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The Kingdom of Besut
Besut
Darul Iman[1] (Malay: Kerajaan Besut
Besut
Darul Iman; Jawi:كراجأن بسوت دارالايمان) was a historical Malay Kingdom located in the northeastern coast of the Malay Peninsula, precursor of the present-day Besut
Besut
District and most of Setiu, Terengganu. A principality of Terengganu, the state was established in 1780 following the crowing of a Terengganuan prince, Tengku Kadir as the Raja ( King
King
of) Palembang
Palembang
Besut. The House of Palembang, a cadet branch of Terengganu
Terengganu
nobility continued to rule the territory before it was being unified with Terengganu
Terengganu
in 1899.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origin 1.2 The Besut
Besut
revolt 1.3 Besut
Besut
succession crisis 1.4 Post-war recovery and growth 1.5 Reunification

2 Rulers of Palembang–Besut, 1780–1899 3 References 4 Bibliography

History[edit]

Dutch vessels during the fall of Palembang
Palembang
in 1850s. The settlement in Kota Palembang
Palembang
was named after the Sumatran town, pursuant to the place of origin many of the early pioneers.

Origin[edit] Based on the narration by Kisah Pelayaran Abdullah ke Kelantan and Tuhfat al-Nafis, Besut
Besut
was founded by a group of Pattani and Sumatran pioneers led by Cik Latif, a Palembangese chief. Upon their arrival, they were met with a group of indigenous Orang Asli
Orang Asli
community who had already settled in the area. To resolved this issue, Cik Latiff negotiated for a relocation program for the natives, he offered fishing equipments to the community as a return for their agreement on the transfer. The Aslians agreed to relinquish their rights on the territory and departed to Hulu Besut
Besut
where they established new settlement in the hinterland.[2] Following the departure of the Aslians, Cik Latiff and the pioneers then constructed a settlement around the Besut
Besut
riverbanks. The soil is suitable for rice-cultivation which the settler used for agriculture. The pioneers also built a wharf to engage with regional trade network. The settlement was named Palembang, derived from their place of origin.[3] [4] Upon the death of Cik Latif, the local administration was then succeeded by his son, Cik Kamat. It was during his time that Besut
Besut
was severely plagued by the piratical activities coming from the surrounding archipelago. It was believed that the raiders were led by Panglima Ebeh and Panglima Garang. The local chief then decided to request aid from the Terengganu Sultanate
Terengganu Sultanate
to combat the sea bandits. The request was granted by Mansur I of Terengganu, with the army being mobilised into the territory led by Tengku Kadir, a terengganese prince. The campaign was proven to be successful with the piratical activities were almost fully being eradicated. The bandits were forced to retreat to Pulau Perhentian
Pulau Perhentian
following their defeat. As a reward for incapacitating the piratical traffic, Tengku Kadir was then granted the crown of Besut, with the style of Raja Palembang
Palembang
(Besut), while Cik Kamat was then elected as an Orang Besar, a local lord with administrative powers in Pulau Rhu. In wake of the establishment of the kingdom, the raja then ordered the construction forts along the Besut
Besut
River, close to Kota Palembang. He then relocated the capital to Kampong Raja. His rule witnessed a period of relative calm and stability in the territory. The Besut
Besut
revolt[edit] Tengku Ali acceded the throne as the second Raja Palembang
Palembang
following the death of Tengku Kadir in 1835. The reign of Tengku Ali witnessed the growing intervention pertaining to the domestic Besut administration from the Terengganuan central government. on 22 November 1876, the second Raja Palembang
Palembang
staged a revolt for independence against the Terengganu
Terengganu
rule. The armed conflict known as Perang Besut
Besut
(The Besut
Besut
War).[5][6] The revolt commenced during the absence of Tengku Ali at the time of the crowing ceremony of Tengku Ahmad as the Yang Dipertuan Muda of Terengganu. In wake of the peculiar absence, the Sultan of Terengganu, Omar then mobilise its armed forces to Besut. On arrival, they were met by Besut
Besut
resistant movement led by Tengku Ali, he was supported of an assembly of Kelantanese militia ready to launch an attack.[2] Omar then petitioned his objection letter to the King
King
of Siam and the Governor of Singgora, he also warned the Kelantanese government not to interfere with his dependencies. He then launch an army strength of about 8,000 men commanded by General Panglima Besar Orang Kaya Megat Seri Mahkota Raja (Wan Ab. Rahman bin Ali) to Besut. The General was assisted by Tengku Yusof Panglima Kedai Payang, Tengku Long bin Mustaffa (Tengku Long Pendekar) and Tengku Nik, while the commander consist of Encik Musa, Datuk Bandar Jaafar, Tok Kaya Mahkota Haji Abdul Rahman and Tun Setia Wan Ismail Kampung Gedung.[5][6] The tactical control was planned by Engku Saiyed Seri Perdana (Engku Saiyed Zain bin Muhammad), who held the position equal as the Prime Minister of Terengganu. He drafted a plan for a severe cannon bombardment launched into the coast. The battle was successful which led to the retreat of Tengku Ali north to Kelantan
Kelantan
where he lived in exile in the state until his death. Following the revolt, Besut
Besut
was then governed by Tengku Ngah, appointed by the Sultan of Terengganu.[3][5] Besut
Besut
succession crisis[edit]

Istana Tengku Long, built in 1880 during the reign of Tengku Chick, the fourth King
King
of Besut. The palace was continued to be served as a dwelling place for Tengku Long, the Royal Commissioner of Terengganu by the early 20th century. Presently located in the Terengganu
Terengganu
Museum, It is one of the few legacies of the kingdom that can be witnessed today.

The appointment of Tengku Ngah as the Raja of Besut
Besut
was objected by Tengku Muda. Amidst the chaos ensured, Tengku Ngah abdicated from his position and elected his brother, Tengku Chik Haji as a successor. The crisis escalated into the division of Besut, with Tengku Muda ruled over Kampung Lampu, while Tengku Chik Haji has his jurisdiction in Kampong Raja. The severity of the crisis led the Sultan of Terengganu to arrive in Besut
Besut
in order to reconcile the matter.[2] To resolve the conflict, the sultan take into consideration of the geographical locations of the respective rulers. His verdict was in favour of Tengku Chik Haji as the King
King
of Besut, due to his advantageous geographical location in Kampung Raja, compared to the western Kampung Lampu. Post-war recovery and growth[edit] The ratification of Tengku Chick Haji as the ruler of Besut
Besut
ushered a period of peace and stability in the area. He was awarded an autonomous power equal to a local King
King
to preside over criminal trials. He is also received taxation rights over the land. It was also during his rule that witnessed the role of Islam
Islam
continued to flourish in the area with the construction of religious institutions, various waqfs, police stations, among few. The palatial residence, built during his reign in 1878 still stands today.[2][7] The last king in the Royal House of Palembang
Palembang
was Tengku Ngah. He was known to be a reserved, but a caring leader towards his subjects in Palembang
Palembang
and Kampung Raja. He managed to continued the development projects in Besut
Besut
parallel to the reign of presiding Tengku Chick Haji. It was recorded that the Royal Commissioner from Terengganu often visited the town to obtain materials for the Bunga Mas procession to Bangkok. He ruled Besut
Besut
for 19 years prior to his death in 1899.[8] Reunification[edit] The death of Tengku Ngah marks the end of the royal institution in Besut. Since Tengku Ngah died without appointing an heir, the local administration was then inherited to Tengku Long (Tengku Seri Indera Segera) in 1899, a member of the Palembang- Besut
Besut
Dynasty. He acquired the position as a Royal Commissioner of Terengganu, instead of the earlier Kingship title as his predecessors. Following the demise of Tengku Long, Besut
Besut
was directly ruled from Terengganu
Terengganu
with the subsequent Royal Commissioners were not of the Palembangese lineage.[2][8] Rulers of Palembang–Besut, 1780–1899[edit] Throughout its history, Besut
Besut
was ruled by the descendants of Tengku Abdul Kadir, the progenitor of the House of Palembang
Palembang
(Besut).

Raja (The King
King
of) Palembang-Besut In office

Tengku Abdul Kadir ibni Sultan Mansur Riayat Syah 1780–1835

Tengku Ali bin Tengku Abdul Kadir 1836–1874

Tengku Hitam bin Tengku Abdul Kadir 1875–1881

Tengku Cik Tepok bin Tengku Abdul Kadir 1881–1882

Tengku Ngah bin Tengku Hitam 1882–1899

References[edit]

^ World of Royalty 2017 ^ a b c d e Pulau Perhentian
Pulau Perhentian
2017 ^ a b Kuala Terengganu
Terengganu
Post 2017 ^ Syazwan Safwan 2010 ^ a b c Arung 2012 ^ a b Ganupedia 2017 ^ Manirah Othman 2009 ^ a b Utusan Malaysia
Malaysia
1998

Bibliography[edit]

Pulau Perhentian
Pulau Perhentian
(2017), Sejarah Daerah Besut, Anjung  Manirah Othman (2009), Istana Masa Kecil, Kosmo  Kuala Terengganu
Terengganu
Post (2017), Besut
Besut
Sebuah Negara, Itu Hanya Tinggal Sejarah, Kuala Terengganu
Terengganu
Post  Utusan Malaysia
Malaysia
(1998), Besut
Besut
dalam lipatan sejarah, Utusan Malaysia  Arung (2012), Tengku Yusuf Panglima menyertai Peperangan Besut
Besut
1875, Arung Bugis  Ganupedia (2017), Peperangan Besut, Ensikopledia Terengganu  Syazwan Safwan (2010), Sejarah Besut, negeri beraja satu masa lalu., Alami Terengganu  World of Royalty (2017), Tere