Parouse.com
 Parouse.com



Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed "the Red Devils", the club was founded as Newton Heath
Newton Heath
LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won a record 20 League titles, 12 FA Cups, 5 League Cups and a record 21 FA Community Shields. The club has also won three UEFA
UEFA
Champions Leagues, one UEFA
UEFA
Europa League, one UEFA
UEFA
Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA
UEFA
Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the club became the first in the history of English football to achieve the treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup
FA Cup
and the UEFA
UEFA
Champions League.[3] In 2016–17, by winning the UEFA
UEFA
Europa League, they became one of five clubs to have won all three main UEFA
UEFA
club competitions. In addition, they became the only professional English club to have won every ongoing major and supplementary honour available to the first team that is organised by a national or international governing body. The 1958 Munich air disaster
Munich air disaster
claimed the lives of eight players. In 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson
Alex Ferguson
won 38 trophies as manager, including 13 Premier League
Premier League
titles, 5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA
UEFA
Champions Leagues, between 1986 and 2013,[4][5][6] when he announced his retirement. José Mourinho
José Mourinho
is the club's current manager, having been appointed on 27 May 2016. Manchester United was the highest-earning football club in the world for 2016–17, with an annual revenue of €576.3 million,[7] and the world's most valuable football club in 2017, valued at £2.86 billion.[8] As of June 2015, it is the world's most valuable football brand, estimated to be worth $1.2 billion.[9][10] After being floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1991, the club was purchased by Malcolm Glazer
Malcolm Glazer
in May 2005 in a deal valuing the club at almost £800 million, after which the company was taken private again, before going public once more in August 2012, when they made an initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. Manchester United is one of the most widely supported football clubs in the world,[11][12] and has its strongest rivalries with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early years (1878–1945) 1.2 Busby years (1945–1969) 1.3 1969–1986 1.4 Ferguson years (1986–2013) 1.5 2013–present

2 Crest and colours

2.1 Kit evolution

3 Grounds 4 Support

4.1 Rivalries

5 Global brand

5.1 Sponsorship

6 Ownership and finances 7 Players

7.1 First-team squad

7.1.1 Out on loan

7.2 Reserves and academy 7.3 Former players 7.4 Club captains 7.5 Player records 7.6 Sir Matt Busby
Matt Busby
Player of the Year

8 Club officials

8.1 Managerial history

9 Honours

9.1 Domestic

9.1.1 League 9.1.2 Cups

9.2 European 9.3 Worldwide 9.4 Doubles and Trebles

10 See also 11 Footnotes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

History Early years (1878–1945) Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1878–1945)

A chart showing the progress of Manchester United through the English football league system from joining as Newton Heath
Newton Heath
in 1892–93 to the present

Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath
Newton Heath
LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (LYR) depot at Newton Heath.[13] The team initially played games against other departments and railway companies, but on 20 November 1880, they competed in their first recorded match; wearing the colours of the railway company – green and gold – they were defeated 6–0 by Bolton Wanderers' reserve team.[14] By 1888, the club had become a founding member of The Combination, a regional football league. Following the league's dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath
Newton Heath
joined the newly formed Football Alliance, which ran for three seasons before being merged with the Football League. This resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the "LYR" from its name.[13] After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division.[13]

The Manchester United team at the start of the 1905–06 season, in which they were runners-up in the Second Division

In January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £270,000 in 2018[nb 1] – the club was served with a winding-up order.[15] Captain Harry Stafford found four local businessmen, including John Henry Davies (who became club president), each willing to invest £500 in return for a direct interest in running the club and who subsequently changed the name;[16] on 24 April 1902, Manchester United was officially born.[17][nb 2] Under Ernest Mangnall, who assumed managerial duties in 1903, the team finished as Second Division runners-up in 1906 and secured promotion to the First Division, which they won in 1908 – the club's first league title. The following season began with victory in the first ever Charity Shield[18] and ended with the club's first FA Cup
FA Cup
title. Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City.[19] In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, where it remained until regaining promotion in 1925. Relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Following the death of principal benefactor John Henry Davies in October 1927, the club's finances deteriorated to the extent that Manchester United would likely have gone bankrupt had it not been for James W. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000 and assumed control of the club.[20] In the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division.[20] Busby years (1945–1969) Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1945–1969)

The Busby Babes
Busby Babes
in Denmark in 1955

In October 1945, the impending resumption of football led to the managerial appointment of Matt Busby, who demanded an unprecedented level of control over team selection, player transfers and training sessions.[21] Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947, 1948 and 1949, and to FA Cup
FA Cup
victory in 1948. In 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years.[22] With an average age of 22, the back-to-back title winning side of 1956 were labelled "the Busby Babes" by the media, a testament to Busby's faith in his youth players.[23] In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season.[24] En route to the semi-final, which they lost to Real Madrid, the team recorded a 10–0 victory over Belgian champions Anderlecht, which remains the club's biggest victory on record.[25]

A plaque at Old Trafford
Old Trafford
in memory of those who died in the Munich air disaster, including players' names

The following season, on the way home from a European Cup quarter-final victory against Red Star Belgrade, the aircraft carrying the Manchester United players, officials and journalists crashed while attempting to take off after refuelling in Munich, Germany. The Munich air disaster of 6 February 1958 claimed 23 lives, including those of eight players – Geoff Bent, Roger Byrne, Eddie Colman, Duncan Edwards, Mark Jones, David Pegg, Tommy Taylor
Tommy Taylor
and Billy Whelan – and injured several more.[26][27]

Manchester United (1963)

Assistant manager Jimmy Murphy took over as manager while Busby recovered from his injuries and the club's makeshift side reached the FA Cup
FA Cup
final, which they lost to Bolton Wanderers. In recognition of the team's tragedy, UEFA
UEFA
invited the club to compete in the 1958–59 European Cup alongside eventual League champions Wolverhampton Wanderers. Despite approval from the FA, the Football League determined that the club should not enter the competition, since it had not qualified.[28][29] Busby rebuilt the team through the 1960s by signing players such as Denis Law
Denis Law
and Pat Crerand, who combined with the next generation of youth players – including George Best
George Best
– to win the FA Cup
FA Cup
in 1963. The following season, they finished second in the league, then won the title in 1965 and 1967. In 1968, Manchester United became the first English (and second British) club to win the European Cup, beating Benfica 4–1 in the final[30] with a team that contained three European Footballers of the Year: Bobby Charlton, Denis Law
Denis Law
and George Best.[31] Matt Busby
Matt Busby
resigned as manager in 1969 and was replaced by the reserve team coach, former Manchester United player Wilf McGuinness.[32] 1969–1986 Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1969–1986)

Bryan Robson
Bryan Robson
was the captain of Manchester United for 12 years, longer than any other player.[33]

Following an eighth-place finish in the 1969–70 season and a poor start to the 1970–71 season, Busby was persuaded to temporarily resume managerial duties, and McGuinness returned to his position as reserve team coach. In June 1971, Frank O'Farrell was appointed as manager, but lasted less than 18 months before being replaced by Tommy Docherty
Tommy Docherty
in December 1972.[34] Docherty saved Manchester United from relegation that season, only to see them relegated in 1974; by that time the trio of Best, Law, and Charlton had left the club.[30] The team won promotion at the first attempt and reached the FA Cup final in 1976, but were beaten by Southampton. They reached the final again in 1977, beating Liverpool
Liverpool
2–1. Docherty was dismissed shortly afterwards, following the revelation of his affair with the club physiotherapist's wife.[32][35] Dave Sexton replaced Docherty as manager in the summer of 1977. Despite major signings, including Joe Jordan, Gordon McQueen, Gary Bailey, and Ray Wilkins, the team failed to achieve any significant results; they finished in the top two in 1979–80 and lost to Arsenal in the 1979 FA Cup
FA Cup
Final. Sexton was dismissed in 1981, even though the team won the last seven games under his direction.[36] He was replaced by Ron Atkinson, who immediately broke the British record transfer fee to sign Bryan Robson
Bryan Robson
from West Bromwich Albion. Under Atkinson, Manchester United won the FA Cup
FA Cup
twice in three years – in 1983 and 1985. In 1985–86, after 13 wins and two draws in its first 15 matches, the club was favourite to win the league, but finished in fourth place. The following season, with the club in danger of relegation by November, Atkinson was dismissed.[37] Ferguson years (1986–2013) Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1986–2013)

Alex Ferguson
Alex Ferguson
managed the team between 1986 and 2013.

Alex Ferguson
Alex Ferguson
and his assistant Archie Knox arrived from Aberdeen on the day of Atkinson's dismissal,[38] and guided the club to an 11th-place finish in the league.[39] Despite a second-place finish in 1987–88, the club was back in 11th place the following season.[40] Reportedly on the verge of being dismissed, victory over Crystal Palace in the 1990 FA Cup
FA Cup
Final replay (after a 3–3 draw) saved Ferguson's career.[41][42] The following season, Manchester United claimed its first Cup Winners' Cup title and competed in the 1991 UEFA Super Cup, beating European Cup holders Red Star Belgrade
Red Star Belgrade
1–0 in the final at Old Trafford. A second consecutive League Cup final appearance followed in 1992, in which the team beat Nottingham Forest 1–0 at Wembley.[37] In 1993, the club won its first league title since 1967, and a year later, for the first time since 1957, it won a second consecutive title – alongside the FA Cup
FA Cup
– to complete the first "Double" in the club's history.[37]

Ryan Giggs
Ryan Giggs
is the most decorated player in English football history.[43]

In the 1998–99 season, Manchester United became the first team to win the Premier League, FA Cup
FA Cup
and UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
– "The Treble" – in the same season.[44] Losing 1–0 going into injury time in the 1999 UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
Final, Teddy Sheringham
Teddy Sheringham
and Ole Gunnar Solskjær scored late goals to claim a dramatic victory over Bayern Munich, in what is considered one of the greatest comebacks of all time.[45] The club also won the Intercontinental Cup after beating Palmeiras 1–0 in Tokyo.[46] Ferguson was subsequently knighted for his services to football.[47] Manchester United won the league again in the 1999–2000 and 2000–01 seasons. The team finished third in 2001–02, before regaining the title in 2002–03.[48] They won the 2003–04 FA Cup, beating Millwall 3–0 in the final at the Millennium Stadium
Millennium Stadium
in Cardiff
Cardiff
to lift the trophy for a record 11th time.[49] In the 2005–06 season, Manchester United failed to qualify for the knockout phase of the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
for the first time in over a decade,[50] but recovered to secure a second-place league finish and victory over Wigan Athletic in the 2006 Football League Cup
Football League Cup
Final. The club regained the Premier League
Premier League
in the 2006–07 and 2007–08 seasons, and completed the European double by beating Chelsea 6–5 on penalties in the 2008 UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
Final in Moscow's Luzhniki Stadium. Ryan Giggs
Ryan Giggs
made a record 759th appearance for the club in this game, overtaking previous record holder Bobby Charlton.[51] In December 2008, the club won the 2008 FIFA Club World Cup
FIFA Club World Cup
and followed this with the 2008–09 Football League Cup, and its third successive Premier League
Premier League
title.[52][53] That summer, Cristiano Ronaldo
Cristiano Ronaldo
was sold to Real Madrid for a world record £80 million.[54] In 2010, Manchester United defeated Aston Villa 2–1 at Wembley to retain the League Cup, its first successful defence of a knockout cup competition.[55] After finishing as runner-up to Chelsea in the 2009–10 season, United achieved a record 19th league title in 2010–11, securing the championship with a 1–1 away draw against Blackburn Rovers on 14 May 2011.[56] This was extended to 20 league titles in 2012–13, securing the championship with a 3–0 home win against Aston Villa on 22 April 2013.[57] 2013–present On 8 May 2013, Ferguson announced that he was to retire as manager at the end of the football season, but would remain at the club as a director and club ambassador.[58][59] The club announced the next day that Everton manager David Moyes
David Moyes
would replace him from 1 July, having signed a six-year contract.[60][61][62] Ryan Giggs
Ryan Giggs
took over as interim player-manager 10 months later, on 22 April 2014, when Moyes was sacked after a poor season in which the club failed to defend their Premier League
Premier League
title and failed to qualify for the UEFA Champions League for the first time since 1995–96.[63] They also failed to qualify for the Europa League, meaning that it was the first time Manchester United hadn't qualified for a European competition since 1990.[64] On 19 May 2014, it was confirmed that Louis van Gaal would replace Moyes as Manchester United manager on a three-year deal, with Giggs as his assistant.[65] Malcolm Glazer, the patriarch of the Glazer family that owns the club, died on 28 May 2014.[66] Although Van Gaal's first season saw United once again qualify for the Champions League through a fourth-place finish in the Premier League, his second season saw United go out of the same tournament in the group stage.[67] United also fell behind in the title race for the third consecutive season, finishing in 5th place, in spite of several expensive signings during Van Gaal's tenure. However, that same season, Manchester United won the FA Cup
FA Cup
for a 12th time.[68] Despite this victory, Van Gaal was sacked as manager just two days later,[69] with José Mourinho
José Mourinho
appointed in his place on 27 May, signing a three-year contract.[70] That season, United finished in sixth place while winning the EFL Cup
EFL Cup
for the fifth time and the Europa League for the first time, as well as the FA Community Shield
FA Community Shield
for a record 21st time. Wayne Rooney
Wayne Rooney
scored his 250th goal with United, surpassing Sir Bobby Charlton
Bobby Charlton
as United's all-time top scorer, before leaving the club at the end of the season to return to Everton. Crest and colours

Manchester United badge in the 1960s

The club crest is derived from the Manchester City Council coat of arms, although all that remains of it on the current crest is the ship in full sail.[71] The devil stems from the club's nickname "The Red Devils"; it was included on club programmes and scarves in the 1960s, and incorporated into the club crest in 1970, although the crest was not included on the chest of the shirt until 1971.[71] Newton Heath's uniform in 1879, four years before the club played its first competitive match, has been documented as 'white with blue cord'.[72] A photograph of the Newton Heath
Newton Heath
team, taken in 1892, is believed to show the players wearing red-and-white quartered jerseys and navy blue knickerbockers.[73] Between 1894–96, the players wore distinctive green and gold jerseys[73] which were replaced in 1896 by white shirts, which were worn with navy blue shorts.[73] After the name change in 1902, the club colours were changed to red shirts, white shorts, and black socks, which has become the standard Manchester United home kit.[73] Very few changes were made to the kit until 1922 when the club adopted white shirts bearing a deep red "V" around the neck, similar to the shirt worn in the 1909 FA Cup
FA Cup
Final. They remained part of their home kits until 1927.[73] For a period in 1934, the cherry and white hooped change shirt became the home colours, but the following season the red shirt was recalled after the club's lowest ever league placing of 20th in the Second Division and the hooped shirt dropped back to being the change.[73] The black socks were changed to white from 1959 to 1965, where they were replaced with red socks up until 1971, when the club reverted to black. Black shorts and/or white socks are sometimes worn with the home strip, most often in away games, if there is a clash with the opponent's kit. Since 1997–98, white socks have been the preferred choice for European games, which are typically played on weeknights, to aid with player visibility.[74] The current home kit is a red Henley shirt, with black-and-white-banded cuffs and the trademark Adidas
Adidas
three stripes in white across the shoulders.[75] The Manchester United away strip has often been a white shirt, black shorts and white socks, but there have been several exceptions. These include an all-black strip with blue and gold trimmings between 1993 and 1995, the navy blue shirt with silver horizontal pinstripes worn during the 1999–2000 season,[76] and the 2011–12 away kit, which had a royal blue body and sleeves with hoops made of small midnight navy blue and black stripes, with black shorts and blue socks.[77] An all-grey away kit worn during the 1995–96 season was dropped after just five games, most notoriously against Southampton where Alex Ferguson forced the team to change into the third kit during half-time of its final outing. The reason for dropping it being that the players claimed to have trouble finding their teammates against the crowd, United failed to win a competitive game in the kit.[78] In 2001, to celebrate 100 years as "Manchester United", a reversible white/gold away kit was released, although the actual match day shirts were not reversible.[79] The club's third kit is often all-blue, this was most recently the case during the 2014–15 season.[80] Exceptions include a green-and-gold halved shirt worn between 1992 and 1994, a blue-and-white striped shirt worn during the 1994–95 and 1995–96 seasons and once in 1996–97, an all-black kit worn during the Treble-winning 1998–99 season, and a white shirt with black-and-red horizontal pinstripes worn between 2003–04 and 2005–06.[81] From 2006–07 to 2013–14, the third kit was the previous season's away kit, albeit updated with the new club sponsor in 2006–07 and 2010–11, apart from 2008–09 when an all-blue kit was launch to mark the 40th anniversary of the 1967–68 European Cup
1967–68 European Cup
success.[82] Kit evolution

1879–1880, 1896–1902

1880–1887

1887–1893

1893–1894

1894–1896

1902–1920, 1921–1922, 1927–1934, 1934–1960, 1971–present[EN]

1920–1921, 1963–1971

1922–1927

1934

1960–1963 (1997–present)[EU]

Notes

^ Since 1997 this combination is primarily used in domestic competitions and friendlies. ^ Since 1997 this combination is primarily used in European and international competitions.

Grounds

Old Trafford
Old Trafford
after its expansion completed in 2006

Newton Heath
Newton Heath
initially played on a field on North Road, close to the railway yard; the original capacity was about 12,000, but club officials deemed the facilities inadequate for a club hoping to join The Football League.[83] Some expansion took place in 1887, and in 1891, Newton Heath
Newton Heath
used its minimal financial reserves to purchase two grandstands, each able to hold 1,000 spectators.[84] Although attendances were not recorded for many of the earliest matches at North Road, the highest documented attendance was approximately 15,000 for a First Division match against Sunderland on 4 March 1893.[85] A similar attendance was also recorded for a friendly match against Gorton Villa on 5 September 1889.[86] In June 1893, after the club was evicted from North Road by its owners, Manchester Deans and Canons, who felt it was inappropriate for the club to charge an entry fee to the ground, secretary A. H. Albut procured the use of the Bank Street ground in Clayton.[87] It initially had no stands, by the start of the 1893–94 season, two had been built; one spanning the full length of the pitch on one side and the other behind the goal at the "Bradford end". At the opposite end, the "Clayton end", the ground had been "built up, thousands thus being provided for".[87] Newton Heath's first league match at Bank Street was played against Burnley on 1 September 1893, when 10,000 people saw Alf Farman score a hat-trick, Newton Heath's only goals in a 3–2 win. The remaining stands were completed for the following league game against Nottingham Forest three weeks later.[87] In October 1895, before the visit of Manchester City, the club purchased a 2,000-capacity stand from the Broughton Rangers rugby league club, and put up another stand on the "reserved side" (as distinct from the "popular side"). However, weather restricted the attendance for the Manchester City match to just 12,000.[88] When the Bank Street ground was temporarily closed by bailiffs in 1902, club captain Harry Stafford raised enough money to pay for the club's next away game at Bristol City and found a temporary ground at Harpurhey
Harpurhey
for the next reserves game against Padiham.[89] Following financial investment, new club president John Henry Davies paid £500 for the erection of a new 1,000-seat stand at Bank Street.[90] Within four years, the stadium had cover on all four sides, as well as the ability to hold approximately 50,000 spectators, some of whom could watch from the viewing gallery atop the Main Stand.[90] However, following Manchester United's first league title in 1908 and the FA Cup
FA Cup
a year later, it was decided that Bank Street was too restrictive for Davies' ambition;[90] in February 1909, six weeks before the club's first FA Cup
FA Cup
title, Old Trafford
Old Trafford
was named as the home of Manchester United, following the purchase of land for around £60,000. Architect Archibald Leitch
Archibald Leitch
was given a budget of £30,000 for construction; original plans called for seating capacity of 100,000, though budget constraints forced a revision to 77,000. The building was constructed by Messrs Brameld and Smith of Manchester. The stadium's record attendance was registered on 25 March 1939, when an FA Cup
FA Cup
semi-final between Wolverhampton Wanderers and Grimsby Town drew 76,962 spectators.[91] Bombing in the Second World War destroyed much of the stadium; the central tunnel in the South Stand was all that remained of that quarter. After the war, the club received compensation from the War Damage Commission in the amount of £22,278. While reconstruction took place, the team played its "home" games at Manchester City's Maine Road ground; Manchester United was charged £5,000 per year, plus a nominal percentage of gate receipts.[92] Later improvements included the addition of roofs, first to the Stretford End
Stretford End
and then to the North and East Stands. The roofs were supported by pillars that obstructed many fans' views, and they were eventually replaced with a cantilevered structure. The Stretford End
Stretford End
was the last stand to receive a cantilevered roof, completed in time for the 1993–94 season.[32] First used on 25 March 1957 and costing £40,000, four 180-foot (55 m) pylons were erected, each housing 54 individual floodlights. These were dismantled in 1987 and replaced by a lighting system embedded in the roof of each stand, which remains in use today.[93] The Taylor Report's requirement for an all-seater stadium lowered capacity at Old Trafford
Old Trafford
to around 44,000 by 1993. In 1995, the North Stand was redeveloped into three tiers, restoring capacity to approximately 55,000. At the end of the 1998–99 season, second tiers were added to the East and West Stands, raising capacity to around 67,000, and between July 2005 and May 2006, 8,000 more seats were added via second tiers in the north-west and north-east quadrants. Part of the new seating was used for the first time on 26 March 2006, when an attendance of 69,070 became a new Premier League
Premier League
record.[94] The record was pushed steadily upwards before reaching its peak on 31 March 2007, when 76,098 spectators saw Manchester United beat Blackburn Rovers 4–1, with just 114 seats (0.15 per cent of the total capacity of 76,212) unoccupied.[95] In 2009, reorganisation of the seating resulted in a reduction of capacity by 255 to 75,957.[96][97] Manchester United has the second highest average attendance of European football clubs only behind Borussia Dortmund.[98][99][100] Support Manchester United is one of the most popular football clubs in the world, with one of the highest average home attendance in Europe.[101] The club states that its worldwide fan base includes more than 200 officially recognised branches of the Manchester United Supporters Club (MUSC), in at least 24 countries.[102] The club takes advantage of this support through its worldwide summer tours. Accountancy firm and sports industry consultants Deloitte
Deloitte
estimate that Manchester United has 75 million fans worldwide,[11] while other estimates put this figure closer to 333 million.[103] The club has the third highest social media following in the world among sports teams (after Barcelona and Real Madrid), with over 71 million Facebook
Facebook
fans as of September 2016.[12][104] A 2014 study showed that Manchester United had the loudest fans in the Premier League.[105] Supporters are represented by two independent bodies; the Independent Manchester United Supporters' Association (IMUSA), which maintains close links to the club through the MUFC Fans Forum,[106] and the Manchester United Supporters' Trust
Manchester United Supporters' Trust
(MUST). After the Glazer family's takeover in 2005, a group of fans formed a splinter club, F.C. United of Manchester. The West Stand of Old Trafford
Old Trafford
– the "Stretford End" – is the home end and the traditional source of the club's most vocal support.[107] Rivalries Main articles: Arsenal F.C.– Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
rivalry, Manchester derby, Liverpool
Liverpool
F.C.– Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
rivalry, and Leeds United F.C.– Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
rivalry Manchester United has rivalries with Arsenal, Leeds United, Liverpool, and Manchester City, against whom they contest the Manchester derby.[108][109] The rivalry with Liverpool
Liverpool
is rooted in competition between the cities during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
when Manchester was famous for its textile industry while Liverpool
Liverpool
was a major port.[110] Manchester United and Liverpool
Liverpool
are also the two most successful teams in England and, at many points in their history, they have battled each other for the league title (most recently in the 2008–09 season). Their matches are usually considered by the players and their fans as the biggest in any given season. The "Roses Rivalry" with Leeds stems from the Wars of the Roses, fought between the House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
and the House of York, with Manchester United representing Lancashire and Leeds representing Yorkshire.[111] The rivalry with Arsenal arises from the numerous times the two teams, as well as managers Alex Ferguson
Alex Ferguson
and Arsène Wenger, have battled for the Premier League
Premier League
title. With 33 titles between them (20 for Manchester United, 13 for Arsenal) this fixture has become known as one of the finest Premier League
Premier League
match-ups in history.[112][113] Global brand

Aeroflot
Aeroflot
is an official carrier of the club.

Manchester United has been described as a global brand; a 2011 report by Brand Finance, valued the club's trademarks and associated intellectual property at £412 million – an increase of £39 million on the previous year, valuing it at £11 million more than the second best brand, Real Madrid – and gave the brand a strength rating of AAA (Extremely Strong).[114] In July 2012, Manchester United was ranked first by Forbes
Forbes
magazine in its list of the ten most valuable sports team brands, valuing the Manchester United brand at $2.23 billion.[115] The club is ranked third in the Deloitte Football Money League (behind Real Madrid and Barcelona).[116] In January 2013, the club became the first sports team in the world to be valued at $3 billion. Forbes
Forbes
Magazine valued the club at $3.3 billion – $1.2 billion higher than the next most valuable sports team.[117] They were overtaken by Real Madrid for the next four years, but Manchester United returned to the top of the Forbes
Forbes
list in June 2017, with a valuation of $3.689 billion.[118] The core strength of Manchester United's global brand is often attributed to Matt Busby's rebuilding of the team and subsequent success following the Munich air disaster, which drew worldwide acclaim.[107] The "iconic" team included Bobby Charlton
Bobby Charlton
and Nobby Stiles (members of England's World Cup winning team), Denis Law
Denis Law
and George Best. The attacking style of play adopted by this team (in contrast to the defensive-minded "catenaccio" approach favoured by the leading Italian teams of the era) "captured the imagination of the English footballing public".[119] Busby's team also became associated with the liberalisation of Western society during the 1960s; George Best, known as the "Fifth Beatle" for his iconic haircut, was the first footballer to significantly develop an off-the-field media profile.[119] As the second English football club to float on the London Stock Exchange in 1991, the club raised significant capital, with which it further developed its commercial strategy. The club's focus on commercial and sporting success brought significant profits in an industry often characterised by chronic losses.[120] The strength of the Manchester United brand was bolstered by intense off-the-field media attention to individual players, most notably David Beckham (who quickly developed his own global brand). This attention often generates greater interest in on-the-field activities, and hence generates sponsorship opportunities – the value of which is driven by television exposure.[121] During his time with the club, Beckham's popularity across Asia was integral to the club's commercial success in that part of the world.[122] Because higher league placement results in a greater share of television rights, success on the field generates greater income for the club. Since the inception of the Premier League, Manchester United has received the largest share of the revenue generated from the BSkyB broadcasting deal.[123] Manchester United has also consistently enjoyed the highest commercial income of any English club; in 2005–06, the club's commercial arm generated £51 million, compared to £42.5 million at Chelsea, £39.3 million at Liverpool, £34 million at Arsenal and £27.9 million at Newcastle United. A key sponsorship relationship was with sportswear company Nike, who managed the club's merchandising operation as part of a £303 million 13-year partnership between 2002 and 2015.[124] Through Manchester United Finance and the club's membership scheme, One United, those with an affinity for the club can purchase a range of branded goods and services. Additionally, Manchester United-branded media services – such as the club's dedicated television channel, MUTV – have allowed the club to expand its fan base to those beyond the reach of its Old Trafford
Old Trafford
stadium.[11] Sponsorship

Period Kit manufacturer Shirt sponsor

1945–1975 Umbro —

1975–1980 Admiral

1980–1982 Adidas

1982–1992 Sharp Electronics

1992–2000 Umbro

2000–2002 Vodafone

2002–2006 Nike

2006–2010 AIG

2010–2014 Aon

2014–2015 Chevrolet

2015– Adidas

In an initial five-year deal worth £500,000, Sharp Electronics became the club's first shirt sponsor at the beginning of the 1982–83 season, a relationship that lasted until the end of the 1999–2000 season, when Vodafone
Vodafone
agreed a four-year, £30 million deal.[125] Vodafone
Vodafone
agreed to pay £36 million to extend the deal by four years, but after two seasons triggered a break clause in order to concentrate on its sponsorship of the Champions League.[125] To commence at the start of the 2006–07 season, American insurance corporation AIG agreed a four-year £56.5 million deal which in September 2006 became the most valuable in the world.[126][127] At the beginning of the 2010–11 season, American reinsurance company Aon became the club's principal sponsor in a four-year deal reputed to be worth approximately £80 million, making it the most lucrative shirt sponsorship deal in football history.[128] Manchester United announced their first training kit sponsor in August 2011, agreeing a four-year deal with DHL reported to be worth £40 million; it is believed to be the first instance of training kit sponsorship in English football.[129][130] The DHL contract lasted for over a year before the club bought back the contract in October 2012, although they remained the club's official logistics partner.[131] The contract for the training kit sponsorship was then sold to Aon in April 2013 for a deal worth £180 million over eight years, which also included purchasing the naming rights for the Trafford Training Centre.[132] The club's first kit manufacturer was Umbro, until a five-year deal was agreed with Admiral Sportswear
Admiral Sportswear
in 1975.[133] Adidas
Adidas
received the contract in 1980,[134] before Umbro
Umbro
started a second spell in 1992.[135] Umbro's sponsorship lasted for ten years, followed by Nike's record-breaking £302.9 million deal that lasted until 2015; 3.8 million replica shirts were sold in the first 22 months with the company.[136][137] In addition to Nike and Chevrolet, the club also has several lower-level "platinum" sponsors, including Aon and Budweiser.[138] On 30 July 2012, United signed a seven-year deal with American automotive corporation General Motors, which replaced Aon as the shirt sponsor from the 2014–15 season. The new $80m-a-year shirt deal is worth $559m over seven years and features the logo of General Motors brand Chevrolet.[139][140] Nike announced that they would not renew their kit supply deal with Manchester United after the 2014–15 season, citing rising costs.[141][142] Since the start of the 2015–16 season, Adidas
Adidas
has manufactured Manchester United's kit as part of a world-record 10-year deal worth a minimum of £750 million.[143][144] Ownership and finances See also: Glazer ownership of Manchester United Originally funded by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway
Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway
Company, the club became a limited company in 1892 and sold shares to local supporters for £1 via an application form.[16] In 1902, majority ownership passed to the four local businessmen who invested £500 to save the club from bankruptcy, including future club president John Henry Davies.[16] After his death in 1927, the club faced bankruptcy yet again, but was saved in December 1931 by James W. Gibson, who assumed control of the club after an investment of £2,000.[20] Gibson promoted his son, Alan, to the board in 1948,[145] but died three years later; the Gibson family retained ownership of the club through James' wife, Lillian,[146] but the position of chairman passed to former player Harold Hardman.[147] Promoted to the board a few days after the Munich air disaster, Louis Edwards, a friend of Matt Busby, began acquiring shares in the club; for an investment of approximately £40,000, he accumulated a 54 per cent shareholding and took control in January 1964.[148] When Lillian Gibson died in January 1971, her shares passed to Alan Gibson who sold a percentage of his shares to Louis Edwards' son, Martin, in 1978; Martin Edwards went on to become chairman upon his father's death in 1980.[149] Media tycoon Robert Maxwell
Robert Maxwell
attempted to buy the club in 1984, but did not meet Edwards' asking price.[149] In 1989, chairman Martin Edwards attempted to sell the club to Michael Knighton for £20 million, but the sale fell through and Knighton joined the board of directors instead.[149] Manchester United was floated on the stock market in June 1991 (raising £6.7 million),[150] and received yet another takeover bid in 1998, this time from Rupert Murdoch's British Sky Broadcasting Corporation. This resulted in the formation of Shareholders United Against Murdoch – now the Manchester United Supporters' Trust
Manchester United Supporters' Trust
– who encouraged supporters to buy shares in the club in an attempt to block any hostile takeover. The Manchester United board accepted a £623 million offer,[151] but the takeover was blocked by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission at the final hurdle in April 1999.[152] A few years later, a power struggle emerged between the club's manager, Alex Ferguson, and his horse-racing partners, John Magnier and J. P. McManus, who had gradually become the majority shareholders. In a dispute that stemmed from contested ownership of the horse Rock of Gibraltar, Magnier and McManus attempted to have Ferguson removed from his position as manager, and the board responded by approaching investors to attempt to reduce the Irishmen's majority.[153] In May 2005, Malcolm Glazer
Malcolm Glazer
purchased the 28.7 per cent stake held by McManus and Magnier, thus acquiring a controlling interest through his investment vehicle Red Football Ltd in a highly leveraged takeover valuing the club at approximately £800 million (then approx. $1.5 billion).[154] Once the purchase was complete, the club was taken off the stock exchange.[155] In July 2006, the club announced a £660 million debt refinancing package, resulting in a 30 per cent reduction in annual interest payments to £62 million a year.[156][157] In January 2010, with debts of £716.5 million ($1.17 billion),[158] Manchester United further refinanced through a bond issue worth £504 million, enabling them to pay off most of the £509 million owed to international banks.[159] The annual interest payable on the bonds – which mature on 1 February 2017 – is approximately £45 million per annum.[160] Despite restructuring, the club's debt prompted protests from fans on 23 January 2010, at Old Trafford
Old Trafford
and the club's Trafford Training Centre.[161][162] Supporter groups encouraged match-going fans to wear green and gold, the colours of Newton Heath. On 30 January, reports emerged that the Manchester United Supporters' Trust
Manchester United Supporters' Trust
had held meetings with a group of wealthy fans, dubbed the "Red Knights", with plans to buying out the Glazers' controlling interest.[163] In August 2011, the Glazers were believed to have approached Credit Suisse in preparation for a $1 billion (approx. £600 million) initial public offering (IPO) on the Singapore stock exchange that would value the club at more than £2 billion.[164] However, in July 2012, the club announced plans to list its IPO on the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
instead.[165] Shares were originally set to go on sale for between $16 and $20 each, but the price was cut to $14 by the launch of the IPO on 10 August, following negative comments from Wall Street analysts and Facebook's disappointing stock market debut in May. Even after the cut, Manchester United was valued at $2.3 billion, making it the most valuable football club in the world.[166] Players First-team squad

As of 22 March 2018[167]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No.

Position Player

1

GK David de Gea

2

DF Victor Lindelöf

3

DF Eric Bailly

4

DF Phil Jones

5

DF Marcos Rojo

6

MF Paul Pogba

7

FW Alexis Sánchez

8

MF Juan Mata

9

FW Romelu Lukaku

11

FW Anthony Martial

12

DF Chris Smalling

14

MF Jesse Lingard

16

MF Michael Carrick
Michael Carrick
(captain)

No.

Position Player

17

DF Daley Blind

18

MF Ashley Young

19

FW Marcus Rashford

20

GK Sergio Romero

21

MF Ander Herrera

23

DF Luke Shaw

25

DF Antonio Valencia

27

MF Marouane Fellaini

31

MF Nemanja Matić

36

DF Matteo Darmian

39

MF Scott McTominay

40

GK Joel Castro Pereira

43

DF Cameron Borthwick-Jackson

Out on loan Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No.

Position Player

15

MF Andreas Pereira (at Valencia until 30 June 2018)[168]

24

DF Timothy Fosu-Mensah
Timothy Fosu-Mensah
(at Crystal Palace until 30 June 2018)[169]

No.

Position Player

32

GK Sam Johnstone
Sam Johnstone
(at Aston Villa until 30 June 2018)[170]

38

DF Axel Tuanzebe
Axel Tuanzebe
(at Aston Villa until 30 June 2018)[171]

Reserves and academy Further information: Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
Reserves and Academy Former players Further information: List of Manchester United F.C. players
List of Manchester United F.C. players
and Category: Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
players Club captains Further information: List of Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
players § Club captains Player records Further information: List of Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
records and statistics Sir Matt Busby
Matt Busby
Player of the Year Further information: Sir Matt Busby
Matt Busby
Player of the Year Club officials

Owner: Glazer family via Red Football Shareholder Limited[172] Honorary president: Martin Edwards[173]

Manchester United Limited

Co-chairmen: Avram Glazer and Joel Glazer[174] Executive vice chairman: Ed Woodward[174] Group managing director: Richard Arnold[174] Chief financial officer: Cliff Baty[175] Non-executive directors: Bryan Glazer, Kevin Glazer, Edward Glazer, Darcie Glazer Kassewitz, Robert Leitão, John Hooks and Manu Sawhney[174]

Manchester United Football Club

Directors: David Gill, Michael Edelson, Sir Bobby Charlton, Sir Alex Ferguson[176] Club secretary: John Alexander[177] Club ambassadors: Andy Cole,[178] Gary Neville,[179] Bryan Robson,[180] Peter Schmeichel,[181] Bobby Charlton,[182] Alex Ferguson,[182] Park Ji-sung,[183] Dwight Yorke,[184] Nemanja Vidić[185]

Senior club staff

Director of Group Operations: Alan Dawson MBE Director of Communications: Phil Townsend Director of Legal and Business Affairs: Patrick Stewart Director of Finance and IT: Steve Deaville Director of Venue: David French Director of Partnerships: Sean Jefferson CEO of Media: Phil Lynch Ticket office manager: Sam Kelleher[186] Safety officer: Charlie Coxon[186] Stadium manager: Ian Collins[186] Grounds manager: Anthony Sinclair[186]

Coaching staff

Manager: José Mourinho[187] Assistant manager: Rui Faria[188] Coach: Silvino Louro[188] Coach: Ricardo Formosinho[188] Goalkeeping coach: Emilio Alvarez[188] Fitness coach: Carlos Lalin[188] Tactical analyst: Giovanni Cerra[188] Head of first-team development: John Murtough[189]

Scouting Staff

Chief scout: Jim Lawlor[190] Head of global scouting: Marcel Bout[191] Scouts: Gerado Guzmán,[192] Sandro Orlandelli,[193] Tommy Møller Nielsen,[194] Javier Ribalta[195]

Academy coaching staff

Director of youth academy: Nicky Butt[196] Academy operations manager: Nick Cox Under-23 manager: Ricky Sbragia[197] Under-23s team assistant manager: Tommy Martin Under-18 head coach: Kieran McKenna [198] Under-18s coach: John Cooke Under-18s coach: Colin Little Head of Academy Coaching: Tony Whelan [199] Under-16 Head Coach: Neil Ryan Under-12-14 Head Coach: Hasney Aljofree Under 12s Head Coach: Lee Unsworth Under 10s Head Coach: Eamon Mulvey Under 9s Head Coach: Eddie Leach Academy goalkeeping coach: Alan Fettis[200]

Medical and sports science staff

Head of sports medicine and science/club doctor: Dr. Steve McNally[201] Assistant club doctor: Dr. Tony Gill Head first-team physiotherapist: Richard Merron [202] Assistant first team physiotherapist: Jon Picot [202] Head of academy physiotherapy: Neil Hough[203] Senior academy physiotherapist: Mandy Johnson Academy physiotherapist: John Davin Masseurs: Gary Armer, Rod Thornley and Andy Caveney Club dietician: Trevor Lea Head of performance: Tony Strudwick[204] Head of strength and conditioning: Dr. Gary Walker[205] Head of human performance: Dr. Richard Hawkins[206]

Managerial history Main article: List of Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
managers

Dates[207] Name Notes

1878–1892 Unknown

1892–1900 A. H. Albut

1900–1903 James West

1903–1912 Ernest Mangnall

1912–1914 John Bentley

1914–1921 Jack Robson

1921–1926 John Chapman

1926–1927 Lal Hilditch Player-manager

1927–1931 Herbert Bamlett

1931–1932 Walter Crickmer

1932–1937 Scott Duncan

1937–1945 Walter Crickmer

1945–1969 Matt Busby

1969–1970 Wilf McGuinness

1970–1971 Matt Busby

1971–1972 Frank O'Farrell

1972–1977 Tommy Docherty

1977–1981 Dave Sexton

1981–1986 Ron Atkinson

1986–2013 Alex Ferguson

2013–2014 David Moyes

2014 Ryan Giggs Interim player-manager

2014–2016 Louis van Gaal

2016– José Mourinho

Honours

Winners' and runners-up medals from Manchester United's UEFA
UEFA
Champions League final appearances in 2008, 2009 and 2011

Manchester United are one of the most successful clubs in Europe.[208] The club's first trophy was the Manchester Cup, which it won as Newton Heath LYR in 1886.[209] In 1908, the club won its first league title, and won the FA Cup
FA Cup
for the first time the following year. Manchester United won the most trophies in the 1990s; five league titles, four FA Cups, one League Cup, five Charity Shields (one shared), one UEFA Champions League, one UE FA Cup
FA Cup
Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup
UEFA Super Cup
and one Intercontinental Cup. The club holds the record for most top-division titles (20) – including a record 13 Premier League
Premier League
titles – and FA Community Shields (21). It was also the first English club to win the European Cup in 1968, and, as of 2017[update], is the only British club to have won the Club World Cup, in 2008. United also became the sole British club to win the Intercontinental Cup, in 1999. The club's most recent trophy came in May 2017, with the 2016–17 UEFA
UEFA
Europa League. In winning the 2016–17 UEFA
UEFA
Europa League, United became the fifth club in history to have won the "European Treble" of European Cup/UEFA Champions League, European Cup Winners' Cup/UE FA Cup
FA Cup
Winners' Cup, and UEFA
UEFA
Cup/ UEFA Europa League
UEFA Europa League
after Juventus, Ajax, Bayern Munich and Chelsea.[210][211] Domestic League

First Division/Premier League[nb 3]

Winners (20): 1907–08, 1910–11, 1951–52, 1955–56, 1956–57, 1964–65, 1966–67, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1995–96, 1996–97, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2010–11, 2012–13 (record)

Second Division[nb 3]

Winners (2): 1935–36, 1974–75

Cups

FA Cup

Winners (12): 1908–09, 1947–48, 1962–63, 1976–77, 1982–83, 1984–85, 1989–90, 1993–94, 1995–96, 1998–99, 2003–04, 2015–16

Football League Cup

Winners (5): 1991–92, 2005–06, 2008–09, 2009–10, 2016–17

FA Charity/Community Shield

Winners (21): 1908, 1911, 1952, 1956, 1957, 1965*, 1967*, 1977*, 1983, 1990*, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2013, 2016 (* shared) (record)

European

European Cup/ UEFA
UEFA
Champions League

Winners (3): 1967–68, 1998–99, 2007–08

European Cup Winners' Cup

Winners (1): 1990–91

UEFA
UEFA
Europa League

Winners (1): 2016–17

European Super Cup

Winners (1): 1991

Worldwide

Intercontinental Cup

Winners (1): 1999

FIFA Club World Cup

Winners (1): 2008

Doubles and Trebles

Doubles

League and FA Cup: 2

1993–94, 1995–96

European Double (League and European Cup): 1

2007–08

League and League Cup: 1

2008–09

League Cup and Europa League: 1

2016–17

Trebles

Continental Treble
Continental Treble
(League, FA Cup
FA Cup
and European Cup): 1

1998–99

Especially short competitions such as the Charity/Community Shield, Intercontinental Cup (now defunct), FIFA Club World Cup
FIFA Club World Cup
or UEFA
UEFA
Super Cup are not generally considered to contribute towards a Double or Treble.[212] See also

Book: Manchester United F.C.

List of Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
records and statistics List of Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
players List of Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
seasons List of Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
managers

Association football
Association football
portal English football portal Greater Manchester portal

Footnotes

^ UK Retail Price Index
Retail Price Index
inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved November 6, 2017.  ^ Sources are divided on the exact date of the meeting and subsequent name change. Whilst official club sources claim that it occurred on 26 April, the meeting was reported by the Manchester Evening Chronicle in its edition of 25 April, suggesting it was indeed on 24 April. ^ a b Upon its formation in 1992, the Premier League
Premier League
became the top tier of English football; the First and Second Divisions then became the second and third tiers, respectively. The First Division is now known as the Football League Championship
Football League Championship
and the Second Division is now known as Football League One.

References

^ " Premier League
Premier League
Handbook Season 2015/16" (PDF). Premier League. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2016.  ^ "Manchester United – Stadium" (PDF). premierleague.com. Premier League. Retrieved 9 November 2017.  ^ "BBC ON THIS DAY - 14 - 1969: Matt Busby
Matt Busby
retires from Man United". bbc.co.uk.  ^ "The 49 trophies of Sir Alex Ferguson
Alex Ferguson
- the most successful managerial career Britain has ever known". The Independent. London: Independent Print. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2015.  ^ Stewart, Rob (1 October 2009). "Sir Alex Ferguson
Alex Ferguson
successful because he was given time, says Steve Bruce". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 11 May 2011.  ^ Northcroft, Jonathan (5 November 2006). "20 glorious years, 20 key decisions". The Sunday Times. London: Times Newspapers. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ " Deloitte Football Money League 2018". Deloitte. 23 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.  ^ "Man Utd back on top of Forbes' most valuable list at £2.86bn". Sky Sports. 6 June 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017.  ^ "Manchester United is 'most valuable football brand'". BBC News (British Broadcasting Corporation). 8 June 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2015.  ^ Schwartz, Peter J. (18 April 2012). "Manchester United Again The World's Most Valuable Soccer Team". Forbes
Forbes
Magazine. Retrieved 5 May 2012.  ^ a b c Hamil (2008), p. 126. ^ a b "Barça, the most loved club in the world". Marca. Retrieved 15 December 2014 ^ a b c Barnes et al. (2001), p. 8. ^ James (2008), p. 66. ^ Tyrrell & Meek (1996), p. 99. ^ a b c Barnes et al. (2001), p. 9. ^ James (2008), p. 92. ^ Barnes et al. (2001), p. 118. ^ Barnes et al. (2001), p. 11. ^ a b c Barnes et al. (2001), p. 12. ^ Barnes et al. (2001), p. 13. ^ Barnes et al. (2001), p. 10. ^ Murphy (2006), p. 71. ^ Glanville, Brian (27 April 2005). "The great Chelsea surrender". The Times. London: Times Newspapers. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ Barnes et al. (2001), pp. 14–15. ^ "1958: United players killed in air disaster". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 6 February 1958. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ Barnes et al. (2001), pp. 16–17. ^ White, Jim (2008), p. 136. ^ Barnes et al. (2001), p. 17. ^ a b Barnes et al. (2001), pp. 18–19. ^ Moore, Rob; Stokkermans, Karel (11 December 2009). "European Footballer of the Year ("Ballon d'Or")". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ a b c Barnes et al. (2001), p. 19. ^ Barnes et al. (2001), p. 110. ^ Murphy (2006), p. 134. ^ "1977: Manchester United sack manager". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 4 July 1977. Retrieved 2 April 2010.  ^ Barnes et al. (2001), p. 20. ^ a b c Barnes et al. (2001), pp. 20–21. ^ Barnes et al. (2001), p. 21. ^ Barnes et al. (2001), p. 148. ^ Barnes et al. (2001), pp. 148–149. ^ "Arise Sir Alex?". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 27 May 1999. Retrieved 2 April 2010.  ^ Bevan, Chris (4 November 2006). "How Robins saved Ferguson's job". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2 April 2010.  ^ " Ryan Giggs
Ryan Giggs
wins 2009 BBC Sports Personality award". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 13 December 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2010.  ^ "United crowned kings of Europe". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 26 May 1999. Retrieved 22 June 2010.  ^ Hoult, Nick (28 August 2007). "Ole Gunnar Solskjaer leaves golden memories". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 23 July 2011.  ^ Magnani, Loris; Stokkermans, Karel (30 April 2005). "Intercontinental Club Cup". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ Hughes, Rob (8 March 2004). "Ferguson and Magnier: a truce in the internal warfare at United". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ "Viduka hands title to Man Utd". BBC Sport
BBC Sport
(British Broadcasting Corporation). 4 May 2003. Retrieved 14 August 2014.  ^ "Man Utd win FA Cup". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 22 May 2004. Retrieved 9 July 2010.  ^ "Manchester United's Champions League exits, 1993–2011". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2014.  ^ Shuttleworth, Peter (21 May 2008). "Spot-on Giggs overtakes Charlton". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 9 July 2010.  ^ McNulty, Phil (1 March 2009). "Man Utd 0–0 Tottenham (aet)". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 1 March 2009.  ^ McNulty, Phil (16 May 2009). "Man Utd 0–0 Arsenal". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 16 May 2009.  ^ Ogden, Mark (12 June 2009). " Cristiano Ronaldo
Cristiano Ronaldo
transfer: World-record deal shows football is booming, says Sepp Blatter". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 9 January 2011.  ^ "Rooney the hero as United overcome Villa". ESPNsoccernet. 28 February 2010. Archived from the original on 3 March 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2010.  ^ Stone, Simon (14 May 2011). "Manchester United clinch record 19th English title". The Independent. London: Independent Print. Retrieved 14 May 2011.  ^ "How Manchester United won the 2012–13 Barclays Premier League". premierleague.com. Premier League. 22 April 2013. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.  ^ "Sir Alex Ferguson
Alex Ferguson
to retire as Manchester United manager". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.  ^ "Sir Alex Ferguson
Alex Ferguson
to retire this summer, Manchester United confirm". Sky Sports. BSkyB. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.  ^ "David Moyes: Manchester United appoint Everton boss". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.  ^ "Manchester United confirm appointment of David Moyes
David Moyes
on a six-year contract". Sky Sports. BSkyB. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.  ^ Jackson, Jamie (9 May 2013). " David Moyes
David Moyes
quits as Everton manager to take over at Manchester United". guardian.co.uk. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 9 May 2013.  ^ " David Moyes
David Moyes
sacked by Manchester United after just 10 months in charge". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.  ^ Hassan, Nabil (11 May 2014). "Southampton 1–1 Man Utd". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 May 2014.  ^ "Manchester United: Louis van Gaal
Louis van Gaal
confirmed as new manager". BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation). 19 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.  ^ Jackson, Jamie (28 May 2014). "Manchester United owner Malcolm Glazer dies aged 86". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 28 May 2014.  ^ Wilkinson, Jack (9 December 2015). "Wolfsburg 3-2 Man Utd: Champions League exit for van Gaal's men". Sky Sports (BSkyB). Retrieved 17 February 2016.  ^ Smith, Alan (21 May 2016). "Crystal Palace 1-2 Manchester United (aet): FA Cup
FA Cup
final – as it happened!". the Guardian. Retrieved 21 May 2016.  ^ Stone, Simon; Roan, Dan (23 May 2016). "Manchester United: Louis van Gaal sacked as manager". BBC Sport. Retrieved 23 May 2016.  ^ "Jose Mourinho: Man Utd confirm former Chelsea boss as new manager". BBC Sport. 27 May 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.  ^ a b Barnes et al. (2001), p. 49. ^ Angus, J. Keith (1879). The Sportsman's Year- Book
Book
for 1880. Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co. p. 182.  ^ a b c d e f Barnes et al. (2001), p. 48. ^ Ogden, Mark (26 August 2011). "Sir Alex Ferguson's ability to play the generation game is vital to Manchester United's phenomenal success". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 12 May 2017.  ^ " Adidas
Adidas
and United launch new 2017/18 home kit". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 3 July 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2017.  ^ Devlin (2005), p. 157. ^ "Reds unveil new away kit". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011.  ^ Sharpe, Lee (15 April 2006). "13.04.96 Manchester United's grey day at The Dell". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 January 2012.  ^ Devlin (2005), p. 158. ^ "United reveal blue third kit for 2014/15 season". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 29 July 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.  ^ Devlin (2005), pp. 154–159. ^ "New blue kit for 08/09". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ White, Jim (2008) p. 21. ^ James (2008), p. 392. ^ Shury & Landamore (2005), p. 54. ^ Shury & Landamore (2005), p. 51. ^ a b c Shury & Landamore (2005), pp. 21–22. ^ Shury & Landamore (2005), p. 24. ^ Shury & Landamore (2005), pp. 33–34. ^ a b c Inglis (1996), p. 234. ^ Rollin and Rollin, pp. 254–255. ^ White, John (2007), p. 11. ^ Barnes et al. (2001), pp. 44–45. ^ "Man Utd 3–0 Birmingham". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 26 March 2006. Retrieved 29 January 2011.  ^ Coppack, Nick (31 March 2007). "Report: United 4 Blackburn 1". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ Morgan (2010), pp. 44–48. ^ Bartram, Steve (19 November 2009). "OT100 #9: Record gate". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ "Barclays Premier League
Premier League
Stats: Team Attendance – 2012–13". ESPN FC. ESPN Internet Ventures. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.  ^ "German Bundesliga Stats: Team Attendance – 2012–13". ESPN FC. ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved 11 May 2013.  ^ "Spanish La Liga Stats: Team Attendance – 2012–13". ESPN FC. ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved 11 May 2013.  ^ Rice, Simon (6 November 2009). "Manchester United top of the 25 best supported clubs in Europe". The Independent. London: Independent Print. Retrieved 6 November 2009.  ^ "Local Supporters Clubs". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ Cass, Bob (15 December 2007). "United moving down south as fanbase reaches 333 million". Daily Mail. London: Associated Newspapers. Retrieved 20 June 2010.  ^ "Top 100 Facebook
Facebook
fan pages". FanPageList.com. Retrieved 23 November 2015 ^ "Manchester United fans the Premier League's loudest, says study". ESPN FC. ESPN Internet Ventures. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ "Fans' Forum". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ a b Barnes et al. (2001), p. 52. ^ Smith, Martin (15 April 2008). "Bitter rivals do battle". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ Stone, Simon (16 September 2005). "Giggs: Liverpool
Liverpool
our biggest test". Manchester Evening News. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2010.  ^ Rohrer, Finlo (21 August 2007). "Scouse v Manc". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ Dunning (1999), p. 151. ^ "Arsenal v Manchester United head-to-head record". Arsenal official web. Retrieved 24 April 2013.  ^ "Rivalry between Arsène Wenger
Arsène Wenger
and Sir Alex Ferguson
Alex Ferguson
unmatched in sport". The Guardian. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2013.  ^ "Top 30 Football Club Brands" (PDF). Brand Finance. September 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.  ^ Badenhausen, Kurt (16 July 2012). "Manchester United Tops The World's 50 Most Valuable Sports Teams". Forbes. Retrieved 16 July 2012.  ^ "Real Madrid becomes the first sports team in the world to generate €400m in revenues as it tops Deloitte
Deloitte
Football Money League". Deloitte. 2 March 2010. Archived from the original on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2010.  ^ Ozanian, Mike (27 January 2013). "Manchester United Becomes First Team Valued At $3 Billion". Forbes. Retrieved 29 January 2013.  ^ Ozanian, Mike (6 June 2017). "The World's Most Valuable Soccer Teams 2017". Forbes. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ a b Hamil (2008), p. 116. ^ Hamil (2008), p. 124. ^ Hamil (2008), p. 121. ^ "Beckham fever grips Japan". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 18 June 2003. Retrieved 20 June 2010.  ^ Hamil (2008), p. 120. ^ Hamil (2008), p. 122. ^ a b Ducker, James (4 June 2009). "Manchester United show financial muscle after signing record £80m shirt contract". The Times. London: Times Newspapers. Retrieved 9 July 2010.  ^ "Oilinvest to renegotiate Juventus sponsorship". SportBusiness (SBG Companies). 7 September 2006. Retrieved 28 May 2007. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "Man Utd sign £56m AIG shirt deal". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 6 April 2006. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ Smith, Ben; Ducker, James (3 June 2009). "Manchester United announce £80 million sponsorship deal with Aon". The Times. London: Times Newspapers. Retrieved 9 July 2010.  ^ "DHL delivers new shirt deal". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 22 August 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2011.  ^ "Manchester United unveils two new commercial deals". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 22 August 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2011.  ^ "Manchester United buy back training kit sponsorship rights from DHL". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2014.  ^ Ogden, Mark (7 April 2013). "Manchester United to sign £180m Aon deal to change name of Carrington training base". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 January 2014.  ^ "Admiral: Heritage". Admiral Sportswear. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2010.  ^ Devlin (2005), p. 149. ^ Devlin (2005), p. 148. ^ Hamil (2008), p. 127. ^ "Man Utd in £300m Nike deal". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 3 November 2000. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ Wachman, Richard (24 April 2010). "Manchester United fans call on corporate sponsors to back fight against Glazers". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 14 July 2010.  ^ Edgecliffe, Andrew (4 August 2012). "GM in record Man Utd sponsorship deal". FT.com. Retrieved 29 October 2012.  ^ " Chevrolet
Chevrolet
signs seven year deal". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.  ^ "Premier League: Sportswear giants Nike to end Manchester United sponsorship". Sky Sports. Retrieved 9 July 2014.  ^ Bray, Chad (9 July 2014). "Nike and Manchester United Set to End Equipment Partnership". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 July 2014.  ^ Jackson, Jamie (14 July 2014). "Manchester United sign record 10-year kit deal with Adidas
Adidas
worth £750m". theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 14 July 2014.  ^ De Menezes, Jack (14 July 2014). "Manchester United and adidas announce record £75m-per-year deal after Nike pull out". independent.co.uk. Independent Print. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2014.  ^ Crick & Smith (1990), p. 181. ^ Crick & Smith (1990), p. 92. ^ White, Jim (2008), p. 92. ^ Dobson & Goddard (2004), p. 190. ^ a b c "1989: Man U sold in record takeover deal". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 18 August 1989. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ Dobson & Goddard (2004), p. 191. ^ Bose (2007), p. 157. ^ Bose (2007), p. 175. ^ Bose (2007), pp. 234–235. ^ "Glazer Man Utd stake exceeds 75%". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 16 May 2005. Retrieved 11 August 2007.  ^ "Glazer gets 98% of Man Utd shares". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 23 June 2005. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ "Glazers Tighten Grip On United With Debt Refinancing". The Political Economy of Football. 8 July 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2008.  ^ "Manchester United reveal refinancing plans". RTÉ (Raidió Teilifís Éireann). 18 July 2006. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.  ^ "Manchester United debt hits £716m". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 20 January 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2010.  ^ "Manchester United to raise £500m". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2010.  ^ Wilson, Bill (22 January 2010). "Manchester United raise £504m in bond issue". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 26 January 2010.  ^ Hughes, Ian (23 January 2010). "Man Utd 4–0 Hull". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 26 January 2010.  ^ "Prime Minister Gordon Brown warns football over debts". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2010.  ^ Hassan, Nabil; Roan, Dan (30 January 2010). "Wealthy Man Utd fans approach broker about takeover". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 4 March 2010.  ^ Gibson, Owen (16 August 2011). "Manchester United eyes a partial flotation on Singapore stock exchange". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 17 August 2011.  ^ 1Hrishikesh, Sharanya; Pandey, Ashutosh (3 July 2012). "Manchester United picks NYSE for U.S. public offering". Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 4 July 2012.  ^ Rushe, Dominic (10 August 2012). "Manchester United IPO: share prices cut before US stock market flotation". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 24 August 2012.  ^ "Players and Staff - First Team". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 17 August 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.  ^ Froggatt, Mark (2 September 2017). "Pereira joins Valencia on season-long loan". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 2 September 2017.  ^ "Fosu-Mensah joins Crystal Palace on loan". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 10 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.  ^ Marshall, Adam (14 July 2017). "Johnstone to spend season at Villa". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 14 July 2017.  ^ http://www.manutd.com/en/News-And-Features/Football-News/2018/Jan/Manchester-United-defender-Axel-Tuanzebe-joins-Aston-Villa-on-loan-for-the-rest-of-the-season.aspx ^ Red Football Shareholder Limited: Group of companies' accounts made up to 30 June 2009. Downloaded from Companies House UK ^ Gardner, Neil (8 October 2009). " Martin Edwards voices concerns over Manchester United's future". The Times. London: Times Newspapers. Retrieved 11 June 2010.  ^ a b c d "Board of Directors". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 1 July 2013.  ^ "Manchester United appoints Cliff Baty as Chief Financial Officer". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 26 October 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.  ^ Sale, Charles (21 May 2013). "Fergie lands £100k-a-day deal as United ambassador... with help from son who champions once vowed never to work with". Mail Online. Associated Newspapers. Retrieved 1 April 2015.  ^ "Reds' new Club Secretary". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 20 December 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ Tuck, James (17 July 2013). "Cole enjoying club role". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 2 June 2014.  ^ "Nev's new role". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2014.  ^ "Manchester United appoint Bryan Robson
Bryan Robson
as global ambassador". The Times. London: Times Newspapers. 20 March 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2010.  ^ "New role for Schmeichel". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2014.  ^ a b "Sir Alex Ferguson
Alex Ferguson
earned more than £2m in eight months for £100,000-a-day Manchester United ambassador role and David Moyes
David Moyes
was handed pay-off of almost £5m". Daily Mail. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ " Park Ji-sung
Park Ji-sung
appointed Manchester United club ambassador as retired South Korean returns to Old Trafford
Old Trafford
for Everton clash". Daily Mail. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ "Former Manchester United striker Dwight Yorke
Dwight Yorke
denied entry to the United States". The Independent. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2017.  ^ "Nemanja Vidic returns to Manchester United in an ambassadorial role". The Independent. 23 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2017.  ^ a b c d "Club Directory: Manchester United Football Club Limited". Premier League. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.  ^ "Jose Mourinho: Man Utd confirm former Chelsea boss as new manager". BBC Sport
BBC Sport
(British Broadcasting Corporation). 27 May 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.  ^ a b c d e f Marshall, Adam (7 July 2016). "Mourinho's coaching team confirmed". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 7 July 2016.  ^ "Why Manchester United will not appoint a director of football". manchestereveningnews.co.uk. Retrieved 1 June 2016.  ^ "Interview: Jim Lawlor". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ "Manchester United name Marcel Bout as head of global scouting for transfer policy". manchestereveningnews.co.uk. MEN Media. 6 October 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016.  ^ AS, Diario (31 August 2016). "Mourinho signs Atlético Madrid's chief scout Gerardo Guzmán". Retrieved 23 September 2016.  ^ "Manchester United boss Jose Mourinho hires Brazilian scout Sandro Orlandelli". ibtimes.co.uk. IB Times. 26 August 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.  ^ "Manchester United kick off massive overhaul of scouting department by bringing in former Rangers coach Tommy Moller Nielsen". dailymail.co.uk. Daily Mail. 8 July 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.  ^ "Manchester United sign Juventus scout Javier Ribalta to boost transfer search". Manchester Evening News. 23 June 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ " Nicky Butt
Nicky Butt
appointed head of academy". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2016.  ^ "United Appoint Ricky Sbragia". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 7 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.  ^ Marshall, Adam (1 September 2016). "McKenna appointed United Under 18s coach". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 1 September 2016.  ^ Bartram, Steve (5 November 2015). "United provide a higher education". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ Marshall, Adam (28 July 2014). "Keeper focus: Joel Pereira". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 29 July 2014.  ^ "Reds appoint new club doctor". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 4 July 2006. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ a b "Man Utd stars given home comforts by Jose Mourinho". 7 July 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.  ^ "Neil Hough takes up Academy role". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. 7 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.  ^ "Club confirm new responsibilities for Strudwick". www.ManUtd.com. Retrieved 3 October 2014.  ^ Shergold, Adam (15 July 2013). "United's coaches get tough in training as De Gea and Van Persie return... so it's no wonder they needed a sit down afterwards!". Mail Online. Associated Newspapers. Retrieved 2 June 2014.  ^ "Coaching Staff: Richard Hawkins". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Archived from the original on 9 December 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ Barnes et al. (2001), pp. 54–57. ^ Bloomfield, Craig (13 August 2015). "Which club has won the most trophies in Europe? The most successful clubs from the best leagues revealed". talkSPORT. Retrieved 30 October 2015.  ^ Shury & Landamore (2005), p. 8. ^ "Manchester United win the UEFA
UEFA
Europa League". manutd.com. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ "Europa League final: Manchester United on the brink of unique achievement no other English club could ever match". talkSPORT. 23 May 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2017.  ^ Rice, Simon (20 May 2010). "Treble treble: The teams that won the treble". The Independent. London: Independent Print. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 

Further reading

Andrews, David L., ed. (2004). Manchester United: A Thematic Study. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-33333-4.  Barnes, Justyn; Bostock, Adam; Butler, Cliff; Ferguson, Jim; Meek, David; Mitten, Andy; Pilger, Sam; Taylor, Frank OBE; Tyrrell, Tom (2001) [1998]. The Official Manchester United Illustrated Encyclopedia (3rd ed.). London: Manchester United Books. ISBN 0-233-99964-7.  Bose, Mihir (2007). Manchester Disunited: Trouble and Takeover at the World's Richest Football Club. London: Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-121-5.  Crick, Michael; Smith, David (1990). Manchester United – The Betrayal of a Legend. London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-31440-8.  Devlin, John (2005). True Colours: Football Kits from 1980 to the Present Day. London: A & C Black. ISBN 0-7136-7389-3.  Dobson, Stephen; Goddard, John (2004). "Ownership and Finance of Professional Soccer in England
England
and Europe". In Fort, Rodney; Fizel, John. International Sports Economics Comparisons. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-98032-4.  Dunning, Eric (1999). Sport Matters: Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-09378-1.  Hamil, Sean (2008). "Case 9: Manchester United: the Commercial Development of a Global Football Brand". In Chadwick, Simon; Arth, Dave. International Cases in the Business of Sport. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-8543-6.  Inglis, Simon (1996) [1985]. Football Grounds of Britain (3rd ed.). London: CollinsWillow. ISBN 0-00-218426-5.  James, Gary (2008). Manchester: A Football History. Halifax: James Ward. ISBN 978-0-9558127-0-5.  Morgan, Steve (March 2010). McLeish, Ian, ed. "Design for life". Inside United. Haymarket Network (212). ISSN 1749-6497.  Murphy, Alex (2006). The Official Illustrated History of Manchester United. London: Orion Books. ISBN 0-7528-7603-1.  Rollin, Glenda; Rollin, Jack. Sky Sports Football Yearbook 2008–2009. London: Headline Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-7553-1820-9.  Shury, Alan; Landamore, Brian (2005). The Definitive Newton Heath
Newton Heath
F.C. SoccerData. ISBN 1-899468-16-1.  Tyrrell, Tom; Meek, David (1996) [1988]. The Hamlyn Illustrated History of Manchester United 1878–1996 (5th ed.). London: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-59074-7.  White, Jim (2008). Manchester United: The Biography. London: Sphere. ISBN 978-1-84744-088-4.  White, John (2007) [2005]. The United Miscellany (2nd ed.). London: Carlton Books. ISBN 978-1-84442-745-1. 

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Manchester United F.C.

Wikinews has news related to: Manchester United F.C.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manchester United FC.

Official website (in Arabic) (in Chinese) (in English) (in French) (in Japanese) (in Korean) (in Spanish) Official statistics website Official Manchester United Supporters' Trust Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United F.C.
on BBC Sport: Club news – Recent results and fixtures Manchester United at Sky Sports Manchester United at Premier League

v t e

Manchester United Football Club

Players Managers Reserves & Academy Records & statistics Current season

History

1878–1945 1945–1969 1969–1986 1986–2013 Seasons Europe

Munich air disaster

Munich air disaster Busby Babes United

Home stadium

North Road (1878–1893) Bank Street (1893–1910) Old Trafford
Old Trafford
(1910–present) Stretford End Sir Matt Busby
Matt Busby
Way

Training ground

The Cliff Trafford Training Centre

Players

100+ appearances 25–99 appearances 1–24 appearances Sir Matt Busby
Matt Busby
Player of the Year

Rivalries

League record by opponent Manchester derby Liverpool
Liverpool
rivalry Leeds United rivalry Arsenal rivalry

Supporters

Independent Manchester United Supporters Association Manchester United Supporters' Trust Red Army

Media

MUTV MU Radio Inside United Red Issue Red News

Related articles

Fergie's Fledglings United Trinity F.C. United of Manchester Glazer ownership Mascots 1915 British football betting scandal Railway station The Class of '92

Book:Manchester United F.C. Category:Manchester United F.C. Portal:Association football Manchester United task force Commons:Manchester United FC

Links to related articles

v t e

Premier League

Seasons

1992–93 1993–94 1994–95 1995–96 1996–97 1997–98 1998–99 1999–2000 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 2011–12 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 2017–18 2018–19

Clubs

2017–18

AFC Bournemouth Arsenal Brighton & Hove Albion Burnley Chelsea Crystal Palace Everton Huddersfield Town Leicester City Liverpool Manchester City Manchester United Newcastle United Southampton Stoke City Swansea City Tottenham Hotspur Watford West Bromwich Albion West Ham United

Former

Aston Villa Barnsley Birmingham City Blackburn Rovers Blackpool Bolton Wanderers Bradford City Cardiff
Cardiff
City Charlton Athletic Coventry City Derby County Fulham Hull City Ipswich Town Leeds United Middlesbrough Norwich City Nottingham Forest Oldham Athletic Portsmouth Queens Park Rangers Reading Sheffield United Sheffield Wednesday Sunderland Swindon Town Wigan Athletic Wimbledon Wolverhampton Wanderers

Competition

Teams

winners

Players

foreign foreign scorers winners

Managers

current

Stadia Founding Broadcasting foundation Broadcasters Referees

Statistics and awards

Records All-time table Hat-tricks Highest scores Golden Boot Golden Glove Manager of the Season Player of the Season Manager of the Month Player of the Month Goal of the Month Players with 500+ appearances Players with 100+ goals Top scorers by season Goalkeepers with 100+ clean sheets 10 Seasons Awards 20 Seasons Awards

Finances

Richest clubs:

Deloitte
Deloitte
list Forbes' list

Team owners Transfer records Game 39 Premier League–Football League gulf

Associated competitions

Asia Trophy FA Community Shield FA Cup EFL Cup UEFA
UEFA
Champions League UEFA
UEFA
Europa League Premier League
Premier League
2 U18 Premier League Premier League
Premier League
International Cup

Category

v t e

Former members of the G-14 (2000–2008)

2000–2008

Ajax Barcelona Bayern Munich Borussia Dortmund Internazionale Juventus Liverpool Manchester United Marseille Milan Paris Saint-Germain Porto PSV Eindhoven Real Madrid

2002–2008

Arsenal Bayer Leverkusen Lyon Valencia

v t e

Founding members of the ECA

Ajax Anderlecht Barcelona Bayern Munich Birkirkara Chelsea Copenhagen Dinamo Zagreb Juventus Olympique Lyonnais Manchester United  Milan Olympiacos Porto Rangers Real Madrid

v t e

European Cup and UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
winners

European Cup

1950s

1955–56: Real Madrid 1956–57: Real Madrid 1957–58: Real Madrid 1958–59: Real Madrid 1959–60: Real Madrid

1960s

1960–61: Benfica 1961–62: Benfica 1962–63: Milan 1963–64: Internazionale 1964–65: Internazionale 1965–66: Real Madrid 1966–67: Celtic 1967–68: Manchester United 1968–69: Milan 1969–70: Feyenoord

1970s

1970–71: Ajax 1971–72: Ajax 1972–73: Ajax 1973–74: Bayern Munich 1974–75: Bayern Munich 1975–76: Bayern Munich 1976–77: Liverpool 1977–78: Liverpool 1978–79: Nottingham Forest 1979–80: Nottingham Forest

1980s

1980–81: Liverpool 1981–82: Aston Villa 1982–83: Hamburg 1983–84: Liverpool 1984–85: Juventus 1985–86: Steaua București 1986–87: Porto 1987–88: PSV 1988–89: Milan 1989–90: Milan

1990s

1990–91: Red Star Belgrade 1991–92: Barcelona

UEFA
UEFA
Champions League

1990s

1992–93: Marseille 1993–94: Milan 1994–95: Ajax 1995–96: Juventus 1996–97: Borussia Dortmund 1997–98: Real Madrid 1998–99: Manchester United 1999–2000: Real Madrid

2000s

2000–01: Bayern Munich 2001–02: Real Madrid 2002–03: Milan 2003–04: Porto 2004–05: Liverpool 2005–06: Barcelona 2006–07: Milan 2007–08: Manchester United 2008–09: Barcelona 2009–10: Internazionale

2010s

2010–11: Barcelona 2011–12: Chelsea 2012–13: Bayern Munich 2013–14: Real Madrid 2014–15: Barcelona 2015–16: Real Madrid 2016–17: Real Madrid

Finals Winning managers Winning players

v t e

UE FA Cup
FA Cup
and UEFA Europa League
UEFA Europa League
winners

UEFA
UEFA
Cup

1971–72: Tottenham Hotspur 1972–73: Liverpool 1973–74: Feyenoord 1974–75: Borussia Mönchengladbach 1975–76: Liverpool 1976–77: Juventus 1977–78: PSV 1978–79: Borussia Mönchengladbach 1979–80: Eintracht Frankfurt 1980–81: Ipswich Town 1981–82: IFK Göteborg 1982–83: Anderlecht 1983–84: Tottenham Hotspur 1984–85: Real Madrid 1985–86: Real Madrid 1986–87: IFK Göteborg 1987–88: Bayer Leverkusen 1988–89: Napoli 1989–90: Juventus 1990–91: Internazionale 1991–92: Ajax 1992–93: Juventus 1993–94: Internazionale 1994–95: Parma 1995–96: Bayern Munich 1996–97: Schalke 04 1997–98: Internazionale 1998–99: Parma 1999–2000: Galatasaray 2000–01: Liverpool 2001–02: Feyenoord 2002–03: Porto 2003–04: Valencia 2004–05: CSKA Moscow 2005–06: Sevilla 2006–07: Sevilla 2007–08: Zenit St. Petersburg 2008–09: Shakhtar Donetsk

UEFA
UEFA
Europa League

2009–10: Atlético Madrid 2010–11: Porto 2011–12: Atlético Madrid 2012–13: Chelsea 2013–14: Sevilla 2014–15: Sevilla 2015–16: Sevilla 2016–17: Manchester United

v t e

UE FA Cup
FA Cup
Winners' Cup winners

Winners

1960–61: Fiorentina 1961–62: Atlético Madrid 1962–63: Tottenham Hotspur 1963–64: Sporting CP 1964–65: West Ham United 1965–66: Borussia Dortmund 1966–67: Bayern Munich 1967–68: Milan 1968–69: Slovan Bratislava 1969–70: Manchester City 1970–71: Chelsea 1971–72: Rangers 1972–73: Milan 1973–74: Magdeburg 1974–75: Dynamo Kyiv 1975–76: Anderlecht 1976–77: Hamburg 1977–78: Anderlecht 1978–79: Barcelona 1979–80: Valencia 1980–81: Dinamo Tbilisi 1981–82: Barcelona 1982–83: Aberdeen 1983–84: Juventus 1984–85: Everton 1985–86: Dynamo Kyiv 1986–87: Ajax 1987–88: Mechelen 1988–89: Barcelona 1989–90: Sampdoria 1990–91: Manchester United 1991–92: Werder Bremen 1992–93: Parma 1993–94: Arsenal 1994–95: Real Zaragoza 1995–96: Paris Saint-Germain 1996–97: Barcelona 1997–98: Chelsea 1998–99: Lazio

v t e

UEFA Super Cup
UEFA Super Cup
winners

UCL vs. CWC

1973: Ajax 1975: Dynamo Kyiv 1976: Anderlecht 1977: Liverpool 1978: Anderlecht 1979: Nottingham Forest 1980: Valencia 1982: Aston Villa 1983: Aberdeen 1984: Juventus 1986: Steaua București 1987: Porto 1988: Mechelen 1989: Milan 1990: Milan 1991: Manchester United 1992: Barcelona 1993: Parma 1994: Milan 1995: Ajax 1996: Juventus 1997: Barcelona 1998: Chelsea 1999: Lazio

UCL vs. UEL

2000: Galatasaray 2001: Liverpool 2002: Real Madrid 2003: Milan 2004: Valencia 2005: Liverpool 2006: Sevilla 2007: Milan 2008: Zenit St. Petersburg 2009: Barcelona 2010: Atlético Madrid 2011: Barcelona 2012: Atlético Madrid 2013: Bayern Munich 2014: Real Madrid 2015: Barcelona 2016: Real Madrid 2017: Real Madrid

v t e

Intercontinental Cup winners

Two-legged editions

1960: Real Madrid 1961: Peñarol 1962: Santos 1963: Santos 1964: Internazionale 1965: Internazionale 1966: Peñarol 1967: Racing 1968: Estudiantes de La Plata 1969: Milan 1970: Feyenoord 1971: Nacional 1972: Ajax 1973: Independiente 1974: Atlético Madrid 1976: Bayern Munich 1977: Boca Juniors 1979: Olimpia

Single match editions

1980: Nacional 1981: Flamengo 1982: Peñarol 1983: Grêmio 1984: Independiente 1985: Juventus 1986: River Plate 1987: Porto 1988: Nacional 1989: Milan 1990: Milan 1991: Red Star Belgrade 1992: São Paulo 1993: São Paulo 1994: Vélez Sársfield 1995: Ajax 1996: Juventus 1997: Borussia Dortmund 1998: Real Madrid 1999: Manchester United 2000: Boca Juniors 2001: Bayern Munich 2002: Real Madrid 2003: Boca Juniors 2004: Porto

v t e

FIFA Club World Cup
FIFA Club World Cup
winners

2000: Corinthians 2005: São Paulo 2006: Internacional 2007: Milan 2008: Manchester United 2009: Barcelona 2010: Internazionale 2011: Barcelona 2012: Corinthians 2013: Bayern Munich 2014: Real Madrid 2015: Barcelona 2016: Real Madrid 2017: Real Madrid

v t e

Football in Greater Manchester

Manchester FA

Clubs (List of)

Premier League
Premier League
& Football League (tiers 1–4)

1

Manchester City Manchester United

2

Bolton Wanderers

3

Bury Oldham Athletic Rochdale Wigan Athletic

4

None

Non-League (tiers 5–11)

5

None

6

Curzon Ashton F.C. United of Manchester Salford City Stockport County

7

Altrincham Ashton United Stalybridge Celtic

8

Atherton Collieries Droylsden Hyde United Mossley Radcliffe Borough Ramsbottom United Trafford

9

Abbey Hey Ashton Athletic Irlam Maine Road West Didsbury & Chorlton

10

Atherton Laburnum Rovers Chadderton Cheadle Town Daisy Hill Prestwich Heys Stockport Town

11

Ashton Town Eagley Wythenshawe Amateurs

Competitions

Manchester Premier Cup Manchester Senior Cup

Venues

Boundary Park Bower Fold Broadhurst Park Butcher's Arms Ground City of Manchester Stadium DW Stadium Edgeley Park Ewen Fields Gigg Lane Macron Stadium Moss Lane Old Trafford Spotland Stadium

Other topics

Bolton Wanderers F.C.– Wigan Athletic F.C.
Wigan Athletic F.C.
rivalry Manchester derby

v t e

Laureus World Sports Award for Team of the Year
Laureus World Sports Award for Team of the Year
winners

2000: Manchester United F.C. 2001: France
France
national football team 2002: Australia national cricket team 2003: Brazil
Brazil
national football team 2004: England
England
national rugby union team 2005: Greece national football team 2006: Renault F1 2007: Italy
Italy
national football team 2008: South Africa national rugby union team 2009: Chinese Olympic team 2010: Brawn GP 2011: Spain
Spain
national football team 2012: FC Barcelona 2013: European Ryder Cup team 2014: Bayern Munich 2015: Germany
Germany
national football team 2016: New Zealand national rugby union team 2017: Chicago Cubs 2018: Mercedes F1

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 167809407 LCCN: n82237215 ISNI: 0000 0001 2300 2509 GND: 6509184-X SELIBR: 380906 SUDOC: 081854099 BNF: cb14607076p (data) NDL: 01189794 NKC: p