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Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(/ˈkwɑːlə ˈlʊmpʊər, -pər/; Malaysian: [ˈkwalə ˈlumpʊr]), officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia
Malaysia
as well as its largest city in the country. The only global city in Malaysia, it covers an area of 243 km2 (94 sq mi) and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016[update].[6] Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017[update].[7] It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in South-East Asia, in both population and economic development. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is the cultural, financial and economic centre of Malaysia
Malaysia
and home to the Parliament of Malaysia, and the official residence of the Malaysian King (Yang di-Pertuan Agong), the Istana Negara. The city once held the headquarters of the executive and judicial branches of the federal government as well, but they were moved to Putrajaya
Putrajaya
in early 1999.[8] Some sections of the judiciary still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is one of three Federal Territories of Malaysia,[9] enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.[10] Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting, political and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has undergone rapid development in recent decades. It is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas
Petronas
Twin Towers, which have become an iconic symbol of Malaysia's futuristic development. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has a comprehensive road system that is supported by extensive public transport networks such as the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT), Light Metro (LRT), monorail, elevated Bus
Bus
Rapid Transit, commuter rail and airport rail link. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is one of the leading cities in the world for tourism and shopping. It is the seventh most visited city in the world.[11] The city is also home to three of the world's 10 largest malls.[12] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has been ranked by the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
at No. 70 out of 140 cities in a global ranking of liveable cities, and second in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
after Singapore
Singapore
at No. 35.[13] Forbes
Forbes
has also named Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
at No. 6 in its list of 10 best cities to retire abroad, and the best in Asia, with factors including world class healthcare, affordable cost of living and widely spoken English.[14] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was named as one of the New7Wonders Cities.[15] Safe Cities Index 2017 has put Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
31st on its world safest cities list, the highest ranked city for a developing country.[16]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Early years 1.3 Beginning of modern Kuala Lumpur 1.4 20th century–present

2 Geography

2.1 Climate and weather

3 Governance

3.1 Local government 3.2 Districts 3.3 Politics

4 Economy

4.1 Tourism 4.2 Retail

5 Demographics

5.1 Historical demographics 5.2 Languages and religions

6 Cityscape

6.1 Architecture 6.2 Parks

7 Education 8 Culture

8.1 Arts 8.2 Sports and recreation 8.3 Media

9 Transport 10 International
International
relations

10.1 Twin towns – sister cities

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Kuala Lumpur

Jamek Mosque
Jamek Mosque
at the confluence of Gombak
Gombak
(left) and Klang (right) rivers. The earliest settlement of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
developed on the eastern side of the river bank (to the right in this picture).

Etymology[edit] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
means "muddy confluence"; kuala is the point where two rivers join together or an estuary, and lumpur means "mud".[17][18] One suggestion is that it was named after Sungai Lumpur ("muddy river"); it was recorded in the 1820s that Sungei Lumpoor was the most important tin-producing settlement up the Klang River.[19] Doubts however have been raised on such a derivation as Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
lies at the confluence of Gombak River
Gombak River
and Klang River, therefore should rightly be named Kuala Gombak
Gombak
as the point where one river joins another or the sea is its kuala.[20] It has been argued by some that Sungai Lumpur is in fact Gombak River
Gombak River
(therefore the point where it joined the Klang River
Klang River
would be Kuala Lumpur),[21] although Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River
Klang River
a mile upstream from the Gombak
Gombak
confluence, or perhaps located to the north of the Batu Caves
Batu Caves
area.[20] It has also been proposed that Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was originally named Pengkalan Lumpur ("muddy landing place") in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu ("stone landing place"), but became corrupted into Kuala Lumpur.[21] Another suggestion is that it was initially a Cantonese
Cantonese
word lam-pa meaning 'flooded jungle' or 'decayed jungle'. There is however no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes.[22] It is also possible that the name is a corrupted form of an earlier but now unidentifiable forgotten name.[20] Early years[edit]

Historical affiliations

 Sultanate of Selangor
Selangor
1857–1974   Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
1895–1942; 1945–1946 Empire of Japan
Japan
1942–1945   Malayan Union
Malayan Union
1946–1948   Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
1948–1963   Malaysia
Malaysia
1963–present

It is unknown who founded or named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur. Chinese miners were involved in tin mining up the Selangor
Selangor
River in the 1840s about ten miles north of present-day Kuala Lumpur,[20] and Mandailing
Mandailing
Sumatrans led by Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa were also involved in tin mining and trade in the Ulu Klang region before 1860, and Sumatrans may have settled in the upper reaches of Klang River
Klang River
in the first quarter of the 19th century, possibly earlier.[21][23][24][25] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was originally a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak
Sungai Gombak
and Sungai Klang (Klang River) before it grew into a town. It is generally accepted that Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
become established as a town circa 1857,[26] when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his brother Raja Juma'at of Lukut, raised funds to hire some Chinese miners from Lukut
Lukut
to open new tin mines here.[27][28] The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was opened.[29] Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River
Klang River
to which supplies could conveniently be brought by boat; it therefore became a collection and dispersal point serving the tin mines.[20][26]

Kapitan Yap Ah Loy, the third Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur

Frank Swettenham, credited with Kuala Lumpur's rapid growth and development

Although the early miners suffered a high death toll due to the malarial conditions of the jungle, the Ampang mines were successful, and the first tin from these mines was exported in 1859.[20] The tin-mining spurred the growth of the town, and miners later also settled in Pudu and Batu. The miners formed gangs among themselves;[30] and fights between different gangs were frequent in this period, mainly to gain control of the best tin mines.[31] Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the title of Kapitan Cina (Chinese headman) by the Malay chief, and Hiu Siew, the owner of a mine in Lukut, was chosen as the first Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur.[32] As one of the first traders to arrive in Ampang (along with Yap Ah Sze), he sold provisions to the miners in exchange for tin.[33][34] The third Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur, Yap Ah Loy, was appointed in 1868.[25] Important Malay figures of early Kuala lumpur also include the Dato Dagang ("chief of traders") and Haji Mohamed Tahir.[23] The Minangkabaus later became another important group of people; Minangkabau traders from Sumatra
Sumatra
include Utsman Abdullah,[35] and Haji Mohamed Taib who was involved in the early development of Kampung Baru.[36][37] The Minangkabaus are also important socio-religious figures, for example Utsman bin Abdullah was the first kadi of Kuala Lumpur as well as Muhammad Nur bin Ismail.[38] Beginning of modern Kuala Lumpur[edit]

Part of a panoramic view of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
c. 1884. To the left is the Padang. The buildings were constructed of wood and atap before regulations were enacted by Swettenham in 1884 requiring buildings to use bricks and tiles. The appearance of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
transformed rapidly and greatly in the following years.

Early Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was a small town that suffered from many social and political problems – the buildings were made of wood and atap (palm frond thatching) that were prone to fire, lack of proper sanitation plagued the town with diseases, and it suffered from a constant threat of flooding. The town became embroiled in the Selangor
Selangor
Civil War due in part to the fight for control of revenues from the tin mines. The Chinese Kapitan Yap Ah Loy
Yap Ah Loy
aligned himself with Tengku Kudin, and the rival Chinese gang allied themselves with Raja Mahdi. Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa also switched side to Raja Mahdi, and Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was captured in 1872 and burnt to the ground. Yap escaped to Klang where he reassembled a fighting force. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was recaptured by Yap in March 1873 when Raja Mahdi forces were defeated with the help of fighters from Pahang.[31] The war and other setbacks, such as a drop in tin prices, led to a slump, furthermore a major outbreak of cholera in late 1870s caused many to flee the town. The slump lasted until late 1879, when a rise in the price of tin allowed the town to recover.[26] In late 1881, the town was severely flooded, following a fire that had destroyed the entire town in January that year. That the town was rebuilt a few times and thrived was due in large part to the tenacity and persistence of Yap Ah Loy.[39][40] Yap, together with Frank Swettenham
Frank Swettenham
who was appointed the Resident in 1882, were the two most important figures of early Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
with Swettenham credited with its rapid growth and development and its transformation into a major urban center.[41]

The Government Offices of the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
(Now the Sultan Abdul Samad Building) facing the Padang, c. 1900

The early Chinese and Malay settlements were along the east bank of the Klang River
Klang River
– the Chinese mainly settled around the commercial centre of Market Square; the Malays, later Indian Chettiars and Indian Muslims resided in the Java Street (now Jalan Tun Perak) area. In 1880, the state capital of Selangor
Selangor
was moved from Klang to the more strategically advantageous Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
by the colonial administration, and the British Resident William Bloomfield Douglas then decided that the government buildings and living quarters should be located to the west of the river. Government offices and a new police headquarters was built on Bukit Aman, and the Padang was created initially for police training.[42] The Padang, now known as Merdeka Square, would later become the centre of the British administrative offices when the colonial government offices were moved to the Sultan Abdul Samad Building
Sultan Abdul Samad Building
in 1897.[40] Frank Swettenham, on becoming the British Resident, began improving the town by cleaning up the streets. He also stipulated in 1884 that buildings should be constructed of brick and tile so that they would be less flammable, and that the town be rebuilt with wider streets to reduce fire risk.[41][43] Kapitan Yap Ah Loy
Yap Ah Loy
bought a sprawling piece of real estate to set up a brick industry for the rebuilding of Kuala Lumpur; this place is the eponymous Brickfields.[44] Destroyed atap buildings were replaced with brick and tiled ones, and many of the new brick buildings are characterised by the "five foot ways" as well as Chinese carpentry work. This resulted in a distinct eclectic shop house architecture typical to this region. Kapitan Yap Ah Loy
Yap Ah Loy
expanded road access in the city significantly, linking up tin mines with the city; these roads include the main arterial routes of the present Ampang Road, Pudu Road and Petaling Street.[45] As Chinese Kapitan, he was vested with wide powers on a par with Malay community leaders. Law reforms were implemented and new legal measures introduced to the assembly. Yap also presided over a small claims court. With a police force of six, he was able to uphold the rule of law, constructing a prison that could accommodate 60 prisoners at any time. Kapitan Yap Ah Loy also built Kuala Lumpur's first school and a major tapioca mill in Petaling Street
Petaling Street
of which the Selangor's Sultan Abdul Samad
Sultan Abdul Samad
held an interest.[46]

The construction of the railway spurred the growth of the city. The first headquarters of the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
Railways (now the National Textile
Textile
Museum) in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
shown, with the dome of the F.M.S. Government Offices just visible behind, c. 1910.

A railway line between Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and Klang, initiated by Swettenham and completed in 1886, increased accessibility which resulted in the rapid growth of the town. The population grew from 4,500 in 1884 to 20,000 in 1890.[26] As development intensified in the 1880s, it also put pressure on sanitation, waste disposal and other health issues. A Sanitary Board was created on 14 May 1890 which was responsible for sanitation, upkeep of roads, lighting of street and other functions. This would eventually become the Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Municipal Council.[47] In 1896, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was chosen as the capital of the newly formed Federated Malay States.[48] 20th century–present[edit] The area that is defined as Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
expanded considerably in the 20th century. It was only 0.65 km2 in 1895, but was extended to encompass 20 km2 in 1903. By the time it became a municipality in 1948 it had expanded to 93 km2, and then to 243 km2 in 1974 as a Federal Territory.[49] The development of rubber industry in Selangor
Selangor
fueled by the demand for car tyre in the early 20th century led to a boom of the town, with the population of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
increasing from 30,000 in 1900 to 80,000 in 1920.[50] Previously the commercial activities of Kuala Lumpur were run to a large extent by Chinese businessmen such as Loke Yew who was then the richest and most influential Chinese of Kuala Lumpur. The growth of the rubber industry led to an influx of foreign capital and planters, with new companies and industries becoming established in Kuala Lumpur, and other companies previously based elsewhere also found a presence here.[50]

Japanese troops advancing up High Street (now Jalan Tun H S Lee) in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
in December 1941 during World War II.

During World War II, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was captured by the Imperial Japanese Army
Army
on 11 January 1942. Despite suffering little damage during the course of the battle, the wartime occupation of the city resulted in significant loss of lives; at least 5,000 Chinese were killed in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
in just a few weeks of the occupation by Japanese forces, and thousands of Indians were sent as forced labour to work on the Burma Railway
Burma Railway
where a large number died.[51] They occupied the city until 15 August 1945, when the commander in chief of the Japanese Seventh Area Army
Japanese Seventh Area Army
in Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia, Seishirō Itagaki, surrendered to the British administration following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.[52] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
grew through the war, and continued after the war during the Malayan Emergency, during which Malaya was preoccupied with the communist insurgency and New Villages were established on the outskirts of the city in an attempt to control community contacts with the insurgents.[41] The first municipal election in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was held on 16 February 1952. An ad hoc alliance between the Malay UMNO
UMNO
and Chinese MCA party candidates won a majority of the seats contested, and their success led to the formation of the Alliance Party (later the Barisan Nasional).[53] On 31 August 1957, the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
gained its independence from British rule.[54] The British flag was lowered and the Malayan flag was raised for the first time at the Padang on the midnight of 30 August 1957,[55] and in the morning of 31 August, the ceremony for the Declaration of Independence was held at the Merdeka Stadium by the first Prime Minister of Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
remained the capital after the formation of Malaysia
Malaysia
on 16 September 1963. The Malaysian Houses of Parliament
Malaysian Houses of Parliament
was completed at the edge of the Lake Gardens in 1963.[56]

The Majestic Theatre on Pudu Road was an early pioneer in Kuala Lumpur's cinema scene. It was converted into an amusement park in the 1990s and demolished in 2009.

Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
had seen a number of civil disturbances over the years. A riot in 1897 was a relatively minor affair that began with the confiscation of faulty dacing (a scale used by traders), and in 1912, a more serious disturbance called the tauchang riot began during the Chinese New Year with the cutting of pigtails and ended with rioting and factional fighting lasting a number of days.[57] The worst rioting on record in Malaysia
Malaysia
however occurred on 13 May 1969, when race riots broke out in Kuala Lumpur.[58] The so-called 13 May Incident
13 May Incident
refers to the violent conflicts that took place between members of the Malay and the Chinese communities. The violence was the result of Malaysian Malays being dissatisfied with their socio-political status. The riots caused the deaths of 196 people according to official figures,[58] and led to major changes in the country's economic policy to promote and prioritise Malay economic development over that of the other ethnicities. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
achieved city status in 1972,[59] becoming the first settlement in Malaysia
Malaysia
to be granted the status after independence. Later, on 1 February 1974, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
became a Federal Territory.[60] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
ceased to be the capital of Selangor
Selangor
in 1978 after the city of Shah Alam
Shah Alam
was declared the new state capital.[61] On 14 May 1990, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
celebrated 100 years of local council. The new federal territory Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
flag and anthem were introduced. On 1 February 2001, Putrajaya
Putrajaya
was declared a Federal Territory, as well as the seat of the federal government.[62] The administrative and judicial functions of the government were shifted from Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
to Putrajaya. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
however still retained its legislative function,[63] and remained the home of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Constitutional King).[64] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Kuala Lumpur

A satellite view of Kuala Lumpur

The Red Arrows
Red Arrows
over the city in 2016

The geography of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is characterised by the huge Klang Valley. The valley is bordered by the Titiwangsa Mountains
Titiwangsa Mountains
in the east, several minor ranges in the north and the south and the Strait of Malacca
Malacca
in the west. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is a Malay term that translates to "muddy confluence" as it is located at the confluence of the Klang and Gombak
Gombak
rivers.[65] Located in the centre of Selangor
Selangor
state, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was a territory of Selangor
Selangor
State Government. In 1974, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was separated from Selangor
Selangor
to form the first Federal Territory governed directly by the Malaysian Federal Government. Its location within the most developed state on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, which has wider flat land than the east coast, has contributed to its faster development relative to other cities in Malaysia.[66] The municipality of the city covers an area of 243 km2 (94 sq mi),[2] with an average elevation of 81.95 m (268.9 ft).[67] Climate and weather[edit] Protected by the Titiwangsa Range
Titiwangsa Range
in the east and Indonesia's Sumatra Island in the west, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is safe from strong winds and has a tropical rainforest climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Af), which is warm and sunny, along with abundant rainfall, especially during the northeast monsoon season from October to March. Temperatures tend to remain constant. Maximums hover between 32 and 35 °C (90 and 95 °F) and sometime hit 40 °C (104.0 °F), while minimums hover between 23.4 and 24.6 °C (74.1 and 76.3 °F) and have never fallen below 14.4 °C (57.9 °F).[68][69] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
typically receives minimum 2,600 mm (100 in) of rain annually; June and July are relatively dry, but even then rainfall typically exceeds 131 millimetres (5.2 in) per month. Flood is a frequent occurrence in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
after heavy downpours, especially in the city centre because the structural irrigation lacks behind the intensive development within the City.[70] Smoke from forest fires of nearby Sumatra
Sumatra
sometimes casts a haze over the region. It is a major source of pollution in the city together with open burning, emission from motor vehicles and construction work.[71]

Climate data for Kuala Lumpur

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 38.0 (100.4) 36.2 (97.2) 36.7 (98.1) 37.2 (99) 38.5 (101.3) 36.6 (97.9) 36.3 (97.3) 38.0 (100.4) 35.8 (96.4) 37.0 (98.6) 36.0 (96.8) 35.5 (95.9) 38.5 (101.3)

Average high °C (°F) 32.0 (89.6) 32.8 (91) 33.1 (91.6) 33.1 (91.6) 33.0 (91.4) 32.8 (91) 32.8 (91) 32.3 (90.1) 32.1 (89.8) 32.0 (89.6) 31.7 (89.1) 31.5 (88.7) 32.4 (90.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 27.7 (81.9) 28.2 (82.8) 28.6 (83.5) 28.7 (83.7) 28.8 (83.8) 28.6 (83.5) 28.1 (82.6) 28.1 (82.6) 28.0 (82.4) 28.0 (82.4) 27.8 (82) 27.6 (81.7) 28.2 (82.8)

Average low °C (°F) 23.4 (74.1) 23.6 (74.5) 24.0 (75.2) 24.3 (75.7) 24.6 (76.3) 24.3 (75.7) 23.8 (74.8) 23.9 (75) 23.8 (74.8) 24.0 (75.2) 23.8 (74.8) 23.6 (74.5) 23.9 (75)

Record low °C (°F) 17.8 (64) 18.0 (64.4) 18.9 (66) 20.6 (69.1) 20.5 (68.9) 19.1 (66.4) 20.1 (68.2) 20.0 (68) 21.0 (69.8) 20.0 (68) 20.7 (69.3) 19.0 (66.2) 17.8 (64)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 193 (7.6) 198 (7.8) 257 (10.12) 290 (11.42) 197 (7.76) 131 (5.16) 148 (5.83) 162 (6.38) 214 (8.43) 265 (10.43) 321 (12.64) 252 (9.92) 2,628 (103.49)

Average rainy days 17 17 19 20 18 14 16 16 19 21 24 22 223

Average relative humidity (%) 80 80 80 82 81 80 79 79 81 82 84 83 81

Mean monthly sunshine hours 185.0 192.4 207.9 198.8 206.8 194.4 200.2 189.0 163.8 169.1 152.3 162.6 2,222.3

Source #1: Pogodaiklimat.ru[72]

Source #2: NOAA (sunshine hours, 1961–1990)[73]

Climate data for Kuala Lumpur

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Mean daily daylight hours 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0

Average Ultraviolet index 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11

Source: Weather Atlas[74]

Governance[edit]

Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
City Hall

Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was administered by a corporation sole called the Federal Capital Commissioner from 1 April 1961, until it was awarded city status in 1972, after which executive power transferred to the Lord Mayor (Datuk Bandar).[75] Nine mayors have been appointed since then. The current mayor is Mhd Amin Nordin Abdul Aziz, who has been in office since 18 July 2015.[76] Local government[edit] The local administration is carried out by the Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
City Hall, an agency under the Federal Territories Ministry of Malaysia.[75] It is responsible for public health and sanitation, waste removal and management, town planning, environmental protection and building control, social and economic development, and general maintenance functions of urban infrastructure. Executive power lies with the mayor in the city hall, who is appointed for three years by the Federal Territories Minister. This system of appointing the mayor has been in place ever since the local government elections were suspended in 1970.[77] Districts[edit]

Districts (divisions) of Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur's eleven districts serve as administrative subdivisions under the Kuala Lumpur City Hall
Kuala Lumpur City Hall
authority.[78]

Bukit Bintang Titiwangsa Setiawangsa Wangsa Maju Batu Kepong Segambut Lembah Pantai Seputeh Bandar Tun Razak Cheras

Politics[edit]

Members of Parliament for Kuala Lumpur Malaysian general election, 2013

DAP

5 / 11

PKR

4 / 11

UMNO

2 / 11

Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is home to the Parliament of Malaysia. The hierarchy of authority in Malaysia, in accordance with the Federal Constitution, has stipulated the three branches, of the Malaysian government as consisting of the Executive, Judiciary and Legislative branches. The Parliament consists of the Dewan Negara
Dewan Negara
(Upper House / House of Senate) and Dewan Rakyat
Dewan Rakyat
(Lower House / House of Representatives).[9] Economy[edit]

A pedestrian mall by the Central Market.

Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and its surrounding urban areas form the most industrialised and economically, the fastest growing region in Malaysia.[79] Despite the relocation of federal government administration to Putrajaya, certain government institutions such as Bank Negara Malaysia
Malaysia
(National Bank of Malaysia), Companies Commission of Malaysia
Malaysia
and Securities Commission as well as most embassies and diplomatic missions have remained in the city.[80] The city remains as the economic and business centre of the country. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is a centre for finance, insurance, real estate, media and the arts of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is rated as an alpha world city, and is the only global city in Malaysia, according to the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC).[81] The infrastructure development in the surrounding areas such as the Kuala Lumpur International
International
Airport at Sepang, the creation of the Multimedia Super Corridor and the expansion of Port Klang
Port Klang
further reinforce the economic significance of the city.

A street view of the Old Market Square (Medan Pasar, on Jalan Medan Pesar) in 2007. The square has since been pedestrianised.

Bursa Malaysia
Malaysia
or the Malaysia
Malaysia
Exchange is based in the city and forms one of its core economic activities. As of 5 July 2013, the market capitalisation stood at US$505.67 billion.[82] The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is estimated at RM73,536 million in 2008 with an average annual growth rate of 5.9 percent.[83][84] By 2015, the GDP has reached RM160,388 million, representing 15.1% of the total GDP of Malaysia.[85] The per capita GDP for Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
in 2013 was RM79,752 with an average annual growth rate of 5.6 percent,[86] and RM94,722 in 2015.[85] The total employment in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is estimated to be around 838,400 in 2000.[87] The service sector comprising finance, insurance, real estate, business services, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels, transport, storage and communication, utilities, personal services and government services form the largest component of employment representing about 83.0 percent of the total.[87] The remaining 17 percent comes from manufacturing and construction. The average monthly household income for Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was RM4,105 (USD 1,324) in 1999, up from RM3,371 (USD 1,087) four years prior, making it 66% higher than the national average.[88] In terms of household income distribution, 23.5% of households in the city earned more than RM5,000 (USD 1,613) per month compared to 9.8% for the entire country, while 8.1% earned less than RM1,000 (USD 323) a month.[88]

Pre-war terraced houses refurbished into restaurants and bars along Tengkat Tong Shin in Bukit Bintang

The large service sector is evident in the number of local and foreign banks and insurance companies operating in the city. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is poised to become the global Islamic Financing hub[89] with an increasing number of financial institutions providing Islamic Financing and the strong presence of Gulf's financial institutions such as the world's largest Islamic bank, Al-Rajhi Bank[90] and Kuwait Finance House. Apart from that, the Dow Jones & Company is keen to work with Bursa Malaysia
Malaysia
to set up Islamic Exchange Trade Funds (ETFs), which would help raise Malaysia's profile in the Gulf.[91] The city has a large number of foreign corporations and is also host to many multi national companies' regional offices or support centres, particularly for finance and accounting, and information technology functions. Most of the country's largest companies have their headquarters here, and as of December 2007 and excluding Petronas, there are 14 companies that are listed in Forbes
Forbes
2000 based in Kuala Lumpur.[92] Other important economic activities in the city are education and health services. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
also has advantages stemming from the high concentration of educational institutions that provide a wide-ranging of courses. Numerous public and private medical specialist centres and hospitals in the city offer general health services, and a wide range of specialist surgery and treatment that caters to locals and tourists. There has been growing emphasis to expand the economic scope of the city into other service activities, such as research and development, which supports the rest of the economy of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has been home for years to important research centres such as the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia and the Institute of Medical Research[93] and more research centres are expected to be established in the coming years. Tourism[edit]

Petaling Street, Kuala Lumpur's bustling Chinatown

Tourism plays an important role in the city's service-driven economy. Many large worldwide hotel chains have a presence in the city. One of the oldest hotels is the Hotel Majestic. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is the sixth most visited city in the world, with 8.9 million tourists per year.[94][95] Tourism here is driven by the city's cultural diversity, relatively low costs, and wide gastronomic and shopping variety. MICE tourism, which mainly encompasses conventions— has expanded in recent years to become a vital component of the industry, and is expected to grow further once the Malaysian government's Economic Transformation Programme kicks in, and with the completion of a new 93,000m2-size MATRADE Centre in 2014.[96] Another notable trend is the increased presence of budget hotels in the city.

Sultan Abdul Samad
Sultan Abdul Samad
Jamek Mosque
Jamek Mosque
built in 1907

The major tourist destinations in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
include the PETRONAS Twin Tower, the Bukit Bintang
Bukit Bintang
shopping district, the Kuala Lumpur Tower, Petaling Street
Petaling Street
(Chinatown), the Merdeka Square, the House of Parliament, the National Palace (Istana Negara), the National Museum, Islamic Arts Museum, Central Market, KL Bird Park, Aquaria KLCC, the National Monument, and religious sites such as the Sultan Abdul Samad Jamek Mosque.[97] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
plays host to many cultural festivals such as the Thaipusam
Thaipusam
procession at the Sri Mahamariamman Temple. Every year during the Thaipusam
Thaipusam
celebration, a silver chariot carrying the statue of Lord Muruga together with his consort Valli and Teivayanni would be paraded through the city beginning at the temple all the way to Batu Caves
Batu Caves
in the neighboring Selangor.[98] The entertainment hub of the city is mainly centred in the Golden Triangle encompassing Jalan P. Ramlee, Jalan Sultan Ismail and Ampang Road. Trendy nightclubs, bars and lounges, such as Marini's on 57, Skybar at Traders Hotel, the Beach Club, Espanda, the Hakka Republic Wine Bar & Restaurant, Hard Rock Cafe, the Luna Bar, Nuovo, Rum Jungle, No Black Tie, the Thai Club, Zion club, Zouk, and many others are located here. Retail[edit]

Suria KLCC, located between the Petronas
Petronas
Twin Towers

Further information: Shopping in Kuala Lumpur
Shopping in Kuala Lumpur
and Bukit Bintang Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
alone has 66 shopping malls and is the retail and fashion hub in Malaysia
Malaysia
as well as Southeast Asia.[99] Shopping in Malaysia contributed RM7.7 billion (USD 2.26 billion) or 20.8 percent of the RM31.9 billion tourism receipts in 2006.[100] Suria KLCC
Suria KLCC
is one of Malaysia's premier upscale shopping destination due to its location beneath the Petronas
Petronas
Twin Towers.

Bukit Bintang, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
retail cluster

Apart from Suria KLCC, Bukit Bintang
Bukit Bintang
district has the highest concentration of shopping malls in Kuala Lumpur. It includes: Pavilion, Fahrenheit 88, Plaza Low Yat, Berjaya Times Square, Lot 10, BB Plaza, Sungei Wang Plaza
Sungei Wang Plaza
and Quill City Mall.[101] Changkat area of Bukit Bintang
Bukit Bintang
hosts various cafes, alfresco dining outlets and illegal activities. Bangsar
Bangsar
district also has a few shopping complexes, including Bangsar
Bangsar
Village, Bangsar
Bangsar
Shopping Centre, and Mid Valley Megamall. Apart from shopping complexes, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has designated numerous zones in the city to market locally manufactured products such as textiles, fabrics and handicrafts. The Chinatown of Kuala Lumpur, commonly known as Petaling Street, is one of them. Chinatown features many pre-independence buildings with Straits Chinese
Straits Chinese
and colonial architectural influences.[102][103] Since 2000, the Malaysian Ministry of Tourism introduced the mega sale event for shopping in Malaysia. The mega sale event at the time is held three times a year — in March, May and December — during which all shopping malls are encouraged to participate to boost Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
as a leading shopping destination in Asia which being maintained until present with new mega sales.[104] Demographics[edit]

Ethnicities of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
– 2010 Census[105]

ethnic group

percent

Malay

44.7%

Chinese

43.2%

Indians

10.3%

Other Bumiputras

1.2%

Others

0.6%

Religion in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
– 2010 Census[105]

religion

percent

Islam

46.4%

Buddhism

35.7%

Hinduism

8.5%

Christianity

5.8%

Unknown / None

1.4%

Chinese Ethnic Religion

1.1%

Others

0.6%

No Religion

0.5%

Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is the most populous city in Malaysia, with a population of 1.76 million in the city proper as of 2016[update].[5] It has a population density of 6,696 inhabitants per square kilometre (17,340/sq mi), and is the most densely populated administrative district in Malaysia.[2] Residents of the city are colloquially known as KLites.[106] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is also the centre of the wider Klang Valley metropolitan (covering Petaling Jaya, Klang, Subang Jaya, Shah Alam, Gombak
Gombak
and others) which has an estimated metropolitan population of 7.25 million as of 2017[update].[7] Kuala Lumpur's heterogeneous populace includes the country's three major ethnic groups: the Malays, the Chinese and the Indians, although the city also has a mix of different cultures including Eurasians, as well as Kadazans, Ibans and other indigenous races from around Malaysia.[87][107] Historical demographics[edit] Historically Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was a predominantly Chinese city, with the Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
of 1872 beside the Klang River
Klang River
described by Frank Swettenham as a "purely Chinese village", although a Malay stockade already existed at Bukit Nanas
Bukit Nanas
at that time. By 1875, after the Selangor
Selangor
Civil War had ended, Swettenham noted Malay quarters near the Chinese area in a sketch map he had drawn, and there were said to be 1,000 Chinese and 700 Malays in the town in this period (many of the Malays may have settled in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
after the war).[23] Many Pahang
Pahang
Malays who fought in the Selangor
Selangor
Civil War in 1873 also chose to settle in Selangor
Selangor
when the war ended. More recently the Bumiputra component of the city has increased substantially and they are now the dominant group. Large number of Malays were originally from the other islands of Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
– Sumatrans such as the Mandailings, the Minangkabaus, Javanese, and Buginese began arriving in Kuala Lumpur in the 19th century, while the Acehnese arrived in the late 20th century.[108] The population of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was estimated to be around three thousand in 1880 when it was made the capital of Selangor.[109] In the following decade which saw the rebuilding of the town it showed considerable increase with a large influx of immigrants, due in large part to the construction of a railway line in 1886 connecting Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and Klang.[26] A census in 1891 of uncertain accuracy gave a figure of 43,796 inhabitants, 79% of whom were Chinese (71% of the Chinese were Hakka), 14% Malay, and 6% Indian.[109] Another estimate put the population of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
in 1890 at 20,000.[26] In 1931, 61% of Kuala Lumpur's 111,418 inhabitants were Chinese,[110] and in 1947 63.5%. The Malays however began to settle in the Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
in significant numbers, in part due to government employment, as well as the expansion of the city that absorbed the surrounding rural areas where many Malays lived. Between 1947 and 1957 the population of Malays in Kuala Lumpur doubled, increasing from 12.5 to 15%, while the proportion of Chinese dropped.[111] The process continued after Malayan independence with the growth of a largely Malay civil service, and later the implementation of the New Economic Policy which encouraged Malay participation in urban industries and business. In 1980 the population of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
had reached over a million,[49] with 52% Chinese, 33% Malay, and 15% Indian.[112] From 1980 to 2000 the number of Bumiputras increased by 77%, but the Chinese still outnumbered the Bumiputras in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
in the 2000 census at 43% compared to Bumiputras at 38%.[87][113] By the 2010 census, according to the Department of Statistics and excluding non-citizens, the percentage of the Bumiputera population in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has reached around 45.9% (44.7% Malay), with the Chinese population at 43.2% and Indians 10.3%.[105] A notable phenomenon in recent times has been the increase of foreign residents in Kuala Lumpur, which rose from 1% of the city's population in 1980 to about 8% in the 2000 census, and 9.4% in the 2010 census.[87][105] These figures also do not include a significant number of illegal immigrants.[114] Kuala Lumpur's rapid development has triggered a huge influx of low-skilled foreign workers from Indonesia, Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Philippines, and Vietnam
Vietnam
into Malaysia, many of whom enter the country illegally or without proper permits.[115][116]

Clockwise from top left: Masjid Negara, Thean Hou Temple, Sri Mahamariamman Temple, St. John's Cathedral

Birth rates in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
have declined and resulted in the lower proportion of young people – the proportion of those in the below 15 years old category fell from 33% in 1980 to slightly less than 27% in 2000.[87] On the other hand, the working age group of 15–59 increased from 63% in 1980 to 67% in 2000.[87] The elderly age group, 60 years old and above has increased from 4% in 1980 and 1991 to 6% in 2000.[87] Languages and religions[edit] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is pluralistic and religiously diverse. The city has many places of worship catering to the multi-religious population. Islam
Islam
is practised primarily by the Malays and the Indian Muslim
Muslim
communities. Buddhism, Confucianism
Confucianism
and Taoism
Taoism
are practised mainly among the Chinese. Indians traditionally adhere to Hinduism. Some Chinese and Indians also subscribe to Christianity.[117] As of 2010[update] Census the population of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was 46.4% Muslim, 35.7% Buddhist, 8.5% Hindu, 5.8% Christian, 1.4% of unknown affiliations, 1.1% Taoist or Chinese religion adherent, 0.6% follower of other religions, and 0.5% non-religious. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is one of the three states where less than 50% of the population are self-identified Muslims, the other two being Penang
Penang
and Sarawak. Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 87.4% of the Chinese population identify as Buddhists, with significant minorities of adherents identifying as Christians (7.9%), Chinese folk religions (2.7%) and Muslims (0.6%). The majority of the Indian population identify as Hindus (81.1%), with a significant minorities of numbers identifying as Christians (7.8%), Muslims (4.9%) and Buddhists (2.1%). The non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Christians (44.9%), with significant minorities identifying as Muslims (31.2%) and Buddhists (13.5%). All bumiputera Malays are Muslim. [118] Bahasa Malaysia
Malaysia
is the principal language in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur residents are generally literate in English, with a large proportion adopting it as their first language.[119] It has a strong presence, especially in business and is a compulsory language taught in schools.[107] Cantonese
Cantonese
and Mandarin are prominent as they are spoken by the local majority Chinese population.[120] Another major dialect spoken is Hakka. While Tamil is dominant amongst the local Indian population, other Indian languages spoken include Telugu, Malayalam, Punjabi and Hindi.[121] Beside the Malay language, there are a variety of languages spoken by people of Indonesian descent, such as Minangkabau[122] and Javanese. Cityscape[edit]

The city night scene from a building balcony

Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
night skyline

Architecture[edit] Main article: Architecture of Kuala Lumpur

The Kuala Lumpur Railway Station
Kuala Lumpur Railway Station
(right) contrasts with a Keretapi Tanah Melayu (left) Administration Building darker, similarly Mughal-styled building. Both designed by A. B. Hubback

The architecture of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is a mixture of old colonial influences, Asian traditions, Malay Islamic inspirations, modern, and postmodern architecture mix.[123] Being a relatively young city compared with other Southeast Asian capitals such as Bangkok, Jakarta and Manila, most of Kuala Lumpur's notable colonial-era buildings were built toward the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. These buildings were designed in a number of styles – Mughal/Moorish Revival, Mock Tudor, Neo-Gothic or Grecian-Spanish style or architecture.[124] Most of the styling has been modified to use local resources and acclimatised to the local climate, which is hot and humid all year around. A significant architect of the early period is Arthur Benison Hubback
Arthur Benison Hubback
who designed a number of the colonial era buildings including the Kuala Lumpur Railway Station
Kuala Lumpur Railway Station
and Jamek Mosque.

The Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Tower

Prior to the Second World War, many shophouses, usually two stories with functional shops on the ground floor and separate residential spaces upstairs, were built around the old city centre. These shop-houses drew inspiration from Straits Chinese
Straits Chinese
and European traditions.[102][103] Some of these shophouses have made way for new developments but there are still many standing today around Medan Pasar (Old Market Square), Chinatown, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Doraisamy, Bukit Bintang
Bukit Bintang
and Tengkat Tong Shin areas. Independence coupled with the rapid economic growth from the 1970s to the 1990s and with Islam
Islam
being the official religion in the country, has resulted in the construction of buildings with a more local and Islamic flavour arise around the city. Many of these buildings derive their design from traditional Malay items such as the songkok and the keris. Some of these buildings have Islamic geometric motifs integrated with the designs of the building, signifying Islamic restriction on imitating nature through drawings.[125] Examples of these buildings are Telekom Tower, Maybank Tower, Dayabumi Complex, and the Islamic Centre.[126] Some buildings such as the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia
Malaysia
and National Planetarium have been built to masquerade as a place of worship, complete with dome and minaret, when in fact it is a place of science and knowledge. The 452-metre (1,483 ft) tall Petronas Twin Towers
Petronas Twin Towers
are the tallest twin buildings in the world.[127] They were designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art.[128] Late modern and postmodern architecture began to appear in the late-1990s and early-2000s. With the economic development, old buildings such as Bok House have been razed to make way for new ones. Buildings with all-glass shells exist throughout the city, with the most prominent examples being the Petronas Twin Towers
Petronas Twin Towers
and Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. Kuala Lumpur's central business district today has shifted around the Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
city centre (KLCC) where many new and tall buildings with modern and postmodern architecture fill the skyline. According to the World Tallest 50 Urban Agglomeration 2010 Projection by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was ranked 10th among cities to have most buildings above 100 metres with a combined height of 34,035 metres from its 244 high rise buildings.[129] Parks[edit]

KLCC Park

The Lake Gardens, a 92-hectare (230-acre) botanical garden, is the first recreational park created in Kuala Lumpur. The Malaysian Parliament building is located close by, and Carcosa Seri Negara
Carcosa Seri Negara
which was once the official residence of British colonial administration is also sited here. The park includes a Butterfly Park, Deer Park, Orchid Garden, Hibiscus Garden and the Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Bird Park, which is the world's largest aviary bird park.[130] Other parks in the city include the ASEAN
ASEAN
Sculpture Garden, KLCC Park, Titiwangsa
Titiwangsa
Lake Gardens, Metropolitan Lake Gardens in Kepong, Forest Research Institute Of Malaysia, Taman Tasik Permaisuri (Queen's Lake Gardens), Bukit Kiara Botanical Gardens, Equestrian Park and West Valley Park near TTDI, and Bukit Jalil International
International
Park. There are three forest reserves within the city namely the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve in the city centre, the oldest gazetted forest reserve in the country 10.52 ha or 26.0 acres, Bukit Sungai Putih Forest Reserve (7.41 ha or 18.3 acres) and Bukit Sungai Besi
Sungai Besi
Forest Reserve (42.11 ha or 104.1 acres). Bukit Nanas, in the heart of the city centre, is one of the oldest virgin forests in the world within a city.[131] These residual forest areas are home to a number of fauna species particularly monkeys, treeshrews, pygmy goats, budgerigars, squirrels and birds. There is another park in the close vicinity to Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
i.e. Templer Park initiated and opened by Sir Gerald Templer
Gerald Templer
in 1954 during the "Emergency" time.[132]

The view of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
from Titiwangsa
Titiwangsa
Lake Gardens

Education[edit]

The main gate of the University of Malaya, established 1949.

According to government statistics, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has a literacy rate of 97.5% in 2000, the highest rate in any state or territory in Malaysia.[133] In Malaysia, Malay is the language of instruction for most subjects while English is a compulsory subject, but as of 2012[update], English is still the language of instruction for mathematics and the natural sciences for certain schools. Some schools provide Mandarin and Tamil as languages of instruction for certain subjects. Each level of education demands different skills of teaching and learning ability.[134] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
contains 13 tertiary education institutions, 79 high schools, 155 elementary schools and 136 kindergartens.[135] Several institutions in the city are older than 100 years—such as Bukit Bintang
Bukit Bintang
Girls' School (1893–2000, relocated to Taman Shamelin Perkasa in Cheras and renamed GIS Garden International
International
school Seri Bintang Utara), the Victoria Institution
Victoria Institution
(1893); Methodist Girls' School (1896); Methodist Boys' School (1897); Convent Bukit Nanas (1899), St. John's Institution (1904), Confucian Private Secondary School(1906), Kuen Cheng High School (1908) and Tsun Jin High School (1913).

International
International
Medical University

Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is home to the University of Malaya
University of Malaya
(UM). Established in 1949, it is the oldest university in Malaysia, and one of the oldest in the region.[136] It was ranked the best university in Malaysia, the 32nd best in Asia, and 3rd in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
in 2014.[137] In recent years, the number of international students at University of Malaya has risen, as a result of increasing efforts made to attract more international students.[138] Other universities located in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
include Taylor's University (TULC) being the top Private University in Malaysia,[139] International
International
Islamic University Malaysia
Malaysia
(IIUM), Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), UCSI University
UCSI University
(UCSI), International
International
Medical University (IMU), Open University Malaysia
Malaysia
(OUM), Kuala Lumpur University (UniKL), Wawasan Open University
Wawasan Open University
(WOU), Tunku Abdul Rahman University College (TARUC) Help University and the branch campus of the National University of Malaysia
Malaysia
(UKM) and University of Technology Malaysia
Malaysia
(UTM). The National Defence University of Malaysia
Malaysia
is located at Sungai Besi
Sungai Besi
Army
Army
Base, at the southern part of central Kuala Lumpur. It was established to be a major centre for military and defence technology studies. This institution covers studies in the field of army, navy, and air force.[140] Greater Kuala Lumpur covers an even more extensive selection of universities including several international branches such as Monash University in Bandar Sunway, Nottingham University and Xiamen University. Culture[edit] Arts[edit]

Frieze depicting Malaysian history at the National Museum

Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is a hub for cultural activities and events in Malaysia. Among the centres is the National Museum, which is situated along the Mahameru Highway. Its collection comprises artefacts and paintings collected throughout the country.[141] The Islamic Arts Museum, which houses more than seven thousand Islamic artefacts including rare exhibits as well as a library of Islamic art books, is the largest Islamic Arts collection in Southeast Asia.[142] The museum's collection not only concentrate on works from the Middle East, but also includes work from elsewhere in Asia, such as China
China
and Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has a Craft Complex coupled with a museum that displays a variety of textile, ceramic, metal craft and weaved products. All the information of the production process are portrayed in diorama format complete with historical facts, technique and traditionally engineered equipment. Among the processes shown are pottery making, intricate wood carving, silver-smithing, weaving songket cloth, stamping batik patterns on cloth and boat making.[143] Royal Selangor
Selangor
has an ultra modern visitor's centre, which allows tours to be conducted through its pewter museum, gallery and its factory. In its pewtersmithing workshop, "The School of Hard Knocks", participants are taught to create their own pewter dish using traditional tools and methods. The premier performing arts venue is the Petronas
Petronas
Philharmonic Hall located underneath the Petronas
Petronas
Twin Tower. The resident orchestra is the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra (MPO), consisting of musicians from all over the world and features regular concerts, chamber concerts and traditional cultural performances.[144] The Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre (KLPac) in Sentul West and Damansara Performing Arts Centre (DPac) in Damansara Perdana are two of the most established centres for performing arts, notably theatre, plays, music, and film screening in the country. It has housed many local productions and has been a supporter of local and regional independent performance artists.[145] One of the highlights was the KL Sing Song 2006 music fest, which featured Malaysian singer-songwriters of various cultural backgrounds, from both West and East Malaysia, through two days of performances and workshops.[146] The National Art Gallery of Malaysia
Malaysia
is located on Jalan Temerloh, off Jalan Tun Razak on a 5.67-hectare (14.0-acre) site neighbouring the National Theatre (Istana Budaya) and National Library. The architecture of the gallery incorporates elements of traditional Malay architecture, as well as contemporary modern architecture. The National Art Gallery serves as a centre of excellence and trustee of the national art heritage. The Petronas
Petronas
Art Gallery, another centre for fine art, is situated in Kuala Lumpur City Centre
Kuala Lumpur City Centre
(KLCC). The Ilham Tower Gallery near Ampang Park houses exhibitions of works by local and foreign artists. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
holds the Malaysia
Malaysia
International
International
Gourmet Festival annually.[147] Another event hosted annually by the city is the Kuala Lumpur Fashion Week,[148] which includes international brands as well as local designers. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
also is becoming the centre for new media, innovation and creative industry development in the region and hosts the international creative industry event, Kreative.Asia. Kreative.Asia gathers local, regional and international experts in the creative industry who are involved in the creation, development and delivery of interactive content, arts, community and applications. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is at the forefront of the convergence of media, art, culture and communications. Sports and recreation[edit] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has numerous parks, gardens and open spaces for recreational purposes. Total open space for recreational and sport facilities land use in the city has increased significantly by 169.6 percent from 5.86 square kilometres (1,450 acres) in 1984 to 15.8 square kilometres (3,900 acres) in 2000.[149] Although Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is touted as one of the host cities for the Formula One
Formula One
World Championship,[150] the open-wheel auto racing A1 Grand Prix[151] and the Motorcycle Grand Prix,[152] races are held at the Sepang International
International
Circuit in Sepang in the neighbouring state of Selangor. The Formula One
Formula One
event contributes significantly to tourist arrivals and tourism income to Kuala Lumpur. This was evident during the Asian financial crisis in 1998. Despite cities around Asia suffering declining tourist arrivals, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
tourist arrivals increased from 6,210,900 in 1997 to 10,221,600 in 2000, or 64.6% increase in tourist arrivals.[153] In 2015, the Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Street Circuit was constructed to host the Kuala Lumpur City Grand Prix motor racing event. Football is one of the most popular sports in Kuala Lumpur. The Merdeka Tournament is mainly held at Stadium Merdeka. The city also the home of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
FA, which plays in the Malaysia
Malaysia
Super League. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
hosted the official Asian Basketball Championship
Asian Basketball Championship
in 1965, 1977 and 1985. The city's basketball supporters cheered Malaysia's national basketball team
Malaysia's national basketball team
to a Final Four finish in 1985, the team's best performance to date. Further, the city is home to the Westports Malaysia
Malaysia
Dragons, 2016 Champion of the ASEAN
ASEAN
Basketball League.[154] The team plays its home games in the MABA Stadium. KL Grand Prix CSI 5*,[155] a five-star international showjumping equestrian event is held annually in the city. This annual event draws the world's top riders and their prized horses to Malaysia. Other annual sport events hosted by the city include the KL Tower Run,[156] the KL Tower International
International
BASE Jump Merdeka Circuit and the Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
International
International
Marathon. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is also one of the stages of the Tour de Langkawi cycling race.[157] The annual Malaysia
Malaysia
Open Super Series badminton tournament is held in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has a considerable array of sports facilities of international class after hosting the 1998 Commonwealth Games. Many of these facilities including the main stadium (with running track and a football field), hockey stadium and swimming pools are located in the National Sports Complex at Bukit Jalil while a velodrome and more swimming pools are located in Bandar Tun Razak, next to the Taman Tasik Permaisuri Lake Gardens. There are also football fields, local sports complexes, swimming pools and tennis courts scattered around the suburbs. Badminton and 'takraw' courts are usually included in community halls. The AFC House—current headquarters of the Asian Football Confederation—is built on a 4-acre (16,000 m2) complex in the Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
suburb of Bukit Jalil. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has several golf courses including the Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Golf and Country Club (KLGCC) and the Malaysia
Malaysia
Civil Service Golf Club in Kiara and the Berjaya Golf Course at Bukit Jalil. The city also has numerous large private fitness centres run by Celebrity Fitness, Fitness First, True Fitness and major five-star hotels. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is also the birthplace of Hashing, which began in December 1938 when a group of British colonial officers and expatriates, some from the Selangor
Selangor
Club, began meeting on Monday evenings to run, in a fashion patterned after the traditional British Paper Chase or "Hare and Hounds".[158] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
hosted the 128th IOC Session
128th IOC Session
in 2015 where the IOC elected Beijing
Beijing
as the host city of the 2022 Winter Olympics[159] and Lausanne
Lausanne
as the host city of the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics.[160] Media[edit]

The Kuala Lumpur Tower
Kuala Lumpur Tower
is an important broadcast centre in the country.

Several newspapers, including daily, opposition, business, and digital papers, are based in Kuala Lumpur. Daily newspapers include The Star, New Straits Times, The Sun, Malay Mail, Kosmo!, Utusan Malaysia, Berita Harian, and Harian Metro. Mandarin and Tamil newspapers are also published daily, for example Guang Ming Daily, Sin Chew Daily, China
China
Press, Nanyang Siang Pau and Tamil Nesan, Malaysia
Malaysia
Nanban, and Makkal Osai. Opposition newspapers such as Harakah, Suara Keadilan, Siasah and Wasilah are also based here. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is also the headquarters for Malaysia's state media public government terrestrial television stations: TV1 and TV2, the subsidiaries of RTM, TV Alhijrah, a subsidiary of Alhijrah Media Corporation, and Media Prima Berhad, a media corporation that houses the private commercial terrestrial television stations: TV3, NTV7, 8TV and TV9. Programmes are broadcast in Malay, English, Chinese and Tamil.

Television Station Channel (Gunung Ulu Kali) Channel (Sungai Besi) Channel (Menara Kuala Lumpur) Channel (myFreeview, Astro, NJOI & HyppTV) Network Status Country of Region Group Type

Public

TV1 48 UHF 50 UHF 5 VHF 101 RTM National  Malaysia Free-to-air Terrestrial

TV2 10 VHF 53 UHF 8 VHF 102

Commercial

TV3 29 UHF 12 VHF

103 Media Prima National  Malaysia Free-to-air Terrestrial

NTV7 37 UHF 7 VHF 35 UHF 107

8TV 27 UHF 58 UHF

708 / 108

TV9 42 UHF 33 UHF

119 / 109

TV AlHijrah 55 UHF 55 UHF 55 UHF 114 AlHijrah Media

TM Tower
TM Tower
is the headquarters of Malaysia's principal telecommunication service provider, Telekom Malaysia.

The city is home to the country's main pay television service, Astro, a satellite television service which broadcasts international television channels such as Fox Life and Fox Movies. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
female diva pop vocal singer including Elizabeth Tan and De Fam. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has been featured in all aspects of popular culture such as movies, television, music and books. Television series
Television series
set in Kuala Lumpur include A Tale of 2 Cities (starring Rui En and Joanne Peh). Movies set in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
include Police Story 3: Super Cop (starring Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
and Michelle Yeoh) and Entrapment (starring Sean Connery and Catherine Zeta-Jones), in which the Petronas Twin Towers
Petronas Twin Towers
were depicted in flames for a few seconds.[161] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was referenced in an episode of The Simpsons
The Simpsons
entitled "Bart Gets Famous", in which the Bumblebee Man
Bumblebee Man
stated that "a powerful tidal wave in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has killed 120 people".[162] Books set in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
include KL 24/7 by Ida M Rahim, Shireen Zainudin and Rizal Zainudin,[163] My Life As a Fake by Peter Carey, and Democracy by Joan Didion.[164] A few notable local films featured Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
as background location, such as Masam-masam Manis (1965), Keluarga Si Comat (1973), Jiwa Remaja (1976), Abang (1981), Matinya Seorang Patriot (1984), Kembara Seniman Jalanan (1986), Orang Kampung Otak Kimia (1988), Hati Bukan Kristal (1990), Mat Som (1990), Mira Edora (1990), Femina (1993), Maria Mariana (1996), Hanya Kawan (1997), KLU (1999), Soal Hati (2000), KL Menjerit (2002), Laila Isabella (2003), Gangster (2005), Gol & Gincu (2005), Remp-it (2006), Cinta (2006), Anak Halal (2007) Evolusi KL Drift (2008), Adnan Sempit (2010), KL Gangster (2011), Kepong
Kepong
Gangster (2012), Lagenda Budak Setan 2: Katerina (2012) and Kolumpo (2013). A few local films featured Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
during the historical era, such as 1975: Hati Malaya (2007), Petaling Streets Warrior (2011) and Tanda Putera (2013). Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is mentioned in many songs by local Malaysian artists, such as "Keroncong Kuala Lumpur'" by P. Ramlee, "Kuala Lumpur, Ibu Kota" by Saloma, " Chow Kit
Chow Kit
Road" by Sudirman Arshad, "Senyumlah Kuala Lumpur" by Alleycats, "Streets of Kuala Lumpur" by Murkyway, "K.L." by Vandal, "Kuala Lumpur" by Poetic Ammo, "Anak Dara" by Azmyl Yunor, "KL"' by Too Phat, "Kotarayaku" by Hujan and Altimet, and "Lagu Untuk Kuala Lumpur" by Tom. Kuala Lumpur, along with Sepang, was featured in the music video for the single "Gerimis Mengundang" by Elizabeth Tan. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
was one of the destinations in The Amazing Race Asia
The Amazing Race Asia
and The Amazing Race.[165] Games have also been set in Kuala Lumpur, including include three levels of the game Hitman 2: Silent Assassin and two levels of the PlayStation 2 game Burnout Dominator. A reality game show set in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
from February until April 2013 was aired on AXN Asia. The Apprentice Asia
The Apprentice Asia
was launched on 22 May 2013. Several commercial radio stations licensed to cover the Great Klang Valley market together with federal government radio stations as list below:

Frequency Station Operator Language Genre

87.7 MHz Radio Klasik FM RTM Malay Music

88.1 MHz One FM Media Prima Chinese (Mandarin, Cantonese) Talk, Music

88.5 MHz Nasional FM RTM Malay Music

88.9 MHz GoXuan Astro Radio Chinese (Mandarin, Cantonese) Talk, Music

89.3 MHz Ai FM RTM Chinese (Mandarin, Various Chinese dialects) Talk, music

89.9 MHz BFM 89.9 BFM Media English Music, News, Talk

90.3 MHz TraXX FM RTM English Talk, music

90.7 MHz Putra FM Universiti Putra Malaysia Malay, English Talk, music

91.1 MHz Asyik FM RTM Jakun, Semai, Temiar Talk, music

91.5 MHz IKIM.fm Institute of Islamic Studies Malaysia Malay, English, Arabic Talk, music

92.3 MHz Minnal FM RTM Tamil Talk, music

92.9 MHz Hitz Astro Radio English Talk, music

93.6 MHz UFM Universiti Teknologi MARA English, Malay Talk, music

93.9 MHz Radio24 Bernama Malay, English News, music

94.5 MHz Mix Astro Radio English Talk, Music

95.3 MHz Nasional FM RTM Malay Music

95.8 MHz Fly FM Media Prima English, Malay Talk, music

96.3 MHz Minnal FM RTM Tamil Talk, music

96.7 MHz Sinar Astro Radio Malay Talk, music

97.3 MHz KL FM RTM Malay Talk, music

97.6 MHz Hot FM Media Prima Malay Talk, music

98.3 MHz Radio Klasik FM RTM Malay Music

98.8 MHz 988 FM Star RFM Radio Chinese (Mandarin, Cantonese) Talk, music

99.3 MHz Raaga Astro Radio Tamil Talk, music

100.1 MHz TraXX FM RTM English Talk, music

100.9 MHz Selangor
Selangor
FM RTM Malay Talk, music

101.8 MHz My Astro Radio Chinese (Mandarin, Cantonese) Talk, music

102.5 MHz Asyik FM and Salam FM RTM Orang Asli Talk, music

103.0 MHz Melody Astro Radio Chinese Music

103.3 MHz Era Astro Radio Malay Talk, music

104.1 MHz Best 104 Suara Johor
Johor
Sdn.Bhd Malay Music

104.9 MHz Zayan Astro Radio Malay Talk, music

105.3 MHz Suria FM Star RFM Radio Malay Talk, music

105.7 MHz Lite Astro Radio English Music

106.7 MHz Ai FM RTM Chinese (Mandarin, Various Chinese dialects) Talk, music

107.5 MHz Pahang
Pahang
FM RTM Malay Talk, music

Transport[edit]

Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Monorail

Ampang Line
Ampang Line
LRT train

Main articles: Transport in Kuala Lumpur
Transport in Kuala Lumpur
and Public transport in the Klang Valley Like most other Asian cities, driving is the main mode of commuting in Kuala Lumpur.[166] Hence, every part of the city is well connected by highways. As capital of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
has a comprehensive road network with more transportation development are being planned and carried out.[167]

The busy Jalan Ampang
Jalan Ampang
at night leading straight to the Petronas
Petronas
Towers

In terms of air connectivity, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is served by two airports. The main airport, Kuala Lumpur International Airport
Kuala Lumpur International Airport
(KLIA) at Sepang, Selangor, which is also the aviation hub of Malaysia, is located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of city. The other airport is Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport, also known as Subang Skypark and served as the main international gateway to Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
from 1965 until KLIA opened in 1998. KLIA connects the city with direct flights to destinations in six continents around the world,[168] and is the main hub for the national carrier, Malaysia
Malaysia
Airlines and low-cost carrier, AirAsia. KLIA can be reached using the KLIA Ekspres
KLIA Ekspres
a airport rail link service from KL Sentral, which takes twenty-eight minutes,[169] while travelling by car or bus via highway will take about an hour. Air Asia and other low-cost carrier flights do not fly out of KLIA main terminal but from KLIA2
KLIA2
which is two kilometres from KLIA. KLIA2
KLIA2
is served by an extension of the KLIA Ekspres and by buses from KL Sentral. As of 2007[update], Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport is only used for chartered and turboprop flights by airlines such as Firefly and Berjaya Air.[170] Public transport in Kuala Lumpur
Public transport in Kuala Lumpur
and the rest of the Klang Valley covers a variety of transport modes such as bus, rail and taxi. Despite efforts to promote usage of public transport, utilisation rates are low as only 16 percent of the population used public transport in 2006.[166] However, public transport utilisation is set to rise with the opening of 2 light metro (LRT) extension lines on 30 June 2016.[171] Rail transport
Rail transport
in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
encompasses the light metro (LRT), monorail, commuter rail and Airport rail link. The LRT system has 2 lines namely, Kelana Jaya Line
Kelana Jaya Line
and Ampang Line, connecting many locations in the city with major suburbs in Greater Kuala Lumpur. The Monorail
Monorail
serves various key locations in the city centre whereas the KTM Komuter
KTM Komuter
runs between the city and the suburbs. The main rapid transit hub is KL Sentral, which is an interchange station for the rail systems. KL Sentral
KL Sentral
is also a hub for intercity railway service namely KTM Intercity
KTM Intercity
and KTM ETS. It provides rail services to as far as Singapore
Singapore
in the south, and Hat Yai, Thailand, in the north.[172] The rail system in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is expanding fast with more train lines due for completion or in the pipeline. In December 2016, the 1st phase of Klang Valley
Klang Valley
Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Project, Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line
Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line
was completed, the remaining phases of the line has been open in July 2017.[173] The largest public transport operator in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and the Klang Valley is Prasarana Malaysia
Malaysia
via its subsidiaries of Rapid Rail
Rapid Rail
and Rapid Bus
Bus
using Rapid KL
Rapid KL
brands service.[174] Since the take over from Intrakota Komposit Sdn Bhd, Prasarana Malaysia
Malaysia
has redrawn the entire bus network of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and Klang Valley
Klang Valley
metropolitan area[175] to increase passenger numbers and improve Kuala Lumpur's public transport system. The Prasarana Malaysia
Malaysia
has adopted the hub and spoke system to provide greater connectivity, and cut down the need of more buses.[176][177] In Kuala Lumpur, most taxis have distinctive white and red liveries. Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is one of the major ASEAN
ASEAN
city with taxis extensively running on natural gas. Taxis can be hailed from taxi stands or from the streets. Nevertheless, taxis are known to charge high rates for foreigners by refusing to turn on their meter and offer instead a flat rate fare that is overpriced.[178] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is served by Port Klang, located about 64 km (40 mi) southwest of the city. The port is the largest and busiest in the country handling about 6.3 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of cargo in 2006.[179] International
International
relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Malaysia

Isfahan
Isfahan
street (formerly Jalan Selat, Straits Road) in Kuala Lumpur (above) and Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
avenue in Isfahan
Isfahan
(below).

Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
is twinned with the following cities:

Chennai, India.[180] Isfahan, Iran.[181] Mashhad, Iran.[182]

Shiraz, Iran.[183] Osaka, Japan.[184] Malacca
Malacca
City, Malaysia.[185]

Karachi, Pakistan.[186] Ankara, Turkey.[187][188] Dubai, United Arab Emirates.[189]

See also[edit]

Malaysia
Malaysia
portal

Greater Kuala Lumpur Putrajaya Cyberjaya

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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kuala Lumpur.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kuala Lumpur.

Official Portal
Portal
of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
City Hall Official Website of Tourism Malaysia An Insider’s Guide to Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
– Pathfinder City

Places adjacent to Kuala Lumpur

Rawang

Petaling Jaya

Kuala Lumpur

Ampang

Putrajaya

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Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
metropolitan area

Parliamentary constituencies

Bandar Tun Razak Batu Bukit Bintang Cheras Kepong Lembah Pantai Segambut Seputeh Setiawangsa Titiwangsa Wangsa Maju

Suburbs and townships by constituency

Kepong

Jinjang Taman Bukit Maluri

Segambut

Bandar Menjalara Bukit Kiara Bukit Tunku Damansara Damansara Town Centre Federal Hill Jalan Duta Kampung Kasipillay Kampung Sungai Penchala Lake Gardens Mont Kiara Sri Hartamas Taman Tun Dr Ismail

Batu

Bandar Baru Sentul Kampung Kerdas Sentul Sentul Raya Taman Wahyu

Wangsa Maju

Kampung Sungai Mulia Setapak Taman Ibukota Taman Melati Taman Melawati Taman P. Ramlee

Setiawangsa

Kampung Datuk Keramat Semarak Desa Tun Hussein Onn

Titiwangsa

Ampang Jalan Cochrane Maluri
Maluri
(partial) Taman U-Thant Kampung Baru (partial) Kampung Pandan

Bukit Bintang
Bukit Bintang
(City Centre)

Brickfields Bukit Nanas Bukit Petaling Chow Kit Dang Wangi Kampung Baru (partial) KL City Centre Medan Tuanku Pudu Tun Razak Exchange

Lembah Pantai

Bangsar Bangsar
Bangsar
South (Kerinchi) KL Eco City
KL Eco City
(Kampung Haji Abdullah Hukum) Mid Valley City Pantai Dalam

Seputeh

Bandar Malaysia Bukit Petaling Happy Garden Kuchai Lama Salak South Sri Petaling Taman Desa Taman OUG

Cheras

Alam Damai Maluri
Maluri
(partial) Pudu (partial) Shamelin Perkasa Taman Cheras Hartamas Taman Connaught Taman Len Seng Taman Taynton View

Bandar Tun Razak

Bandar Sri Permaisuri Bandar Tasik Selatan Bukit Jalil Desa Petaling Kampung Malaysia Lake Fields Sungai Besi

v t e

Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Topics

Index History Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
City Hall Constitution Elections Geography Law Music Kuala Lumpurese Symbols

Flag Seal

Tourist attractions

Society

Culture Crime Cuisine Bicycle & cycling Demographics Economy Education Politics

Parliamentary constituencies

Bandar Tun Razak Batu Bukit Bintang Cheras Kepong Lembah Pantai Segambut Seputeh Setiawangsa Titiwangsa Wangsa Maju

Commons Wikisource Category

v t e

Cities in Malaysia

Alor Setar George Town ( Penang
Penang
Island) Ipoh Iskandar Puteri Johor
Johor
Bahru Kota Kinabalu

Kuala Lumpur Kuala Terengganu Kuching Malacca Miri Petaling Jaya Shah Alam

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

Links to related articles

v t e

Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
host cities

1930: Hamilton 1934: London 1938: Sydney 1950: Auckland 1954: Vancouver

1958: Cardiff 1962: Perth 1966: Kingston 1970: Edinburgh 1974: Christchurch

1978: Edmonton 1982: Brisbane 1986: Edinburgh 1990: Auckland 1994: Victoria

1998: Kuala Lumpur 2002: Manchester 2006: Melbourne 2010: Delhi 2014: Glasgow

2018: Gold Coast 2022: Birmingham 2026: TBA

v t e

States and federal territories of Malaysia

States

 Johor  Kedah  Kelantan  Melaka  Negeri Sembilan  Pahang  Penang  Perak  Perlis  Sabah  Sarawak  Selangor  Terengganu

Federal Territories

 Kuala Lumpur  Labuan  Putrajaya

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 150080200 GND: 4110404-3 SELIBR: 151436 BNF: cb11993983f (d