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Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I
(6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King
King
of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist
Orléanist
party. As a member of the cadet branch of the Royal House of France
France
and a cousin of King
King
Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI of France
by reason of his descent from their common ancestors Louis XIII
Louis XIII
and Louis XIV, he had earlier found it necessary to flee France
France
during the period of the French Revolution
French Revolution
in order to avoid imprisonment and execution, a fate that actually befell his father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans. He spent 21 years in exile after he left France
France
in 1793. He was proclaimed king in 1830 after his cousin Charles X was forced to abdicate in the wake of the events of the July Revolution
July Revolution
of that year. His government, known as the July Monarchy, was dominated by members of a wealthy French elite and numerous former Napoleonic officials. He followed conservative policies, especially under the influence of the French statesman François Guizot
François Guizot
during the period 1840–48. He also promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the conquest of Algeria. His popularity faded as economic conditions in France
France
deteriorated in 1847, and he was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the French Revolution
French Revolution
of 1848. He lived out his life in exile in United Kingdom.

Contents

1 Before the Revolution (1773–1789)

1.1 Early life 1.2 Education

2 Revolution (1789–1793)

2.1 Military service

3 Exile (1793–1815)

3.1 Travels 3.2 Marriage and children

4 Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830) 5 King of the French
King of the French
(1830–1848) 6 Assassination attempts 7 Rule 8 Abdication
Abdication
and death (1848–50) 9 Clash of the pretenders 10 Titles and styles

10.1 Honours

10.1.1 National 10.1.2 Foreign

11 Ancestry 12 See also

12.1 Namesakes

13 Notes 14 References

14.1 Citations 14.2 Bibliography

15 External links

Before the Revolution (1773–1789)[edit] Early life[edit] Louis Philippe was born in the Palais Royal, the residence of the Orléans family in Paris, to Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres (who would become Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, upon the death of his father Louis Philippe I), and Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince of the Blood, which entitled him the use of the style "Serene Highness". His mother was an extremely wealthy heiress who was descended from Louis XIV of France
France
through a legitimized line. Louis Philippe was the eldest of three sons and a daughter, a family that was to have erratic fortunes from the beginning of the French Revolution to the Bourbon Restoration. The elder branch of the House of Bourbon, to which the kings of France belonged, deeply distrusted the intentions of the cadet branch, which would succeed to the throne of France
France
should the senior branch die out. Louis Philippe's father was exiled from the royal court, and the Orléans confined themselves to studies of the literature and sciences emerging from the Enlightenment. Education[edit] Louis Philippe was tutored by the Countess of Genlis, beginning in 1782. She instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought; it is probably during this period that Louis Philippe picked up his slightly Voltairean[clarification needed] brand of Catholicism. When Louis Philippe's grandfather died in 1785, his father succeeded him as Duke of Orléans and Louis Philippe succeeded his father as Duke of Chartres. In 1788, with the Revolution looming, the young Louis Philippe showed his liberal sympathies when he helped break down the door of a prison cell in Mont Saint-Michel, during a visit there with the Countess of Genlis. From October 1788 to October 1789, the Palais Royal
Palais Royal
was a meeting-place for the revolutionaries. Revolution (1789–1793)[edit] Louis Philippe grew up in a period that changed Europe as a whole and, following his father's strong support for the Revolution, he involved himself completely in those changes. In his diary, he reports that he himself took the initiative to join the Jacobin Club, a move that his father supported. Military service[edit]

The duke of Chartres (dismounted) and his brother, the Duke of Montpensier (on horseback), in dragoon uniform at the Battle of Valmy (1792)

In June 1791, Louis Philippe got his first opportunity to become involved in the affairs of France. In 1785, he had been given the hereditary appointment of Colonel of the 14th Regiment of Dragoons. With war on the horizon in 1791, all proprietary colonels were ordered to join their regiments. Louis Philippe showed himself to be a model officer, and he demonstrated his personal bravery in two famous instances. First, three days after Louis XVI's flight to Varennes, a quarrel between two local priests and one of the new constitutional vicars became heated, and a crowd surrounded the inn where the priests were staying, demanding blood. The young colonel broke through the crowd and extricated the two priests, who then fled. At a river crossing on the same day, another crowd threatened to harm the priests. Louis Philippe put himself between a peasant armed with a carbine and the priests, saving their lives. The next day, Louis Philippe dove into a river to save a drowning local engineer. For this action, he received a civic crown from the local municipality. His regiment was moved north to Flanders
Flanders
at the end of 1791 after the Declaration of Pillnitz. Louis Philippe served under his father's crony, Armand Louis de Gontaut the Duke of Biron, along with several officers who later gained distinction in Napoleon's empire and afterwards. These included Colonel Berthier and Lieutenant Colonel Alexandre de Beauharnais (husband of the future Empress Joséphine). Louis Philippe saw the first exchanges of fire of the Revolutionary Wars at Boussu
Boussu
and Quaragnon and a few days later fought at Quiévrain
Quiévrain
near Jemappes, where he was instrumental in rallying a unit of retreating soldiers. Biron wrote to War Minister de Grave, praising the young colonel, who was then promoted to brigadier, commanding a brigade of cavalry in Lückner's Army of the North. In the Army of the North, Louis Philippe served with four future Marshals of France: Macdonald, Mortier (who would later be killed in an assassination attempt on Louis Philippe), Davout and Oudinot. Dumouriez was appointed to command the Army of the North in August 1792. Louis Philippe commanded a division under him in the Valmy campaign. At Valmy, Louis Philippe was ordered to place a battery of artillery on the crest of the hill of Valmy. The battle of Valmy was inconclusive, but the Austrian-Prussian army, short of supplies, was forced back across the Rhine. Once again, Louis Philippe was praised in a letter by Dumouriez after the battle. Louis Philippe was then recalled to Paris
Paris
to give an account of the Battle at Valmy to the French government. There he had a rather trying interview with Danton, Minister of Justice, which he later fondly re-told to his children. While in Paris, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general. In October he returned to the Army of the North, where Dumouriez had begun a march into Belgium. Louis Philippe again commanded a division. Dumouriez chose to attack an Austrian force in a strong position on the heights of Cuesmes and Jemappes
Jemappes
to the west of Mons. Louis Philippe's division sustained heavy casualties as it attacked through a wood, retreating in disorder. Louis Philippe rallied a group of units, dubbing them "the battalion of Mons" and pushed forward along with other French units, finally overwhelming the outnumbered Austrians. Events in Paris
Paris
undermined the budding military career of Louis Philippe. The incompetence of Jean-Nicolas Pache, the new Girondist appointee, left the Army of the North almost without supplies. Soon thousands of troops were deserting the army. Louis Philippe was alienated by the more radical policies of the Republic. After the National Convention
National Convention
decided to put the deposed King
King
to death, Louis Philippe's father – by then known as Philippe Égalité – voted in favour of that act, Louis Philippe began to consider leaving France. Louis Philippe was willing to stay in France
France
to fulfill his duties in the army, but he was implicated in the plot Dumouriez had planned to ally with the Austrians, march his army on Paris, and restore the Constitution of 1791. Dumouriez had met with Louis Philippe on 22 March 1793 and urged his subordinate to join in the attempt. With the French government falling into the Reign of Terror, he decided to leave France
France
to save his life. On 4 April, Dumouriez and Louis Philippe left for the Austrian camp. They were intercepted by Lieutenant-Colonel Louis-Nicolas Davout, who had served at Jemappes with Louis Philippe. As Dumouriez ordered the Colonel back to the camp, some of his soldiers cried out against the General, now declared a traitor by the National Convention. Shots rang out as they fled towards the Austrian camp. The next day, Dumouriez again tried to rally soldiers against the Convention; however, he found that the artillery had declared for the Republic, leaving him and Louis Philippe with no choice but to go into exile. At the age of nineteen, Louis Philippe left France; it was some twenty-one years before he again set foot on French soil. Exile (1793–1815)[edit] The reaction in Paris
Paris
to Louis Philippe's involvement in Dumouriez's treason inevitably resulted in misfortunes for the Orléans family. Philippe Égalité spoke in the National Convention, condemning his son for his actions, asserting that he would not spare his son, much akin to the Roman consul Brutus and his sons. However, letters from Louis Philippe to his father were discovered in transit and were read out to the Convention. Philippe Égalité was then put under continuous surveillance. Shortly thereafter, the Girondists
Girondists
moved to arrest him and the two younger brothers of Louis Philippe, Louis-Charles and Antoine Philippe; the latter had been serving in the Army of Italy. The three were interned in Fort Saint-Jean in Marseille. Meanwhile, Louis Philippe was forced to live in the shadows, avoiding both pro-Republican revolutionaries and Legitimist
Legitimist
French émigré centres in various parts of Europe and also in the Austrian army. He first moved to Switzerland under an assumed name, and met up with the Countess of Genlis and his sister Adélaïde at Schaffhausen. From there they went to Zürich, where the Swiss authorities decreed that to protect Swiss neutrality, Louis Philippe would have to leave the city. They went to Zug, where Louis Philippe was discovered by a group of émigrés. It became quite apparent that for the ladies to settle peacefully anywhere, they would have to separate from Louis Philippe. He then left with his faithful valet Baudouin for the heights of the Alps, and then to Basel, where he sold all but one of his horses. Now moving from town to town throughout Switzerland, he and Baudouin found themselves very much exposed to all the distresses of extended travelling. They were refused entry to a monastery by monks who believed them to be young vagabonds. Another time, he woke up after spending a night in a barn to find himself at the far end of a musket, confronted by a man attempting to keep away thieves. Throughout this period, he never stayed in one place more than 48 hours. Finally, in October 1793, Louis Philippe was appointed a teacher of geography, history, mathematics and modern languages, at a boys' boarding school. The school, owned by a Monsieur Jost, was in Reichenau, a village on the upper Rhine, across from Switzerland. His salary was 1,400 francs and he taught under the name Monsieur Chabos. He had been at the school for a month when he heard the news from Paris: his father had been guillotined on 6 November 1793 after a trial before the Revolutionary Tribunal. Travels[edit] After Louis Philippe left Reichenau, he separated the now sixteen-year-old Adélaïde from the Countess of Genlis, who had fallen out with Louis Philippe. Adélaïde went to live with her great-aunt the Princess of Conti at Fribourg, then to Bavaria
Bavaria
and Hungary and, finally, to her mother who was exiled in Spain. Louis Philippe travelled extensively. He visited Scandinavia in 1795 and then moved on to Finland. For about a year, he stayed in Muonio, a remote village in the valley of the Tornio river
Tornio river
in Lapland. He lived in the rectory under the name Müller, as a guest of the local Lutheran vicar. While visiting Muonio, he supposedly got a child with Beata Caisa Wahlborn (1766-1830) called Erik Kolstrøm (1796-1879).[1] Louis Philippe also visited the United States
United States
for four years, staying in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(where his brothers Antoine and Louis Charles were in exile), New York City
New York City
(where he most likely stayed at the Somerindyck family estate on Broadway and 75th Street with other exiled princes), and Boston. In Boston, he taught French for a time and lived in lodgings over what is now the Union Oyster House, Boston's oldest restaurant. During his time in the United States, Louis Philippe met with American politicians and people of high society, including George Clinton, John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and George Washington. His visit to Cape Cod
Cape Cod
in 1797 coincided with the division of the town of Eastham into two towns, one of which took the name of Orleans, possibly in his honour. During their sojourn, the Orléans princes travelled throughout the country, as far south as Nashville and as far north as Maine. The brothers were even held in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
briefly during an outbreak of yellow fever. Louis Philippe is also thought to have met Isaac Snow of Orleans, Massachusetts, who had escaped to France
France
from a British prison hulk during the American Revolutionary War. In 1839, while reflecting on his visit to the United States, Louis Philippe explained in a letter to Guizot that his three years there had a large influence on his political beliefs and judgments when he became king. In Boston, Louis Philippe learned of the coup of 18 Fructidor (4 September 1797) and of the exile of his mother to Spain. He and his brothers then decided to return to Europe. They went to New Orleans, planning to sail to Havana
Havana
and thence to Spain. This, however, was a troubled journey, as Spain
Spain
and Great Britain were then at war. While in colonial Louisiana in 1798, they were entertained by Julien Poydras in the town of Pointe Coupée,[2] as well as by the Marigny de Mandeville family in New Orleans. They sailed for Havana
Havana
in an American corvette, but the ship was stopped in the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
by a British warship. The British seized the three brothers, but took them to Havana
Havana
anyway. Unable to find passage to Europe, the three brothers spent a year in Cuba, until they were unexpectedly expelled by the Spanish authorities. They sailed via the Bahamas to Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
where they were received by the Duke of Kent, son of King
King
George III and (later) father of Queen Victoria. Louis Philippe struck up a lasting friendship with the British royal. Eventually, the brothers sailed back to New York, and in January 1800, they arrived in England, where they stayed for the next fifteen years. Marriage and children[edit] In 1796, Louis Philippe supposedly fathered a child with Beata Caisa Wahlborn (1766-1830) named Erik Kolstrøm (1796-1879).[1] In 1808, Louis Philippe proposed to Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King
King
George III of the United Kingdom. His Catholicism and the opposition of her mother Queen Charlotte meant the Princess reluctantly declined the offer.[3] In 1809, Louis Philippe married Princess Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily, daughter of King
King
Ferdinand IV of Naples
Ferdinand IV of Naples
and Maria Carolina of Austria. They had the following ten children:

Name Picture Birth Death Notes

Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orléans

3 September 1810 13 July 1842 Married Duchess Helene of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, had issue.

Louise d'Orléans

3 April 1812 11 October 1850 Married King
King
Leopold I of Belgium, had issue.

Princess Marie d'Orléans

12 April 1813 6 January 1839 Married Duke Alexander of Württemberg, had issue.

Louis, Duke of Nemours

25 October 1814 26 June 1896 Married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, had issue.

Princess Françoise Louise Caroline d'Orléans

26 March 1816 20 May 1818 Died aged two. Baptised on 20 July 1816, with Emperor Francis I of Austria as her godfather.

Clémentine d'Orléans

6 March 1817 16 February 1907 Married Prince August of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, had issue.

François, Prince of Joinville

14 August 1818 16 June 1900 Married Princess Francisca of Brazil, had issue.

Charles d'Orléans

1 January 1820 25 July 1828 Died aged eight.

Henri, Duke of Aumale

16 January 1822 7 May 1897 Married Princess Caroline Auguste of the Two Sicilies, had issue-but no descendants survive.

Antoine, Duke of Montpensier

31 July 1824 4 February 1890 Married Infanta Luisa Fernanda, Duchess of Montpensier, had issue.

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830)[edit] See also: Bourbon Restoration

Louis-Philippe as Colonel-General of the Hussars during the Bourbon Restoration

After the abdication of Napoleon, Louis Philippe, known as Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, returned to France
France
during the reign of his cousin Louis XVIII, at the time of the Bourbon Restoration. Louis Philippe had reconciled the Orléans family with Louis XVIII in exile, and was once more to be found in the elaborate royal court. However, his resentment at the treatment of his family, the cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
under the Ancien Régime, caused friction between him and Louis XVIII, and he openly sided with the liberal opposition. Louis Philippe was on far friendlier terms with Louis XVIII's brother and successor, Charles X, who acceded to the throne in 1824, and with whom he socialized. However, his opposition to the policies of Villèle
Villèle
and later of Jules de Polignac
Jules de Polignac
caused him to be viewed as a constant threat to the stability of Charles' government. This soon proved to be to his advantage. King of the French
King of the French
(1830–1848)[edit] Main article: July Monarchy

The Duke of Orleans in uniform as a Colonel-General of the Hussars in 1817

In 1830, the July Revolution
July Revolution
overthrew Charles X, who abdicated in favour of his 10-year-old grandson, Henri, Duke of Bordeaux, and, naming Louis Philippe Lieutenant général du royaume, charged him to announce to the popularly elected Chamber of Deputies his desire to have his grandson succeed him. Louis Philippe did not do this, in order to increase his own chances of succession. As a consequence, because the chamber was aware of Louis Philippe's liberal policies and of his popularity with the masses, they proclaimed Louis Philippe, who for eleven days had been acting as the regent for his small cousin, as the new French king, displacing the senior branch of the House of Bourbon. Charles X and his family, including his grandson, went into exile in Britain. The young ex-king, the Duke of Bordeaux, who, in exile, took the title of comte de Chambord, later became the pretender to the throne of France
France
and was supported by the Legitimists. Louis-Philippe was sworn in as King
King
Louis-Philippe I on 9 August 1830.[4] Upon his accession to the throne, Louis Philippe assumed the title of King of the French
King of the French
– a title already adopted by Louis XVI in the short-lived Constitution of 1791. Linking the monarchy to a people instead of a territory (as the previous designation King
King
of France
France
and of Navarre) was aimed at undercutting the legitimist claims of Charles X and his family. By an ordinance he signed on 13 August 1830,[n 1] the new king defined the manner in which his children, as well as his "beloved" sister, would continue to bear the surname "d'Orléans" and the arms of Orléans, declared that his eldest son, as Prince Royal (not Dauphin), would bear the title Duke of Orléans, that the younger sons would continue to have their previous titles, and that his sister and daughters would only be styled Princesses of Orléans, not of France. In 1832, his daughter, Princess Louise-Marie, married the first ruler of Belgium, Leopold I, King
King
of the Belgians. Their children included Leopold II of Belgium
Leopold II of Belgium
and Empress Carlota of Mexico. Assassination attempts[edit]

Fieschi's Machine infernale, displayed at the Museum of French History (2012)

Louis Phillippe survived seven assassination attempts. On 28 July 1835, Louis Philippe survived an assassination attempt by Giuseppe Mario Fieschi
Giuseppe Mario Fieschi
and two other conspirators in Paris. During the king's annual review of the Paris
Paris
National Guard commemorating the revolution, Louis-Philippe was passing along the Boulevard du Temple, which connected Place de la République
Place de la République
to the Bastille, accompanied by three of his sons, Orleans, the Duke of Nemours and the Prince de Joinville, and numerous staff. Fieschi, a Corsican ex-soldier, attacked the procession with a weapon he built himself, a volley gun that later became known as the Machine infernale. This consisted of 25 gun barrels fastened to a wooden frame that could be fired simultaneously.[5] The device was fired from the third level of n° 50 Boulevard du Temple
Boulevard du Temple
(a commemorative plaque has since been engraved there), which had been rented by Fieschi. A ball only grazed the King's forehead. Eighteen people were killed, including Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Rieussec (fr) of the 8th Legion together with eight other officers, Marshal Mortier, and Colonel Raffet, General Girard, Captain Villate, General La Chasse de Vérigny, a woman, a 14-year-old girl and two men. A further 22 people were injured.[6][7] The King
King
and the princes escaped essentially unharmed. Horace Vernet, the King's painter, was ordered to make a drawing of the event.[8] Several of the gun barrels of Fieschi's weapon burst when it was fired; he was badly injured and was quickly captured. He was executed by guillotine together with his two co-conspirators the following year. Rule[edit]

1835 cartoon by American James Akin
James Akin
shows President Andrew Jackson challenging King
King
Louis Philippe about non-payment of debts. The crown is falling off; Jackson is advised by king Neptune, and backed up by an American warship. On the left are French politicians, depicted as little frogs. The dispute was resolved after British mediation.

Famous 1831 caricature of Louis Philippe turning into a pear mirrored the deterioration of his popularity (Honoré Daumier, after Charles Philipon, who was jailed for the original)

Louis Philippe ruled in an unpretentious fashion, avoiding the pomp and lavish spending of his predecessors. Despite this outward appearance of simplicity, his support came from the wealthy bourgeoisie. At first, he was much loved and called the "Citizen King" and the "bourgeois monarch", but his popularity suffered as his government was perceived as increasingly conservative and monarchical, despite his decision to have Napoleon's remains returned to France. Under his management, the conditions of the working classes deteriorated, and the income gap widened considerably.[citation needed] An economic crisis in 1847[clarification needed] led to the 1848 Revolutions, and Louis Philippe's abdication.[citation needed] The dissonance between his positive early reputation and his late unpopularity was epitomized by Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
in Les Misérables
Les Misérables
as an oxymoron describing his reign as "Prince Equality", in which Hugo states:[9]

[Louis Philippe had to] bear in his own person the contradiction of the Restoration and the Revolution, to have that disquieting side of the revolutionary which becomes reassuring in governing power ... He had been proscribed, a wanderer, poor. He had lived by his own labor. In Switzerland, this heir to the richest princely domains in France had sold an old horse in order to obtain bread. At Reichenau, he gave lessons in mathematics, while his sister Adelaide did wool work and sewed. These souvenirs connected with a king rendered the bourgeoisie enthusiastic. He had, with his own hands, demolished the iron cage of Mont-Saint-Michel, built by Louis XI, and used by Louis XV. He was the companion of Dumouriez, he was the friend of Lafayette; he had belonged to the Jacobins' club; Mirabeau had slapped him on the shoulder; Danton had said to him: "Young man!"

What is there against him? That throne. Take away Louis Philippe the king, there remains the man. And the man is good. He is good at times even to the point of being admirable. Often, in the midst of his gravest souvenirs, after a day of conflict with the whole diplomacy of the continent, he returned at night to his apartments, and there, exhausted with fatigue, overwhelmed with sleep, what did he do? He took a death sentence and passed the night in revising a criminal suit, considering it something to hold his own against Europe, but that it was a still greater matter to rescue a man from the executioner. — Victor Hugo

Abdication
Abdication
and death (1848–50)[edit]

Abdication
Abdication
of Louis Philippe, in favor of his grandson, the comte de Paris, dated 24 February 1848

On 24 February 1848, during the February 1848 Revolution, King
King
Louis Philippe abdicated in favour of his nine-year-old grandson, Philippe, comte de Paris. Fearful of what had happened to Louis XVI, Louis Philippe quickly left Paris
Paris
under disguise. Riding in an ordinary cab under the name of "Mr. Smith", he fled to England. The National Assembly of France
National Assembly of France
initially planned to accept young Philippe as king, but the strong current of public opinion rejected that. On 26 February, the Second Republic was proclaimed. Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was elected President on 10 December 1848; on 2 December 1851, he declared himself president for life and then Emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
III in 1852. Louis Philippe and his family remained in exile in Great Britain in Claremont, Surrey, where he died on 26 August 1850. He was first buried at St. Charles Borromeo Chapel in Weybridge, Surrey. In 1876, his remains and those of his wife were taken to France
France
and buried at the Chapelle royale de Dreux, the Orléans family necropolis his mother had built in 1816, and which he had enlarged and embellished after her death. Clash of the pretenders[edit] The clashes of 1830 and 1848 between the Legitimists
Legitimists
and the Orleanists over who was the rightful monarch were resumed in the 1870s. After the fall of the Second Empire, a monarchist-dominated National Assembly offered a throne to the Legitimist
Legitimist
pretender, Henri de France, comte de Chambord, as Henri V. As he was childless, his heir was (except to the most extreme Legitimists) Louis Philippe's grandson, Philippe d'Orléans, comte de Paris. Thus the comte de Chambord's death would have united the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
and House of Orléans.

Louis Philippe in 1842

However, the comte de Chambord refused to take the throne unless the Tricolor flag of the Revolution was replaced with the fleur-de-lis flag of the Ancien Régime. This the National Assembly was unwilling to do. The Third Republic was established, though many intended for it to be temporary, and replaced by a constitutional monarchy after the death of the comte de Chambord. However, the comte de Chambord lived longer than expected. By the time of his death in 1883, support for the monarchy had declined, and public opinion sided with a continuation of the Third Republic, as the form of government that, according to Adolphe Thiers, "divides us least". Some suggested a monarchical restoration under a later comte de Paris
Paris
after the fall of the Vichy regime
Vichy regime
but this did not occur. Many remaining French monarchists regard the descendants of Louis Philippe's grandson, who hold the title Count of Paris, as the rightful pretenders to the French throne; others, the Legitimists, consider Don Luis-Alfonso de Borbón, Duke of Anjou (to his supporters, "Louis XX") to be the rightful heir. Head of the Royal House of Bourbon, Louis is descended in the male line from Philippe, Duke of Anjou, the second grandson of the Sun-King, Louis XIV. Philippe ( King
King
Philip V of Spain), however, had renounced his rights to the throne of France
France
to prevent the much-feared union of France
France
and Spain. The two sides challenged each other in the French Republic's law courts in 1897 and again nearly a century later. In the latter case, Henri, comte de Paris, duc de France, challenged the right of the Spanish-born "pretender" to use the title Duke of Anjou. The French courts threw out his claim, arguing that the legal system had no jurisdiction over the matter. Titles and styles[edit]

Royal styles of Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I
of France

Reference style His Majesty

Spoken style Your Majesty

Alternative style Sir

6 October 1773 – 18 November 1785 His Serene Highness The Duke of Valois 18 November 1785 – 6 November 1793 His Serene Highness The Duke of Chartres 6 November 1793 – 21 September 1824 His Serene Highness The Duke of Orléans 21 September 1824 – 9 August 1830 His Royal Highness The Duke of Orléans 9 August 1830 – 24 February 1848 His Majesty The King
King
of the French 24 February 1848 – 26 August 1850 His Majesty King
King
Louis Philippe

Honours[edit] National[edit]

Silver Coin of Louis Philippe I, Struck 1834

Obverse: (French) LOUIS PHILIPPE I ROI DES FRANÇAIS, in English: "Louis Philippe I, King
King
of the French" Reverse: 5 FRANCS, 1834

Grand Master of the Legion of Honour Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Spirit

Foreign[edit]

 Belgium: Grand Cordon in the Order of Leopold; gift of his son in law in 1833.[10]  Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant  Spain: Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece
- 1834  Two Sicilies: Knight of the Order of Saint Januarius  United Kingdom: 694th Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
- 1844

Standard of Louis Philippe I

Arms of Louis Philippe I

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Louis Philippe I

16. Philippe II, Duke of Orléans

8. Louis, Duke of Orléans

17. Françoise Marie de Bourbon

4. Louis Philippe I, Duke of Orléans

18. Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden

9. Auguste of Baden-Baden

19. Sibylle of Saxe-Lauenburg

2. Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans

20. François Louis, Prince of Conti

10. Louis Armand II, Prince of Conti

21. Marie Thérèse de Bourbon

5. Louise Henriette de Bourbon

22. Louis III, Prince of Condé

11. Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon

23. Louise Françoise de Bourbon

1. Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I
of France

24. Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France

12. Louis Alexandre, Count of Toulouse

25. Madame de Montespan

6. Louis Jean Marie, Duke of Penthièvre

26. Anne Jules de Noailles, Duke of Noailles

13. Marie Victoire de Noailles

27. Marie-Françoise de Bournonville

3. Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon

28. Rinaldo d'Este, Duke of Modena

14. Francesco III d'Este, Duke of Modena

29. Charlotte of Brunswick

7. Maria Teresa Felicitas d'Este

30. Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
Duke of Orléans
(= 16)

15. Charlotte Aglaé of Orléans

31. Françoise Marie de Bourbon
Françoise Marie de Bourbon
(= 17)

See also[edit]

Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
portal Biography portal

Louis Philippe style List of works by James Pradier Paris
Paris
under Louis-Philippe Lieutenant-General (France) Origins of the French Foreign Legion

Namesakes[edit]

Louis Philippe, Crown Prince
Crown Prince
of Belgium, grandson by his daughter Queen Louise of the Belgians Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, great-great-grandson and heir to the Portuguese Throne

Notes[edit]

'^ Louis Philippe's 13 August 1830 Ordinance, relative to the surname (nom) and titles of his children and of his sister': Ordonnance du roi qui détermine les noms et titres des princes et princesses de la famille royale.

LOUIS PHILIPPE ROI DES FRANÇAIS, à tous présens et à venir, salut.

Notre avènement à la couronne ayant rendu nécessaire de déterminer les noms et les titres que devaient porter à l'avenir les princes et princesses nos enfans, ainsi que notre bien-aimée sœur, Nous avons ordonné et ordonnons ce qui suit : Les princes et princesses nos bien-aimés enfans, ainsi que notre bien-aimée sœur, continueront à porter le nom et les armes d'Orléans.

Notre bien-aimé fils aîné, le duc de Chartres, portera, comme prince royal, le titre de duc d'Orléans.

Nos bien-aimés fils puînés conserveront les titres qu'ils ont portés jusqu'à ce jour. Nos bien-aimées filles et notre bien-aimée sœur ne porteront d'autre titre que celui de princesses d'Orléans, en se distinguant entre elles par leurs prénoms.

Il sera fait, en conséquence, sur les registres de l'état civil de la Maison royale, dans les archives de la Chambre des Pairs, toutes les rectifications qui résultent des dispositions ci-dessus [...]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b "Kom Inn! (NRK-TV Norsk Rikskringkasting)". tv.nrk.no. 12 September 1981.  ^ Corinne L. Saucier, History of Avoyelles Parish, p. 27 (1943). ^ Purdue, A.W. (2004). "George III, Daughters of (act. 1766–1857)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/59209.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ "Louis-Philippe Biography". The Biography.com Website. Retrieved 13 May 2014.  ^ Bouveiron, A. "III." Historical and Biographical Sketch of Fieschi. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 16. Google Books. Web. 24 Dec. 2012. ^ Jill Harsin (2002). Barricades: The War of the Streets in Revolutionary Paris, 1830-1848. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-29479-3.  ^ Gabriel G. Bredow; Carl Venturini (1837). Chronik des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts.  ^ A. Bouveiron; Giuseppe Marco Fieschi (1835). An historical and biographical sketch of Fieschi.  ^ Les Miserables, Victor Hugo, Chapter III: Louis Philippe ^ Almanach royal officiel, publié, exécution d'un arrête du roi, Volume 1: Tarlier, 1854, p. 37

Bibliography[edit]

Aston, Nigel. "Orleanism, 1780–1830," History Today, Oct 1988, Vol. 38 Issue 10, pp 41–47 Beik, Paul. Louis Philippe and the July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1965) Collingham, H.A.C. The July Monarchy: A Political History of France, 1830–1848 (Longman, 1988) Howarth, T.E.B. Citizen-King: The Life of Louis Philippe, King
King
of the French (1962). Jardin, Andre, and Andre-Jean Tudesq. Restoration and Reaction 1815–1848 (The Cambridge History of Modern France) (1988) Lucas-Dubreton, J. The Restoration and the July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1929) Newman, Edgar Leon, and Robert Lawrence Simpson. Historical Dictionary of France
France
from the 1815 Restoration to the Second Empire (Greenwood Press, 1987) online edition

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Louis Philippe I.

Media related to Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I
at Wikimedia Commons La Caricature Gallery: Caricatures of Louis Philippe and others, published in La Caricature 1830–1835

Louis Philippe I House of Orléans Cadet branch of the House of Bourbon Born: 6 October 1773 Died: 26 August 1850

Regnal titles

Preceded by Charles X as King
King
of France King
King
of the French 9 August 1830 – 24 February 1848 Vacant Monarchy abolished Title next held by Napoleon
Napoleon
III as emperor

Preceded by Charles X of France Co-Prince of Andorra with Simó de Guardiola 9 August 1830 – 24 February 1848 Succeeded by Louis- Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte

French nobility

Preceded by Louis Philippe II Duke of Orléans 6 November 1793 – 9 August 1830 Succeeded by Ferdinand Philippe

Political offices

Preceded by Charles X French Head of State 9 August 1830 – 24 February 1848 Succeeded by Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure

Titles in pretence

Loss of title Republic declared

— TITULAR — King
King
of the French 24 February 1848 – 26 August 1850 Succeeded by Philippe VII/Louis Philippe II

v t e

Princes of Orléans

1st generation

Philippe, Duke of Orléans^

2nd generation

Philippe Charles, Duke of Valois^ Alexandre Louis, Duke of Valois^ Philippe, Duke of Orléans^

3rd generation

Louis, Duke of Orléans^

4th generation

Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans^

5th generation

Philippe, Duke of Orléans^

6th generation

Louis Philippe, King
King
of the French^ Antoine, Duke of Montpensier^ Louis Charles, Count of Beaujolais^

7th generation

Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orléans Louis, Duke of Nemours François, Prince of Joinville Charles, Duke of Penthièvre^ Henri, Duke of Aumale Antoine, Duke of Montpensier

8th generation

Philippe, Count of Paris Robert, Duke of Chartres Gaston, Count of Eu Ferdinand, Duke of Alençon Pierre, Duke of Penthièvre Louis, Prince of Condé François Louis, Duke of Guise Prince Fernando Prince Felipe Infante Antonio, Duke of Galliera Prince Luis

9th generation

Philippe, Duke of Orléans Prince Charles Prince Jacques Ferdinand, Duke of Montpensier Prince Robert Prince Henri Jean, Duke of Guise Emmanuel, Duke of Vendôme Alfonso, Duke of Galliera Prince Luis Fernando

10th generation

Prince Henri, Count of Paris Charles Philippe, Duke of Nemours Álvaro, Duke of Galliera Prince Alonso Prince Ataúlfo

11th generation

Henri, Count of Paris, Duke of France François, Duke of Orléans Michel, Count of Évreux Jacques, Duke of Orléans Thibaut, Count of La Marche

12th generation

François, Count of Clermont Jean, Duke of Vendôme Eudes, Duke of Angoulême Charles Philippe, Duke of Anjou Prince François, Count of Dreux Charles Louis, Duke of Chartres Foulques, Duke of Aumale Robert, Count of La Marche Prince Louis Philippe

13th generation

Prince Gaston Prince Joseph Prince Pierre Prince Philippe Prince Constantin Prince Philippe

^never styled Prince of Orléans

v t e

Heads of state of France

Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940 to 1944 (Chief of State) and 1944 to 1947 (Chairman of the Provisional Government). Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree

Merovingians (486–751)

Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric III

Carolingians, Robertians and Bosonids (751–987)

Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis V

House of Capet
House of Capet
(987–1328)

Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)

Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry III

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453)

Henry VI of England

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)

Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVII

First Republic (1792–1804)

National Convention Directory Consulate

First Empire (1804–1815)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I Napoleon
Napoleon
II

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830)

Louis XVIII Charles X Louis XIX Henry V

July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)

Louis Philippe I

Second Republic (1848–1852)

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure Executive Commission Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870)

Napoleon
Napoleon
III

Government of National Defense (1870–1871)

Louis-Jules Trochu

Third Republic (1871–1940)

Adolphe Thiers Patrice de Mac-Mahon Jules Armand Dufaure* Jules Grévy Maurice Rouvier* Sadi Carnot Charles Dupuy* Jean Casimir-Perier Charles Dupuy* Félix Faure Charles Dupuy* Émile Loubet Armand Fallières Raymond Poincaré Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand Frédéric François-Marsal* Gaston Doumergue Paul Doumer André Tardieu* Albert Lebrun

Vichy France
Vichy France
(1940–1944)

Philippe Pétain

Provisional Government (1944–1947)

Charles de Gaulle Félix Gouin Georges Bidault Vincent Auriol Léon Blum

Fourth Republic (1947–1958)

Vincent Auriol René Coty

Fifth Republic (1958–present)

Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected.

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris
Paris
Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists
Girondists
(2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club
Jacobin Club
(11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille
Bastille
Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

v t e

Pretenders to the French throne since 1792

Monarchy in exile (1792–1815)

1792 Louis XVI 1793 Louis XVII 1795 Louis XVIII 1814 1815

Legitimist
Legitimist
pretenders (1830–present)

1830 Charles X 1836 Louis Antoine 1844 Henri 1883 Jean 1887 Charles 1909 Jacques 1931 Alphonse Charles 1936 Alphonse 1941 Jacques 1975 Alphonse 1989 Louis Alphonse present

Orléanist
Orléanist
pretenders (1848–present)

1848 Louis Philippe I 1850 Philippe 1894 Philippe 1926 Jean 1940 Henri 1999 Henri present

Unionist succession (1830–present)

1830 Charles X 1836 Louis Antoine 1844 Henri 1883 Philippe 1894 Philippe 1926 Jean 1940 Henri 1999 Henri present

Bonapartist Prince Imperial (1814–present)

1814 1815 Napoléon I 1821 Napoléon II 1832 Joseph 1844 Louis 1846 Napoléon III (Emperor 1852–1870) 1873 Napoléon 1879 Victor 1926 Louis 1997 Charles / Jean-Christophe present (disputed)

Bonapartist Prince Canino (1832–1924)

1832 Lucien 1840 Charles 1857 Joseph 1865 Lucien 1895 Napoléon Charles 1899 Roland 1924

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 55392984 LCCN: n50080625 ISNI: 0000 0001 2211 2626 GND: 11864064X SELIBR: 194393 SUDOC: 028200004 BNF: cb120083455 (data) ULAN: 500236304 NKC: jn20000701084 RKD: 427