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This is a list of the current and former capitals of country subdivisions of China. The history of China
China
and its administrative divisions is long and convoluted; hence, this chart will cover only capitals after the completion of the Mongol conquest of China
China
in 1279, because the modern province (sheng 省) was first created during the Mongol Yuan dynasty. A selection of country subdivisions and their capitals before 1279 can be found in the article History of the political divisions of China. Years may not line up perfectly during periods of turmoil (e.g. at the end of each dynasty). The list includes current and former provinces, as well as other first-level units that have been used over the course of China's recent history, such as autonomous regions, military command zones during the Qing dynasty, and so forth. Unless otherwise specified, a given administrative unit can be assumed to be a province with its present name. Historical names of provinces and entities that are not provinces will be specified as they arise. Excluded from the list:

units below the first level; Direct-controlled municipalities of China
China
and special administrative regions; subnational entities of short-lived regimes, such as the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping, the Chinese Soviet Republic, Manchukuo, Mengjiang, Wang Jingwei Government, etc. This is because their provinces were usually transitory in existence and tend to be smaller than usual.

Many of the capitals given in this chart have had multiple historical names during different dynasties. In some cases, different names were used concurrently for the same city. This chart gives only the modern names for the sake of simplicity. For the sake of simplicity, the chart will not attempt to be exhaustive in its descriptions of border changes. National entities since 1279:

Government When

Yuan dynasty 1271–1368

Ming dynasty 1368–1644

Qing dynasty 1616–1912

Republic of China 1912–present

People's Republic of China 1949–present

Province (or equivalent) Capital When Remarks

Anhui During the Yuan dynasty, modern Anhui
Anhui
was split between the Secretariat (中書省) of the central government, the province of Jianghuai, and (from 1291) the province of Henanjiangbei.

N/A 1366–1644 As part of Zhili
Zhili
up to 1421; as part of Nanzhili after 1421. Administered directly by the central government, instead of a province.

N/A 1645–1661 Part of Jiangnan Province[disambiguation needed], formed out of former Nanzhili in 1645. Split into Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and Anhui
Anhui
in 1661.

Nanjing 1661–1760 Nanjing
Nanjing
is now the capital of neighbouring Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province.

Anqing 1760–1853

Hefei 1853–1862 During the Taiping Rebellion.

Anqing 1862–1946

Hefei 1946–1949

Hefei
Hefei
(north) 1949–1952 As North Anhui
Anhui
and South Anhui
Anhui
administrative regions.

Wuhu (south)

Hefei 1952–present

Fujian Fuzhou, Quanzhou 1278–1299 Between 1278 and 1299, separate provinces in the Fujian
Fujian
area were repeatedly split out and remerged back into Jiangzhe Province.

N/A 1299–1356 Part of Jiangzhe Province until Fujian
Fujian
Province was split out of it.

Fuzhou 1356–present

Kinmen 1949–present After the ROC relocated to Taiwan.

Gansu Zhangye 1286–1368

N/A 1368–1667 Part of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province.

Lanzhou 1667–present Gansu
Gansu
was called Gongchang 1667–1670.

Guangdong Before 1369, modern Guangdong
Guangdong
was split between the provinces of Jiangxi, Huguang, and (from 1364) Guangxi.

Guangzhou 1369–present Included modern Hainan
Hainan
until 1988.

Guangxi Mostly found within Huguang Province
Huguang Province
before 1364.

Guilin 1364–1912 Included parts of modern Guangdong
Guangdong
until 1369.

Nanning 1912–1936

Guilin 1936–1950

Nanning 1950–present Guangxi
Guangxi
Province became Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region in 1958.

Guizhou Mostly found within the provinces of Huguang, Sichuan, and Yunnan before 1413.

Guiyang 1413–present

Hainan Part of Huguang before 1364; part of Guangxi
Guangxi
from 1364 to 1369; part of Guangdong
Guangdong
after 1369.

N/A 1369–1988 Part of Guangdong
Guangdong
Province.

Haikou 1988–present

Hebei Administered by the Secretariat (中書省) of the central government before 1368. Briefly split between Henan
Henan
and Shandong
Shandong
provinces, 1368–1369.

Beiping 1369–1421 As Beiping Province.

N/A 1421–1669 As Beizhili
Beizhili
up to 1645; as Zhili
Zhili
after 1645. Administered directly by the central government, instead of a province.

Baoding 1669–1902 As Zhili
Zhili
province.

Tianjin 1902–1928

Beiping 1928–1930

Tianjin 1930–1935

Baoding 1935–1958

Tianjin 1958–1966

Baoding 1966–1968

Shijiazhuang 1968–present

Heilongjiang N/A 1264–1368 Part of Liaoyang
Liaoyang
Province. "Liaoyang" was the final name of the province after several changes between 1264–1287.

Mongols, Manchus, and Ming China
China
military garrisons in the area during the Ming dynasty.

Aigun 1683–1690 Area of control of the General of Heilongjiang. Became Heilongjiang Province in 1907.

Nenjiang 1690–1699

Qiqihar 1699–1907

Qiqihar 1907–1931

N/A 1931–1945 Part of Manchukuo.

Bei'an 1945–1949 As Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province (northwestern part of modern Heilongjiang)

Jiamusi As Hejiang Province (northeastern part of modern Heilongjiang)

Qiqihar As Nenjiang Province (southwestern part of modern Heilongjiang)

Mudanjiang As Songjiang Province (southeastern part of modern Heilongjiang)

Qiqihar 1949–1954 As Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province (western part of modern Heilongjiang)

Harbin As Songjiang Province (eastern part of modern Heilongjiang)

Harbin 1954–present New Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
formed from Songjiang + old Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
in 1954

Henan Administered by the Secretariat (中書省) of the central government for the most part before 1291.

Kaifeng 1291–1954 Initially as Henanjiangbei Province, which included parts of modern Jiangsu, Anhui, Hubei
Hubei
provinces. Given approximately modern borders and modern name in 1368.

Zhengzhou 1954–present

Hubei During the Yuan dynasty, modern Hubei
Hubei
was split between the province of Huguang, (from 1291) Henanjiangbei, and Sichuan.

N/A 1277–1664 Part of Huguang Province.

Wuchang 1664–1927

Wuhan 1927–present Wuhan
Wuhan
is the amalgamation of Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang.

Hunan N/A 1277–1664 Part of Huguang Province.

Changsha 1664–present

Inner Mongolia See the history section of Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
for the administrative entities of that region before 1947.

Ulaanhot 1947–1950 As Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region.

Hohhot 1950–present

Jiangsu Before 1356, modern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
was split between the Secretariat (中書省) of the central government, the province of Jianghuai,(from 1289) Jiangzhe, (from 1291) the province of Henanjiangbei, and (from 1354) the province of Huainanjiangbei.

N/A 1366–1644 As part of Zhili
Zhili
up to 1421; as part of Nanzhili after 1421. Administered directly by the central government, instead of a province.

N/A 1645–1661 Part of Jiangnan Province, formed out of former Nanzhili in 1645. Split into Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and Anhui
Anhui
in 1661.

Nanjing, Suzhou 1661–1912?

Nanjing 1912?–1928

Zhenjiang 1928–1949

Yangzhou
Yangzhou
(north) 1949–1952 As North Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and South Jiangsu
Jiangsu
administrative regions.

Wuxi
Wuxi
(south)

Nanjing 1952–present

Jiangxi Nanchang 1277–present Included parts of modern Guangdong
Guangdong
until 1369.

Jilin N/A 1264–1368 Part of Liaoyang
Liaoyang
Province. "Liaoyang" was the final name of the province after several changes between 1264–1287.

Mongols, Manchus, and Ming China
China
military garrisons in the area during the Ming dynasty.

Ningguta 1662–1757 Area of control of the General of Ningguta
Ningguta
(up to 1757) or the General of Jilin
Jilin
(from 1757). Became Jilin
Jilin
Province in 1907.

Jilin
Jilin
City 1757–1907

Jilin
Jilin
City 1907–1931

N/A 1931–1945 Part of Manchukuo.

Jilin
Jilin
City 1945–1954

Changchun 1954–present

Liaoning N/A 1264–1368 Part of Liaoyang
Liaoyang
Province. "Liaoyang" was the final name of the province after several changes between 1264–1287.

Partially under Shandong
Shandong
province during the Ming dynasty, until Manchu conquest c. 1618.

Shenyang 1662–1907 Area of control of the General of Shengjing. Became Fengtian Province in 1907.

Shenyang 1907–1931 Fengtian Province from 1907 to 1929; Liaoning
Liaoning
Province from 1929 onwards.

N/A 1931–1945 Part of Manchukuo.

Shenyang 1945–1949 As Liaoning
Liaoning
Province (central part of modern Liaoning)

Tonghua As Andong Province (eastern part of modern Liaoning; southern part of modern Jilin)

Liaoyuan As Liaobei Province (northern part of modern Liaoning; western part of modern Jilin)

Jinzhou 1949–1954 As Liaoxi Province (western part of modern Liaoning)

Dandong As Liaodong Province (eastern part of modern Liaoning; southern part of modern Jilin). Dandong
Dandong
was then known as "Andong"

Shenyang 1954–present

Ningxia Mostly part of Gansu
Gansu
Province (up to c. 1370); part of Shaanxi Province (up to 1667); part of Gansu
Gansu
Province (1667 onwards)

Yinchuan 1928–1954 Ningxia
Ningxia
Province split out of Gansu
Gansu
in 1928.

N/A 1954–1958 Part of Gansu
Gansu
Province.

Yinchuan 1958–present Ningxia
Ningxia
Hui Autonomous Region split out of Gansu
Gansu
in 1958.

Qinghai Historically Oyirad
Oyirad
Mongols in the north, Amdo
Amdo
and Kham
Kham
Tibetans in the south. Overseen by commissioner stationed at Xining
Xining
(then part of Gansu
Gansu
Province) during Qing dynasty, early Republic of China
China
(up to 1928).See History section of Qinghai.

Xining 1928–present

Shaanxi Xi'an 1286–present From 1260 to 1286, Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province (and in some cases, a combined Shaanxi- Sichuan
Sichuan
Province) was established and disbanded several times.Included modern Gansu
Gansu
and Ningxia
Ningxia
until 1667.

Shandong Administered by the Secretariat (中書省) of the central government before c. 1357.

Qingzhou 1357?–1377?

Jinan 1377–present

Shanxi Administered by the Secretariat (中書省) of the central government before 1368.

Taiyuan 1369–present

Sichuan Chengdu 1286–1287 From 1260 to 1286, Sichuan
Sichuan
Province (and in some cases, a combined Shaanxi- Sichuan
Sichuan
Province) was established and disbanded several times.

Chongqing 1287–1289

Chengdu 1289–1646

Langzhong 1646–1665

Chengdu 1665–1949

Nanchong
Nanchong
(north) 1949–1952 As North Sichuan, South Sichuan, East Sichuan
Sichuan
and West Sichuan administrative regions.

Luzhou
Luzhou
(south)

Chongqing
Chongqing
(east)

Chengdu
Chengdu
(west)

Chengdu 1952–present

Taiwan Formosan people live in the area before 1624; European colonization from 1624 to 1661; Kingdom of Tungning
Kingdom of Tungning
from 1661 to 1683. See History of Taiwan.

N/A 1683–1887 Part of Fujian
Fujian
Province.

Taiwan-fu 1887–1894 Planned

Taipei 1887—1895 1945–1956 De facto until 1894; official after 1894

Zhongxing New Village 1956—present

Tibet Part of Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
up to fourteenth century; struggle between Sakyapa, Kagyüpa, later Gelukpa schools of Tibetan Buddhism up to seventeenth century, when Gelukpa becomes dominant.

Lhasa (1720's)–present The Dalai Lamas (Gelukpa school) ruled over Ü-Tsang
Ü-Tsang
(or more) from Lhasa from 1642 onwards. Qing China
China
began to assert control over Tibet in the 1720s until its fall in 1912; from 1912 to 1951 Tibet was self-ruling but recognized internationally as a part of China. Planning Committee for Tibet Autonomous Region
Tibet Autonomous Region
(TAR) from 1955 to 1965; TAR established in 1965.

Xinjiang Ruled by Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
from thirteenth to fifteenth century; fragmented until eighteenth century when Qing China
China
conquered the region. See History section of Xinjiang.

Yining 1762–1888 General of Ili, based in Yining, held administrative powers until 1888; central control lapsed during Yakub Beg's revolt from 1865, until his forces were defeated in 1881.

Ürümqi 1884–present Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Province until 1955; Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region from 1955.

Yunnan Kunming 1275–present Included parts of morden Sichuan
Sichuan
and Guizhou
Guizhou
until Ming dynasty.

Zhejiang N/A 1289–1367 Part of Jiangzhe Province.

Hangzhou 1367–present

Chahar See Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
for history before 1914.

Zhangjiakou 1914–1937 Chahar Special
Special
Administrative Region until 1928; province from 1928.

N/A 1937–1945 Part of Mengjiang.

Zhangjiakou 1945–1952 Disbanded in 1952, distributed into Hebei
Hebei
Province, Shanxi
Shanxi
Province.

Huainanjiangbei Tianchang 1354–1364? Established out of Henanjiangbei; disappeared with end of Yuan dynasty (c. 1368). Found mainly in modern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province.

Huguang Changsha 1277–1281

Wuchang 1281–1664 Included morden Guangxi, Hainan
Hainan
and parts morden Guangdong
Guangdong
until 1364, included parts of morden Guizhou
Guizhou
until 1413. Split into Hubei
Hubei
and Hunan
Hunan
provinces in 1664

Jiangnan Nanjing 1645–1661 Converted from the directly administered Nanzhili region in 1645; split into Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and Anhui
Anhui
provinces in 1661. See also remarks at Jiangsu, Anhui
Anhui
entries.

Jiangzhe Hangzhou 1289–1367? A province was established in the region in 1276; its seat was moved around and it was renamed several times, until settling upon Jiangzhe Province with seat at Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in 1289. Split into Zhejiang, Fujian Provinces by Ming dynasty.

Jiaodong Laiyang 1364–1368? Established in the Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula; does not appear to have outlasted the end of the Yuan dynasty.

Liaoyang Liaoyang 1264–1368? "Liaoyang" was the final name of the province after several changes between 1264–1287. Lasted until the end of Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
(c. 1368); found today mostly in Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang.

Pingyuan Xinxiang 1949–1952 Split out of Hebei, Shandong, Henan
Henan
provinces in 1949; distributed into Henan, Shandong
Shandong
provinces in 1952.

Rehe See Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
for history before 1914.

Chengde 1914–1933 Rehe Special
Special
Administrative Region until 1928; province from 1928.

N/A 1933–1945 Part of Manchukuo.

Chengde 1945–1955 Disbanded in 1955, distributed into Hebei
Hebei
Province, Liaoning
Liaoning
Province, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region.

Suiyuan See Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
for history before 1914.

Hohhot 1914–1937 Suiyuan
Suiyuan
Special
Special
Administrative Region until 1928; province from 1928.

N/A 1937–1945 Part of Mengjiang.

Hohhot 1945–1954 Merged into Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region in 1954.

Xikang Kangding 1914–1950 Chuanbian Special
Special
Region created in 1914, from western Sichuan
Sichuan
and territory formerly ruled from Lhasa; it is roughly equivalent to southern Kham
Kham
and southern Amdo. Converted into Xikang
Xikang
Province established in 1939; merged into Sichuan
Sichuan
province in 1955. See also remarks at entries for Tibet, Sichuan.

Ya'an 1950–1955

Xing'an Hailar 1945–1947? After the end of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
at the end of World War II, Xing'an Province was created from the northwestern part of Manchuria, which was administered by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
province before the war. The region was superseded by Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Region.

Zhili; Beizhili; Nanzhili Regions directly administered by the central government, not part of any province. "Zhili" (modern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and Anhui) from 1366 to 1421; "Beizhili" (modern Hebei) and "Nanzhili" (modern Jiangsu, Anhui) from 1421 to 1645; "Zhili" (modern Hebei) from 1645 to 1669. Name kept for " Zhili
Zhili
Province" (modern Hebei) from 1669 to 1927. See also remarks at Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui
Anhui
entries.

See also[edit]

Historical capitals of China The Historical Atlas of China List of capitals in the People's Repub