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Judaism
Judaism
(originally from Hebrew יהודה‬, Yehudah, "Judah";[1][2] via Latin
Latin
and Greek) is an ancient, monotheistic, Abrahamic religion with the Torah
Torah
as its foundational text.[3] It encompasses the religion, philosophy and culture of the Jewish people.[4] Judaism
Judaism
is considered by religious Jews
Jews
to be the expression of the covenant that God
God
established with the Children of Israel.[5] Judaism
Judaism
includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. The Torah
Torah
is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible, and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash
Midrash
and the Talmud. With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide,[6] Judaism
Judaism
is the tenth largest religion in the world. Within Judaism
Judaism
there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism, which holds that God
God
revealed his laws and commandments to Moses
Moses
on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah.[7] Historically, this assertion was challenged by various groups such as the Sadducees
Sadducees
and Hellenistic Judaism
Hellenistic Judaism
during the Second Temple
Second Temple
period; the Karaites and Sabbateans
Sabbateans
during the early and later medieval period;[8] and among segments of the modern non-Orthodox denominations. Modern branches of Judaism
Judaism
such as Humanistic Judaism
Humanistic Judaism
may be nontheistic.[9] Today, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
( Haredi Judaism
Haredi Judaism
and Modern Orthodox Judaism), Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
and Reform Judaism. Major sources of difference between these groups are their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of the Rabbinic tradition, and the significance of the State of Israel.[10] Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
maintains that the Torah
Torah
and Jewish law are divine in origin, eternal and unalterable, and that they should be strictly followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism
are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more "traditional" interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews.[11][12] Historically, special courts enforced Jewish law; today, these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism
Judaism
is mostly voluntary.[13] Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and rabbis and scholars who interpret them.[14] The history of Judaism
Judaism
spans more than 3,000 years.[15] Judaism
Judaism
has its roots as a structured religion in the Middle East
Middle East
during the Bronze Age.[16] Judaism
Judaism
is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions.[17][18] The Hebrews
Hebrews
and Israelites
Israelites
were already referred to as "Jews" in later books of the Tanakh
Tanakh
such as the Book
Book
of Esther, with the term Jews
Jews
replacing the title "Children of Israel".[19] Judaism's texts, traditions and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity, Islam
Islam
and the Baha'i Faith.[20][21] Many aspects of Judaism
Judaism
have also directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law.[22][page needed] Hebraism is just as important a factor in the development of Western civilization
Western civilization
as Hellenism, and Judaism, as the mother religion of Christianity, has considerably shaped Western ideals and morality since the Christian Era.[23] Jews
Jews
are an ethnoreligious group[24] and include those born Jewish and converts to Judaism. In 2015, the world Jewish population was estimated at about 14.3 million, or roughly 0.2% of the total world population.[25] About 43% of all Jews
Jews
reside in Israel
Israel
and another 43% reside in the United States
United States
and Canada, with most of the remainder living in Europe, and other minority groups spread throughout South America, Asia, Africa, and Australia.[25]

Contents

1 Defining characteristics and principles of faith

1.1 Defining characteristics 1.2 Core tenets

2 Jewish religious texts

2.1 Jewish legal literature 2.2 Jewish philosophy 2.3 Rabbinic hermeneutics

3 Jewish identity

3.1 Origin of the term "Judaism" 3.2 Distinction between Jews
Jews
as a people and Judaism 3.3 Who is a Jew? 3.4 Jewish demographics

4 Jewish religious movements

4.1 Rabbinic Judaism

4.1.1 Jewish movements in Israel

4.2 Karaites and Samaritans

5 Jewish observances

5.1 Jewish ethics 5.2 Prayers 5.3 Religious clothing 5.4 Jewish holidays

5.4.1 Shabbat 5.4.2 Three pilgrimage festivals 5.4.3 High Holy Days 5.4.4 Purim 5.4.5 Hanukkah 5.4.6 Fast days 5.4.7 Israeli holidays

5.5 Torah
Torah
readings 5.6 Synagogues and religious buildings 5.7 Dietary laws: kashrut 5.8 Laws of ritual purity

5.8.1 Family purity

5.9 Life-cycle events

6 Community leadership

6.1 Classical priesthood 6.2 Prayer
Prayer
leaders 6.3 Specialized religious roles

7 History

7.1 Origins 7.2 Antiquity 7.3 Historical Jewish groupings (to 1700) 7.4 Persecutions 7.5 Hasidism 7.6 The Enlightenment and new religious movements 7.7 Spectrum of observance

8 Judaism
Judaism
and other religions

8.1 Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism 8.2 Islam
Islam
and Judaism 8.3 Syncretic movements incorporating Judaism

9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Defining characteristics and principles of faith Defining characteristics

Glass platter inscribed with the Hebrew word zokhreinu – (god) remember us

A 19th-century silver Macedonian Hanukkah
Hanukkah
menorah

Unlike other ancient Near Eastern gods, the Hebrew God
God
is portrayed as unitary and solitary; consequently, the Hebrew God's principal relationships are not with other gods, but with the world, and more specifically, with the people he created.[26][page needed] Judaism
Judaism
thus begins with ethical monotheism: the belief that God
God
is one and is concerned with the actions of mankind.[27] According to the Tanakh
Tanakh
(Hebrew Bible), God
God
promised Abraham
Abraham
to make of his offspring a great nation.[28] Many generations later, he commanded the nation of Israel
Israel
to love and worship only one God; that is, the Jewish nation is to reciprocate God's concern for the world.[29] He also commanded the Jewish people
Jewish people
to love one another; that is, Jews
Jews
are to imitate God's love for people.[30] These commandments are but two of a large corpus of commandments and laws that constitute this covenant, which is the substance of Judaism. Thus, although there is an esoteric tradition in Judaism
Judaism
(Kabbalah), Rabbinic scholar Max Kadushin has characterized normative Judaism
Judaism
as "normal mysticism", because it involves everyday personal experiences of God
God
through ways or modes that are common to all Jews.[31] This is played out through the observance of the Halakha (Jewish law) and given verbal expression in the Birkat Ha-Mizvot, the short blessings that are spoken every time a positive commandment is to be fulfilled.

The ordinary, familiar, everyday things and occurrences we have, constitute occasions for the experience of God. Such things as one's daily sustenance, the very day itself, are felt as manifestations of God's loving-kindness, calling for the Berakhot. Kedushah, holiness, which is nothing else than the imitation of God, is concerned with daily conduct, with being gracious and merciful, with keeping oneself from defilement by idolatry, adultery, and the shedding of blood. The Birkat Ha-Mitzwot evokes the consciousness of holiness at a rabbinic rite, but the objects employed in the majority of these rites are non-holy and of general character, while the several holy objects are non-theurgic. And not only do ordinary things and occurrences bring with them the experience of God. Everything that happens to a man evokes that experience, evil as well as good, for a Berakah is said also at evil tidings. Hence, although the experience of God
God
is like none other, the occasions for experiencing Him, for having a consciousness of Him, are manifold, even if we consider only those that call for Berakot.[32]

Whereas Jewish philosophers often debate whether God
God
is immanent or transcendent, and whether people have free will or their lives are determined, Halakha is a system through which any Jew acts to bring God
God
into the world. Ethical monotheism is central in all sacred or normative texts of Judaism. However, monotheism has not always been followed in practice. The Jewish Bible (Tanakh) records and repeatedly condemns the widespread worship of other gods in ancient Israel.[33] In the Greco-Roman era, many different interpretations of monotheism existed in Judaism, including the interpretations that gave rise to Christianity.[34] Moreover, some have argued that Judaism
Judaism
is a non-creedal religion that does not require one to believe in God.[citation needed] For some, observance of Jewish law is more important than belief in God
God
per se.[35] In modern times, some liberal Jewish movements do not accept the existence of a personified deity active in history.[36][37] The debate about whether one can speak of authentic or normative Judaism is not only a debate among religious Jews
Jews
but also among historians.[38] Core tenets Main article: Jewish principles of faith

13 Principles of Faith:

I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is the Creator and Guide of everything that has been created; He alone has made, does make, and will make all things. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is One, and that there is no unity in any manner like His, and that He alone is our God, who was, and is, and will be. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, has no body, and that He is free from all the properties of matter, and that there can be no (physical) comparison to Him whatsoever. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is the first and the last. I believe with perfect faith that to the Creator, Blessed be His Name, and to Him alone, it is right to pray, and that it is not right to pray to any being besides Him. I believe with perfect faith that all the words of the prophets are true. I believe with perfect faith that the prophecy of Moses
Moses
our teacher, peace be upon him, was true, and that he was the chief of the prophets, both those who preceded him and those who followed him. I believe with perfect faith that the entire Torah
Torah
that is now in our possession is the same that was given to Moses
Moses
our teacher, peace be upon him. I believe with perfect faith that this Torah
Torah
will not be exchanged, and that there will never be any other Torah
Torah
from the Creator, Blessed be His Name. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, knows all the deeds of human beings and all their thoughts, as it is written, "Who fashioned the hearts of them all, Who comprehends all their actions" ( Psalms
Psalms
33:15). I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, rewards those who keep His commandments and punishes those that transgress them. I believe with perfect faith in the coming of the Messiah; and even though he may tarry, nonetheless, I wait every day for his coming. I believe with perfect faith that there will be a revival of the dead at the time when it shall please the Creator, Blessed be His name, and His mention shall be exalted for ever and ever.

—Maimonides

Scholars throughout Jewish history
Jewish history
have proposed numerous formulations of Judaism's core tenets, all of which have met with criticism.[39] The most popular formulation is Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith, developed in the 12th century. According to Maimonides, any Jew who rejects even one of these principles would be considered an apostate and a heretic.[40][41] Jewish scholars have held points of view diverging in various ways from Maimonides' principles.[42][43] In Maimonides' time, his list of tenets was criticized by Hasdai Crescas and Joseph Albo. Albo and the Raavad argued that Maimonides' principles contained too many items that, while true, were not fundamentals of the faith. Along these lines, the ancient historian Josephus
Josephus
emphasized practices and observances rather than religious beliefs, associating apostasy with a failure to observe Jewish law and maintaining that the requirements for conversion to Judaism
Judaism
included circumcision and adherence to traditional customs. Maimonides' principles were largely ignored over the next few centuries.[44] Later, two poetic restatements of these principles ("Ani Ma'amin" and "Yigdal") became integrated into many Jewish liturgies,[45] leading to their eventual near-universal acceptance.[46][47] In modern times, Judaism
Judaism
lacks a centralized authority that would dictate an exact religious dogma.[14][48] Because of this, many different variations on the basic beliefs are considered within the scope of Judaism.[42] Even so, all Jewish religious movements are, to a greater or lesser extent, based on the principles of the Hebrew Bible and various commentaries such as the Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash. Judaism also universally recognizes the Biblical Covenant between God
God
and the Patriarch Abraham
Abraham
as well as the additional aspects of the Covenant revealed to Moses, who is considered Judaism's greatest prophet.[42][49][50][51][52] In the Mishnah, a core text of Rabbinic Judaism, acceptance of the Divine origins of this covenant is considered an essential aspect of Judaism
Judaism
and those who reject the Covenant forfeit their share in the World to Come.[53] Establishing the core tenets of Judaism
Judaism
in the modern era is even more difficult, given the number and diversity of the contemporary Jewish denominations. Even if to restrict the problem to the most influential intellectual trends of the nineteenth and twentieth century, the matter remains complicated. Thus for instance, Joseph Soloveitchik's (associated with the Modern Orthodox movement) answer to modernity is constituted upon the identification of Judaism
Judaism
with following the halakha whereas its ultimate goal is to bring the holiness down to the world. Mordecai Kaplan, the founder of the Reconstructionist Judaism, abandons the idea of religion for the sake of identifying Judaism
Judaism
with civilization and by means of the latter term and secular translation of the core ideas, he tries to embrace as many Jewish denominations as possible. In turn, Solomon
Solomon
Schechter's Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
was identical with the tradition understood as the interpretation of Torah, in itself being the history of the constant updates and adjustment of the Law performed by means of the creative interpretation. Finally, David
David
Philipson draws the outlines of the Reform movement in Judaism
Judaism
by opposing it to the strict and traditional rabbinical approach and thus comes to the conclusions similar to that of the Conservative movement.[54] Jewish religious texts The following is a basic, structured list of the central works of Jewish practice and thought.

Tanakh[55] (Hebrew Bible) and Rabbinic literature

Mesorah Targum Jewish Biblical exegesis (also see Midrash
Midrash
below)

Works of the Talmudic Era (classic rabbinic literature)

Mishnah
Mishnah
and commentaries Tosefta
Tosefta
and the minor tractates Talmud:

The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
and commentaries Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
and commentaries

Midrashic literature:

Halakhic Midrash Aggadic Midrash

Halakhic literature

Major Codes of Jewish Law and Custom

Mishneh Torah
Torah
and commentaries Tur and commentaries Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
and commentaries

Responsa literature

Jewish Thought and Ethics

Jewish philosophy Musar literature
Musar literature
and other works of Jewish ethics Kabbalah Hasidic works

Siddur
Siddur
and Jewish liturgy Piyyut (Classical Jewish poetry)

Many traditional Jewish texts are available online in various Torah databases (electronic versions of the Traditional Jewish Bookshelf). Many of these have advanced search options available. Jewish legal literature Main article: Halakha The basis of Jewish law and tradition (halakha) is the Torah
Torah
(also known as the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
or the Five Books of Moses). According to rabbinic tradition, there are 613 commandments in the Torah. Some of these laws are directed only to men or to women, some only to the ancient priestly groups, the Kohanim
Kohanim
and Leviyim (members of the tribe of Levi), some only to farmers within the Land of Israel. Many laws were only applicable when the Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
existed, and only 369 of these commandments are still applicable today.[56] While there have been Jewish groups whose beliefs were based on the written text of the Torah
Torah
alone (e.g., the Sadducees, and the Karaites), most Jews
Jews
believe in the oral law. These oral traditions were transmitted by the Pharisee school of thought of ancient Judaism and were later recorded in written form and expanded upon by the rabbis. According to Rabbinical Jewish tradition, God
God
gave both the Written Law (the Torah) and the Oral law to Moses
Moses
on Mount Sinai. The Oral law is the oral tradition as relayed by God
God
to Moses
Moses
and from him, transmitted and taught to the sages (rabbinic leaders) of each subsequent generation. For centuries, the Torah
Torah
appeared only as a written text transmitted in parallel with the oral tradition. Fearing that the oral teachings might be forgotten, Rabbi
Rabbi
Judah haNasi
Judah haNasi
undertook the mission of consolidating the various opinions into one body of law which became known as the Mishnah.[57] The Mishnah
Mishnah
consists of 63 tractates codifying Jewish law, which are the basis of the Talmud. According to Abraham
Abraham
ben David, the Mishnah was compiled by Rabbi
Rabbi
Judah haNasi
Judah haNasi
after the destruction of Jerusalem, in anno mundi 3949, which corresponds to 189 CE.[58] Over the next four centuries, the Mishnah
Mishnah
underwent discussion and debate in both of the world's major Jewish communities (in Israel
Israel
and Babylonia). The commentaries from each of these communities were eventually compiled into the two Talmuds, the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
(Talmud Yerushalmi) and the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
( Talmud
Talmud
Bavli). These have been further expounded by commentaries of various Torah
Torah
scholars during the ages. In the text of the Torah, many words are left undefined and many procedures are mentioned without explanation or instructions. Such phenomena are sometimes offered to validate the viewpoint that the Written Law has always been transmitted with a parallel oral tradition, illustrating the assumption that the reader is already familiar with the details from other, i.e., oral, sources.[59] Halakha, the rabbinic Jewish way of life, then, is based on a combined reading of the Torah, and the oral tradition—the Mishnah, the halakhic Midrash, the Talmud
Talmud
and its commentaries. The Halakha has developed slowly, through a precedent-based system. The literature of questions to rabbis, and their considered answers, is referred to as responsa (in Hebrew, Sheelot U-Teshuvot.) Over time, as practices develop, codes of Jewish law are written that are based on the responsa; the most important code, the Shulchan Aruch, largely determines Orthodox religious practice today. Jewish philosophy Main article: Jewish philosophy Jewish philosophy
Jewish philosophy
refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. Major Jewish philosophers include Solomon
Solomon
ibn Gabirol, Saadia Gaon, Judah Halevi, Maimonides, and Gersonides. Major changes occurred in response to the Enlightenment (late 18th to early 19th century) leading to the post-Enlightenment Jewish philosophers. Modern Jewish philosophy
Jewish philosophy
consists of both Orthodox and non-Orthodox oriented philosophy. Notable among Orthodox Jewish philosophers are Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler, Joseph B. Soloveitchik, and Yitzchok Hutner. Well-known non-Orthodox Jewish philosophers include Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, Mordecai Kaplan, Abraham
Abraham
Joshua Heschel, Will Herberg, and Emmanuel Lévinas. Rabbinic hermeneutics

13 Principles of Hermeneutics:

A law that operates under certain conditions will surely be operative in other situations where the same conditions are present in a more acute form A law operating in one situation will also be operative in another situation if the text characterizes both situations in identical terms. A law that clearly expresses the purpose it was meant to serve will also apply to other situations where the identical purpose may be served. When a general rule is followed by illustrative particulars, only those particulars are to be embraced by it. A law that begins with specifying particular cases, and then proceeds to an all-embracing generalization, is to be applied to particulars cases not specified but logically falling into the same generalization. A law that begins with a generalization as to its intended applications, then continues with the specification of particular cases, and then concludes with a restatement of the generalization, can be applied only to the particular cases specified. The rules about a generalization being followed or preceded by specifying particulars (rules 4 and 5) will not apply if it is apparent that the specification of the particular cases or the statement of the generalization is meant purely for achieving a greater clarity of language. A particular case already covered in a generalization that is nevertheless treated separately suggests that the same particularized treatment be applied to all other cases which are covered in that generalization. A penalty specified for a general category of wrongdoing is not to be automatically applied to a particular case that is withdrawn from the general rule to be specifically prohibited, but without any mention of the penalty. A general prohibition followed by a specified penalty may be followed by a particular case, normally included in the generalization, with a modification in the penalty, either toward easing it or making it more severe. A case logically falling into a general law but treated separately remains outside the provisions of the general law except in those instances where it is specifically included in them. Obscurities in Biblical texts may be cleared up from the immediate context or from subsequently occurring passages Contradictions in Biblical passages may be removed through the mediation of other passages.

—R. Ishmael[60]

Orthodox and many other Jews
Jews
do not believe that the revealed Torah consists solely of its written contents, but of its interpretations as well. The study of Torah
Torah
(in its widest sense, to include both poetry, narrative, and law, and both the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
and the Talmud) is in Judaism
Judaism
itself a sacred act of central importance. For the sages of the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud, and for their successors today, the study of Torah
Torah
was therefore not merely a means to learn the contents of God's revelation, but an end in itself. According to the Talmud,

These are the things for which a person enjoys the dividends in this world while the principal remains for the person to enjoy in the world to come; they are: honoring parents, loving deeds of kindness, and making peace between one person and another. But the study of the Torah
Torah
is equal to them all. ( Talmud
Talmud
Shabbat
Shabbat
127a).

In Judaism, "the study of Torah
Torah
can be a means of experiencing God".[61] Reflecting on the contribution of the Amoraim
Amoraim
and Tanaim to contemporary Judaism, Professor Jacob
Jacob
Neusner observed:

The rabbi's logical and rational inquiry is not mere logic-chopping. It is a most serious and substantive effort to locate in trivialities the fundamental principles of the revealed will of God
God
to guide and sanctify the most specific and concrete actions in the workaday world .... Here is the mystery of Talmudic Judaism: the alien and remote conviction that the intellect is an instrument not of unbelief and desacralization but of sanctification."[62]

To study the Written Torah
Torah
and the Oral Torah
Torah
in light of each other is thus also to study how to study the word of God. In the study of Torah, the sages formulated and followed various logical and hermeneutical principles. According to David
David
Stern, all Rabbinic hermeneutics rest on two basic axioms:

first, the belief in the omni-significance of Scripture, in the meaningfulness of its every word, letter, even (according to one famous report) scribal flourish; second, the claim of the essential unity of Scripture as the expression of the single divine will.[63]

These two principles make possible a great variety of interpretations. According to the Talmud,

A single verse has several meanings, but no two verses hold the same meaning. It was taught in the school of R. Ishmael: 'Behold, My word is like fire—declares the Lord—and like a hammer that shatters rock' (Jer 23:29). Just as this hammer produces many sparks (when it strikes the rock), so a single verse has several meanings." (Talmud Sanhedrin 34a).

Observant Jews
Jews
thus view the Torah
Torah
as dynamic, because it contains within it a host of interpretations[64] According to Rabbinic tradition, all valid interpretations of the written Torah
Torah
were revealed to Moses
Moses
at Sinai in oral form, and handed down from teacher to pupil (The oral revelation is in effect coextensive with the Talmud
Talmud
itself). When different rabbis forwarded conflicting interpretations, they sometimes appealed to hermeneutic principles to legitimize their arguments; some rabbis claim that these principles were themselves revealed by God
God
to Moses
Moses
at Sinai.[65] Thus, Hillel called attention to seven commonly used hermeneutical principles in the interpretation of laws (baraita at the beginning of Sifra); R. Ishmael, thirteen (baraita at the beginning of Sifra; this collection is largely an amplification of that of Hillel).[66] Eliezer b. Jose ha-Gelili listed 32, largely used for the exegesis of narrative elements of Torah. All the hermeneutic rules scattered through the Talmudim
Talmudim
and Midrashim
Midrashim
have been collected by Malbim
Malbim
in Ayyelet ha-Shachar, the introduction to his commentary on the Sifra. Nevertheless, R. Ishmael's 13 principles are perhaps the ones most widely known; they constitute an important, and one of Judaism's earliest, contributions to logic, hermeneutics, and jurisprudence.[67] Judah Hadassi incorporated Ishmael's principles into Karaite Judaism in the 12th century.[68] Today R. Ishmael's 13 principles are incorporated into the Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
book to be read by observant Jews on a daily basis.[69][70][71][72] Jewish identity Origin of the term "Judaism"

A mezuzah case

The term "Judaism" derives from Iudaismus, a Latinized form of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Ioudaismos (Ἰουδαϊσμός) (from the verb ἰουδαΐζειν, "to side with or imitate the [Judeans]"),[73] and it was ultimately inspired by the Hebrew יהודה, Yehudah, "Judah";[74][75] in Hebrew: יַהֲדוּת, Yahadut. The term Ἰουδαϊσμός first appears in the Hellenistic Greek
Hellenistic Greek
book of 2 Maccabees
Maccabees
in the 2nd century BCE. In the context of the age and period it meant "seeking or forming part of a cultural entity"[76] and it resembled its antonym hellenismos, a word that signified a people's submission to Hellenic (Greek) cultural norms. The conflict between iudaismos and hellenismos lay behind the Maccabean revolt
Maccabean revolt
and hence the invention of the term iudaismos.[76] Shaye J. D. Cohen writes in his book The Beginnings of Jewishness:

We are tempted, of course, to translate [Ioudaïsmós] as "Judaism," but this translation is too narrow, because in this first occurrence of the term, Ioudaïsmós has not yet been reduced to the designation of a religion. It means rather "the aggregate of all those characteristics that makes Judaeans Judaean (or Jews
Jews
Jewish)." Among these characteristics, to be sure, are practices and beliefs that we would today call "religious," but these practices and beliefs are not the sole content of the term. Thus Ioudaïsmós should be translated not as "Judaism" but as Judaeanness.[77]

The earliest instance in Europe where the term was used to mean "the profession or practice of the Jewish religion; the religious system or polity of the Jews"[citation needed] is Robert Fabyan's The newe cronycles of Englande and of Fraunce a 1513. "Judaism" as a direct translation of the Latin
Latin
Iudaismus first occurred in a 1611 English translation of the apocrypha ( Deuterocanon
Deuterocanon
in Catholic
Catholic
and Eastern Orthodoxy), 2 Macc. ii. 21: "Those that behaved themselves manfully to their honour for Iudaisme."[78] Distinction between Jews
Jews
as a people and Judaism According to Daniel Boyarin, the underlying distinction between religion and ethnicity is foreign to Judaism
Judaism
itself, and is one form of the dualism between spirit and flesh that has its origin in Platonic philosophy and that permeated Hellenistic Judaism.[79] Consequently, in his view, Judaism
Judaism
does not fit easily into conventional Western categories, such as religion, ethnicity, or culture. Boyarin suggests that this in part reflects the fact that much of Judaism's more than 3,000-year history predates the rise of Western culture and occurred outside the West (that is, Europe, particularly medieval and modern Europe). During this time, Jews experienced slavery, anarchic and theocratic self-government, conquest, occupation, and exile. In the Diaspora, they were in contact with, and influenced by, ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Persian, and Hellenic cultures, as well as modern movements such as the Enlightenment (see Haskalah) and the rise of nationalism, which would bear fruit in the form of a Jewish state in their ancient homeland, the Land of Israel. They also saw an elite population convert to Judaism
Judaism
(the Khazars), only to disappear as the centers of power in the lands once occupied by that elite fell to the people of Rus and then the Mongols.[citation needed] Thus, Boyarin has argued that "Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension."[80] In contrast to this point of view, practices such as Humanistic Judaism
Judaism
reject the religious aspects of Judaism, while retaining certain cultural traditions. Who is a Jew? Main article: Who is a Jew? According to Rabbinic Judaism, a Jew is anyone who was either born of a Jewish mother or who converted to Judaism
Judaism
in accordance with Jewish Law. Reconstructionist Judaism
Reconstructionist Judaism
and the larger denominations of worldwide Progressive Judaism
Progressive Judaism
(also known as Liberal or Reform Judaism) accept the child as Jewish if one of the parents is Jewish, if the parents raise the child with a Jewish identity, but not the smaller regional branches.[clarification needed] All mainstream forms of Judaism
Judaism
today are open to sincere converts, although conversion has traditionally been discouraged since the time of the Talmud. The conversion process is evaluated by an authority, and the convert is examined on his or her sincerity and knowledge.[81] Converts are called "ben Abraham" or "bat Abraham", (son or daughter of Abraham). Conversions have on occasion been overturned. In 2008, Israel's highest religious court invalidated the conversion of 40,000 Jews, mostly from Russian immigrant families, even though they had been approved by an Orthodox rabbi.[82] Rabbinical Judaism
Judaism
maintains that a Jew, whether by birth or conversion, is a Jew forever. Thus a Jew who claims to be an atheist or converts to another religion is still considered by traditional Judaism
Judaism
to be Jewish. According to some sources, the Reform movement has maintained that a Jew who has converted to another religion is no longer a Jew,[83][84] and the Israeli Government has also taken that stance after Supreme Court cases and statutes.[85] However, the Reform movement has indicated that this is not so cut and dried, and different situations call for consideration and differing actions. For example, Jews
Jews
who have converted under duress may be permitted to return to Judaism
Judaism
"without any action on their part but their desire to rejoin the Jewish community" and "A proselyte who has become an apostate remains, nevertheless, a Jew".[86] Karaite Judaism
Karaite Judaism
believes that Jewish identity
Jewish identity
can only be transmitted by patrilineal descent. Although a minority of modern Karaites believe that Jewish identity
Jewish identity
requires that both parents be Jewish, and not only the father. They argue that only patrilineal descent can transmit Jewish identity
Jewish identity
on the grounds that all descent in the Torah
Torah
went according to the male line.[87] The question of what determines Jewish identity
Jewish identity
in the State of Israel was given new impetus when, in the 1950s, David
David
Ben-Gurion requested opinions on mihu Yehudi ("Who is a Jew") from Jewish religious authorities and intellectuals worldwide in order to settle citizenship questions. This is still not settled, and occasionally resurfaces in Israeli politics. Historical definitions of Jewish identity
Jewish identity
have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, and halakhic conversions. Historical definitions of who is a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral Torah
Torah
into the Babylonian Talmud, around 200 CE. Interpretations of sections of the Tanakh, such as Deuteronomy 7:1–5, by Jewish sages, are used as a warning against intermarriage between Jews
Jews
and Canaanites
Canaanites
because "[the non-Jewish husband] will cause your child to turn away from Me and they will worship the gods (i.e., idols) of others." Leviticus
Leviticus
24:10 says that the son in a marriage between a Hebrew woman and an Egyptian man is "of the community of Israel." This is complemented by Ezra 10:2–3, where Israelites
Israelites
returning from Babylon vow to put aside their gentile wives and their children.[88][89] A popular theory is that the rape of Jewish women in captivity brought about the law of Jewish identity being inherited through the maternal line, although scholars challenge this theory citing the Talmudic establishment of the law from the pre-exile period.[90] Another argument is that the rabbis changed the law of patrilineal descent to matrilineal descent due to the widespread rape of Jewish women by Roman soldiers.[91] Since the anti-religious Haskalah
Haskalah
movement of the late 18th and 19th centuries, halakhic interpretations of Jewish identity
Jewish identity
have been challenged.[92] Jewish demographics Main article: Jewish population by country The total number of Jews
Jews
worldwide is difficult to assess because the definition of "who is a Jew" is problematic; not all Jews
Jews
identify themselves as Jewish, and some who identify as Jewish are not considered so by other Jews. According to the Jewish Year Book
Book
(1901), the global Jewish population in 1900 was around 11 million. The latest available data is from the World Jewish Population Survey of 2002 and the Jewish Year Calendar (2005). In 2002, according to the Jewish Population Survey, there were 13.3 million Jews
Jews
around the world. The Jewish Year Calendar cites 14.6 million. Jewish population growth is currently near zero percent, with 0.3% growth from 2000 to 2001. Jewish religious movements Main article: Jewish religious movements Rabbinic Judaism Rabbinic Judaism (or in some Christian traditions, Rabbinism) (Hebrew: "Yahadut Rabanit" – יהדות רבנית) has been the mainstream form of Judaism
Judaism
since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Talmud. It is characterised by the belief that the Written Torah (Written Law) cannot be correctly interpreted without reference to the Oral Torah
Torah
and the voluminous literature specifying what behavior is sanctioned by the Law. The Jewish Enlightenment
Jewish Enlightenment
of the late 18th century resulted in the division of Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
(Western) Jewry into religious movements or denominations, especially in North America and Anglophone countries. The main denominations today outside Israel
Israel
(where the situation is rather different) are Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform.

Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
holds that both the Written and Oral Torah
Torah
were divinely revealed to Moses
Moses
and that the laws within it are binding and unchanging. Orthodox Jews
Jews
generally consider commentaries on the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
(a condensed codification of halakha that largely favored Sephardic
Sephardic
traditions) to be the definitive codification of Jewish law. Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
places a high importance on Maimonides' 13 principles as a definition of Jewish faith.

Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
is often divided into Modern Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
and Haredi Judaism. Haredi Judaism
Haredi Judaism
is less accommodating to modernity and has less interest in non-Jewish disciplines, and it may be distinguished from Modern Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
in practice by its styles of dress and more stringent practices. Subsets of Haredi Judaism
Haredi Judaism
include Hasidic Judaism, which is rooted in the Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and distinguished by reliance on a Rebbe
Rebbe
or religious teacher; and Sephardic Haredi
Sephardic Haredi
Judaism, which emerged among Sephardic
Sephardic
(Asian and North African) Jews
Jews
in Israel.

Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
is characterized by a commitment to traditional Jewish laws and customs, including observance of Shabbat
Shabbat
and kashrut, a deliberately non-fundamentalist teaching of Jewish principles of faith, a positive attitude toward modern culture, and an acceptance of both traditional rabbinic and modern scholarship when considering Jewish religious texts. Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
teaches that Jewish law is not static, but has always developed in response to changing conditions. It holds that the Torah
Torah
is a divine document written by prophets inspired by God
God
and reflecting his will, but rejects the Orthodox position that it was dictated by God
God
to Moses.[93][94] Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
holds that the Oral Law is divine and normative, but holds that both the Written and Oral Law may be interpreted by the rabbis to reflect modern sensibilities and suit modern conditions. Reform Judaism, called Liberal or Progressive Judaism
Progressive Judaism
in many countries, defines Judaism
Judaism
in relatively universalist terms, rejects most of the ritual and ceremonial laws of the Torah
Torah
while observing moral laws, and emphasizes the ethical call of the Prophets. Reform Judaism
Judaism
has developed an egalitarian prayer service in the vernacular (along with Hebrew in many cases) and emphasizes personal connection to Jewish tradition.

A Reform synagogue with mixed seating and equal participation of men and women

Reconstructionist Judaism, like Reform Judaism, does not hold that Jewish law, as such, requires observance, but unlike Reform, Reconstructionist thought emphasizes the role of the community in deciding what observances to follow. Jewish Renewal
Jewish Renewal
is a recent North American movement which focuses on spirituality and social justice but does not address issues of Jewish law. Men and women participate equally in prayer. Humanistic Judaism
Humanistic Judaism
is a small non-theistic movement centered in North America and Israel
Israel
that emphasizes Jewish culture
Jewish culture
and history as the sources of Jewish identity.

Jewish movements in Israel Main article: Religion
Religion
in Israel Most Jewish Israelis classify themselves as "secular" (hiloni), "traditional" (masorti), "religious" (dati) or Haredi. The term "secular" is more popular as a self-description among Israeli families of western (European) origin, whose Jewish identity
Jewish identity
may be a very powerful force in their lives, but who see it as largely independent of traditional religious belief and practice. This portion of the population largely ignores organized religious life, be it of the official Israeli rabbinate (Orthodox) or of the liberal movements common to diaspora Judaism
Judaism
(Reform, Conservative). The term "traditional" (masorti) is most common as a self-description among Israeli families of "eastern" origin (i.e., the Middle East, Central Asia, and North Africa). This term, as commonly used, has nothing to do with the Conservative Judaism, which also names itself "Masorti" outside North America. There is a great deal of ambiguity in the ways "secular" and "traditional" are used in Israel: they often overlap, and they cover an extremely wide range in terms of worldview and practical religious observance. The term "Orthodox" is not popular in Israeli discourse, although the percentage of Jews
Jews
who come under that category is far greater than in the diaspora. What would be called "Orthodox" in the diaspora includes what is commonly called dati (religious) or haredi (ultra-Orthodox) in Israel. The former term includes what is called "Religious Zionism" or the "National Religious" community, as well as what has become known over the past decade or so as haredi-leumi (nationalist haredi), or "Hardal", which combines a largely haredi lifestyle with nationalist ideology. (Some people, in Yiddish, also refer to observant Orthodox Jews
Jews
as frum, as opposed to frei (more liberal Jews)). Haredi applies to a populace that can be roughly divided into three separate groups along both ethnic and ideological lines: (1) "Lithuanian" (non-hasidic) haredim of Ashkenazic origin; (2) Hasidic haredim of Ashkenazic origin; and (3) Sephardic
Sephardic
haredim. Karaites and Samaritans Karaite Judaism
Karaite Judaism
defines itself as the remnants of the non-Rabbinic Jewish sects of the Second Temple
Second Temple
period, such as the Sadducees. The Karaites ("Scripturalists") accept only the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
and what they view as the Peshat ("simple" meaning); they do not accept non-biblical writings as authoritative. Some European Karaites do not see themselves as part of the Jewish community at all, although most do. The Samaritans, a very small community located entirely around Mount Gerizim in the Nablus/ Shechem
Shechem
region of the West Bank
West Bank
and in Holon, near Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
in Israel, regard themselves as the descendants of the Israelites
Israelites
of the Iron Age kingdom of Israel. Their religious practices are based on the literal text of the written Torah
Torah
(Five Books of Moses), which they view as the only authoritative scripture (with a special regard also for the Samaritan
Samaritan
Book
Book
of Joshua). Jewish observances Jewish ethics Main article: Jewish ethics Jewish ethics
Jewish ethics
may be guided by halakhic traditions, by other moral principles, or by central Jewish virtues. Jewish ethical practice is typically understood to be marked by values such as justice, truth, peace, loving-kindness (chesed), compassion, humility, and self-respect. Specific Jewish ethical practices include practices of charity (tzedakah) and refraining from negative speech (lashon hara). Proper ethical practices regarding sexuality and many other issues are subjects of dispute among Jews. Prayers Main article: Jewish services

A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin

Traditionally, Jews
Jews
recite prayers three times daily, Shacharit, Mincha, and Ma'ariv
Ma'ariv
with a fourth prayer, Mussaf added on Shabbat
Shabbat
and holidays. At the heart of each service is the Amidah
Amidah
or Shemoneh Esrei. Another key prayer in many services is the declaration of faith, the Shema Yisrael
Shema Yisrael
(or Shema). The Shema is the recitation of a verse from the Torah
Torah
( Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
6:4): Shema Yisrael
Shema Yisrael
Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Echad—"Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God! The Lord is One!" Most of the prayers in a traditional Jewish service can be recited in solitary prayer, although communal prayer is preferred. Communal prayer requires a quorum of ten adult Jews, called a minyan. In nearly all Orthodox and a few Conservative circles, only male Jews
Jews
are counted toward a minyan; most Conservative Jews
Jews
and members of other Jewish denominations count female Jews
Jews
as well. In addition to prayer services, observant traditional Jews
Jews
recite prayers and benedictions throughout the day when performing various acts. Prayers are recited upon waking up in the morning, before eating or drinking different foods, after eating a meal, and so on. The approach to prayer varies among the Jewish denominations. Differences can include the texts of prayers, the frequency of prayer, the number of prayers recited at various religious events, the use of musical instruments and choral music, and whether prayers are recited in the traditional liturgical languages or the vernacular. In general, Orthodox and Conservative congregations adhere most closely to tradition, and Reform and Reconstructionist synagogues are more likely to incorporate translations and contemporary writings in their services. Also, in most Conservative synagogues, and all Reform and Reconstructionist congregations, women participate in prayer services on an equal basis with men, including roles traditionally filled only by men, such as reading from the Torah. In addition, many Reform temples use musical accompaniment such as organs and mixed choirs. Religious clothing Further information: kippah, tzitzit, and tefillin A kippah (Hebrew: כִּפָּה, plural kippot; Yiddish: יאַרמלקע, yarmulke) is a slightly rounded brimless skullcap worn by many Jews
Jews
while praying, eating, reciting blessings, or studying Jewish religious texts, and at all times by some Jewish men. In Orthodox communities, only men wear kippot; in non-Orthodox communities, some women also wear kippot. Kippot range in size from a small round beanie that covers only the back of the head to a large, snug cap that covers the whole crown. Tzitzit
Tzitzit
(Hebrew: צִיציִת) ( Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
pronunciation: tzitzis) are special knotted "fringes" or "tassels" found on the four corners of the tallit (Hebrew: טַלִּית) ( Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
pronunciation: tallis), or prayer shawl. The tallit is worn by Jewish men and some Jewish women during the prayer service. Customs vary regarding when a Jew begins wearing a tallit. In the Sephardi community, boys wear a tallit from bar mitzvah age. In some Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
communities, it is customary to wear one only after marriage. A tallit katan (small tallit) is a fringed garment worn under the clothing throughout the day. In some Orthodox circles, the fringes are allowed to hang freely outside the clothing. Tefillin
Tefillin
(Hebrew: תְפִלִּין), known in English as phylacteries (from the Greek word φυλακτήριον, meaning safeguard or amulet), are two square leather boxes containing biblical verses, attached to the forehead and wound around the left arm by leather straps. They are worn during weekday morning prayer by observant Jewish men and some Jewish women.[95] A kittel (Yiddish: קיטל), a white knee-length overgarment, is worn by prayer leaders and some observant traditional Jews
Jews
on the High Holidays. It is traditional for the head of the household to wear a kittel at the Passover
Passover
seder in some communities, and some grooms wear one under the wedding canopy. Jewish males are buried in a tallit and sometimes also a kittel which are part of the tachrichim (burial garments). Jewish holidays Main article: Jewish holiday Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
are special days in the Jewish calendar, which celebrate moments in Jewish history, as well as central themes in the relationship between God
God
and the world, such as creation, revelation, and redemption. Shabbat Main article: Shabbat

Two braided Shabbat
Shabbat
challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat
Shabbat
meal

Shabbat, the weekly day of rest lasting from shortly before sundown on Friday night to nightfall on Saturday night, commemorates God's day of rest after six days of creation.[96] It plays a pivotal role in Jewish practice and is governed by a large corpus of religious law. At sundown on Friday, the woman of the house welcomes the Shabbat
Shabbat
by lighting two or more candles and reciting a blessing. The evening meal begins with the Kiddush, a blessing recited aloud over a cup of wine, and the Mohtzi, a blessing recited over the bread. It is customary to have challah, two braided loaves of bread, on the table. During Shabbat, Jews
Jews
are forbidden to engage in any activity that falls under 39 categories of melakhah, translated literally as "work". In fact the activities banned on the Sabbath are not "work" in the usual sense: They include such actions as lighting a fire, writing, using money and carrying in the public domain. The prohibition of lighting a fire has been extended in the modern era to driving a car, which involves burning fuel and using electricity. Three pilgrimage festivals Main article: Shalosh regalim

Some sukkot in Jerusalem

Jewish holy days (chaggim), celebrate landmark events in Jewish history, such as the Exodus from Egypt and the giving of the Torah, and sometimes mark the change of seasons and transitions in the agricultural cycle. The three major festivals, Sukkot, Passover
Passover
and Shavuot, are called "regalim" (derived from the Hebrew word "regel", or foot). On the three regalim, it was customary for the Israelites
Israelites
to make pilgrimages to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to offer sacrifices in the Temple.

Passover
Passover
(Pesach) is a week-long holiday beginning on the evening of the 14th day of Nisan
Nisan
(the first month in the Hebrew calendar), that commemorates the Exodus from Egypt. Outside Israel, Passover
Passover
is celebrated for eight days. In ancient times, it coincided with the barley harvest. It is the only holiday that centers on home-service, the Seder. Leavened products (chametz) are removed from the house prior to the holiday and are not consumed throughout the week. Homes are thoroughly cleaned to ensure no bread or bread by-products remain, and a symbolic burning of the last vestiges of chametz is conducted on the morning of the Seder. Matzo
Matzo
is eaten instead of bread. Shavuot
Shavuot
("Pentecost" or "Feast of Weeks") celebrates the revelation of the Torah
Torah
to the Israelites
Israelites
on Mount Sinai. Also known as the Festival of Bikurim, or first fruits, it coincided in biblical times with the wheat harvest. Shavuot
Shavuot
customs include all-night study marathons known as Tikkun Leil Shavuot, eating dairy foods (cheesecake and blintzes are special favorites), reading the Book
Book
of Ruth, decorating homes and synagogues with greenery, and wearing white clothing, symbolizing purity. Sukkot
Sukkot
("Tabernacles" or "The Festival of Booths") commemorates the Israelites' forty years of wandering through the desert on their way to the Promised Land. It is celebrated through the construction of temporary booths called sukkot (sing. sukkah) that represent the temporary shelters of the Israelites
Israelites
during their wandering. It coincides with the fruit harvest and marks the end of the agricultural cycle. Jews
Jews
around the world eat in sukkot for seven days and nights. Sukkot
Sukkot
concludes with Shemini Atzeret, where Jews
Jews
begin to pray for rain and Simchat Torah, "Rejoicing of the Torah", a holiday which marks reaching the end of the Torah
Torah
reading cycle and beginning all over again. The occasion is celebrated with singing and dancing with the Torah
Torah
scrolls. Shemini Atzeret
Shemini Atzeret
and Simchat Torah
Torah
are technically considered to be a separate holiday and not a part of Sukkot.

High Holy Days

Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
by Maurycy Gottlieb
Maurycy Gottlieb
(1878)

Main article: High Holidays The High Holidays
High Holidays
(Yamim Noraim or "Days of Awe") revolve around judgment and forgiveness.

Rosh Hashanah, (also Yom Ha-Zikkaron or "Day of Remembrance", and Yom Teruah, or "Day of the Sounding of the Shofar"). Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
is the Jewish New Year (literally, "head of the year"), although it falls on the first day of the seventh month of the Hebrew calendar, Tishri. Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
marks the beginning of the 10-day period of atonement leading up to Yom Kippur, during which Jews
Jews
are commanded to search their souls and make amends for sins committed, intentionally or not, throughout the year. Holiday customs include blowing the shofar, or ram's horn, in the synagogue, eating apples and honey, and saying blessings over a variety of symbolic foods, such as pomegranates. Yom Kippur, ("Day of Atonement") is the holiest day of the Jewish year. It is a day of communal fasting and praying for forgiveness for one's sins. Observant Jews
Jews
spend the entire day in the synagogue, sometimes with a short break in the afternoon, reciting prayers from a special holiday prayerbook called a "Machzor". Many non-religious Jews make a point of attending synagogue services and fasting on Yom Kippur. On the eve of Yom Kippur, before candles are lit, a prefast meal, the "seuda mafseket", is eaten. Synagogue
Synagogue
services on the eve of Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
begin with the Kol Nidre
Kol Nidre
prayer. It is customary to wear white on Yom Kippur, especially for Kol Nidre, and leather shoes are not worn. The following day, prayers are held from morning to evening. The final prayer service, called "Ne'ilah", ends with a long blast of the shofar.

Purim Main article: Purim

Purim
Purim
street scene in Jerusalem

Torah
Torah
reading, France, 1860 Museum of Jewish Art and History

Purim
Purim
(Hebrew:  פורים (help·info) Pûrîm "lots") is a joyous Jewish holiday
Jewish holiday
that commemorates the deliverance of the Persian Jews
Jews
from the plot of the evil Haman, who sought to exterminate them, as recorded in the biblical Book
Book
of Esther. It is characterized by public recitation of the Book
Book
of Esther, mutual gifts of food and drink, charity to the poor, and a celebratory meal (Esther 9:22). Other customs include drinking wine, eating special pastries called hamantashen, dressing up in masks and costumes, and organizing carnivals and parties. Purim
Purim
has celebrated annually on the 14th of the Hebrew month of Adar, which occurs in February or March of the Gregorian calendar. Hanukkah Main article: Hanukkah Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(Hebrew: חֲנֻכָּה‎, "dedication") also known as the Festival of Lights, is an eight-day Jewish holiday
Jewish holiday
that starts on the 25th day of Kislev
Kislev
(Hebrew calendar). The festival is observed in Jewish homes by the kindling of lights on each of the festival's eight nights, one on the first night, two on the second night and so on. The holiday was called Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(meaning "dedication") because it marks the re-dedication of the Temple after its desecration by Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Spiritually, Hanukkah
Hanukkah
commemorates the "Miracle of the Oil". According to the Talmud, at the re-dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
following the victory of the Maccabees
Maccabees
over the Seleucid Empire, there was only enough consecrated oil to fuel the eternal flame in the Temple for one day. Miraculously, the oil burned for eight days – which was the length of time it took to press, prepare and consecrate new oil. Hanukkah
Hanukkah
is not mentioned in the Bible and was never considered a major holiday in Judaism, but it has become much more visible and widely celebrated in modern times, mainly because it falls around the same time as Christmas and has national Jewish overtones that have been emphasized since the establishment of the State of Israel. Fast days Main articles: Tisha B'Av, Seventeenth of Tamuz, 10th of Tevet, and Tzom Gedaliah Tisha B'Av
Tisha B'Av
(Hebrew: תשעה באב‎ or ט׳ באב, "the Ninth of Av") is a day of mourning and fasting commemorating the destruction of the First and Second Temples, and in later times, the expulsion of the Jews
Jews
from Spain. There are three more minor Jewish fast days that commemorate various stages of the destruction of the Temples. They are the 17th Tamuz, the 10th of Tevet and Tzom Gedaliah (the 3rd of Tishrei). Israeli holidays Main articles: Yom Hashoah, Yom Hazikaron, and Yom Ha'atzmaut The modern holidays of Yom Ha-shoah
Yom Ha-shoah
( Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day), Yom Hazikaron (Israeli Memorial Day) and Yom Ha'atzmaut
Yom Ha'atzmaut
(Israeli Independence Day) commemorate the horrors of the Holocaust, the fallen soldiers of Israel
Israel
and victims of terrorism, and Israeli independence, respectively. There are some who prefer to commemorate those who were killed in the Holocaust
Holocaust
on the 10th of Tevet. Torah
Torah
readings Main article: Torah
Torah
reading The core of festival and Shabbat
Shabbat
prayer services is the public reading of the Torah, along with connected readings from the other books of the Tanakh, called Haftarah. Over the course of a year, the whole Torah
Torah
is read, with the cycle starting over in the autumn, on Simchat Torah. Synagogues and religious buildings Main article: Synagogue

Interior of the Belz Great Synagogue
Synagogue
in Jerusalem.

Synagogues are Jewish houses of prayer and study. They usually contain separate rooms for prayer (the main sanctuary), smaller rooms for study, and often an area for community or educational use. There is no set blueprint for synagogues and the architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly. The Reform movement mostly refer to their synagogues as temples. Some traditional features of a synagogue are:

The ark (called aron ha-kodesh by Ashkenazim
Ashkenazim
and hekhal by Sephardim) where the Torah
Torah
scrolls are kept (the ark is often closed with an ornate curtain (parochet) outside or inside the ark doors); The elevated reader's platform (called bimah by Ashkenazim
Ashkenazim
and tebah by Sephardim), where the Torah
Torah
is read (and services are conducted in Sephardi synagogues); The eternal light (ner tamid), a continually lit lamp or lantern used as a reminder of the constantly lit menorah of the Temple in Jerusalem The pulpit, or amud, a lectern facing the Ark where the hazzan or prayer leader stands while praying.

In addition to synagogues, other buildings of significance in Judaism include yeshivas, or institutions of Jewish learning, and mikvahs, which are ritual baths. Dietary laws: kashrut Main article: Kashrut The Jewish dietary laws are known as kashrut. Food prepared in accordance with them is termed kosher, and food that is not kosher is also known as treifah or treif. People who observe these laws are colloquially said to be "keeping kosher".[97] Many of the laws apply to animal-based foods. For example, in order to be considered kosher, mammals must have split hooves and chew their cud. The pig is arguably the most well-known example of a non-kosher animal.[98] Although it has split hooves, it does not chew its cud.[99] For seafood to be kosher, the animal must have fins and scales. Certain types of seafood, such as shellfish, crustaceans, and eels, are therefore considered non-kosher. Concerning birds, a list of non-kosher species is given in the Torah. The exact translations of many of the species have not survived, and some non-kosher birds' identities are no longer certain. However, traditions exist about the kashrut status of a few birds. For example, both chickens and turkeys are permitted in most communities. Other types of animals, such as amphibians, reptiles, and most insects, are prohibited altogether.[97] In addition to the requirement that the species be considered kosher, meat and poultry (but not fish) must come from a healthy animal slaughtered in a process known as shechitah. Without the proper slaughtering practices even an otherwise kosher animal will be rendered treif. The slaughtering process is intended to be quick and relatively painless to the animal. Forbidden parts of animals include the blood, some fats, and the area in and around the sciatic nerve.[97] Jewish law also forbids the consumption of meat and dairy products together. The waiting period between eating meat and eating dairy varies by the order in which they are consumed and by community, and can extend for up to six hours. Based on the Biblical injunction against cooking a kid in its mother's milk, this rule is mostly derived from the Oral Torah, the Talmud
Talmud
and Rabbinic law.[97] Chicken and other kosher birds are considered the same as meat under the laws of kashrut, but the prohibition is Rabbinic, not Biblical.[100] The use of dishes, serving utensils, and ovens may make food treif that would otherwise be kosher. Utensils that have been used to prepare non-kosher food, or dishes that have held meat and are now used for dairy products, render the food treif under certain conditions.[97] Furthermore, all Orthodox and some Conservative authorities forbid the consumption of processed grape products made by non-Jews, due to ancient pagan practices of using wine in rituals.[97] Some Conservative authorities permit wine and grape juice made without rabbinic supervision.[101] The Torah
Torah
does not give specific reasons for most of the laws of kashrut.[97] However, a number of explanations have been offered, including maintaining ritual purity, teaching impulse control, encouraging obedience to God, improving health, reducing cruelty to animals and preserving the distinctness of the Jewish community.[102] The various categories of dietary laws may have developed for different reasons, and some may exist for multiple reasons. For example, people are forbidden from consuming the blood of birds and mammals because, according to the Torah, this is where animal souls are contained.[103] In contrast, the Torah
Torah
forbids Israelites
Israelites
from eating non-kosher species because "they are unclean".[104] The Kabbalah
Kabbalah
describes sparks of holiness that are released by the act of eating kosher foods, but are too tightly bound in non-kosher foods to be released by eating.[105] Survival concerns supersede all the laws of kashrut, as they do for most halakhot.[106][107] Laws of ritual purity Main article: Tumah

A silver matchbox holder for ritual use on Shabbat
Shabbat
with inscription in Hebrew

The Tanakh
Tanakh
describes circumstances in which a person who is tahor or ritually pure may become tamei or ritually impure. Some of these circumstances are contact with human corpses or graves, seminal flux, vaginal flux, menstruation, and contact with people who have become impure from any of these.[108][109] In Rabbinic Judaism, Kohanim, members of the hereditary caste that served as priests in the time of the Temple, are mostly restricted from entering grave sites and touching dead bodies.[110] During the Temple period, such priests (Kohanim) were required to eat their bread offering (Terumah) in a state of ritual purity, which laws eventually led to more rigid laws being enacted, such as hand-washing which became a requisite of all Jews
Jews
before consuming ordinary bread. Family purity

18th-century circumcision chair Museum of Jewish Art and History

Main article: Niddah An important subcategory of the ritual purity laws relates to the segregation of menstruating women. These laws are also known as niddah, literally "separation", or family purity. Vital aspects of halakha for traditionally observant Jews, they are not usually followed by Jews
Jews
in liberal denominations.[111] Especially in Orthodox Judaism, the Biblical laws are augmented by Rabbinical injunctions. For example, the Torah
Torah
mandates that a woman in her normal menstrual period must abstain from sexual intercourse for seven days. A woman whose menstruation is prolonged must continue to abstain for seven more days after bleeding has stopped.[108] The Rabbis
Rabbis
conflated ordinary niddah with this extended menstrual period, known in the Torah
Torah
as zavah, and mandated that a woman may not have sexual intercourse with her husband from the time she begins her menstrual flow until seven days after it ends. In addition, Rabbinical law forbids the husband from touching or sharing a bed with his wife during this period. Afterwards, purification can occur in a ritual bath called a mikveh.[111] Traditional Ethiopian Jews
Jews
keep menstruating women in separate huts and, similar to Karaite practice, do not allow menstruating women into their temples because of a temple's special sanctity. Emigration to Israel
Israel
and the influence of other Jewish denominations have led to Ethiopian Jews
Jews
adopting more normative Jewish practices.[112][113] Life-cycle events Life-cycle events, or rites of passage, occur throughout a Jew's life that serves to strengthen Jewish identity
Jewish identity
and bind him/her to the entire community.

Brit milah – Welcoming male babies into the covenant through the rite of circumcision on their eighth day of life. The baby boy is also given his Hebrew name in the ceremony. A naming ceremony intended as a parallel ritual for girls, named zeved habat or brit bat, enjoys limited popularity. Bar mitzvah and Bat mitzvah – This passage from childhood to adulthood takes place when a female Jew is twelve and a male Jew is thirteen years old among Orthodox and some Conservative congregations. In the Reform movement, both girls and boys have their bat/bar mitzvah at age thirteen. This is often commemorated by having the new adults, male only in the Orthodox tradition, lead the congregation in prayer and publicly read a "portion" of the Torah. Marriage – Marriage is an extremely important lifecycle event. A wedding takes place under a chuppah, or wedding canopy, which symbolizes a happy house. At the end of the ceremony, the groom breaks a glass with his foot, symbolizing the continuous mourning for the destruction of the Temple, and the scattering of the Jewish people. Death and Mourning – Judaism
Judaism
has a multi-staged mourning practice. The first stage is called the shiva (literally "seven", observed for one week) during which it is traditional to sit at home and be comforted by friends and family, the second is the shloshim (observed for one month) and for those who have lost one of their parents, there is a third stage, avelut yud bet chodesh, which is observed for eleven months.

Community leadership Classical priesthood

Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
c. 1910.

The role of the priesthood in Judaism
Judaism
has significantly diminished since the destruction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
in 70 CE when priests attended to the Temple and sacrifices. The priesthood is an inherited position, and although priests no longer have any but ceremonial duties, they are still honored in many Jewish communities. Many Orthodox Jewish communities believe that they will be needed again for a future Third Temple
Third Temple
and need to remain in readiness for future duty.

Kohen
Kohen
(priest) – patrilineal descendant of Aaron, brother of Moses. In the Temple, the kohanim were charged with performing the sacrifices. Today, a Kohen
Kohen
is the first one called up at the reading of the Torah, performs the Priestly Blessing, as well as complying with other unique laws and ceremonies, including the ceremony of redemption of the first-born. Levi
Levi
(Levite) – Patrilineal descendant of Levi
Levi
the son of Jacob. In the Temple in Jerusalem, the levites sang Psalms, performed construction, maintenance, janitorial, and guard duties, assisted the priests, and sometimes interpreted the law and Temple ritual to the public. Today, a Levite is called up second to the reading of the Torah.

Prayer
Prayer
leaders From the time of the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
to the present, Judaism
Judaism
has required specialists or authorities for the practice of very few rituals or ceremonies. A Jew can fulfill most requirements for prayer by himself. Some activities—reading the Torah
Torah
and haftarah (a supplementary portion from the Prophets or Writings), the prayer for mourners, the blessings for bridegroom and bride, the complete grace after meals—require a minyan, the presence of ten Jews. The most common professional clergy in a synagogue are:

Rabbi
Rabbi
of a congregation – Jewish scholar who is charged with answering the legal questions of a congregation. This role requires ordination by the congregation's preferred authority (i.e., from a respected Orthodox rabbi or, if the congregation is Conservative or Reform, from academic seminaries). A congregation does not necessarily require a rabbi. Some congregations have a rabbi but also allow members of the congregation to act as shatz or baal kriyah (see below).

Hassidic Rebbe
Rebbe
– rabbi who is the head of a Hasidic dynasty.

Hazzan
Hazzan
(note: the "h" denotes voiceless pharyngeal fricative) (cantor) – a trained vocalist who acts as shatz. Chosen for a good voice, knowledge of traditional tunes, understanding of the meaning of the prayers and sincerity in reciting them. A congregation does not need to have a dedicated hazzan.

Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
services do involve two specified roles, which are sometimes, but not always, filled by a rabbi or hazzan in many congregations. In other congregations these roles are filled on an ad-hoc basis by members of the congregation who lead portions of services on a rotating basis:

Shaliach tzibur or Shatz (leader—literally "agent" or "representative"—of the congregation) leads those assembled in prayer and sometimes prays on behalf of the community. When a shatz recites a prayer on behalf of the congregation, he is not acting as an intermediary but rather as a facilitator. The entire congregation participates in the recital of such prayers by saying amen at their conclusion; it is with this act that the shatz's prayer becomes the prayer of the congregation. Any adult capable of reciting the prayers clearly may act as shatz. In Orthodox congregations and some Conservative congregations, only men can be prayer leaders, but all Progressive communities now allow women to serve in this function. The Baal kriyah or baal koreh (master of the reading) reads the weekly Torah
Torah
portion. The requirements for being the baal kriyah are the same as those for the shatz. These roles are not mutually exclusive. The same person is often qualified to fill more than one role and often does. Often there are several people capable of filling these roles and different services (or parts of services) will be led by each.

Many congregations, especially larger ones, also rely on a:

Gabbai
Gabbai
(sexton) – Calls people up to the Torah, appoints the shatz for each prayer session if there is no standard shatz, and makes certain that the synagogue is kept clean and supplied.

The three preceding positions are usually voluntary and considered an honor. Since the Enlightenment large synagogues have often adopted the practice of hiring rabbis and hazzans to act as shatz and baal kriyah, and this is still typically the case in many Conservative and Reform congregations. However, in most Orthodox synagogues these positions are filled by laypeople on a rotating or ad-hoc basis. Although most congregations hire one or more Rabbis, the use of a professional hazzan is generally declining in American congregations, and the use of professionals for other offices is rarer still. Specialized religious roles

Dayan (judge) – An ordained rabbi with special legal training who belongs to a beth din (rabbinical court). In Israel, religious courts handle marriage and divorce cases, conversion and financial disputes in the Jewish community. Mohel
Mohel
(circumciser) – An expert in the laws of circumcision who has received training from a previously qualified mohel and performs the brit milah (circumcision). Shochet (ritual slaughterer) – In order for meat to be kosher, it must be slaughtered by a shochet who is an expert in the laws of kashrut and has been trained by another shochet. Sofer (scribe)
Sofer (scribe)
Torah
Torah
scrolls, tefillin (phylacteries), mezuzot (scrolls put on doorposts), and gittin (bills of divorce) must be written by a sofer who is an expert in Hebrew calligraphy and has undergone rigorous training in the laws of writing sacred texts. Rosh yeshiva – A Torah
Torah
scholar who runs a yeshiva. Mashgiach of a yeshiva – Depending on which yeshiva, might either be the person responsible for ensuring attendance and proper conduct, or even supervise the emotional and spiritual welfare of the students and give lectures on mussar (Jewish ethics). Mashgiach – Supervises manufacturers of kosher food, importers, caterers and restaurants to ensure that the food is kosher. Must be an expert in the laws of kashrut and trained by a rabbi, if not a rabbi himself.

History Main article: Jewish history This section is about the history of Judaism. For the book on Ancient Judaism, see Ancient Judaism
Judaism
(book). Origins Main article: Origins of Judaism Further information: Ancient Canaanite religion
Ancient Canaanite religion
and Ancient Semitic religion

Scenes from the Book of Esther
Book of Esther
decorate the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE

At its core, the Tanakh
Tanakh
is an account of the Israelites' relationship with God
God
from their earliest history until the building of the Second Temple (c. 535 BCE). Abraham
Abraham
is hailed as the first Hebrew and the father of the Jewish people. As a reward for his act of faith in one God, he was promised that Isaac, his second son, would inherit the Land of Israel
Israel
(then called Canaan). Later, the descendants of Isaac's son Jacob
Jacob
were enslaved in Egypt, and God
God
commanded Moses
Moses
to lead the Exodus from Egypt. At Mount Sinai, they received the Torah—the five books of Moses. These books, together with Nevi'im
Nevi'im
and Ketuvim
Ketuvim
are known as Torah
Torah
Shebikhtav as opposed to the Oral Torah, which refers to the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Talmud. Eventually, God
God
led them to the land of Israel
Israel
where the tabernacle was planted in the city of Shiloh for over 300 years to rally the nation against attacking enemies. As time went on, the spiritual level of the nation declined to the point that God allowed the Philistines
Philistines
to capture the tabernacle. The people of Israel
Israel
then told Samuel the prophet that they needed to be governed by a permanent king, and Samuel appointed Saul to be their King. When the people pressured Saul into going against a command conveyed to him by Samuel, God
God
told Samuel to appoint David
David
in his stead.

The Western Wall
Western Wall
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount
Temple Mount
is the holiest site in Judaism.

Once King David
David
was established, he told the prophet Nathan that he would like to build a permanent temple, and as a reward for his actions, God
God
promised David
David
that he would allow his son, Solomon, to build the First Temple
First Temple
and the throne would never depart from his children. Rabbinic tradition holds that the details and interpretation of the law, which are called the Oral Torah
Torah
or oral law, were originally an unwritten tradition based upon what God
God
told Moses
Moses
on Mount Sinai. However, as the persecutions of the Jews
Jews
increased and the details were in danger of being forgotten, these oral laws were recorded by Rabbi
Rabbi
Judah HaNasi
Judah HaNasi
(Judah the Prince) in the Mishnah, redacted circa 200 CE. The Talmud
Talmud
was a compilation of both the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Gemara, rabbinic commentaries redacted over the next three centuries. The Gemara
Gemara
originated in two major centers of Jewish scholarship, Palestine and Babylonia.[114] Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, and two works of Talmud
Talmud
were created. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. It was compiled sometime during the 4th century in Palestine.[114] The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
was compiled from discussions in the houses of study by the scholars Ravina I, Ravina II, and Rav Ashi
Rav Ashi
by 500 CE, although it continued to be edited later. Some critical scholars oppose the view that the sacred texts, including the Hebrew Bible, were divinely inspired. Many of these scholars accept the general principles of the documentary hypothesis and suggest that the Torah
Torah
consists of inconsistent texts edited together in a way that calls attention to divergent accounts.[115][page needed][116][117] Many suggest that during the First Temple
First Temple
period, the people of Israel
Israel
believed that each nation had its own god, but that their god was superior to other gods.[118][page needed][119][page needed] Some suggest that strict monotheism developed during the Babylonian Exile, perhaps in reaction to Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
dualism.[120] In this view, it was only by the Hellenic period
Hellenic period
that most Jews
Jews
came to believe that their god was the only god and that the notion of a clearly bounded Jewish nation identical with the Jewish religion formed.[121] John Day argues that the origins of biblical Yahweh, El, Asherah, and Ba'al, may be rooted in earlier Canaanite religion, which was centered on a pantheon of gods much like the Greek pantheon.[122] Antiquity Main articles: Ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah, Babylonian captivity, Hellenistic Judaism, Hasmonean Kingdom, Iudaea Province, and Bar Kokhba revolt According to the Hebrew Bible, the United Monarchy
United Monarchy
was established under Saul and continued under King David
David
and Solomon
Solomon
with its capital in Jerusalem. After Solomon's reign, the nation split into two kingdoms, the Kingdom of Israel
Israel
(in the north) and the Kingdom of Judah (in the south). The Kingdom of Israel
Israel
was conquered by the Assyrian ruler Sargon II
Sargon II
in the late 8th century BCE with many people from the capital Samaria being taken captive to Media and the Khabur River valley. The Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
continued as an independent state until it was conquered by a Babylonian army in the early 6th century BCE, destroying the First Temple
First Temple
that was at the center of ancient Jewish worship. The Judean elite was exiled to Babylonia
Babylonia
and this is regarded as the first Jewish Diaspora. Later many of them returned to their homeland after the subsequent conquest of Babylonia
Babylonia
by the Persians seventy years later, a period known as the Babylonian Captivity. A new Second Temple
Second Temple
was constructed, and old religious practices were resumed. During the early years of the Second Temple, the highest religious authority was a council known as the Great Assembly, led by Ezra of the Book
Book
of Ezra. Among other accomplishments of the Great Assembly, the last books of the Bible were written at this time and the canon sealed. Hellenistic Judaism
Hellenistic Judaism
spread to Ptolemaic Egypt
Ptolemaic Egypt
from the 3rd century BCE. After the Great Revolt (66–73 CE), the Romans destroyed the Temple. Hadrian
Hadrian
built a pagan idol on the Temple grounds and prohibited circumcision; these acts of ethnocide provoked the Bar Kokhba revolt 132–136 CE after which the Romans banned the study of the Torah
Torah
and the celebration of Jewish holidays, and forcibly removed virtually all Jews
Jews
from Judea. In 200 CE, however, Jews
Jews
were granted Roman citizenship and Judaism
Judaism
was recognized as a religio licita ("legitimate religion") until the rise of Gnosticism
Gnosticism
and Early Christianity
Christianity
in the fourth century. Following the destruction of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the expulsion of the Jews, Jewish worship stopped being centrally organized around the Temple, prayer took the place of sacrifice, and worship was rebuilt around the community (represented by a minimum of ten adult men) and the establishment of the authority of rabbis who acted as teachers and leaders of individual communities (see Jewish diaspora). Historical Jewish groupings (to 1700)

The Torah
Torah
Ark of the Beth Jakov synagogue in Macedonia

Around the 1st century CE, there were several small Jewish sects: the Pharisees, Sadducees, Zealots, Essenes, and Christians. After the destruction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
in 70 CE, these sects vanished.[123] Christianity
Christianity
survived, but by breaking with Judaism
Judaism
and becoming a separate religion; the Pharisees
Pharisees
survived but in the form of Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
(today, known simply as "Judaism"). The Sadducees
Sadducees
rejected the divine inspiration of the Prophets and the Writings, relying only on the Torah
Torah
as divinely inspired. Consequently, a number of other core tenets of the Pharisees' belief system (which became the basis for modern Judaism), were also dismissed by the Sadducees. (The Samaritans practiced a similar religion, which is traditionally considered separate from Judaism.) Like the Sadducees
Sadducees
who relied only on the Torah, some Jews
Jews
in the 8th and 9th centuries rejected the authority and divine inspiration of the oral law as recorded in the Mishnah
Mishnah
(and developed by later rabbis in the two Talmuds), relying instead only upon the Tanakh. These included the Isunians, the Yudganites, the Malikites, and others. They soon developed oral traditions of their own, which differed from the rabbinic traditions, and eventually formed the Karaite sect. Karaites exist in small numbers today, mostly living in Israel. Rabbinical and Karaite Jews
Jews
each hold that the others are Jews, but that the other faith is erroneous. Over a long time, Jews
Jews
formed distinct ethnic groups in several different geographic areas—amongst others, the Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jews
Jews
(of central and Eastern Europe), the Sephardi Jews
Jews
(of Spain, Portugal, and North Africa), the Beta Israel
Israel
of Ethiopia, and the Yemenite Jews from the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. Many of these groups have developed differences in their prayers, traditions and accepted canons; however, these distinctions are mainly the result of their being formed at some cultural distance from normative (rabbinic) Judaism, rather than based on any doctrinal dispute. Persecutions Main articles: Persecution of Jews, Antisemitism, and History of antisemitism Antisemitism
Antisemitism
arose during the Middle Ages, in the form of persecutions, pogroms, forced conversions, expulsions, social restrictions and ghettoization. This was different in quality from the repressions of Jews
Jews
which had occurred in ancient times. Ancient repressions were politically motivated and Jews
Jews
were treated the same as members of other ethnic groups. With the rise of the Churches, the main motive for attacks on Jews
Jews
changed from politics to religion and the religious motive for such attacks was specifically derived from Christian views about Jews and Judaism.[124] During the Middle Ages, Jewish people
Jewish people
who lived under Muslim
Muslim
rule generally experienced tolerance and integration,[125] but there were occasional outbreaks of violence like Almohad's persecutions.[126] Hasidism Main article: Hasidic Judaism Hasidic Judaism
Hasidic Judaism
was founded by Yisroel ben Eliezer (1700–1760), also known as the Ba'al
Ba'al
Shem Tov (or Besht). It originated in a time of persecution of the Jewish people
Jewish people
when European Jews
Jews
had turned inward to Talmud
Talmud
study; many felt that most expressions of Jewish life had become too "academic", and that they no longer had any emphasis on spirituality or joy. Its adherents favored small and informal gatherings called Shtiebel, which, in contrast to a traditional synagogue, could be used both as a place of worship and for celebrations involving dancing, eating, and socializing.[127] Ba'al Shem Tov's disciples attracted many followers; they themselves established numerous Hasidic sects across Europe. Unlike other religions, which typically expanded through word of mouth or by use of print, Hasidism spread largely owing to Tzadiks, who used their influence to encourage others to follow the movement. Hasidism appealed to many Europeans because it was easy to learn, did not require full immediate commitment, and presented a compelling spectacle.[128] Hasidic Judaism
Hasidic Judaism
eventually became the way of life for many Jews
Jews
in Eastern Europe. Waves of Jewish immigration in the 1880s carried it to the United States. The movement itself claims to be nothing new, but a refreshment of original Judaism. As some have put it: "they merely re-emphasized that which the generations had lost". Nevertheless, early on there was a serious schism between Hasidic and non-Hasidic Jews. European Jews
Jews
who rejected the Hasidic movement were dubbed by the Hasidim as Misnagdim, (lit. "opponents"). Some of the reasons for the rejection of Hasidic Judaism
Hasidic Judaism
were the exuberance of Hasidic worship, its deviation from tradition in ascribing infallibility and miracles to their leaders, and the concern that it might become a messianic sect. Over time differences between the Hasidim and their opponents have slowly diminished and both groups are now considered part of Haredi Judaism. The Enlightenment and new religious movements Main articles: Haskalah
Haskalah
and Jewish religious movements In the late 18th century CE, Europe was swept by a group of intellectual, social and political movements known as the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment led to reductions in the European laws that prohibited Jews
Jews
to interact with the wider secular world, thus allowing Jews
Jews
access to secular education and experience. A parallel Jewish movement, Haskalah
Haskalah
or the "Jewish Enlightenment", began, especially in Central Europe
Central Europe
and Western Europe, in response to both the Enlightenment and these new freedoms. It placed an emphasis on integration with secular society and a pursuit of non-religious knowledge through reason. With the promise of political emancipation, many Jews
Jews
saw no reason to continue to observe Jewish law and increasing numbers of Jews
Jews
assimilated into Christian Europe. Modern religious movements of Judaism
Judaism
all formed in reaction to this trend. In Central Europe, followed by Great Britain
Great Britain
and the United States, Reform (or Liberal) Judaism
Judaism
developed, relaxing legal obligations (especially those that limited Jewish relations with non-Jews), emulating Protestant
Protestant
decorum in prayer, and emphasizing the ethical values of Judaism's Prophetic tradition. Modern Orthodox Judaism developed in reaction to Reform Judaism, by leaders who argued that Jews
Jews
could participate in public life as citizens equal to Christians while maintaining the observance of Jewish law. Meanwhile, in the United States, wealthy Reform Jews
Jews
helped European scholars, who were Orthodox in practice but critical (and skeptical) in their study of the Bible and Talmud, to establish a seminary to train rabbis for immigrants from Eastern Europe. These left-wing Orthodox rabbis were joined by right-wing Reform rabbis who felt that Jewish law should not be entirely abandoned, to form the Conservative movement. Orthodox Jews
Jews
who opposed the Haskalah
Haskalah
formed Haredi Orthodox Judaism. After massive movements of Jews
Jews
following The Holocaust
Holocaust
and the creation of the state of Israel, these movements have competed for followers from among traditional Jews
Jews
in or from other countries. Spectrum of observance

Judaism
Judaism
is practised in all parts of the world, for example in a synagogue in downtown Mumbai.

Countries such as the United States, Israel, Canada, United Kingdom, Argentina
Argentina
and South Africa
South Africa
contain large Jewish populations. Jewish religious practice varies widely through all levels of observance. According to the 2001 edition of the National Jewish Population Survey, in the United States' Jewish community—the world's second largest—4.3 million Jews
Jews
out of 5.1 million had some sort of connection to the religion.[129] Of that population of connected Jews, 80% participated in some sort of Jewish religious observance, but only 48% belonged to a congregation, and fewer than 16% attend regularly.[130] Birth rates for American Jews
Jews
have dropped from 2.0 to 1.7.[131] (Replacement rate is 2.1.) Intermarriage rates range from 40–50% in the US, and only about a third of children of intermarried couples are raised as Jews. Due to intermarriage and low birth rates, the Jewish population in the US shrank from 5.5 million in 1990 to 5.1 million in 2001. This is indicative of the general population trends among the Jewish community in the Diaspora, but a focus on total population obscures growth trends in some denominations and communities, such as Haredi Judaism. The Baal teshuva movement is a movement of Jews
Jews
who have "returned" to religion or become more observant. Judaism
Judaism
and other religions Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism Main article: Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism See also: Christianity
Christianity
and antisemitism and Christian–Jewish reconciliation Christianity
Christianity
was originally a sect of Second Temple
Second Temple
Judaism, but the two religions diverged in the first century. The differences between Christianity and Judaism
Christianity and Judaism
originally centered on whether Jesus
Jesus
was the Jewish Messiah but eventually became irreconcilable. Major differences between the two faiths include the nature of the Messiah, of atonement and sin, the status of God's commandments to Israel, and perhaps most significantly of the nature of God
God
himself. Due to these differences, Judaism
Judaism
traditionally regards Christianity
Christianity
as Shituf or worship of the God
God
of Israel
Israel
which is not monotheistic. Christianity
Christianity
has traditionally regarded Judaism
Judaism
as obsolete with the invention of Christianity
Christianity
and Jews
Jews
as a people replaced by the Church, though a Christian belief in dual-covenant theology emerged as a phenomenon following Christian reflection on how their theology influenced the Nazi Holocaust.[132] Since the time of the Middle Ages, the Christian Church
Christian Church
upheld Constitution pro Judæis (Formal Statement on the Jews), which stated

We decree that no Christian shall use violence to force them to be baptized, so long as they are unwilling and refuse. ... Without the judgment of the political authority of the land, no Christian shall presume to wound them or kill them or rob them of their money or change the good customs that they have thus far enjoyed in the place where they live."[133]

Until their emancipation in the late 18th and the 19th century, Jews in Christian lands were subject to humiliating legal restrictions and limitations. They included provisions requiring Jews
Jews
to wear specific and identifying clothing such as the Jewish hat
Jewish hat
and the yellow badge, restricting Jews
Jews
to certain cities and towns or in certain parts of towns (ghettos), and forbidding Jews
Jews
to enter certain trades (for example selling new clothes in medieval Sweden). Disabilities also included special taxes levied on Jews, exclusion from public life, restraints on the performance of religious ceremonies, and linguistic censorship. Some countries went even further and completely expelled Jews, for example, England in 1290 ( Jews
Jews
were readmitted in 1655) and Spain in 1492 (readmitted in 1868). The first Jewish settlers in North America arrived in the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
in 1654; they were forbidden to hold public office, open a retail shop, or establish a synagogue. When the colony was seized by the British in 1664 Jewish rights remained unchanged, but by 1671 Asser Levy
Asser Levy
was the first Jew to serve on a jury in North America.[134] In 1791, Revolutionary France was the first country to abolish disabilities altogether, followed by Prussia
Prussia
in 1848. Emancipation of the Jews
Jews
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was achieved in 1858 after an almost 30-year struggle championed by Isaac Lyon Goldsmid[135] with the ability of Jews
Jews
to sit in parliament with the passing of the Jews
Jews
Relief Act 1858. The newly united German Empire in 1871 abolished Jewish disabilities in Germany, which were reinstated in the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935. Jewish life in Christian lands was marked by frequent blood libels, expulsions, forced conversions and massacres. An underlying source of prejudice against Jews
Jews
in Europe was religious. Christian rhetoric and antipathy towards Jews
Jews
developed in the early years of Christianity and was reinforced by ever increasing anti-Jewish measures over the ensuing centuries. The action taken by Christians against Jews included acts of violence, and murder culminating in the Holocaust.[136]:21[137]:169[138] These attitudes were reinforced in Christian preaching, art and popular teaching for two millennia, containing contempt for Jews,[139] as well as statutes which were designed to humiliate and stigmatise Jews. The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
was known for its persecution of Christian Churches; many of them, such as the Protestant
Protestant
Confessing Church
Confessing Church
and the Catholic
Catholic
Church,[140] as well as Quakers
Quakers
and Jehovah's Witnesses, aided and rescued Jews
Jews
who were being targeted by the antireligious régime.[141] The attitude of Christians and Christian Churches toward the Jewish people and Judaism, have been changed mostly positive since World War II. Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
and the Catholic
Catholic
Church have "upheld the Church's acceptance of the continuing and permanent election of the Jewish people" as well as a reaffirmation of the covenant between God and the Jews.[142] In December 2015, the Vatican released a 10,000-word document that, among other things, stated that Catholics should work with Jews
Jews
to fight antisemitism.[143] Islam
Islam
and Judaism Main article: Islam
Islam
and Judaism Both Judaism
Judaism
and Islam
Islam
arose from the patriarch Abraham, and they are therefore considered Abrahamic religions. In both Jewish and Muslim tradition, the Jewish and Arab peoples are descended from the two sons of Abraham— Isaac
Isaac
and Ishmael, respectively. While both religions are monotheistic and share many commonalities, they differ based on the fact that Jews
Jews
do not consider Jesus
Jesus
or Muhammad
Muhammad
to be prophets. The religions' adherents have interacted with each other since the 7th century when Islam
Islam
originated and spread in the Arabian peninsula. Indeed, the years 712 to 1066 CE under the Ummayad
Ummayad
and the Abbasid rulers have been called the Golden age of Jewish culture
Jewish culture
in Spain. Non- Muslim
Muslim
monotheists living in these countries, including Jews, were known as dhimmis. Dhimmis were allowed to practice their own religions and administer their own internal affairs, but they were subject to certain restrictions that were not imposed on Muslims.[144] For example, they had to pay the jizya, a per capita tax imposed on free adult non- Muslim
Muslim
males,[144] and they were also forbidden to bear arms or testify in court cases involving Muslims.[145] Many of the laws regarding dhimmis were highly symbolic. For example, dhimmis in some countries were required to wear distinctive clothing, a practice not found in either the Qur'an
Qur'an
or the hadiths but invented in early medieval Baghdad
Baghdad
and inconsistently enforced.[146] Jews
Jews
in Muslim countries were not entirely free from persecution—for example, many were killed, exiled or forcibly converted in the 12th century, in Persia, and by the rulers of the Almohad
Almohad
dynasty in North Africa
North Africa
and Al-Andalus,[147] as well as by the Zaydi imams of Yemen in the 17th century (see: Mawza Exile). At times, Jews
Jews
were also restricted in their choice of residence—in Morocco, for example, Jews
Jews
were confined to walled quarters (mellahs) beginning in the 15th century and increasingly since the early 19th century.[148] In the mid-20th century, Jews
Jews
were expelled from nearly all of the Arab countries.[149][150][151] Most have chosen to live in Israel. Today, antisemitic themes including Holocaust
Holocaust
denial have become commonplace in the propaganda of Islamic movements such as Hizbullah and Hamas, in the pronouncements of various agencies of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and even in the newspapers and other publications of Refah Partisi.[152] Syncretic movements incorporating Judaism There are some movements that combine elements of Judaism
Judaism
with those of other religions. The most well-known of these is Messianic Judaism, a religious movement, which arose in the 1960s,[153][154][155][156] that incorporates elements of Judaism
Judaism
with the tenets of Christianity.[156][157][158][159][160] The movement generally states that Jesus
Jesus
is the Jewish Messiah, that he is one of the Three Divine Persons,[161][162] and that salvation is only achieved through acceptance of Jesus
Jesus
as one's savior.[163] Some members of the movement argue that Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism
is a sect of Judaism.[164] Jewish organizations of every denomination reject this, stating that Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism
is a Christian sect, because it teaches creeds which are identical to those of Pauline Christianity.[165] Other examples of syncretism include Semitic neopaganism, a loosely organized sect which incorporates pagan or Wiccan beliefs with some Jewish religious practices; Jewish Buddhists, another loosely organized group that incorporates elements of Asian spirituality in their faith; and some Renewal Jews
Jews
who borrow freely and openly from Buddhism, Sufism, Native American religions, and other faiths. The Kabbalah
Kabbalah
Centre, which employs teachers from multiple religions, is a New Age
New Age
movement that claims to popularize the kabbalah, part of the Jewish esoteric tradition. See also

Judaism
Judaism
portal Religion
Religion
portal

Book: Abrahamic religions Book: Judaism

Anti-Judaism Criticism of Judaism Frankism Jewish assimilation Jewish culture Jewish views of religious pluralism Judaism
Judaism
by country List of converts to Judaism Outline of Judaism Sabbateanism Sumer

References

^ "The Bible and Interpretation".  ^ "Oxford Dictionaries – Dictionary, Thesaurus, & Grammar".  ^ Shaye J.D. Cohen 1999 The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties, Berkeley: University of California Press; p. 7 ^ Jacobs, Louis (2007). "Judaism". In Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 11 (2d ed.). Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. p. 511. ISBN 978-0-02-865928-2. Judaism, the religion, philosophy, and way of life of the Jews.  ^ "Knowledge Resources: Judaism". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved 22 November 2011.  ^ 14.3 million (core Jewish population) to 17.4 million (including non- Jews
Jews
who have a Jewish parent), according to:

DellaPergola, Sergio (2015). World Jewish Population, 2015 (Report). Berman Jewish DataBank. Retrieved 4 May 2016. 

14–14.5 million according to:

"Worldwide Jewry numbers 14 million". Ynet. Retrieved 21 October 2013.  "Jewish Population". Judaism101. Retrieved 20 September 2013.  Daniel J. Elazar. "How Strong is Orthodox Judaism
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– Really? The Demographics of Jewish Religious Identification". Jerusalem
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Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 20 September 2013.  "The Global Religious Landscape – Jews". Pew Research Center. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 

^ "What is the oral Torah?". Torah.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ "Karaite Jewish University". Kjuonline.com. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ "Society for Humanistic Judaism". Shj.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ "Jewish Denominations". ReligionFacts. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ "Reform Judaism". ReligionFacts. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ "What is Reform Judaism?". Reformjudaism.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Britannica Online Encyclopedia: Bet Din". Britannica.com. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ a b " Judaism
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and Other Religious Functionaries". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ David
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P Mindell (30 June 2009). The Evolving World. Harvard University Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-674-04108-0.  ^ " History of Judaism
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until 164 BCE". History of Judaism. BBC.  ^ " Religion
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& Ethics
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– Judaism". BBC. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Religion: Three Religions, One God
God
PBS ^ Settings of silver: an introduction to Judaism
Judaism
p. 59 by Stephen M. Wylen, Paulist Press, 2000 ^ Heribert Busse (1998). Islam, Judaism, and Christianity: Theological and Historical Affiliations. Markus Wiener Publishers. pp. 63–112. ISBN 978-1-55876-144-5.  ^ Irving M. Zeitlin (2007). The Historical Muhammad. Polity. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-0-7456-3999-4.  ^ Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate (book) ^ Cambridge University Historical Series, An Essay on Western Civilization
Civilization
in Its Economic Aspects, p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era. ^ See, for example, Deborah Dash Moore, American Jewish Identity Politics, University of Michigan Press, 2008, p. 303; Ewa Morawska, Insecure Prosperity: Small-Town Jews
Jews
in Industrial America, 1890–1940, Princeton University Press, 1999. p. 217; Peter Y. Medding, Values, interests and identity: Jews
Jews
and politics in a changing world, Volume 11 of Studies in contemporary Jewry, Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 64; Ezra Mendelsohn, People of the city: Jews
Jews
and the urban challenge, Volume 15 of Studies in contemporary Jewry, Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 55; Louis Sandy Maisel, Ira N. Forman, Donald Altschiller, Charles Walker Bassett, Jews
Jews
in American politics: essays, Rowman & Littlefield, 2004, p. 158; Seymour Martin Lipset, American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword, W. W. Norton & Company, 1997, p. 169. ^ a b "World Jewish Population 2015". Retrieved 8 August 2016.  ^ Nahum Sarna 1969 Understanding Genesis. New York: Schocken ^ Neusner, Jacob
Jacob
(2003). "Defining Judaism". In Neusner, Jacob; Avery-Peck, Alan. The Blackwell companion to Judaism. Blackwell. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-57718-059-3. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Gen. 17:3–8 Genesis 17: 3–8: Abram fell facedown, and God
God
said to him, "As for me, this is my covenant with you: You will be the father of many nations. No longer will you be called Abram ; your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a father of many nations. I will make you very fruitful; I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you. I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God
God
and the God
God
of your descendants after you. The whole land of Canaan, where you are now an alien, I will give as an everlasting possession to you and your descendants after you; and I will be their God;" Gen. 22:17–18 Genesis 22: 17–18: I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring, all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me." ^ Exodus 20:3 "You shall have no other gods before me; Deut. 6:5 Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
6:5 "Love the LORD your God
God
with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength." ^ Lev. 19:18 Leviticus
Leviticus
19:18: "'Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against one of your people, but love your neighbor as yourself. I am the Lord" ^ Kadushin, Max, 1972 The Rabbinic Mind. New York: Bloch Publishing Company. p. 194 ^ Kadushin, Max, 1972 The Rabbinic Mind. New York: Bloch Publishing Company. p. 203 ^ The Books of Melachim (Kings) and Book
Book
of Yeshaiahu (Isaiah) in the Tanakh
Tanakh
contain a few of the many Biblical accounts of Israelite
Israelite
kings and segments of ancient Israel's population worshiping other gods. For example: King Solomon's "wives turned away his heart after other gods...[and he] did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD" (elaborated in 1 Melachim 11:4–10); King Ahab "went and served Baal, and worshiped him...And Ahab made the Asherah
Asherah
[a pagan place of worship]; and Ahab did yet more to provoke the LORD, the God
God
of Israel, than all the kings of Israel
Israel
that were before him" (1 Melachim 16:31–33); the prophet Isaiah
Isaiah
condemns the people who "prepare a table for [the idol] Fortune, and that offer mingled wine in full measure unto [the idol] Destiny" (Yeshaiahu 65:11–12). Translation: JPS (Jewish Publication Society) edition of the Tanakh, from 1917, available at Mechon Mamre. ^ Newman, Carey C.; Davila, James R.; Lewis, Gladys S., eds. (1999). The Jewish roots of Christological monotheism: papers from the St. Andrews conference on the historical origins of the worship of Jesus. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11361-9. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Steinberg, Milton 1947 Basic Judaism
Judaism
New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 36 ^ " Judaism
Judaism
101: Movements of Judaism". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ " Theology
Theology
on Tap Winter 2014 under way in Mandeville: Keeping the Faith". NOLA.com.  ^ Langton, Daniel R. (2011). Normative Judaism? Jews, Judaism
Judaism
and Jewish Identity. Gorgias press. ISBN 978-1-60724-161-4.  ^ Rabbi
Rabbi
S. of Montpelier, Yad
Yad
Rama, Y. Alfacher, Rosh Amanah. ^ "Maimonides' 13 Foundations of Judaism". Mesora. However if he rejects one of these fundamentals he leaves the nation and is a denier of the fundamentals and is called a heretic, a denier, etc.  ^ Rabbi
Rabbi
Mordechai Blumenfeld. "Maimonides, 13 Principles of Faith". Aish HaTorah. According to the Rambam, their acceptance defines the minimum requirement necessary for one to relate to the Almighty and His Torah
Torah
as a member of the People of Israel  ^ a b c Daniel Septimus. "The Thirteen Principles of Faith". MyJewishLearning.com.  ^ Ronald L. Eisenberg (2004). The JPS guide to Jewish traditions. Jewish Publication Society. p. 509. ISBN 0-8276-0760-1. The concept of "dogma" is ... not a basic idea in Judaism.  ^ Dogma in Medieval Jewish Thought, Menachem Kellner. ^ "The Thirteen Principles of the Jewish Faith". Hebrew4Christians. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ "What Do Jews
Jews
Believe?". Mechon Mamre. The closest that anyone has ever come to creating a widely accepted list of Jewish beliefs is Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith.  ^ The JPS guide to Jewish traditions, p. 510, "The one that eventually secured almost universal acceptance was the Thirteen Principles of faith" ^ " Judaism
Judaism
101: What Do Jews
Jews
Believe?". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ "Description of Judaism, Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance". Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ " Judaism
Judaism
101: The Patriarchs and the Origins of Judaism". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Rietti, Rabbi
Rabbi
Jonathan. "How Do You Know the Exodus Really Happened?". Archived from the original on 18 September 2004.  The word "emunah" has been translated incorrectly by the King James Bible as merely "belief" or "faith", when in actuality, it means conviction, which is a much more emphatic knowledge of God
God
based on experience. ^ "Jewish Sacred Texts". ReligionFacts. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ M. San 10:1. Translation available here [1]. ^ Kosior, Wojciech (2015). Some Remarks on the Self-Images of the Modern Judaism. Textual Analysis. Filozofia kultury. Kraków. pp. 91–106.  ^ " Judaism
Judaism
101: A Glossary of Basic Jewish Terms and Concepts". Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations in America. 12 April 2006. Archived from the original on 19 February 2001.  ^ Danzinger, Eliezer. "How Many of the Torah's Commandments Still Apply?". Chabad.org. Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ Codex Judaica
Judaica
Kantor 2006, page 146" (as cited on Judah haNasi) ^ Abraham
Abraham
ben David, Seder Ha- Kabbalah
Kabbalah
Leharavad, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1971, p.16 (Hebrew) (as cited on Judah haNasi) ^ Student, Gil. "Proofs for the Oral Law". The AishDas Society. Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ The Prayer
Prayer
book: Weekday, Sabbath, and Festival translated and arranged by Ben Zion Bokser. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company. pp. 9–10 ^ Kadushin, Max 1972 The Rabbinic Mind New York: Bloch Publishing. p. 213 ^ Neusner, Jacob
Jacob
2003 Invitation to the Talmud
Talmud
Stipf and Son, Oregon xvii–xxii ^ Stern, David
David
" Midrash
Midrash
and Indeterminacy" in Critical Inquiry, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Autumn, 1988), p. 151. ^ Neusner, Jacob
Jacob
2003 Invitation to the Talmud
Talmud
Stipf and Son, Oregon xvii-vix; Steinsaltz, Adin 1976 The Essential Talmud
Talmud
New York: Basic Books. 3–9; Strack, Hermann 1980 Introduction to the Midrash
Midrash
and Talmud
Talmud
New York: Atheneum. 95; Stern, David
David
" Midrash
Midrash
and Indeterminacy" in Critical Inquiry, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Autumn, 1988), pp. 132–161 ^ Stern, David
David
" Midrash
Midrash
and Indeterminacy" in Critical Inquiry, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Autumn, 1988), p. 147. ^ Cohen, Abner 1949 Everyman's Talmud
Talmud
New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. xxiv; Strack, Hermann 1980 Introduction to the Midrash
Midrash
and Talmud
Talmud
New York: Atheneum. 95 ^ Cohen, Abner 1949 Everyman's Talmud
Talmud
New York: E. P. Dutton & Co. xxiv; Steinsaltz, Adin 1976 The Essential Talmud
Talmud
New Yorki: Basic Books. 222; Strack, Hermann 1980 Introduction to the Midrash
Midrash
and Talmud
Talmud
New York: Atheneum. 95 ^ Strack, Hermann 1980 Introduction to the Midrash
Midrash
and Talmud
Talmud
New York: Atheneum. p. 95 ^ סדור רינת ישראל לבני חוײל Jerusalem: 1974, pp. 38–39 ^ Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
Sir Jonathan Sacks, 2006 The Koren Sacks Siddur: Hebrew/English Prayer
Prayer
Book: The Authorized Daily Prayer
Prayer
Book
Book
of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth London: Harper Collins Publishers pp. 54–55 ^ Nosson Scherman 2003 The Complete Artscroll Siddur
Siddur
Third Edition Brooklyn, N.Y.: Mesorah Publications pp. 49–53 ^ Rabbi
Rabbi
Schneur Zalman of Liadi, Nissen Mangel, 2003 Siddur
Siddur
Tehillat Hashem Kehot Publication Society. pp. 24–25 ^ ἰουδαΐζειν. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project ^ "Methods and Categories: Judaism
Judaism
and Gospel". Bibleinterp.com. 6 November 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Judaism, AskOxford Archived 31 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Skarsaune, Oskar (2002). In the Shadow of the Temple: Jewish Influences on Early Christianity. InterVarsity Press. pp. 39ff. ISBN 978-0-8308-2670-4. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Shaye J.D. Cohen 1999 The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties University of California Press. 105–106 ^ The Oxford English Dictionary. ^ Boyarin, Daniel (14 October 1994). "Introduction". A radical Jew: Paul and the politics of identity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. pp. 13–38. ISBN 0-520-08592-2. LCCN 93036269. Retrieved 15 June 2006. Paul was motivated by a Hellenistic desire for the One, which among other things produced an ideal of a universal human essence, beyond difference and hierarchy. This universal humanity, however, was predicated (and still is) on the dualism of the flesh and the spirit, such that while the body is particular, marked through practice as Jew or Greek, and through anatomy as male or female, the spirit is universal. Paul did not, however, reject the body—as did, for instance, the gnostics—but rather promoted a system whereby the body had its place, albeit subordinated to the spirit. Paul's anthropological dualism was matched by a hermeneutical dualism as well. Just as the human being is divided into a fleshy and a spiritual component, so also is language itself. It is composed of outer, material signs and inner, spiritual significations. When this is applied to the religious system that Paul inherited, the physical, fleshy signs of the Torah, of historical Judaism, are re-interpreted as symbols of that which Paul takes to be universal requirements and possibilities for humanity.  ^ Boyarin, Daniel (1994). "Answering the Mail". A radical Jew: Paul and the politics of identity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08592-2. Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension with one another.  ^ Weiner, Rebecca
Rebecca
(2007). "Who is a Jew?". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 6 October 2007.  ^ Samuel G. Freedman, "Strains Grow Between Israel
Israel
and Many Jews
Jews
in the U.S." The New York Times, 6 February 2015 ^ "Reform's Position On...What is unacceptable practice?". Faqs.org. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Heschel, Susannah (1998) Abraham
Abraham
Geiger and the Jewish Jesus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 157. ISBN 0-226-32959-3 ^ "Law of Return 5710-1950". Israel
Israel
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2007. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007.  ^ Jacob, Walter (1987). Contemporary American Reform Responsa. Mars, Pa.: Central Conference of American Rabbis. pp. 100–106. ISBN 0-88123-003-0. Retrieved 28 September 2011.  ^ "Karaite FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions About Karaism".  ^ "What is the origin of Matrilineal Descent?". Shamash.org. 4 September 2003. Retrieved 9 January 2009.  ^ "What is the source of the law that a child is Jewish only if its mother is Jewish?". Torah.org. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2009.  ^ Emma Klein (27 July 2016). Lost Jews: The Struggle for Identity Today. Springer. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-1-349-24319-8.  ^ Robin May Schott (25 October 2010). Birth, Death, and Femininity: Philosophies of Embodiment. Indiana University Press. pp. 67–. ISBN 0-253-00482-9.  ^ Dosick (2007), pp. 56–57. ^ Robert Gordis. " Torah
Torah
MiSinai:Conservative Views". A Modern Approach to a Living Halachah. Masorti World. Archived from the original on 13 July 2007. The Torah
Torah
is an emanation of God... This conception does not mean, for us, that the process of revelation consisted of dictation by God.  ^ "Conservative Judaism". Jewlicious. We therefore understand this term as a metaphor to mean that the Torah
Torah
is divine and that it reflects God's will.  ^ "Tefillin", "The Book
Book
of Jewish Knowledge", Nathan Ausubel, Crown Publishers, NY, 1964, p. 458 ^ "Shabbat". Judaism
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101. 12 April 2006.  ^ a b c d e f g " Judaism
Judaism
101: Kashrut". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Chaya Shuchat. "The Kosher Pig?". It is also the most quintessentially "treif" of animals, with its name being nearly synonymous with non-kosher ... Although far from alone in the litany of non-kosher animals, the pig seems to stand in a class of its own.  ^ "Tamar Levy, St. Louis, MO – Block Yeshiva
Yeshiva
High School, Grade 9". OUkosher.org. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah, (87:3) ^ Elliot Dorff, ""On the Use of All Wines"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2009.  (2.19 MB), YD 123:1.1985, pp. 11–15. ^ " Kashrut
Kashrut
Facts". Religionfacts.com. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ " Judaism
Judaism
101: Kashrut: Jewish Dietary Laws". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Vayyiqra (Leviticus) 11 ^ Rice, Yisrael (10 June 2007). " Judaism
Judaism
and the Art of Eating". Chabad. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Jewish life in WWII England: "there was a...special dispensation...that allowed Jews
Jews
serving in the armed services to eat "non-kosher" when no Jewish food was available; that deviation from halacha was allowed 'in order to save a human life including your own.'" ^ Y. Lichtenshtein M.A. "Weekly Pamphlet #805". Bar-Ilan University, Faculty of Jewish Studies, Rabbinical office. ... certain prohibitions become allowed without a doubt because of lifethreatening circumstances, like for example eating non-kosher food  ^ a b Vayyiqra (Leviticus) 15. ^ Bamidbar (Numbers) 19. ^ Avi Kehat. " Torah
Torah
tidbits". Ou.org. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ a b " Judaism
Judaism
101: Kosher Sex". Jewfaq.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ "Karaites". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ Wasserfall, Rahel (1999). Women
Women
and water: menstruation in Jewish life and law. Brandeis University Press. ISBN 0-87451-960-8.  ^ a b Wilhelm Bacher. "Talmud". Jewish Encyclopedia.  ^ Yehezkal Kauffman, The Religion
Religion
of Israel ^ Robert Alter The Art of Biblical Poetry ^ E. A. Speiser
E. A. Speiser
Genesis (The Anchor Bible) ^ John Bright A History of Israel ^ Martin Noth The History of Israel ^ Ephraim Urbach The Sages ^ Shaye Cohen The beginnings of Jewishness ^ John Day Yahweh
Yahweh
and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan, page 68. ^ Sara E. Karesh; Mitchell M. Hurvitz (2005). Encyclopedia of Judaism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 444–. ISBN 978-0-8160-6982-8. The Sadducees
Sadducees
disappeared when the second Temple was destroyed in the year 70 C.E and Pharisaic Judaism
Judaism
became the preeminent Jewish sect.  ^ Langmuir, Gavin (1993). History, religion, and antisemitism. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07728-8.  ^ Cohen, Mark R. "The Neo-Lachrymose Conception of Jewish-Arab History." Tikkun 6.3 (1991) ^ Amira K. Bennison and María Ángeles Gallego. "Jewish Trading in Fes On The Eve of the Almohad
Almohad
Conquest." MEAH, sección Hebreo 56 (2007), 33–51 ^ Stampfer, Shaul. How and Why Did Hasidism Spread?. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. pp. 205–207.  ^ Stampfer, Shaul. How and Why Did Hasidism Spread?. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. pp. 202–204.  ^ " National Jewish Population Survey (NJPS) 2000–01".  ^ Taylor, Humphrey (15 October 2003). "While Most Americans Believe in God, Only 36% Attend a Religious Service Once a Month or More Often" (PDF). HarrisInteractive. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 January 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2010.  ^ This is My Beloved, This is My Friend: A Rabbinic Letter on Intimate relations, p. 27, Elliot N. Dorff ^ R. Kendall Soulen, The God
God
of Israel
Israel
and Christian Theology, (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996) ISBN 978-0-8006-2883-3 ^ Baskin, Judith R.; Seeskin, Kenneth (12 July 2010). The Cambridge Guide to Jewish History, Religion, and Culture. Cambridge University Press. p. 120. ISBN 9780521869607.  ^ "New Amsterdam's Jewish Crusader". Jewish Virtual Library.  ^ "Sir Isaac
Isaac
Lyon Goldsmid, 1st Baronet". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Richard Harries. After the evil: Christianity and Judaism
Christianity and Judaism
in the shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-19-926313-4 ^ Hans Küng. On Being a Christian. Doubleday, Garden City, N.Y., 1976 ISBN 978-0-385-02712-0 ^ Lucy Dawidowicz The War Against the Jews, 1933–1945. First published 1975; this Bantam edition 1986, p. 23. ISBN 0-553-34532-X ^ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Center for Public Affairs. 5 May 2009. The Origins of Christian Anti-Semitism: Interview with Pieter van der Horst ^ Gill, Anton (1994). An Honourable Defeat; A History of the German Resistance to Hitler. Heinemann Mandarin. 1995 paperback ISBN 978-0-434-29276-9; p.57 ^ Gottfried, Ted (2001). Heroes of the Holocaust. Twenty-First Century Books. pp. 24–25. ISBN 9780761317173. Retrieved 14 January 2017. Some groups that are known to have helped Jews
Jews
were religious in nature. One of these was the Confessing Church, a Protestant denomination formed in May 1934, the year after Hitler became chancellor of Germany. One of its goals was to repeal the Nazi law "which required that the civil service would be purged of all those who were either Jewish or of partly Jewish descent." Another was to help those "who suffered through repressive laws, or violence." About 7,000 of the 17,000 Protestant
Protestant
clergy in Germany joined the Confessing Church. Much of their work has one unrecognized, but two who will never forget them are Max Krakauer and his wife. Sheltered in sixty-six houses and helped by more than eighty individuals who belonged to the Confessing Church, they owe them their lives. German Catholic
Catholic
churches went out of their way to protect Catholics of Jewish ancestry. More inclusive was the principled stand taken by Catholic Bishop Clemens Count von Galen of Munster. He publicly denounced the Nazi slaughter of Jews
Jews
and actually succeeded in having the problem halted for a short time. ... Members of the Society of Friends—German Quakers
Quakers
working with organizations of Friends from other countries—were particularly successful in rescuing Jews. ... Jehovah's Witnesses, themselves targeted for concentration camps, also provided help to Jews.  ^ Wigoder, Geoffrey (1988). Jewish-Christian Relations Since the Second World War. Manchester University Press. p. 87. ISBN 9780719026393. Retrieved 14 January 2017.  ^ "Vatican issues new document on Christian-Jewish dialogue".  ^ a b Lewis (1984), pp. 10, 20 ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 9, 27 ^ Lewis (1999), p. 131 ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 17, 18, 52, 94, 95; Stillman (1979), pp. 27, 77 ^ Lewis (1984), p. 28 ^ "Why Jews
Jews
Fled the Arab Countries". Middle East
Middle East
Forum. Retrieved on 28 July 2013. ^ Shumsky, Dmitry. (12 September 2012) "Recognize Jews
Jews
as refugees from Arab countries". Haaretz. Retrieved on 2013-07-28. ^ Meir, Esther. (9 October 2012) "The truth about the expulsion". 'Haaretz. Retrieved on 2013-07-28. ^ Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
(June 1998). " Muslim
Muslim
Anti-Semitism". Middle East Quarterly.  ^ Feher, Shoshanah. Passing over Easter: Constructing the Boundaries of Messianic Judaism, Rowman Altamira, 1998, ISBN 978-0-7619-8953-0, p. 140. "This interest in developing a Jewish ethnic identity may not be surprising when we consider the 1960s, when Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism
arose." ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). " Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity
Christianity
Unite! The Unique Culture
Culture
of Messianic Judaism". In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-275-98714-5. LCCN 2006022954. OCLC 315689134. In the late 1960s and 1970s, both Jews
Jews
and Christians in the United States
United States
were surprised to see the rise of a vigorous movement of Jewish Christians or Christian Jews.  ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). " Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity
Christianity
Unite! The Unique Culture
Culture
of Messianic Judaism". In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-275-98714-5. LCCN 2006022954. OCLC 315689134. The Rise of Messianic Judaism. In the first phase of the movement, during the early and mid-1970s, Jewish converts to Christianity
Christianity
established several congregations at their own initiative. Unlike the previous communities of Jewish Christians, Messianic Jewish congregations were largely independent of control from missionary societies or Christian denominations, even though they still wanted the acceptance of the larger evangelical community.  ^ a b Melton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Infobase Publishing, 2005, ISBN 978-0-8160-5456-5, p. 373. "Messianic Judaism
Judaism
is a Protestant
Protestant
movement that emerged in the last half of the 20th century among believers who were ethnically Jewish but had adopted an Evangelical Christian faith.... By the 1960s, a new effort to create a culturally Jewish Protestant
Protestant
Christianity
Christianity
emerged among individuals who began to call themselves Messianic Jews." ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). " Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity
Christianity
Unite! The Unique Culture
Culture
of Messianic Judaism". In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-275-98714-5. LCCN 2006022954. OCLC 315689134. While Christianity
Christianity
started in the first century of the Common Era
Common Era
as a Jewish group, it quickly separated from Judaism
Judaism
and claimed to replace it; ever since the relationship between the two traditions has often been strained. But in the twentieth century groups of young Jews
Jews
claimed that they had overcome the historical differences between the two religions and amalgamated Jewish identity
Jewish identity
and customs with the Christian faith.  ^ Ariel, Yaakov (2006). " Judaism
Judaism
and Christianity
Christianity
Unite! The Unique Culture
Culture
of Messianic Judaism". In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-0-275-98714-5. LCCN 2006022954. OCLC 315689134. When the term resurfaced in Israel
Israel
in the 1940s and 1950s, it designated all Jews
Jews
who accepted Christianity
Christianity
in its Protestant
Protestant
evangelical form. Missionaries such as the Southern Baptist Robert Lindsey noted that for Israeli Jews, the term nozrim, "Christians" in Hebrew, meant, almost automatically, an alien, hostile religion. Because such a term made it nearly impossible to convince Jews
Jews
that Christianity
Christianity
was their religion, missionaries sought a more neutral term, one that did not arouse negative feelings. They chose Meshichyim, Messianic, to overcome the suspicion and antagonism of the term nozrim. Meshichyim as a term also had the advantage of emphasizing messianism as a major component of the Christian evangelical belief that the missions and communities of Jewish converts to Christianity
Christianity
propagated. It conveyed the sense of a new, innovative religion rather that [sic] an old, unfavorable one. The term was used in reference to those Jews
Jews
who accepted Jesus
Jesus
as their personal savior, and did not apply to Jews
Jews
accepting Roman Catholicism who in Israel
Israel
have called themselves Hebrew Christians. The term Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism
was adopted in the United States
United States
in the early 1970s by those converts to evangelical Christianity
Christianity
who advocated a more assertive attitude on the part of converts towards their Jewish roots and heritage.  ^ Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2000). "Messianic Jewish mission". Messianic Judaism. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-8264-5458-4. OCLC 42719687. Retrieved 10 August 2010. Evangelism
Evangelism
of the Jewish people
Jewish people
is thus at the heart of the Messianic movement.  ^ Ariel, Yaakov S. (2000). "Chapter 20: The Rise of Messianic Judaism". Evangelizing the chosen people: missions to the Jews
Jews
in America, 1880–2000. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-8078-4880-7. OCLC 43708450. Retrieved 10 August 2010. Messianic Judaism, although it advocated the idea of an independent movement of Jewish converts, remained the offspring of the missionary movement, and the ties would never be broken. The rise of Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism
was, in many ways, a logical outcome of the ideology and rhetoric of the movement to evangelize the Jews
Jews
as well as its early sponsorship of various forms of Hebrew Christian expressions. The missions have promoted the message that Jews
Jews
who had embraced Christianity
Christianity
were not betraying their heritage or even their faith but were actually fulfilling their true Jewish selves by becoming Christians. The missions also promoted the dispensationalist idea that the Church equals the body of the true Christian believers and that Christians were defined by their acceptance of Jesus
Jesus
as their personal Savior and not by their affiliations with specific denominations and particular liturgies or modes of prayer. Missions had been using Jewish symbols in their buildings and literature and called their centers by Hebrew names such as Emanuel or Beth Sar Shalom. Similarly, the missions' publications featured Jewish religious symbols and practices such as the lighting of a menorah. Although missionaries to the Jews
Jews
were alarmed when they first confronted the more assertive and independent movement of Messianic Judaism, it was they who were responsible for its conception and indirectly for its birth. The ideology, rhetoric, and symbols they had promoted for generations provided the background for the rise of a new movement that missionaries at first rejected as going too far but later accepted and even embraced.  ^ "What are the Standards of the UMJC?". Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations. June 1998. Archived from the original on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 1. We believe the Bible is the inspired, the only infallible, authoritative Word of G-d. 2. We believe that there is one G-d, eternally existent in three persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit. 3. We believe in the deity of the L-RD Yeshua, the Messiah, in His virgin birth, in His sinless life, in His miracles, in His vicarious and atoning death through His shed blood, in His bodily resurrection, in His ascension to the right hand of the Father, and in His personal return in power and glory.  ^ Israel
Israel
b. Betzalel (2009). "Trinitarianism". JerusalemCouncil.org. Retrieved 3 July 2009. This then is who Yeshua is: He is not just a man, and as a man, he is not from Adam, but from God. He is the Word of HaShem, the Memra, the Davar, the Righteous One, he didn't become righteous, he is righteous. He is called God's Son, he is the agent of HaShem called HaShem, and he is "HaShem" who we interact with and not die.  ^ "Do I need to be Circumcised?". JerusalemCouncil.org. 10 February 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2010. To convert to the Jewish sect of HaDerech, accepting Yeshua as your King is the first act after one's heart turns toward HaShem and His Torah
Torah
– as one can not obey a commandment of God
God
if they first do not love God, and we love God
God
by following his Messiah. Without first accepting Yeshua as the King and thus obeying Him, then getting circumcised for the purpose of Jewish conversion only gains you access to the Jewish community. It means nothing when it comes to inheriting a place in the World to Come.... Getting circumcised apart from desiring to be obedient to HaShem, and apart from accepting Yeshua as your King, is nothing but a surgical procedure, or worse, could lead to you believe that Jewish identity grants you a portion in the World to Come
World to Come
– at which point, what good is Messiah Yeshua, the Word of HaShem to you? He would have died for nothing!... As a convert from the nations, part of your obligation in keeping the Covenant, if you are a male, is to get circumcised in fulfillment of the commandment regarding circumcision. Circumcision
Circumcision
is not an absolute requirement of being a Covenant member (that is, being made righteous before HaShem, and thus obtaining eternal life), but it is a requirement of obedience to God's commandments, because circumcision is commanded for those who are of the seed of Abraham, whether born into the family, adopted, or converted....If after reading all of this you understand what circumcision is, and that is an act of obedience, rather than an act of gaining favor before HaShem for the purpose of receiving eternal life, then if you are male believer in Yeshua the Messiah for the redemption from death, the consequence of your sin of rebellion against Him, then pursue circumcision, and thus conversion into Judaism, as an act of obedience to the Messiah.  ^ *"Jewish Conversion – Giyur". JerusalemCouncil.org. JerusalemCouncil.org. 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2009. We recognize the desire of people from the nations to convert to Judaism, through HaDerech (The Way)(Messianic Judaism), a sect of Judaism.  ^

Orthodox Simmons, Shraga. "Why Jews
Jews
Don't Believe in Jesus". Aish HaTorah. Retrieved 28 July 2010. Jews
Jews
do not accept Jesus
Jesus
as the messiah because: # Jesus
Jesus
did not fulfill the messianic prophecies. # Jesus
Jesus
did not embody the personal qualifications of the Messiah. #Biblical verses "referring" to Jesus
Jesus
are mistranslations. #Jewish belief is based on national revelation.  Conservative Waxman, Jonathan (2006). "Messianic Jews
Jews
Are Not Jews". United Synagogue
Synagogue
of Conservative Judaism. Archived from the original on 28 June 2006. Retrieved 14 February 2007. Hebrew Christian, Jewish Christian, Jew for Jesus, Messianic Jew, Fulfilled Jew. The name may have changed over the course of time, but all of the names reflect the same phenomenon: one who asserts that s/he is straddling the theological fence between Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism, but in truth is firmly on the Christian side....we must affirm as did the Israeli Supreme Court in the well-known Brother Daniel case that to adopt Christianity
Christianity
is to have crossed the line out of the Jewish community.  Reform " Missionary
Missionary
Impossible". Hebrew Union College. 9 August 1999. Archived from the original on 28 September 2006. Retrieved 14 February 2007. Missionary
Missionary
Impossible, an imaginative video and curriculum guide for teachers, educators, and rabbis to teach Jewish youth how to recognize and respond to "Jews-for-Jesus," "Messianic Jews," and other Christian proselytizers, has been produced by six rabbinic students at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion's Cincinnati School. The students created the video as a tool for teaching why Jewish college and high school youth and Jews
Jews
in intermarried couples are primary targets of Christian missionaries.  Reconstructionist/Renewal "FAQ's About Jewish Renewal". Aleph.org. 2007. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2007. What is ALEPH's position on so called messianic Judaism? ALEPH has a policy of respect for other spiritual traditions, but objects to deceptive practices and will not collaborate with denominations which actively target Jews
Jews
for recruitment. Our position on so-called "Messianic Judaism" is that it is Christianity
Christianity
and its proponents would be more honest to call it that. 

Bibliography

Marc Lee Raphael, Judaism
Judaism
in America (Columbia University Press, 2003) Avery-Peck, Alan, and Neusner, Jacob
Jacob
(eds.), The Blackwell reader in Judaism
Judaism
(Blackwell, 2001) Cohn-Sherbok, Dan, Judaism: history, belief, and practice (Routledge, 2003) Avery-Peck, Alan, and Neusner, Jacob
Jacob
(eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Judaism
Judaism
(Blackwell, 2003) Boyarin, Daniel (1994). A Radical Jew: Paul and the Politics of Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press. Max Weber, Ancient Judaism, Free Press, 1967, ISBN 0-02-934130-2. Wayne Dosick, Living Judaism: The Complete Guide to Jewish Belief, Tradition and Practice. Neil Gillman, Conservative Judaism: The New Century, Behrman House. Jeffrey S. Gurock, American Jewish Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
in Historical Perspective. 1996, Ktav. Julius Guttmann, trans. by David
David
Silverman, Philosophies of Judaism. JPS. 1964 Barry W. Holtz, ed., Back to the Sources: Reading the Classic Jewish Texts. Summit Books. Paul Johnson, A History of the Jews. HarperCollins, 1988 Jack Wertheime, A People Divided: Judaism
Judaism
in Contemporary America, Brandeis University Press, 1997. Encyclopaedia Judaica, Keter Publishing, CD-ROM edition, 1997 Egon Mayer, Barry Kosmin and Ariela Keysar, "The American Jewish Identity Survey", a subset of The American Religious Identity Survey, City University of New York Graduate Center. An article on this survey is printed in The New York Jewish Week, 2 November 2001. Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews
Jews
of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8. Lewis, Bernard (1999). Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-31839-7. Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews
Jews
of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0-8276-0198-0. Day, John. Yahweh
Yahweh
and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan. Chippenham: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. Dever, William G. Did God
God
Have a Wife?. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2005. Walsh, J. P. M. The Mighty from Their Thrones. Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1987. Finkelstein, Israel
Israel
(1996). "Ethnicity and Origin of the Iron I Settlers in the Highlands of Canaan: Can the Real Israel
Israel
Please Stand Up?" The Biblical Archaeologist, 59(4).

Jews
Jews
in Islamic countries:

A. Khanbaghi. The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran (IB Tauris, 2006).

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