Parouse.com
 Parouse.com



— Events —

Death Resurrection Last Judgement

Jewish

Messianism

Book of Daniel Kabbalah

Taoist

Li Hong

Zoroastrian

Frashokereti Saoshyant

Inter-religious

End times Apocalypticism

2012 phenomenon

Millenarianism Last Judgment

Resurrection
Resurrection
of the dead

Gog and Magog Messianic Age

v t e

The name of Muhammad
Muhammad
Al- Mahdi
Mahdi
with Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
as it appears in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi.

The Mahdi
Mahdi
(Arabic: مهدي‎, ISO 233: mahdī, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam
Islam
who will appear and will rule for five, seven, nine, or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)[1][2] before the Day of Judgment (yawm al-qiyamah, literally, the Day of Resurrection)[3] and will rid the world of evil.[4] There is no reference to the Mahdi
Mahdi
in the Quran,[5] only in the ahadith (the reports and traditions of Muhammad's teachings collected after his death). In most traditions, Mahdi
Mahdi
will arrive with Jesus (Isa) to defeat Masih ad-Dajjal
Masih ad-Dajjal
(literally, the "false Messiah" or Antichrist).[6] Although the concept of a Mahdi
Mahdi
is not an essential doctrine in Sunni Islam,[7] he is popular among both Sunni and Shia Muslims. Both agree that he will rule over the Muslims and establish justice; however, they differ extensively on his attributes and status. Throughout history, various individuals have claimed to be the Mahdi. These have included Muhammad
Muhammad
Jaunpuri, founder of the Mahdavia
Mahdavia
sect; the Báb
Báb
(Siyyid Ali
Ali
Muhammad), founder of Bábism; Muhammad
Muhammad
Ahmad, who established the Mahdist state in Sudan
Sudan
in the late 19th century, Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi; and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
sect.

Contents

1 Historical development 2 Sunni Islam

2.1 References interpreted in hadith 2.2 Modern views

3 Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
Islam

3.1 References interpreted in hadith 3.2 Shia
Shia
doctrine regarding to longevity of the Mahdi 3.3 Imam Mahdi
Mahdi
in the Quran 3.4 Sunni and Sufi
Sufi
authors sharing Twelvers' view on Mahdi 3.5 Isma'ilis

4 Other sects

4.1 Ahmadiyya 4.2 Mahdavia

5 Other religions

5.1 Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths

6 Persons claiming to be the Mahdi 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading

9.1 Historical sources 9.2 Modern sources

10 External Links

Historical development[edit] The term mahdi does not occur in the Quran, but it is derived from the Arabic root h-d-y, commonly used to mean "divine guidance". The term al- Mahdi
Mahdi
was employed from the beginning of Islam, but only as an honorific epithet and without any messianic significance.[5] As an honorific it has been used in some instances to describe Muhammad
Muhammad
(by Hassan ibn Thabit), as well as Abraham, al-Hussain, and various Umayyad
Umayyad
rulers (hudāt mahdiyyūn).[5] During the second civil war (680-692), after the death of Muʾawiya, the term acquired a new meaning of a ruler who would restore Islam
Islam
to its perfect form and restore justice after oppression.[5] In Kufa
Kufa
during the rebellion in 680s, Al-Mukhtar
Al-Mukhtar
proclaimed Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Hanafiyyah as the Mahdi
Mahdi
in this heightened sense. Among the Umayyads, Sulayman encouraged the belief that he was the Mahdi, and other Umayyad
Umayyad
rulers, like Umar II, have been addressed as such in the panegyrics of Jarir and al-Farazdaq.[5] Early discussions about the identity of al- Mahdi
Mahdi
by religious scholars can be traced back to the time after the Second Fitna. These discussions developed in different directions and were influenced by traditions (hadiths) attributed to Muhammad. In Umayyad
Umayyad
times, scholars and traditionists not only differed on which caliph or rebel leader should be designated as Mahdi, but also on whether the Mahdi
Mahdi
is a messianic figure and if signs and predictions of his time have been satisfied.[5] By the time of the Abbasid Revolution
Abbasid Revolution
in the year 750, Mahdi
Mahdi
was already a known concept. Evidence shows that the first Abbasid caliph As-Saffah
As-Saffah
assumed the title of "the Mahdi" for himself.[5] In Shia
Shia
Islam, it seems likely that the attribution of messianic qualities to the Mahdi
Mahdi
originated from two of the groups supporting al-Hanafiyyah: southern Arabian settlers and local recent converts in Iraq. They became known as Kaysanites, and introduced what later became two key aspects of the Shia's concept of the Mahdi. The first was the notion of return of the dead, particularly of the Imams. The second was that after al-Hanafiyyah's death they believed he was, in fact, in hiding in the Razwa mountains near Medina. This later developed into the doctrine known as the Occultation.[8] The Mahdi appeared in early Shi’ite narratives, spread widely among Shi’ite groups and became dissociated from its historical figure, Muhammad al-Hanafiyyah. During the 10th century, based on these earlier beliefs, the doctrine of Mahdism was extensively expanded by Al-Kulayni, Ibrahim al-Qummi and Ibn Babawayh.[9] In particular, in the early 10th century, the doctrine of the Occultation, which declares that the Twelfth Imam did not die but was concealed by God from the eyes of men, was expounded. The Mahdi
Mahdi
became synonymous with the "Hidden Imam" who was thought to be in occultation awaiting the time that God has ordered for his return. This return is envisaged as occurring shortly before the final Day of judgment.[4] In fact, the concept of the "hidden Imam" was attributed to several Imams in turn.[10] Some historians suggest that the term itself was probably introduced into Islam
Islam
by southern Arabian tribes who had settled in Syria
Syria
in the mid-7th century. They believed that the Mahdi
Mahdi
would lead them back to their homeland and reestablish the Himyarite
Himyarite
kingdom. They also believed that he would eventually conquer Constantinople.[8] It has also been suggested that the concept of the Mahdi
Mahdi
may have been derived from messianic Judeo-Christian beliefs.[9][11] Accordingly, traditions were introduced to support certain political interests, especially Anti- Abbassid
Abbassid
sentiments.[11][12] These traditions about the Mahdi
Mahdi
appeared only at later times in hadith collections such as Jami' at-Tirmidhi
Jami' at-Tirmidhi
and Sunan Abi Dawud, but are absent from the early works of Bukhari and Muslim.[3] Sunni Islam[edit] Since Sunnism
Sunnism
has no established doctrine of Mahdi, compositions of Mahdi
Mahdi
varies among Sunni scholars.[13] While some scholars like Ibn Khaldun even disputed the authenticity of references concerning the Mahdi
Mahdi
in hadith literature, others like Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
elaborated a whole apocalyptic scenario which included prophecies about Mahdi, Jesus
Jesus
and Dajjal
Dajjal
during the endtime.[14] Some Sunni beliefs deny the Mahdi
Mahdi
as a separate figure, accordingly Jesus
Jesus
will fulfill this role and judge over mankind, thus Mahdi
Mahdi
is considered as a title for Jesus, then he returns.[15] However the more common opinion among Sunni Muslims is, that the Mahdi
Mahdi
is an expected ruler send by God before the endtime to reestablish righteousness,[8] coincides with the Second Coming
Second Coming
of Jesus
Jesus
Christ (Isa),[6] but, unlike most Shia
Shia
traditions, Sunni Islam often do not believe the Mahdi
Mahdi
has already been born,[16] but there is a group of Sunni famous scholars who mentioned that Mahdi
Mahdi
has already been born, such as Al-Dhahabi, Ibn-Hajar, Abu al-Falah Hanbali, al-Qunduzi and so on; meanwhile, Sheikh Najm al-Din al-Askari in his book[17] named 40 of Sunni scholars who mentioned that Mahdi
Mahdi
has already been born.[18][19][20][17][21] Sunnis in general reject the Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ite principle of the Mahdi's occultation. Sunnis do, however, rely on traditionally canonical collections of narrations for derivations of the Mahdi's attributes and lineage. According to Sunan Abi Dawud, one of the six canonical books of Hadith
Hadith
in Sunni Islam, narrated by Umm Salamah, "The Prophet said: The Mahdi
Mahdi
will be of my family, of the descendants of Fatimah." [22] In heavy contrast with Shia
Shia
Islam, Sunnis have a much more human view of the Mahdi, who they believe will be nothing less than the most rightly guided Muslim of his time. He will be rectified in a single night (which is taken to mean that the provisions for his leadership and rule will be made in a single night). According to Sunan Ibn Majah, one of the six canonical collections of Hadith, narrated by 'Ali, " Mahdi
Mahdi
is one of us, the people of the Household. Allah will rectify him in a single night." [23] Whereas much of the Shi'ite belief ascribes divine faculties—in some circles of Shi'ite Islam
Islam
it is even believed that the Mahdi
Mahdi
can mentally control the wind and vegetation by God's permission—and transcendent status to the Mahdi, Sunnis believe he will be altogether human but will have sagacity, especially as it pertains to leading other people and ruling a nation. Sunnis believe he will rise and be recognized by his continued philanthropy, charity, piety, facial features, name, and sense of justice, not through direct divine intervention. It is not unreasonable to suspect, based on these narrations, that the Mahdi
Mahdi
may not be known to the people immediately, even after being born and living for quite some time without the title of Mahdi
Mahdi
(hence, being rectified by God). According to Sunan Abi Dawud, "The Prophet said: The Mahdi
Mahdi
will be of my stock, and will have a broad forehead [and] a prominent nose. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it was filled with oppression and tyranny, and he will rule for seven years." [24] References interpreted in hadith[edit]

This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Mahdi
Mahdi
is frequently mentioned in Sunni hadith as establishing the caliphate. Among Sunnis, some believe the Mahdi
Mahdi
will be an ordinary man. The following Sunni hadith make references to the Mahdi:

Muhammad
Muhammad
is quoted as saying about the Mahdi:

His name will be my name, and his father's name my father's name[8]

Even if the entire duration of the world's existence has already been exhausted and only one day is left before Doomsday, Allah will expand that day to such length of time as to accommodate the kingdom of a person from my Ahlul-Bayt who will be called by my name. He will fill out the earth with peace and justice as it will have been full of injustice and tyranny (by then).[25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]

Umm Salama, a wife of Muhammad, is quoted as saying that;

His [the Mahdi's] aim is to establish a moral system from which all superstitious faiths have been eliminated. In the same way that students enter Islam, so unbelievers will come to believe.[34]

When the Mahdi
Mahdi
appears, Allah will cause such power of vision and hearing to be manifested in believers that the Mahdi
Mahdi
will call to the whole world from where he is, with no postman involved, and they will hear and even see him.[35]

Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri is quoted as saying:

The Messenger of Allah said: "He is one of us".[36]

The Messenger of Allah said: "The Mahdi
Mahdi
is of my lineage. He will fill the earth with fairness and justice as it was filled with oppression and injustice, and he will rule for seven years.[37]

The Messenger of Allah said: "At the end of the time of my ummah, the Mahdi
Mahdi
will appear. Allah will grant him rain, the earth will bring forth its fruits, he will give a lot of money, cattle will increase and the ummah will become great. He will rule for seven or eight years.[38]

At-Tirmidhi reported that Muhammad
Muhammad
said:

The Mahdi
Mahdi
is from my Ummah; he will be born and live to rule five or seven or nine years. (If) one goes to him and says, "Give me (a charity)", he will fill one's garment with what one needs.

At-Tirmidhi reported that Muhammad
Muhammad
said:

The face of the Mahdi
Mahdi
shall shine upon the surface of the Moon.

At-Tarabani reported that:

His forehead will be broad and his nose will be high, his face will shine like a star and he will have a black spot on his left cheek.[39]

Amr bin Shuaib reported from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah said:

In Dhu al-Qi'dah (Islamic month), there will be fight among the tribes, Muslim pilgrims will be looted and there will be a battle in Mina in which many people will be slain and blood will flow until it runs over the Jamaratul Aqba (one of the three stone pillars at Mina). The man they seek will flee and will be found between the Rukn (a corner of the Kaaba
Kaaba
containing the Black Stone) and the Maqam of Prophet Abraham
Abraham
(near Ka'ba). He will be forced to accept people's Bay'ah (being chosen as a Leader/Caliph). The number of those offering Bay'ah will be the same as the number of the people of Badr (Muslim fighters who participated in the Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
at time of Prophet Mohammad). Then, the dweller of Heaven and the dweller of the Earth will be pleased with him.[40]

Modern views[edit] A typical modernist in his views on the Mahdi, Abul Ala Maududi (1903–1979), the Pakistani Islamic revivalist, stated that the Mahdi will be a modern Islamic reformer/statesman, who will unite the Ummah and revolutionise the world according to the ideology of Islam, but will never claim to be the Mahdi, instead receiving posthumous recognition as such.[41] Some Islamic scholars reject Mahdi
Mahdi
doctrine, including Allama Tamanna Imadi (1888–1972),[42] Allama Habibur Rahman Kandhalvi,[43] and Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
(1951- ).[44][45] Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
writes in his book Mizan:

Besides these, the coming of the Mahdi
Mahdi
and that of Jesus
Jesus
from the heavens are also regarded as signs of the Day of Judgment. I have not mentioned them. The reason is that the narratives of the coming of the Mahdi
Mahdi
do not conform to the standards of hadith criticism set forth by the muhaddithun. Some of them are weak and some fabricated; no doubt, some narratives, which are acceptable with regard to their chain of narration, inform us of the coming of a generous caliph; (Muslim, No: 7318) however, if they are deeply deliberated upon, it becomes evident that the caliph they refer to is Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz
who was the last caliph from a Sunni standpoint. This prediction of the Prophet has thus materialized in his personality, word for word. One need not wait for any other Mahdi
Mahdi
now.

Ahmed Hulusi interpreted the Mahdi
Mahdi
as a part of the inner self. Therefore, the Mahdi
Mahdi
awakes in a person to defeat the inner Dajjal. The Mahdi
Mahdi
stands for attaining selflessness and realizing a person's own existence as a part of God.[46] Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
Islam[edit]

Jamkaran Mosque
Mosque
which is built at the order of Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi, known by Shia
Shia
Muslims as Imam Mahdi.

For most Shia
Shia
Muslims, the Mahdi
Mahdi
was born but disappeared and will remain hidden from humanity until he reappears to bring justice to the world, a doctrine known as the Occultation. For Twelver
Twelver
Shia, this "hidden Imam" is Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi, the Twelfth Imam. According to Shia
Shia
Quran
Quran
commentators,[which?] implicit references to the Mahdi
Mahdi
can be found in the Quran.[47] Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ites (as the main branch of Shia, which consists of 85% of all Shia
Shia
Muslims[48][49][50][51]) claim that their twelfth Imam, Muhammad
Muhammad
b. al-Hasan al-Askari, who went into occultation around 256/873-874, is the promised Mahdi, who will appear before the day of Judgement, to restore justice and equity on earth.[52] In Shia
Shia
Islam, the Mahdi
Mahdi
is associated with the belief in the Occultation, that the Mahdi
Mahdi
is a "hidden Imam" who has already been born and who will one day return alongside Jesus
Jesus
to fill the world with justice.[16] The promised Mahdi, who is usually mentioned in Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
by his title of Imam-Al-Asr (the Imam of the "Period") and Sahib al-Zaman (the Lord of the Age), is the son of the eleventh Imam. His name is the same as that of the Prophet of Islam. According to Shia
Shia
Islam, Mahdi
Mahdi
was born in Samarra
Samarra
in 868 and until 872 when his father was martyred, lived under his father's care and tutelage. He was hidden from public view and only a few of the elite among the Shi’ah were able to meet him.[53] By Shi'ism, belief in the messianic Imam is not a part of their creed but it is the foundation of their creed.[52] Shias believe that after the martyrdom of his father he became Imam and by Divine Command went into occultation (ghaybat). Thereafter he appeared only to his deputies (na’ib) and even then only in exceptional circumstances. [53] In Shias' perspective, Mahdi
Mahdi
chose as a special deputy for a time Uthman ibn Sa’id ’Umari, one of the companions of his father and grandfather who was his confidant and trusted friend. Through his deputy Mahdi
Mahdi
would answer the demands and questions of the Shias. After Uthman ibn Sa’id, his son Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Uthman Umari was appointed the deputy of him. After the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Uthman, Abu’l Qasim Husayn ibn Ruh Nawbakhti was the special deputy, and after his death Ali
Ali
ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
Simmari was chosen for this task.[53] A few days before the death of Ali
Ali
ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
Simmari in 939 an order was issued by Mahdi
Mahdi
stating that in six days Ali
Ali
ibn Muhammad Simmari would die. Henceforth the special deputation of the Imam would come to an end and the major occultation (ghaybat-i kubra) would begin and would continue until the day God grants permission to the Imam to manifest himself.[53] In Shia
Shia
view, the occultation of Mahdi
Mahdi
is, therefore, divided into two parts: the first, the minor occultation (ghaybat-i sughra) which began in 872 and ended in 939, lasting about seventy years; the second, the major occultation which commenced in 939 and will continue as long as God wills it. In a hadith upon whose authenticity Shia
Shia
and Sunni agree, Muhammad
Muhammad
has said, "If there were to remain in the life of the world but one day, God would prolong that day until He sends in it a man from my community and my household. His name will be the same as my name. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it was filled with oppression and tyranny." [53][54] Shias believe that the arrival of the Mahdi
Mahdi
will be signalled by the following portents:[4]

The vast majority of people who profess to be Muslim will be so only in name despite their practice of Islamic rites, and it will be they who make war with the Mahdi. Before his coming will come the red death and the white death, killing two thirds of the world's population. The red death signifies violence and the white death is plague.[citation needed] One third of the world's population will die from the red death and the other third from the white death. Several figures will appear: the Al-Harth, Al-Mansur, Shuaib bin Saleh and the Sufyani. There will be a great conflict in the land of Syria, until it is destroyed. Death and fear will afflict the people of Baghdad
Baghdad
and Iraq. A fire will appear in the sky and a redness will cover them.

Shia
Shia
traditions also state that the Mahdi
Mahdi
be "a young man of medium stature with a handsome face" and black hair and beard. "He will not come in an odd year [...] will appear in Mecca
Mecca
between the corner of the Kaaba
Kaaba
and the station of Abraham
Abraham
and people will witness him there.[4] References interpreted in hadith[edit]

This article relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this by adding secondary or tertiary sources. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Muhammad
Muhammad
is reported in hadith to have said:

The Mahdi
Mahdi
is the protector of the knowledge, the heir to the knowledge of all the prophets, and is aware of all things.[55][56]

The dominion (authority) of the Mahdi
Mahdi
is one of the proofs that God has created all things; these are so numerous that his [the Mahdi's] proofs will overcome (will be influential, will be dominant) everyone and nobody will have any counter-proposition against him.[57]

People will flee from him [the Mahdi] as sheep flee from the shepherd. Later, people will begin to look for a purifier. But since they can find none to help them but him, they will begin to run to him.[58]

When matters are entrusted to competent [the Mahdi], Almighty God will raise the lowest part of the world for him, and lower the highest places. So much that he will see the whole world as if in the palm of his hand. Which of you cannot see even a single hair in the palm of his hand?[59]

In the time of the Mahdi, a Muslim in the East will be able to see his Muslim brother in the West, and he in the West will see him in the East.[60]

Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir, the Fourth (Isma'ili) or Fifth (Twelver) Imam said of the Mahdi:

The Master of the Command was named as the Mahdi
Mahdi
because he will dig out the Torah
Torah
and other heavenly books from the cave in Antioch. He will judge among the people of the Torah
Torah
according to the Torah; among the people of the Gospel according to the Gospel; among the people of the Psalms
Psalms
in accordance with the Psalms; among the people of the Qur'an in accordance with the Qur'an.

Ja'far al-Sadiq, the Sixth Imam, made the following prophecies:

Abu Bashir says: When I asked Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, "O son of the Messenger of God! Who is the Mahdi
Mahdi
(qa'im) of your clan (ahl al-bayt)?", he replied: "The Mahdi
Mahdi
will conquer the world; at that time the world will be illuminated by the light of God, and everywhere in which those other than God are worshipped will become places where God is worshiped; and even if the polytheists do not wish it, the only faith on that day will be the religion of God.[61]

Sadir al-Sayrafi says: I heard from Imam Abu Abdullah Ja'far al-Sadiq that: Our modest Imam, to whom this occultation belongs [the Mahdi], who is deprived of and denied his rights, will move among them and wander through their markets and walk where they walk, but they will not recognize him ().[62]

Abu Bashir says: I heard Imam Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqr say: "He said: When the Mahdi
Mahdi
appears he will follow in the path of the Messenger of God. Only he [the Mahdi] can explain the works of the Messenger of God.[63]

The face of the Mahdi
Mahdi
shall shine upon the surface of the Moon.[64]

According to Twelevers, the main goal of the Mahdi
Mahdi
will be to establish an Islamic state and to apply Islamic laws that were revealed to Muhammad.[65] The Mahdi
Mahdi
is believed to be the Twelfth Imam, Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi.[66] they believe that the Twelfth Imam will return from the Occultation as the Mahdi
Mahdi
with "a company of his chosen ones," and his enemies will be led by Antichrist
Antichrist
and the Sufyani. The two armies will fight "one final apocalyptic battle" where the Mahdi and his forces will prevail over evil. After the Mahdi
Mahdi
has ruled Earth for a number of years, Isa will return.[4]

The name of Imam as it appears in Masjid Nabawi

Shia
Shia
doctrine regarding to longevity of the Mahdi[edit]

This article uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources, with multiple points of view. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Shia
Shia
strongly believe that the prolonged lifespan of Mahdi
Mahdi
is thoroughly justified according to rational, Quranic, traditional, research-based and historical accounts. In this regard, some reasons will be expressed: 1-The Quran
Quran
includes verses that can show the Shia claim regarding the possibility of the prolonged lifespan of the Mahdi such as the fourteenth verse of chapter Al-Ankabut (29). In this verse, Prophet Noah invited his people to God for 950 years. Some Hadiths say that he lived for 2500 years.[67] Twenty-fifth verse of chapter Al-Kahf is the other one. This verse states that the People of the Cave lived for 309 years asleep in the cave. 2-Narrations from Imams allege the feasibility of a long-lasting life span in humans. For instance, Shia
Shia
sources have been emphasized the longevity of Khizr; besides, the meeting of Ali
Ali
and Khizr is stated in Shia sources.[68] Imam Mahdi
Mahdi
in the Quran[edit]

This article uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources, with multiple points of view. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

According to some interpretations of the Quran, throughout the history of human life, the earth has never been without divine leaders and Allah has selected an appropriate man for every nation. There are two types of Quranic verses which one can find out the existence of Imam Mahdi
Mahdi
and advent of him. 1-Some verses show the necessity of the existence of Imam such as “…You are only a warner, and there is a guide for every people (13:7). Imam Sadiq has said in this regard: there is a leader from our family at any time and guides people to the straight path.[69] 2-Some verses give good news that the government of believers will be created; such as this verse: “Certainly We wrote in the Psalms, after the Torah:" Indeed, My righteous servants shall inherit the earth." [70] Sunni and Sufi
Sufi
authors sharing Twelvers' view on Mahdi[edit] In 648/1250-1 the Syrian Shafi'i
Shafi'i
author Muḥammad b. Yusuf al-Gandji al-Kurashi wrote K. al-Bayan fi akhbar sahib al-zaman in proving the Mahdiship of the Twelfth Imam using Sunni traditions. In 650/1252 Kamalal-Din Muḥammad b. Talha al-ʿAdawi al-Nisibini, a Shafi'i scholar composed his Maṭalib al-suʾul fi manaḳib al al-rasul answering Sunni objections to the belief that the Twelfth Imām was the Mahdi. The Sibt ibn al-Jawzi wrote Tadhkirat khawass al-umma bi-dhikr khasaʾis al-aʾimma collecting hadiths from Sunni sources about the virtues of ʿ Ali
Ali
and his descendants, and at the end affirmed that the Twelfth Imam was the Expected Qaʾim and Mahdi. Among Sufi
Sufi
circles Abu Bakr al-Bayhaḳī (d. 458/1066) had noted that some Sufi
Sufi
gnostics (djamaʿa min ahl al-kashf) agreed with the Imami doctrine about the identity of the Mahdi
Mahdi
and his ghayba (occultation). The Persian Sufi
Sufi
Sadr al-Din Ibrahim al-Hammuyi (late 7th/13th century) supported Imami doctrine on the Mahdi
Mahdi
in his Faraʾid al-simtayn. The Egyptian Sufi
Sufi
al-Shaʿrani, while generally showing no sympathy for Shiʿism affirmed in his al-Yawaḳit wa ’l-dj̲awahir (written in 958/1551) that the Mahdi
Mahdi
was a son of Imam al-Hasan al-ʿAskari born in the year 255/869 and would remain alive until his meeting with Jesus.[71] Isma'ilis[edit] See also: Isma'ilism For the Sevener
Sevener
Ismāʿīlī, the Imāmate ended with Isma'il ibn Ja'far, whose son Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismail was the expected Mahdi
Mahdi
that Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
had preached about. However, at this point the Ismāʿīlī Imāms according to the Nizari and Mustaali found areas where they would be able to be safe from the recently founded Abbasid Caliphate, which had defeated and seized control from the Umayyads in 750 AD.[72] Other sects[edit] Main article: List of Mahdi
Mahdi
claimants Ahmadiyya[edit] Main article: Ahmadiyya

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Movement in Islam, accepted as the Promised Messiah
Messiah
and Mahdi
Mahdi
in Ahmadiyya

See also: Prophethood in Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Islam
Islam
and Jesus
Jesus
in Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Islam In Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
belief the terms "Messiah" and "Mahdi" are synonymous terms for one and the same person. Like the term Messiah
Messiah
which, among other meanings, in essence means being anointed by God or appointed by God the term "Mahdi" means guided by God, thus both imply a direct ordination or commissioning and a spiritual nurturing by God of a divinely chosen individual. According to Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
thought the prophesied eschatological figures of Christianity and Islam, the Messiah
Messiah
and Mahdi, were in fact to be fulfilled in one person who was to represent all previous prophets.[73] The prophecies concerning the Mahdi
Mahdi
or the Second Coming
Second Coming
of Jesus
Jesus
are seen by Ahmadis as metaphorical and subject to interpretation. It is argued that one was to be born and rise within the dispensation of Muhammad, who by virtue of his similarity and affinity with Jesus, and the similarity in nature, temperament and disposition of the people of Jesus' time and the people of the time of the promised one (the Mahdi) is called by the same name.[74] These prophecies according to Ahmadi Muslims have been fulfilled in the person of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
(1835–1908), the founder of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Movement, who claimed to be divinely appointed as the second coming of Jesus
Jesus
and the Mahdi
Mahdi
in 1891 around the same point in time after Muhammad
Muhammad
as Jesus
Jesus
had appeared after Moses
Moses
(thirteen centuries). Contrary to mainstream Islam, the Ahmadis do not believe that Jesus
Jesus
is alive in heaven, but claim that he survived the crucifixion and migrated towards the east where he died a natural death and that Ghulam Ahmad was only the promised spiritual second coming and likeness of Jesus, the promised Messiah
Messiah
and Mahdi.[75][76] Mahdavia[edit] Main article: Mahdavia The Mahdavia
Mahdavia
sect, founded by Muhammad
Muhammad
Jaunpuri commonly known as Nur Pak claimed to be the Mahdi
Mahdi
in Mecca, in front of Kaaba
Kaaba
(between rukn and maqam) in the Hijri year 901(10th Hijri), and is revered as such by Mahdavia. He was born in Jaunpur, traveled throughout India, Arabia and Khorasan, where he died at the town of Farah, Afghanistan at the age of 63. The Mahdavi regard Jaunpuri as the Imam Mahdi, the Caliph of Allah and the second most important figure after the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Other religions[edit] Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths[edit] Main articles: Bábism
Bábism
and Bahá'í Faith See also: Siyyid `Alí Muḥammad Shírází
Siyyid `Alí Muḥammad Shírází
and Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí Alí Muḥammad Shírází (20 October 1819 – 9 July 1850), claimed to be the Mahdi
Mahdi
on 24 May 1844, taking the name Báb
Báb
(Arabic: باب‎ / English: Gate) and thereby founding the religion of Bábism. He was later executed by firing squad in the town of Tabriz. His remains are buried in a tomb at the Bahá'í World Centre
Bahá'í World Centre
in Haifa, Israel. The Báb
Báb
is considered the forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
(Arabic: بهاء الله‎ / English: Glory of God), and both are considered as Manifestation of God. The declaration by the Báb
Báb
to be the Mahdi is considered by Baha'is to be the beginning of the Bahá'í calendar.[77] Persons claiming to be the Mahdi[edit] Main article: People claiming to be the Mahdi

Muhammad
Muhammad
Ahmad, a Sudanese Sufi
Sufi
sheikh, created a state, the Mahdiyah, on the basis of his claim to be the Mahdi.

The following individuals (or their adherents on their behalf) have claimed to be the Mahdi:

The first historical reference to a movement using the name of Mahdi is al-Mukhtar's rebellion against the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliphate in 686 CE, almost 50 years after Muhammad's death. Al-Mukhtar
Al-Mukhtar
claimed that Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah, a son of the fourth caliph, Ali, was the Mahdi
Mahdi
and would save the Muslim people from the rule of the Umayyads. Ibn al-Hanifiyyah himself was not actively involved in the rebellion, and when the Umayyads successfully quashed it, they left him undisturbed. Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
(985 – 13 February 1021), founder of the Druze sect.[78] Ibn Tumart
Ibn Tumart
(1080-1130) founder and religious leader of the Almohad Caliphate
Caliphate
in Morocco and Al-andalus Muhammad
Muhammad
Jaunpuri (1443–1505), founder of the Mahdavi sect. (See above.) Ahmed ibn Abi Mahalli (1559–1613), from the south of Morocco, was a Qādī and religious scholar who proclaimed himself mahdi and led a revolution (1610–13) against the reigning Saadi dynasty. The Báb, (Siyyid `Alí Muḥammad Shírází) claimed to be the Mahdi in 1844 A.D (in the year 1260 A.H), thereby founding the religion of Bábism. He was later executed by firing squad in the town of Tabriz. His remains are currently kept in a tomb at the Bahá'í World Centre in Haifa, Israel. The Báb
Báb
is considered the forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh, and both are considered prophets of the Bahá'í Faith. The declaration by the Báb
Báb
to be the Mahdi
Mahdi
is considered by Baha'is to be the beginning of the Bahá'í calendar.[79] Muhammad
Muhammad
Ahmad (1845–1885), a Sudanese Sufi
Sufi
sheikh of the Samaniyya order, declared himself Mahdi
Mahdi
in June 1881 and went on to lead a successful military campaign against the Turko-Egyptian government of Sudan. Although he died shortly after capturing the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, in 1885, the Mahdist state continued under his successor, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, until 1898, when it fell to the British army following the Battle of Omdurman.[80][81] Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
(1835–1908) claimed to be both the Mahdi
Mahdi
and the second coming of Jesus
Jesus
in the late nineteenth century in British India and founded the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
religious movement in 1889. (See above.) Muhammad
Muhammad
bin abd Allah al-Qahtani was proclaimed the Mahdi
Mahdi
by his brother-in-law, Juhayman al-Otaibi, who led over 200 militants to seize the Grand Mosque
Mosque
in Mecca
Mecca
in November 1979. The uprising was defeated after a two-week siege in which at least 300 people were killed. Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq Musa al-Kadhim
Musa al-Kadhim
(according to the Waqifite Shia) Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Qasim (al-Alawi) Yahya ibn Umar Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali
Ali
al-Hadi Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi
Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi
(according to Messiah
Messiah
Foundation International) Wallace Fard Muhammad, founder of the Nation of Islam

See also[edit]

Islam
Islam
portal

Al-Qa'im (the Shi'a expectations) Islamic eschatology Moshiach List of Islamic terms in Arabic Mahdaviat Masih ad-Dajjal People claiming to be the Mahdi Parousia Sufyani

References[edit]

^ " Hadith
Hadith
- Chapters On Al-Fitan - Jami` at-Tirmidhi
Jami` at-Tirmidhi
- Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
(صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2017-03-03.  ^ Martin 2004: 421 ^ a b Glassé, Cyril, ed. (2001). "Mahdi". The new encyclopedia of Islam. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira (Rowman & Littlefield). p. 280. ISBN 0-7591-0190-6.  ^ a b c d e Momen, Moojan (1985). An introduction to Shiʻi Islam : the history and doctrines of Twelver
Twelver
Shiʻism. G. Ronald. pp. 75,166–168. ISBN 9780853982005.  ^ a b c d e f g Madelung,, Wilferd (1986). "al-Mahdī". Encyclopaedia of Islam. 5 (2nd ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 1230–8. ISBN 90-04-09419-9.  ^ a b Sonn (2004) p. 209 ^ Shahzad Bashir Messianic Hopes and Mystical Visions: The Nūrbakhshīya Between Medieval and Modern Islam
Islam
Univ of South Carolina Press 2003 ISBN 978-1-570-03495-4 page 24 ^ a b c d Arjomand, Said Amir (Dec 2007). " Islam
Islam
in Iran vi., the Concept of Mahdi
Mahdi
in Sunni Islam". Encyclopaedia Iranica. XIV (Fasc. 2): 134–136.  ^ a b Kohlberg, Etan (24 December 2009). "From Imamiyya to Ithna-ashariyya". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 39 (03): 521–534. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00050989.  ^ Henry, Corbin (1993). History of Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
(Reprinted. ed.). Kegan Paul International. p. 68. ISBN 9780710304162.  ^ a b Arjomand, Amir (2000). "Origins and Development of Apocalypticism
Apocalypticism
and Messianism in Early Islam: 610-750 CE". Oslo: Congress of the International Committee of the Historical Sciences.  ^ Reza, Saiyed Jafar. The essence of Islam. Concept Pub. Co. p. 57. ISBN 9788180698323.  ^ Hong Beom Rhee Asian Millenarianism: An Interdisciplinary Study of the Taiping and Tonghak Rebellions in a Global Context Cambria Press 2006 ISBN 978-1-934-04342-4 page 230 ^ Oddbjørn Leirvik Images of Jesus
Jesus
Christ in Islam: 2nd Edition A&C Black ISBN 978-1-441-18160-2 page 41 ^ John L. Esposito Oxford Dictionary of Islam
Islam
Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-195-12559-7 page 75 ^ a b "Comparison of Shias and Sunnis". Religionfacts.com. Retrieved 2011-05-04.  ^ a b Sheikh Najm al-Din al-Askari, Al- Mahdi
Mahdi
Al-Mawood Al-Montazar Enda (by) Ahl al-Sunnah, Vol. 1, P. 220 ^ Shadharat al-dhahab (Beirut edition), Vol. 2, p. 141; al-'Ibar fi khabar min ghabar (Kuwait edition), Vol. 2, p. 3 ^ https://article.tebyan.net ^ www.al-islam.org ^ www.islamquest.net ^ " Hadith
Hadith
- The Promised Deliverer (Kitab Al-Mahdi) - Sunan Abi Dawud - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
(صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.  ^ " Hadith
Hadith
- Book of Tribulations - Sunan Ibn Majah - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
(صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.  ^ " Hadith
Hadith
- The Promised Deliverer (Kitab Al-Mahdi) - Sunan Abi Dawud - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
(صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.  ^ Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v2, p86, v9, pp 74-75 ^ Sunan Abu Dawood, v2, p7 ^ Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
v1, pp 84,376; V3, p63 ^ Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihainby al-Hakim, v4, p557 ^ Al-Jaami' al-Saghîr, by Al-Suyuti, pp 2,160 ^ al-Urful Wardi, by Al-Suyuti, p2 ^ Kanz al-Ummal, v7 P186 ^ Sharh al-Mawahib al-Ladunniyyah, by al-Zurqani, v5, p348 ^ Fat’h al-Mugheeth, by Al-Sakhawi, v3, p41 ^ (Vizier Mustafa, Emergence of Islam, p. 171 ^ Muntakab al Adhhar, p. 483 ^ Reported by bi Na’eem in Akhbaar al-Mahdi, see al-Jaami’ al-Sagheer, 5: 219, hadith 5796. ^ Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitaab al-Mahdi, 11: 375, hadith 4265; Mustadrak al-Haakim, 4: 557; "he said: this is a saheeh hadeeth according to the conditions of Muslim, although it was not reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim". See also Sahih al-Jaami, 6736. ^ Mustadrak al-Hakim, 4: 557-558; "he said: this is a hadith whose isnaad is sahih, although it was not reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim. Al-Dhahabi agreed with him, and al-Albaani said: this is a saheeh sanad, and its men are thiqaat (trustworthy), Silsilat al-ahaadeeth al-saheehah," 2: 336, hadeeth 771. ^ Tarabani ^ Naeem Bin Hammad's book Kitab Al-Fitan (85845034) أخرج ( ك ) نعيم بن حماد (986), والحاكم ^ Syed Maududi, ‘’Tajdeed-o-Ahyaa-e-Deen’’, Islamic Publications Limited, Lahore, Pakistan, Chapeter: Imam Mehdi ^ Allama Tamanna Imadi, ‘’Intizar-e-Mehdi-o-Maseeh’’, Al-Rahman Publishing Trust, Karachi, Pakistan ^ Allama Habib-ur-Rahman Kandhlwi, Mehdaviyyat nay Islam
Islam
ko Kiya Diya’’, Anjuman Uswa-e-Hasna, Karachi, Pakistan ^ "Al-Mawrid". Al-Mawrid. 2009-09-25. Retrieved 2012-04-29.  ^ Allama Iqbal, ‘’Iqbal Nama, Volume 2’’, Bazm-e-Iqbal, Lahore, Pakistan, Letter No. 87 ^ Ahmed Hulusi The Observing One Softcover ISBN 978-0-615-63664-1 page 48-49 ^ " Mahdi
Mahdi
in the Quran
Quran
According to Shi'ite Quran
Quran
Commentators". Al-Islam.org.  ^ " Shia
Shia
Islam's Holiest Sites".  ^ "World Population Clock: 7.5 Billion People (2017) - Worldometers". www.worldometers.info.  ^ Atlas of the Middle East (Second ed.). Washington D.C: National Geographic 2008 ^ The World Factbook 2010 & Retrieved 2010-08-25. ^ a b Sachedina, Abdulaziz (1978). "A Treatise on the Occultation of the Twelfth Imāmite Imam". Studia Islamica (48): 109–124. JSTOR 4099480.  – via  JSTOR
JSTOR
(subscription required) ^ a b c d e Tabatabai, Sayyid Muhammad
Muhammad
Hossein (1975). Shi'ite Islam (PDF) (First ed.). State University of New York Press. pp. 210–211 (185–186 in the ebook). ISBN 0-87395-272-3.  ^ Ibn Masud, Abdallah. al Fusul al Muhimmah. p. 271.  ^ Bihar al-Anwar: 95: 378; 102: 67, 117 ^ Mikyaal al-Makaarem: 1: 49 ^ Baqr al-Majlisi 2003: 70 ^ Bihar al-Anwar: 52: 326 ^ Bihar al-Anwar: 5: 328 ^ Bihar al-Anwar: 52: 391 ^ Bihar al-Anwar: 51: 146 ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ibrahim Nomani: 189 (Sheikh Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ibrahim Nomani, al-Ghaybah al-Nomani, p. 189 ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ibrahim Nomani: 191 ^ Ja'far al-Sadiq ^ Nasr, Sayyed Hossein. "Expectation of the Millennium : Shiìsm in History,", State University of New York Press, 1989, p. 19, ISBN 978-0-88706-843-0 ^ "mahdī." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. ^ [Shaikh Saduq, Kamal-u-Din wa Tamam-u-Ne’mah, p.523.] ^ [ Kitāb al-Ghayba, al-Shaykh al-Tusi, p 155] ^ [Bihār al-Anwār, vol23, p5) ^ (21:105) ^ Madelung, Wilferd. "al-Mahdī". In Encyclopaedia of Islam. vol. 5, Khe-Mahi. 2nd ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1986. 1231–8. ISBN 90-04-07819-3. ^ Daftary, Farhad (1990). The Ismāʿīlīs: Their history and doctrines. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-521-42974-9.  ^ "The Holy Quran". Alislam.org. Retrieved 9 November 2012.  ^ Friedmann, Yohanan (2003). Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and its Medieval Background. Oxford University Press. p. 121.  ^ "Jesus: A humble prophet of God". Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Muslim Community. Retrieved 30 April 2014.  ^ Robinson, Francis. "Prophets without honour? Ahmad and the Ahmadiyya". History Today 40 (June): 46. ^ Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. pp. 55–59 & 229–230. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.  ^ Clinton Bennett (10 June 2008). Understanding Christian-Muslim Relations: Past and Present. A&C Black. pp. 104–. ISBN 978-0-8264-8782-7.  ^ Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. pp. 55–59 & 229–230. ISBN 1851681841.  ^ Warburg, Gabriel. Islam, Sectarianism and Politics in Sudan
Sudan
since the Mahdiyya. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2003. pp. 30-42. ^ Holt, P.M. The Mahdist State in Sudan, 1881-1898. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. pp 53 cf.

Further reading[edit] Historical sources[edit]

"Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah", Sahih al-Bukhari, Dar al-Ma’aarif, pp. 160–169  Ja'far al-Sadiq, Al-Ghaybah (The occultation): narrations from the prophecies of al- Mahdi
Mahdi
by Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, Mihrab Publishers  Bihar al-Anwar

Modern sources[edit]

Baqr al-Majlisi, Muhammad, ed. (2003), Kitab al-Ghaybat, Qom: Ansariyan Publications  Doi, A. R. I., "The Yoruba Mahdī", Journal of Religion in Africa, 4 (2): 119–136, doi:10.1163/157006671x00070, JSTOR 1594738  Martin, Richard C., ed. (2004), "Mahdi", Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
and the Muslim world, Thompson Gale  Momen, Moojan (1985), An introduction to Shi'i Islam, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-03531-4  Shauhat Ali, Millenarian and Messianic Tendencies in Islamic Thought (Lahore: Publishers United, 1993) Timothy Furnish, Holiest Wars: Islamic Mahdis, Jihad and Osama Bin Laden (Westport: Praeger, 2005) ISBN 0-275-98383-8 Abdulaziz Abdulhussein Sachedina, Islamic Messianism: The Idea of the Mahdi
Mahdi
in Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1981) ISBN 0-87395-458-0 Syaikh Hisyam Kabbani, The Approach of Armageddon (Islamic Supreme Council of America, 2002) ISBN 1-930409-20-6 "Mahdī", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008, retrieved 2010-07-04  The Golden Era of Reappearance, Association of Imam Mahdi

External Links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Mahdi

Look up mahdi in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia ar