Ludhiana is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab, and India's largest city north of Delhi, with an area of 310sq. km and an estimated population of 1,618,879 as of the 2011 census.[1] The population increases substantially during the harvesting season due to the migration of labourers from highly populated states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Odisha. The city stands on the Sutlej River's old bank, 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) south of its present course. It is an industrial centre of northern India; the BBC has called it India's Manchester.[2]

Ludhiana is 107 kilometres (66 mi) west of the state capital, Chandigarh, on NH 95, and is centrally located on National Highway 44, which runs from New Delhi to Amritsar. It is 315 km (194 miles) north of Delhi and 142 km (88 miles) southeast of Amritsar.


Ludhiana is located at 30°54′N 75°51′E / 30.9°N 75.85°E / 30.9; 75.85.[3] It has an average elevation of 244 metres (798 ft). Ludhiana City, to its residents, consists of the Old City and the New City (or the residential and official quarters of the colonial British encampment, traditionally known as Civil Lines; this is as opposed to the Army Lines, which are no longer extant as the British Cantonment was abandoned in 1845).

The land dips steeply to the north and the west where, before 1785, the river Sutlej ran.[citation needed]

The Old Fort was at the banks of the Sutlej (and now houses the College of Textile Engineering). Legend has it that an underground tunnel connects it to the fort in Phillaur – although why this should be is debatable, as the Sutlej was the traditional dividing line between the principalities, often occupied by enemy forces (see History section).

The ground is of yellow sandstone and granite, forming small hillocks, plateaus and dips.[citation needed]

The tree of largest natural extraction was the kikar, or Acacia indica, but has been supplanted by the eucalyptus, transplanted from rural Australia in the late 1950s by the government of Chief Minister Pratap Singh Kairon.

Gulmohars and jacarandas were planted by the British along the avenues of Civil Lines, as were other flowering trees, while the Old City contains almost no vegetation or parks, except for a few isolated pipal trees, holy to the Hindus, as it is supposed to be the abode of Lord Shiva.[citation needed]


Ludhiana features a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification, with three defined seasons; summer, monsoon and winter. Ludhiana on average sees roughly 730 millimetres (29 in) of precipitation annually.

Ludhiana has one of the worst air pollution problems in India, with particulate matter being over six times the World Health Organization recommended standard, making it the 13th most polluted city in the world.[4][5] Industrial water pollution is also of significant concern in portions of Ludhiana, notably along the Budha Dariya.[6]

Climate data for Ludhiana (1971–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.0
Average high °C (°F) 18.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.8
Average low °C (°F) 6.7
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 2.8 3.6 4.5 1.9 2.3 4.7 11.6 9.6 4.5 0.5 1.4 2.1 49.5
Average relative humidity (%) 74 66 62 44 39 49 71 76 68 61 68 74 63
Source #1: NOAA[7]
Source #2: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[8]


Religion in Ludhiana city[9]
Religion Percent

As per provisional data of 2011 census Ludhiana had a population of 1,618,879.[1] The literacy rate was 82.50 per cent.[10] This population consists of 950,123 males and 743,530 females.[1]


Feroze Gandhi Market, Ludhiana

The World Bank ranked Ludhiana as the city in India with the best business environment in 2009 and 2013.[11]

The riches are brought mostly by small-scale industrial units,[12] which produce industrial goods, machine parts, auto parts, household appliances, hosiery, apparel, and garments. Ludhiana is Asia's largest hub for bicycle manufacturing and produces more than 50% of India's bicycle consumption of more than 10 million each year. Ludhiana produces 60% of India's tractor parts and a large portion of auto and two-wheeler parts. Many parts used in German cars are Mercedes and BMW exclusively produced in Ludhiana to satisfy the world requirement. It is one of the largest manufacturer of domestic sewing machines. Hand tools and industrial equipment are other specialties. The apparel industry of Ludhiana is famous all over India for its woollen sweaters and cotton T-shirts; most of the top Indian woollen apparel brands are based in Ludhiana. Ludhiana also has a growing IT sector with multiple software services and product companies having development centers in the city.

Ludhiana is also home to the Ludhiana Stock Exchange Association. LSC is situated on NH95(Chandigarh-Ferozepur Highway) in Feroze Gandhi market near Mini Secretariat Ludhiana. Stock trading is one the main course of action of LSC.



Ludhiana has 363 senior secondary, 367 high, 324 middle, 1129 primary, and pre-primary recognised Schools, with a total of 398,770 students.[13] Most of these schools are either run by the Central Board of Secondary Education or by Punjab School Education Board. Other boards like convent boards are there too. The city has many prestigious school chains, such as Mount Litera Zee School (A unit of ZEE Learn Ltd.), Guru Nanak Public School, Green Land Public School, Vardhman International Public School, Sacred Heart Senior Secondary School, BRS Nagar, Sacred Heart Convent Senior Secondary School,Harvest International School, Delhi Public School, R.S. Model Senior Secondary School, BVM School, Ryan International School, BCM School, Baba Isher Singh (Nanaksar) Sr Sec Public School, Saint Thomas Senior Secondary School(near CMC), and DAV School. Sat Paul Mittal School in Ludhiana is located at Dugri, Phase II. This school is one of the few ICSE schools in Ludhiana. Kundan Vidya Mandir is the school in the city[citation needed], established in 1940[citation needed], and Government Senior Secondary School (multipurpose) is the oldest schools in the city established in1875.[citation needed].


Ludhiana is home to the largest agricultural university in Asia[citation needed] and one of the largest in the world, Punjab Agricultural University.[14] The College of Veterinary Sciences at PAU was recently upgraded to the Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU).


The entrance of the old building of Christian Medical College

Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, the first medical school for women in Asia, was founded by Dr Dame Edith Mary Brown in 1894. Christian medical college is a major and reputed tertiary care hospital in India where the world's first face transplant was done. Dayanand Medical College and Hospital is a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ludhiana. This institution is recognised by the Medical Council of India. The college is affiliated to Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Punjab.


Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College is an institution offering facilities and education for engineering students. It has a research and development centre for bicycles and sewing machines.[15] There is also the Research & Development Polytechnic College.[16] There are also other institutes catering to local and surrounding areas such as Institute of Banking Services (IBS).


Ludhiana has many management colleges providing courses such as Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Hospitality and Management (HM), Airlines Tourism and Hospitality Management (ATHM), Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA), and Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com).

There are a few good colleges providing these courses both part-time as well as full-time, such as University Business School (UBS), Panjab University Regional Centre, the Punjab College of Technical Education (PCTE), Synetic Business School (SBS) Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Sri Aurobindo College of Commerce and Management (SACCM) and Government college for boys and Government college for girls. Khalsa College and Arya college are also present to study as a part-time student.

SCD Govt College - SCD Govt College earlier known as SD college was renamed in 1976 after the name of great scientist and physicist Satish Chandra Dhawan. Mr Dhawan was the mentor of India's most favourite president Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. SCD is situated at the College Road near Nehru Rose garden. SCD college is considered as the top most college of Panjab University and one of the top colleges of north India. It offered academic courses on graduate and post graduate level.


Ludhiana is well connected by road and rail as Ludhiana railway station is on the main Delhi-Amritsar route and is an important railway junction with lines going to Jalandhar, Ferozepur, Dhuri and Delhi. The city is very well connected with daily or weekly trains to most places in India including the major cities of Jammu, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Patiala, Pathankot, Kanpur, Jaipur, Chandigarh, Ambala, Panipat, Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. For administrative reasons the station is under Ferozepur Railway Division. The railway line between Ludhiana and Chandigarh opened in 2013. The government has even passed a dedicated freight track between Ludhiana and Kolkata.[citation needed]

A DMU Train in Ludhiana


Ludhiana is served by the city based Sahnewal Airport ((IATA: LUH, ICAO: VILD)), also known as Ludhiana Airport. It is located near the town of Sahnewal, 5 km (3.1 mi) southeast of Ludhiana on the Grand Trunk Road.

The airport is spread over more than 130 acres. The current airport arrival/departure halls can accommodate 40 passengers.[17] The baggage delivery is done manually. Air India Regional ATR flight service is four times a week. Deccan Air will be starting another flight to Delhi in October. The flights have been started under the UDAN scheme of central Government


Ludhiana Junction railway station is well connected to other metro cities. 12037/New Delhi - Ludhiana Shatabdi Express is an important train that starts here.

Ludhiana Metro

This project has been scrapped by the government because lack of funds.

The government has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Delhi for construction of a Ludhiana Metro. This light transit system will serve about 25 years to Ludhiana. There will be two corridors in Ludhiana Metro. These two corridors of metro will give relief to many roads to some extent.

City transportation

Ludhiana is connected with other cities of Punjab and also with other states by bus service. Several major national highways, NH1, NH95, NH11, NH20 pass through the city. The transportation services are provided by the state owned Punjab Roadways and private bus operators.

City business service has been cancelled. Moving around inside the city is done mostly by city-buses, auto-rickshaws, and cycle rickshaws, while latest Ludhiana BRTS is under construction.

Auto rickshaw

The Auto rickshaw is a three-wheel drive vehicle, which is one way to travel in the city. They have the capacity to hold three to six passengers. It can be hired individually or on a sharing basis. The auto rickshaws are easily available at every major place, including the interstate bus terminal and the railway station at a nominal fare which varies from ₨ 10 to ₨ 30.[citation needed] Jugnoo, an on demand auto rickshaw application launched its operations in February 2015 to provide low cost, reliable, 24 x 7 service to the citizens of Ludhiana.


Cycle rickshaws are widely used in Ludhiana. The rickshaw or tricycle is pulled by a person and is a relatively cheap way of traveling in the city, but has become pricey after the autos were being scrapped. Nowadays many electric rickshaws are also available in Ludhiana and most of them can be spotted on the road which connects Samrala Chowk to Station.


Radio taxis are also easily available. This is the most used means of transport by the people of Ludhiana. Ola Cabs launched in the city on 7 October 2014. Uber is also very popular in the city [18]. Zoomcar provides cars for self-drive car rental in the city.[19]


Ansal Plaza by night

Markets and shopping malls

For shopping, markets such as Chaura Bazaar, Ghumar Mandi, Jawahar Nagar Camp, Kipps Market and Mall Road are good places to buy from, but parking may be an issue in such areas.

Malls such as Westend Mall (Wave Mall), MBD Mall, Silver Arc and Pavilion mall are good attractions as big malls.

The Grand Walk, Flames Mall, Ansal Plaza, SRS Mall and Govardhan City Center are some good medium-sized malls.

Parks and recreation

Ludhiana is a mixture of urban and rural living. The city is surrounded by farming land on every side but inside the city are many parks that still exist for relaxation, walking and picnics.

Parks such as Leisure Valley, Rose garden Rakh bagh and PAU are good places to walk and spend time.


Guru Nanak Stadium is known for hosting the Kabaddi matches along with athletic games. Kabaddi world cup finals have been played twice in Guru Nanak Stadium Ludhiana.[20] The stadium often hosts high-profile Kabbadi matches.


A skating rink for speed skating and roller hockey is in Leisure Valley, Sarabha Nagar. Many skaters like Harshveer Singh Sekhon made Ludhiana proud by winning many medals at district state and national championships and representing India at various World Championship events[citation needed].

Kila Rai Sports Festival

Kila Raipur Sports Festival, popularly known as Rural Olympics,[21] is held annually in Kila Raipur, near Ludhiana. Competitions are held for major Punjabi rural sports, including cart races and rope pulling.

Places of interest

Punjab Agricultural University Stadium is a multipurpose stadium located in the campus. The stadium has got facilities for sports like cricket, football, hockey, etc. There is an astroturf field for hockey which is used for hockey event.In addition to this there is a swimming pool and a cycling Velodrome.

There are facilities for indoor sports such as basketball, badminton, gymnastics, handball, volleyball, lawn tennis, table tennis, weight lifting and Kabbadi etc. The Ground has also hosted 10 Ranji including a final in 1993 and one Irani Trophy matches from 1987 to 1999 and 10 List A matches.

Notable individuals

Name Occupation
Sukhdev Thapar Freedom fighter
Kartar Singh Sarabha Freedom fighter
Bhai Randhir Singh Freedom fighter
Neel Kamal Puri Novelist, columnist[22]
Dharmendra Actor
Jaspreet Singh Kalra Contortionist
Sunil Mittal Entrepreneur
Simarjit Singh Bains Social worker, politician
Diljit Dosanjh Actor
Sahir Ludhianvi Lyricist
Divya Dutta Actress
Manjit Rupowalia Singer
Sunil Mittal Indian telecom mogul, philanthropist
Brijmohan Lall Munjal Industrialist, founder of Hero Group
Rajinder Gupta Industrialist, Chairman of TridentGroup
Trishneet Arora Ethical hacker, author
Keshub Mahindra Industrialist, Chairman of Mahindra Group
Shubha Phutela Actress
Dakssh Ajit Singh Actor
Jainti Dass Saggar Physician, politician
Ravikiran Khangura Singer, actor
Abhinav Shukla Actor
Sudarshan Agarwal Politician
Shilpi Sharma Actress
Juhi Chawla Actress
Gulzar Singh Sandhu Writer
Naina Dhaliwal Indian model
Inderjit Hasanpuri Songwriter
Ram Singh Social reformer
Maulana Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi One of the founders of Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam
Hazrat Muhammad Barkat Ali Muslim Sufi and founder of the Dar ul Ehsan organisation
Talish Pakistani actor
Raj Khosla Director
Baldev Raj Chopra Producer and director
Kuldeep Manak Singer
Inderjit Nikku Singer
Ravinder Grewal Singer
Amar Singh Chamkila Singer
Surinder Shinda Singer
Karnail Gill Singer
Gippy Grewal Singer
Ishmeet Singh Singer
Lal Chand Yamla Jatt Singer
Mandeep Singh Cricketer
Pankaj Kapoor Actor
Avtar Gill Actor
Hardev Dilgir Lyricist


  1. ^ a b c d "Area and Population". Official Website of Ludhiana. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-04. 
  2. ^ "India's Manchester". BBC. 28 February 2006. 
  3. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Ludhiana". 
  4. ^ Majeed, Shariq (26 March 2014). "Ludhiana worries over its PM". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. 
  5. ^ Preet, Jatinder (16 October 2011). "Ludhiana fourth most polluted city in the world". The Sunday Guardian. Delhi, India. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014. 
  6. ^ "How air and water pollution plagues Indian cities". Hindustan Times. 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014. 
  7. ^ "Ludhiana Climate Normals 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 22, 2015. 
  8. ^ "Ever recorded maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2015. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  11. ^ "Doing Business in India 2009". World Bank. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  12. ^ Entrepreneurship in India's small-scale industries. Richard P. Taub, Doris L. Taub
  13. ^ "Education and Medical Facilities - Official Website of Ludhiana". 
  14. ^ Ludhiana Colleges. Retrieved on 16 June 2014.
  15. ^ "". Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  16. ^ "R&D Polytechnic College". Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  17. ^ Airport website
  18. ^ "Ola Cabs launch in Ludhiana and Amritsar". 
  19. ^ Ltd., Zoomcar India Private. "Self Drive Cars In Ludhiana". Zoomcar. Retrieved 2017-09-15. 
  20. ^ "Kabaddi World Cup: India all the way". The Tribune – Sports Page. 21 November 2011. 
  21. ^ "Racy start to Kila Raipur Rural Olympics". The Tribune – Ludhiana Tribune. 4 February 2011. 
  22. ^ "Punjab's victory over history". India Today. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 


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