Kanpur (/ˈkɑːnpʊər/ About this sound pronunciation ; formerly Cawnpore) is the 12th most populous city in India and the second largest city in the state of Uttar Pradesh after Lucknow. The city is the administrative headquarters of Kanpur Nagar district and Kanpur division.

The name of the city is believed to have derived from Karnapur (meaning "town of Karna", one of the heroes of the Mahabharata). Another theory is that it came from the nearby town of Makanpur, earlier known as Khairabad, where the Sufi saint of the Madariya Sufi order, Badiuddin Zinda Shah Madar, settled.[5]


In 1207, Raja Kanh Deo of the Kanhpuria clan established the village of Kanhpur, which later came to be known as Kanpur.[6][7]

1857 uprising

In the 19th century, Cawnpore was an important British garrison with barracks for 7,000 soldiers. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, 900 British men, women and children were besieged in the fortifications for 22 days by rebels under Nana Sahib Peshwa. They surrendered on the agreement that they would get safe passage to the nearby Satti Chaura Ghat whereupon they would board barges and be allowed to go by river to Allahabad.[8]

Though controversy surrounds what exactly happened at the Satti Chaura Ghat, and who fired the first shot, it is known that, soon afterwards, the departing British were shot at by the rebel sepoys and were either killed or captured. Some of the British officers later claimed that the rebels had, on purpose, placed the boats as high in the mud as possible, to cause delay. They also claimed that Nana Sahib's camp had previously arranged for the rebels to fire upon and kill all the English. Although the East India Company later accused Nana Sahib of betrayal and murder of innocent people, no evidence has ever been found to prove that Nana Sahib had pre-planned or ordered the massacre. Some historians believe that the Satti Chaura Ghat massacre was the result of confusion, and not of any plan implemented by Nana Sahib and his associates. Lieutenant Mowbray Thomson, one of the four male survivors of the massacre, believed that the rank-and-file sepoys who spoke to him did not know of the killing to come.[9]

Many were killed and the remaining 200 British women and children were brought back to shore and sent to a building called the Bibighar (the ladies' home). After some time, the commanders of the rebels decided to kill their hostages. The rebel soldiers refused to carry out orders and butchers from the nearby town were brought in to kill the hostages three days before the British entered the city on 18 July. The dismembered bodies were thrown into a deep well nearby. The British under General Neill retook the city and committed a series of retaliations against the rebel Sepoys and those civilians caught in the area, including women, children and old men. The Cawnpore Massacre, as well as similar events elsewhere, were seen by the British as justification for unrestrained vengeance.[10] "Remember Cawnpore" became a war cry for British for the rest of the rebellion war.


Metropolitan area

The metropolitan region defined under JNNURM by Kanpur Nagar Nigam, includes the Kanpur Nagar Nigam area, 8 kilometres around KNN boundary and newly included 47 villages of Unnao district on the north-eastern side, it extends to Murtaza Nagar, in the west its limit is up to Akbarpur, Kanpur Dehat Nagar Panchayat limit, on the eastern side the limit has been expanded on the road leading to Fatehpur and in extended up to. The metropolitan region area includes the area of Shuklaganj Municipal Committee (Nagar Palika), Unnao Municipal Committee (Nagar Palika), Akbarpur Village Authority (Nagar Panchayat) and Bithoor Village Authority (Nagar Panchayat) area.[11] In 1997-98, total metropolitan region area has increased to 89131.15 hectare out of which 4,743.9 hectare (5.31%) was non-defined (prohibited area) and rest 29,683 hectare and 54,704 hectare (61.39%) was urban and rural area respectively.


Climate data for Kanpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.1
Average high °C (°F) 23.1
Average low °C (°F) 7.9
Record low °C (°F) 1.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18.7
Average rainy days 1.9 1.5 1.0 0.8 1.2 4.6 13.7 10.7 6.8 2.1 0.4 0.7 45.5
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[12][13]


As per 2011 census, Kanpur city has a population of 2,701,324. The literacy rate was 70.76 per cent.[14]

Hinduism is majority religion in Kanpur city with 78.03% followers. Islam is second most popular religion in the city of Kanpur with approximately 19.85% following it. In Kanpur city, Christianity is followed by 0.46%, Jainism by 0.20%, Sikhism by 1.01% and Buddhism by 1.01%. Around 0.02% stated 'Other Religion', approximately 0.39% stated 'No Particular Religion'.[15]

There are 35 Parsis in Kanpur with their Fire Temple at The Mall.[16]

Administration and Politics

Important Officials
Divisional Commissioner
Pradeep Kumar Mohanty[17][18][19]
District Magistrate
Surendra Singh[17][18][19]
Additional Director General, Kanpur Zone Avanish Chandra[20]
Inspector General, Kanpur Range Alok Singh[21]
DIG/Senior Superintendent of Police Sonia Singh[22]
Vice Chairman, Kanpur Development Authority K. Vijayendra Pandian[23][24]
Municipal Commissioner Avinash Singh[25][26][27]
District Judge Shashi Kant Shukla[28]
Chief Metropolitan Magistrate
Shabistan Aquil[28]


General Administration

Kanpur division which consists of seven districts, and is headed by the Divisional Commissioner of Kanpur, who is an IAS officer of high seniority, the Commissioner is the head of local government institutions (including Municipal Corporations) in the division, is in charge of infrastructure development in his division, and is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the division.[29][30][31][32][33] The District Magistrate of Kanpur reports to the Divisional Commissioner. The current Commissioner is Pradeep Kumar Mohanty.[17][18][19]

Kanpur district administration is headed by the District Magistrate of Kanpur, who is an IAS officer. The DM is in charge of property records and revenue collection for the central government and oversees the elections held in the city. The DM is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city, hence the SSP of Kanpur also reports to the DM of Kanpur.[29][34][35][36][37] The DM is assisted by a Chief Development Officer (CDO), four Additional District Magistrates (ADM) (Finance/Revenue, City, Land Acquisition, Civil Supply), one City Magistrate (CM), and seven Additional City Magistrates (ACM).[38] The district has three tehsils viz. Sadar, Bilhaur and Ghatampur, each headed by a Sub-Divisional Magistrate.[38] The current DM is Surendra Singh.[17][18][19]

Police Administration

Kanpur district comes under the Kanpur Police Zone and Kanpur Police Range, Kanpur Zone is headed by an Additional Director General ranked IPS officer, and the Kanpur Range is headed Inspector General ranked IPS officer. The current ADG, Kanpur Zone is Avanish Chandra,[20] and IG, Kanpur Range is Alok Singh.[21]

The district police is headed by a Deputy Inspector General/Senior Superintendent of Police (DIG/SSP), who is an IPS officer, and is assisted by seven Superintendents of Police (SP)/Additional Superintendents of Police (Addl. SP) (East, West, South, Rural Area, Crime, Traffic and Modern Control Room), who are either IPS officers or PPS officers.[22] Each of the several police circles is headed by a Circle Officer (CO) in the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police.[22] The current DIG/SSP is Sonia Singh.[22]

Civic Administration

The development of infrastructure in the city is overseen by Kanpur Development Authority (KDA), which comes under the Housing Department of Uttar Pradesh government. The Divisional Commissioner of Kanpur acts as the ex-officio Chairman of KDA, whereas a Vice Chairman, a government-appointed IAS officer, looks after the daily matters of the authority.[39] The current Vice-Chairman of Kanpur Development Authority is K. Vijayendra Pandian.[23][24]

Kanpur Municipal Corporation HQ

The Kanpur Municipal Corporations oversees civic activities in the city, the head of the corporation is the Mayor, but the executive and administration of the corporation are the responsibility of the Municipal Commissioner, who is a Uttar Pradesh government-appointed Provincial Civil Service (PCS) officer of high seniority. The current Mayor of Kanpur is Captain (retired) Jagat Vir Singh Drona,[25] whereas the Municipal Commissioner is Avinash Singh.[25][26][27]


The Kanpur District Court is headed by the District Judge of Kanpur, who is assisted by numerous Additional District Judges, Civil Judges (senior division) and Additional Civil Judges. Kanpur is a notified metropolitan area by UP Government under Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), 1973, and therefore has a Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, who is assisted by several Metropolitan Magistrates. The current District Judge is Shashi Kant Shukla,[28] and the current Chief Metropolitan Magistrate is Shabistan Aquil.[28]


Kanpur Nagar District encompasses one Lok Sabha constituency and ten Vidhansabha constituencies. The current Member of Parliament from Kanpur Nagar is Murli Manohar Joshi.

Economy and infrastructure



Kanpur Airport has scheduled commercial flights to Delhi. The nearest International Airport is the Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport at Lucknow, which is around 77.1 km from Kanpur.


The city has had chronic problems with maintaining local roads.[40] There are several important National Highways that pass through Kanpur.

NH No Route Total Length
NH 2 Delhi » Mathura » Agra » Kanpur » Allahabad » Varanasi » Mohania » Barhi » Palsit » Dankuni (near Kolkata) 2542
NH 25 Lucknow » Kanpur » Jhansi 352
NH 86 Kanpur » Hamirpur » Mahoba » Chhatarpur » Sagar » Bhopal » Indore 674
NH 91 Ghaziabad » Aligarh » Etah » Kannauj » Kanpur 405
NH 157 (Proposed) Kanpur » Raebareli » Sultanpur » Shahganj » Azamgarh » Gaura Barhaj » Siwan » Muzaffarpur 581

The Inter State Bus Station (ISBT) of Kanpur officially named as the "Shaheed Major Salman Khan Bus Station". It is locally known as the "Jhakarkati Bus Station". It provides buses to important cities of India.[41]

Ring road

In 2011 it was reported by The Indian Express that "The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is all set to develop a four-lane outer ring road along the periphery of Kanpur with an aim to prevent traffic congestion in the industrial city caused by long-distance heavy vehicles. The new road, which will help the heavy vehicles to bypass the city, will be developed on Built, Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis under the phase-VII of National Highways Development Programme (NHDP)"[42]

Education & Research

Higher Education

Educational institutions in the city include three state universities. Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University is one of the largest universities in Asia catering to urban and rural students offering professional and academic courses in disciplines of Arts, Science, Commerce, Law, Engineering, Biotechnology, Computer Applications, Management and Medicine. Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology is an agricultural university named after the Indian revolutionary Chandrashekhar Azad which caters to the needs of the farming community of 29 districts of Uttar Pradesh. Harcourt Butler Technical University (HBTI) offers Bachelors, Masters, and Doctoral programs in engineering, as well as Masters programs in Business Administration, and Computer Applications. A public engineering institution Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur is in the city. It was one of the first Indian Institutes of Technology established in 1959, created with the assistance of a consortium of nine US research universities as part of the Kanpur Indo-American Programme (KIAP).[43][44] There is also a private university in the city: Rama University part of the Rama Group.[45] There are several private Technical and Management institutions.

Medical Education

Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Memorial Medical College (GSVMMC or GSVM Medical College) is a state-run medical college in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. It was founded in 1956 and named after Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi, a freedom fighter and journalist from Kanpur. Lala Lajpat Rai Hospital (LLR Hospital), which is also known as Hallet Hospital, is associated with GSVM, Kanpur.

See also


  1. ^ "Kanpur India - Kanpur Uttar Pradesh, Kanpur City, Kanpur Guide, Kanpur Location". Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  2. ^ "Nick Name of Indian Places". Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  3. ^ "Uttar Pradesh (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". City 
  4. ^ "Uttar Pradesh (India): State, Major Agglomerations & Cities - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". City 
  5. ^ Suvorova, Anna Aronovna (2004). Muslim saints of South Asia: the eleventh to fifteenth centuries- Volume 14 of RoutledgeCurzon Sūfī series. Routledge. p. 171. ISBN 0-415-31764-9. 
  6. ^ "Kanpur History - History of Kanpur City- History of Kanpur India". Retrieved 2015-07-29. 
  7. ^ "Man" (PDF). p. 479. Retrieved 2015-07-29. 
  8. ^ Wright, Caleb (1863) [1863]. Historic Incidents and Life in India. J. A. Brainerd. p. 239. ISBN 978-1-135-72312-5. 
  9. ^ Sen, Surendra Nath (1995) [1957]. Eighteen Fifty-seven. Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 145. ISBN 81-230-0093-6. 
  10. ^ Dalrymple, W. 2007. The Last Mughal. The Fall of a Dynasty: Delhi, 1857, Alfred Knopf, New York
  11. ^ "Final Report : Kanpur City" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  12. ^ "Kanpur Climatological Table Period: 1971–1990". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved April 11, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015. 
  14. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  15. ^ "Kanpur City Census 2011 data". Census 2011 India. Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
  16. ^ "Appeal – Cawnpore Parsee Anjuman, Kanpur Parsis, Iranis, Zarathushtis - ALL Under One Roof". Retrieved 2015-07-29. 
  17. ^ a b c d "Contact Details Of Commissioners and District Magistrates Of U.P." Department of Home and Confidential, Government of Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved August 15, 2017. 
  18. ^ a b c d "जिलाधिकारी/मंडलायुक्त की सूची" [List of District Magistrates and Divisional Commissioners]. Department of Appointments and Personnel, Government of Uttar Pradesh (in Hindi). Retrieved August 15, 2017. 
  19. ^ a b c d "Administrative Officers of Kanpur Nagar". Kanpur Nagar District website. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  20. ^ a b "Officers posted at Kanpur Zone". Uttar Pradesh Police. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  21. ^ a b "Officers posted at Kanpur Range". Uttar Pradesh Police. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  22. ^ a b c d "Officers posted at KANPUR NAGAR". Uttar Pradesh Police. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  23. ^ a b "Contact Us". Kanpur Development Authority. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  24. ^ a b "List of IAS officers who are Vice Chairmen of Development Authorities". Department of Appointment and Personnel, Government of Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved August 21, 2017. 
  25. ^ a b c d "Home Page". Kanpur Municipal Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  26. ^ a b "वरिष्ठ अधिकारी" [Senior Officers]. Kanpur Municipal Corporation (in Hindi). Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  27. ^ a b "PCS OFFICERS (Posted as HOD)". Department of Appointment and Personnel, Government of Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved August 21, 2017. 
  28. ^ a b c d "Judicial Officers in Kanpur Nagar". Allahabad High Court. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  29. ^ a b "CONSTITUTIONAL SETUP". Government of Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved August 30, 2017. 
  30. ^ Maheshwari, S.R. (2000). Indian Administration (6th Edition). New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Ltd. pp. 563–572. ISBN 9788125019886. 
  31. ^ Singh, G.P. (1993). Revenue administration in India: A case study of Bihar. Delhi: Mittal Publications. pp. 26–129. ISBN 978-8170993810. 
  32. ^ Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India (2nd Edition). Noida: McGraw Hill Education. pp. 5.1–5.2. ISBN 978-9339204785. 
  33. ^ "Role and Functions of Divisional Commissioner". Your Article Library. Retrieved August 20, 2017. 
  34. ^ Maheshwari, S.R. (2000). Indian Administration (6th Edition). New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Ltd. pp. 573–597. ISBN 9788125019886. 
  35. ^ Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India (2nd Edition). Noida: McGraw Hill Education. pp. 6.1–6.6. ISBN 978-9339204785. 
  36. ^ Singh, G.P. (1993). Revenue administration in India: A case study of Bihar. Delhi: Mittal Publications. pp. 50–124. ISBN 978-8170993810. 
  37. ^ "Powers Of District Magistrate in India". Important India. Retrieved August 20, 2017. 
  38. ^ a b "Work Distribution :-". Kanpur Nagar district website. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  39. ^ "About KDA". Kanpur Development Authority. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  40. ^ Potholed roads, eight to ten hours long power cut, overflowing drains and contaminated drinking water which lead to bad health and contagious diseases tell the tale of the Industrial town, which is fast turning into a big slum. Siddiqui, Faiz Rahman (29 April 2014). "'Outsider' Joshi takes on 'local' Jaiswal". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 21 July 2014. 
  41. ^ "UPSRTC". UPSRTC. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  42. ^ "Kanpur to get outer ring road to bypass traffic blues". Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  43. ^ Norman Dahl: Kanpur Indo-American Program;
  44. ^ Financial Statements and Performance Indicators. Jump up ^ Kelkar, P.K. (17 March 2006). "IIT Kanpur — History". IIT Kanpur
  45. ^ Private University Uttar Pradesh;

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