mundialization Committee. Retrieved 19 January 2015.  ^ "Mangalore, Delta in sisterly embrace". DNA India. 13 October 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 

References[edit]

Chopra, P. N. (2003). History of South India. S.Chand
S.Chand
& Company. ISBN 81-219-0153-7. Retrieved 2 July 2008.  Census of India, 1971. Office of the Registrar General (Government of India).  Directorate of Economics and Statistics (Government of Karnataka) (2004). "Economic Infrastructure". Economic Survey of Karnataka 2003–04 (PDF). National Informatics Centre
National Informatics Centre
( Karnataka
Karnataka
State). pp. 216–235. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2008.  Directorate of Economics and Statistics (Government of Karnataka) (2005). Area, Population, Membership, Revenue, Expenditure & Employment by Municipalities, Karnataka, 2000–2001 (PDF). National Informatics Centre ( Karnataka
Karnataka
State). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2008.  Dodwell, H.H. (1922). The Cambridge History of India. Cambridge University Press Archive. Retrieved 16 January 2009.  Fisher, William Bayne; Jackson, Peter; Lockhart, Laurence (1986). The Cambridge history of Iran. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-20094-3. Retrieved 6 June 2009.  Forrest, George W. (1887). Selections from the Letters, Despatches, and Other State Papers Preserved in the Bombay
Bombay
Secretariat. 2. Bombay: Government Central Press.  Ghosh, Amitav (2002). The Imam and the Indian: Prose Pieces. Orient Longman. ISBN 81-7530-047-7. Retrieved 2 July 2008.  Heitzman, James (2008). City in South Asia (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-34355-8. Retrieved 6 June 2009.  "History". South Kanara
Kanara
District Gazetteer. Karnataka
Karnataka
State Gazetteer. 12. Gazetteer Department (Government of Karnataka). 1973. pp. 33–85.  International Committee of Historical Sciences (1935). Bulletin of the International Committee of Historical Sciences. 7. Les presses universitaires de France.  Kerr, Robert (1812). "Discoveries, Navigations, and Conquests of the Portuguese in India, from 1505 to 1539". General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels. 6. George Ramsay and Company. Retrieved 21 July 2008.  Mangalore
Mangalore
City Corporation. "Description of Environment". Mangalore SEZ Draft (October 2007). pp. 31–48. Archived from the original (DOC) on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2008.  Mangalore
Mangalore
City Corporation. "Description of Environment". Mangalore SEZ Draft (October 2007). pp. 111–134. Archived from the original (DOC) on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2008.  Lal, K. S. (2002). Return to roots: emancipation of Indian Muslims. Radha Publications. ISBN 978-81-7487-245-6. . Lee, Samuel (1829). "On the Malabar Coast". Quoted in "Selections from the Travels of Ibn Batuta". London: Oriental Translation Committee. Retrieved 29 July 2008.  Mangalore
Mangalore
City Corporation. Integrated Solid Waste Management Operation & Maintenance report. Archived from the original (DOC) on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2008.  National Council of Applied Economic Research (1961). Traffic Survey of Mangalore
Mangalore
and Malpe Ports: Report. Public Works Department, Government of Mysore.  Pinto, Pius Fidelis (1999). "History of Christians in coastal Karnataka, 1500–1763 A.D.". Mangalore: Samanvaya Prakashan. . Prabhu, Alan Machado (1999). Sarasvati's Children: A History of the Mangalorean
Mangalorean
Christians. I.J.A. Publications. ISBN 978-81-86778-25-8. .

"People". South Kanara
Kanara
District Gazetteer. Karnataka
Karnataka
State Gazetteer. 12. Gazetteer Department (Government of Karnataka). 1973. pp. 86–125.  Riddick, John F. (2006). The History of British India: A Chronology. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32280-5. Retrieved 2 July 2008.  Shrihari, S. (2007). Environmental Concerns for a Typical Fast Developing Indian City: Mangalore. Faculty of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal.  Somerset, Playne; Bond, E. W.; Wright, Arnold; Wright, Playne (2004). Southern India: Its History, People, Commerce, and Industrial Resources. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-1344-9. Retrieved 18 June 2008.  Thornton, Edward (1859). The History of the British Empire in India. Cox and Wyman Printers. Retrieved 5 July 2008.  Townsend, George Henry (1867). A Manual of Dates: A Dictionary of Reference to the Most Important Events in the History of Mankind to be Found in Authentic Records. Warne. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 

Further reading[edit]

Bhat, P. Gururaja (1969). Antiquities of South Kanara. Prabhakara Press.  Hoiberg, Dale; Ramchandani, Indu (2000). "Mangalore". Students' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 0-85229-760-2. Retrieved 16 June 2008.  Venn, T. W. (1945). Mangalore. Mysore: Wesley Press. 

External links[edit]

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Localities in Mangalore

Aikala Attavar Baikampady Bolar Deralakatte Gurupura Hampankatta Hoige Bazaar Jeppu Kadri Kaikamba Kankanadi Katipalla Kinnigoli Kodialbail Koluvail Konaje Kotekar Krishnapura Kulai Lalbagh Muchur Mukka Mulki Nanthoor Pakshikere Panambur Pandeshwar Pejavara Punaroor Shirthady Surathkal Talapady Thokottu Tonse Uchil Uchila Ullal Urwa Vamanjoor

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Communities in Mangalore

Hinduism

Bunts Billavas Mogaveeras Shivalli Brahmins Gaud Saraswat Brahmins Saraswats Kota brahmins Havyaka Brahmins Devadiga Sthanika Brahmins

Christianity

Mangalorean
Mangalorean
Catholics Mangalorean
Mangalorean
Protestants

Islam

Bearys Konkani
Konkani
Muslims

Jainism

Jain Bunt

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Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East
Middle East
[Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay
Bombay
(Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin
Tuticorin
(Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America
North America
& North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

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Indian state of Karnataka

Overviews

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History

Aihole Alupa dynasty Amoghavarsha Badami Banavasi Balligavi Belur Chalukya dynasty Chitradurga Nayakas Deva Raya II Durvinita Halebidu Haleri Kingdom Halmidi Hampi Hoysala Empire Kadamba dynasty Kalyani Chalukyas Keladi
Keladi
Nayakas Shivappa Nayaka Kittur Chennamma Kingdom of Mysore Mayurasharma Pattadakal Pulakeshin II Rashtrakuta dynasty Sringeri Srirangapatna Tipu Sultan Unification of Karnataka Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire Vijayanagara Vishnuvardhana Veera Ballala II Vikramaditya II Vikramaditya VI Western Ganga dynasty

Geography

Cities and towns Districts Rivers Dams and Reservoirs Taluks Villages Highest point Bayalu Seeme Malenadu Karavali Western Ghats

Culture

Bharata Natyam Bhuta Kola Bidriware Channapatna toys Chitrakala Parishat Gaarudi Gombe Ilkal saree Kamsale Kannada Karnatik music Kasuti Khedda Mysore
Mysore
Dasara Togalu Gombeyaata Udupi
Udupi
cuisine Veeragase Yakshagana Mysore
Mysore
musicians

Literature

Kannada

Milestones Epics Medieval Rashtrakuta Western Ganga Western Chalukya Hoysala Vijayanagara Vachana Haridasa Mysore Play Modern

Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Parishat Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Sammelana Karnataka

Noted poets

Asaga Gunavarma I Adikavi Pampa Sri Ponna Ranna Devar Dasimayya Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddharama Harihara Raghavanka Rudrabhatta Janna Kumara Vyasa Chamarasa Nijaguna Shivayogi Ratnakaravarni Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Vijaya Dasa Gopala Dasa Jagannatha Dasa Lakshmisa Sarvajna Shishunala Sharif Krishnaraja Wadiyar III D. R. Bendre Gopalakrishna Adiga K. S. Narasimhaswamy M. Govinda Pai Kuvempu D. V. Gundappa G. S. Shivarudrappa

People and Society

Karnataka
Karnataka
ethnic groups List of people from Karnataka

Tourism

Beaches Dams Forts National Parks Hindu Temples Jain Temples Waterfalls

Awards

Karnataka
Karnataka
Ratna Pampa Award Nrupatunga Award Basava
Basava
Puraskara Rajyotsava Prashasti Jakanachari Award Varnashilpi Venkatappa Award

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141921