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Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136

Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku

Flag

Imperial Seal

Anthem: 

"Kimigayo" 君が代

"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3]

Government
Government
Seal of Japan

Go-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)

Area controlled by Japan
Japan
shown in green—claimed, but uncontrolled shown in light green

Capital and largest city Tokyo[4] 35°41′N 139°46′E / 35.683°N 139.767°E / 35.683; 139.767

Official languages None[5]

Recognised regional languages

11 languages[6]

Ainu Itak Amami Ōshima Kikai Kunigami Miyako Okinawan Okinoerabu Tokunoshima Yaeyama Yonaguni Yoron

National language Japanese[5]

Ethnic groups (2011[7])

98.5% Japanese 0.5% Korean 0.4% Chinese 0.6% other

Religion

51.82% Shinto 34.9% Buddhism 4% Shinto
Shinto
sects 2.3% Christianity 7.0% No answer[8]

Demonym Japanese

Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

• Emperor

Akihito

• Prime Minister

Shinzō Abe

• Deputy Prime Minister

Tarō Asō

Legislature National Diet

• Upper house

House of Councillors

• Lower house

House of Representatives

Formation

• National Foundation Day

February 11, 660 BCE[9]

• Meiji Constitution

November 29, 1890

• Current constitution

May 3, 1947

• San Francisco Peace Treaty

April 28, 1952

Area

• Total

377,972 km2 (145,936 sq mi)[10] (61st)

• Water (%)

0.8

Population

• 2017 census

126,672,000[11] (10th)

• Density

336/km2 (870.2/sq mi) (36th)

GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate

• Total

$5.420 trillion[12] (4th)

• Per capita

$44,246[12] (27th)

GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate

• Total

$4.841 trillion[12] (3rd)

• Per capita

$40,063[12] (20th)

Gini (2011) 37.9[13] medium · 76th

HDI (2015)  0.903[14] very high · 17th

Currency Yen (¥) / En 円 (JPY)

Time zone JST (UTC+9)

• Summer (DST)

not observed (UTC+9)

Date format

yyyy-mm-dd yyyy年m月d日 Era yy年m月d日 (CE−1988)

Drives on the left

Calling code +81

ISO 3166 code JP

Internet TLD .jp

Website www.japan.go.jp

Japan

Japanese name

Kanji 日本国

Hiragana にっぽんこく にほんこく

Katakana ニッポンコク ニホンコク

Kyūjitai 日本國

Transcriptions

Romanization Nippon-koku Nihon-koku

Revised Hepburn Nippon-koku Nihon-koku

Japan
Japan
(Japanese: 日本 Nippon [ɲippoɴ] or Nihon [ɲihoɴ]; formally 日本国  Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, meaning "State of Japan") is a sovereign island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
in the north to the East China
China
Sea and China
China
in the southwest. The kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", and it is often called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan
Japan
is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and often are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido
Hokkaido
being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one. The population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. Japanese people
Japanese people
make up 98.5% of Japan's total population. About 9.1 million people live in Tokyo,[15] the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan
Japan
was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
period. The first written mention of Japan
Japan
is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, particularly from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan
Japan
was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan
Japan
entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, which was ended in 1853 when a United States
United States
fleet pressured Japan
Japan
to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma—and the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
and World War I
World War I
allowed Japan
Japan
to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II
World War II
in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation by the SCAP, Japan
Japan
has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet. Japan
Japan
is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8 and the G20—and is considered a great power.[16][17][18] The country has the world's third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is also the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most highly educated countries in the world, with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.[19] Although Japan
Japan
has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget,[20] used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan
Japan
is a developed country with a very high standard of living and Human Development Index. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world. Japan
Japan
is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern-day technology.[21][22]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory and ancient history 2.2 Feudal era 2.3 Modern era

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity 3.3 Environment

4 Politics

4.1 Government 4.2 Administrative divisions 4.3 Foreign relations

5 Military 6 Economy

6.1 Economic history 6.2 Agriculture and fishery 6.3 Industry 6.4 Services 6.5 Tourism

7 Science and technology

7.1 Electronics
Electronics
and automotive engineering 7.2 Aerospace 7.3 Nobel laureates

8 Infrastructure

8.1 Transportation 8.2 Energy 8.3 Water supply and sanitation

9 Demographics

9.1 Population 9.2 Religion 9.3 Languages 9.4 Problems

10 Education 11 Health 12 Culture

12.1 Architecture 12.2 Art 12.3 Animation 12.4 Music 12.5 Literature 12.6 Philosophy 12.7 Cuisine 12.8 Holidays 12.9 Festivals 12.10 Sports 12.11 Media

13 See also 14 References 15 Notes 16 Further reading 17 External links

Etymology Main article: Names of Japan The Japanese word for Japan
Japan
is 日本, which is pronounced Nihon or Nippon and literally means "the origin of the sun". The character nichi (日) means "sun" or "day"; hon (本) means "base" or "origin".[23] The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun".[24] The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan
Japan
requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country. This name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China
China
with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises" (日出處天子). The message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you[?]”.

The "King of Na gold seal", said to have been granted to Na king of Wa (Japan) by Emperor Guangwu of Han
Emperor Guangwu of Han
in 57 CE. The seal reads "漢委奴國王". Tokyo
Tokyo
National Museum

Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato (大和, or "Great Wa") and Wakoku (倭国) were used. The term Wa (和) is a homophone of Wo 倭 (pronounced "Wa" by the Japanese), which has been used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period. Another form Wei (委) was used for an early state in Japan
Japan
called Nakoku
Nakoku
during the Han dynasty.[25] However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭 (which has been associated in China
China
with concepts like "dwarf" or "pygmy"), and it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa (和), meaning "togetherness, harmony".[26][27] The English word Japan
Japan
possibly derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin
Old Mandarin
or possibly early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan
Japan
was recorded by Marco Polo
Marco Polo
as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本 Japan
Japan
is Zeppen [zəʔpən]. The old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect, probably Fukienese or Ningpo[28]—and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in South East Asia
East Asia
in the 16th century.[29] These Early Portuguese traders then brought the word to Europe.[30] The first record of this name in English is in a book published in 1577 and spelled Giapan, in a translation of a 1565 letter written by a Portuguese Jesuit
Jesuit
Luís Fróis.[31][32] From the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
until the end of World War II, the full title of Japan
Japan
was Dai Nippon Teikoku (大日本帝國), meaning "the Empire of Great Japan".[33] Today, the name Nihon-koku/Nippon-koku (日本国) is used as a formal modern-day equivalent with the meaning of "the State of Japan". Countries like Japan
Japan
whose long form does not contain a descriptive designation are generally given a name appended by the character koku (国), meaning "country", "nation" or "state". History Main article: History of Japan

History of Japan

Periods

Paleolithic before 14,000 BC

Jōmon 14,000 – 300 BC

Yayoi 300 BC – 300 AD

Kofun 300–538

Asuka 538–710

Nara 710–794

Heian 794–1185

Kamakura 1185–1333

Kenmu Restoration 1333–1336

Muromachi (Ashikaga)

Nanboku-chō Sengoku

1336–1573

Azuchi–Momoyama

Nanban trade

1573–1603

Edo
Edo
(Tokugawa)

Sakoku Convention of Kanagawa Bakumatsu

1603–1868

Meiji

Boshin War Restoration First Sino-Japanese War Russo-Japanese War

1868–1912

Taishō

World War I

1912–1926

Shōwa

Financial crisis Militarism World War II Occupation Economic miracle Post-occupation Bubble Economy

1926–1989

Heisei

Lost Decade

1989–present

Topics

Currency Earthquakes Economy Education Empire Historiography Military Naval Post-war

Glossary Timeline

v t e

Prehistory and ancient history

Emperor Jimmu
Emperor Jimmu
(神武天皇, Jinmu-tennō), the first Emperor of Japan dated as 660 BCE[34][35]—in modern Japan
Japan
his accession is marked as National Foundation Day on February 11

A Paleolithic culture around 30,000 BC constitutes the first known habitation of the Japanese archipelago. This was followed from around 14,000 BC (the start of the Jōmon period) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic
Neolithic
semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture characterized by pit dwelling and rudimentary agriculture,[36] including by ancestors of contemporary Ainu people
Ainu people
and Yamato people.[37][38] Decorated clay vessels from this period are some of the oldest surviving examples of pottery in the world. Around 300 BC, the Yayoi people began to enter the Japanese islands, intermingling with the Jōmon.[39] The Yayoi period, starting around 500 BC, saw the introduction of practices like wet-rice farming,[40] a new style of pottery[41] and metallurgy, introduced from China
China
and Korea.[42] Japan
Japan
first appears in written history in the Chinese Book of Han.[43] According to the Records of the Three Kingdoms, the most powerful kingdom on the archipelago during the third century was called Yamataikoku. Buddhism
Buddhism
was introduced to Japan
Japan
from Baekje, Korea
Korea
and was promoted by Prince Shōtoku, but the subsequent development of Japanese Buddhism
Buddhism
was primarily influenced by China.[44] Despite early resistance, Buddhism
Buddhism
was promoted by the ruling class and gained widespread acceptance beginning in the Asuka period
Asuka period
(592–710).[45] The Nara period
Nara period
(710–784) marked an emergence of the centralized Japanese state centered on the Imperial Court in Heijō-kyō (modern Nara). The Nara period
Nara period
is characterized by the appearance of a nascent literature as well as the development of Buddhist-inspired art and architecture.[46] The smallpox epidemic of 735–737 is believed to have killed as much as one-third of Japan's population.[47] In 784, Emperor Kanmu
Emperor Kanmu
moved the capital from Nara to Nagaoka-kyō, then to Heian-kyō
Heian-kyō
(modern Kyoto) in 794. This marked the beginning of the Heian period
Heian period
(794–1185), during which a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged, noted for its art, poetry and prose. Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji
The Tale of Genji
and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem "Kimigayo" were written during this time.[48] Buddhism
Buddhism
began to spread during the Heian era
Heian era
chiefly through two major sects, Tendai
Tendai
by Saichō
Saichō
and Shingon
Shingon
by Kūkai. Pure Land Buddhism
Buddhism
(Jōdo-shū, Jōdo Shinshū) became greatly popular in the latter half of the 11th century. Feudal era

Samurai
Samurai
warriors facing Mongols
Mongols
during the Mongol invasions of Japan; Suenaga, 1293

Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. In 1185, following the defeat of the Taira clan
Taira clan
in the Genpei War, sung in the epic Tale of Heike, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo
Minamoto no Yoritomo
was appointed shōgun by Emperor Go-Toba, and Yoritomo established a base of power in Kamakura. After his death, the Hōjō clan
Hōjō clan
came to power as regents for the shōguns. The Zen school of Buddhism
Buddhism
was introduced from China
China
in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and became popular among the samurai class.[49] The Kamakura shogunate
Kamakura shogunate
repelled Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281, but was eventually overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo. Emperor Go-Daigo
Emperor Go-Daigo
was himself defeated by Ashikaga Takauji
Ashikaga Takauji
in 1336.

Samurais could kill a commoner for the slightest insult and were widely feared by the Japanese population. Edo
Edo
period, 1798

Ashikaga Takauji
Ashikaga Takauji
established the shogunate in Muromachi, Kyoto. This was the start of the Muromachi period
Muromachi period
(1336–1573). The Ashikaga shogunate achieved glory at the age of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, and the culture based on Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
(the art of Miyabi) prospered. This evolved to Higashiyama Culture, and prospered until the 16th century. On the other hand, the succeeding Ashikaga shogunate
Ashikaga shogunate
failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyōs) and a civil war (the Ōnin War) began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period
Sengoku period
("Warring States").[50] During the 16th century, traders and Jesuit
Jesuit
missionaries from Portugal reached Japan
Japan
for the first time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan
Japan
and the West. This allowed Oda Nobunaga to obtain European technology and firearms, which he used to conquer many other daimyōs. His consolidation of power began what was known as the Azuchi–Momoyama period
Azuchi–Momoyama period
(1573–1603). After Nobunaga was assassinated in 1582 by Akechi Mitsuhide, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the nation in 1590 and launched two unsuccessful invasions of Korea
Korea
in 1592 and 1597. Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
served as regent for Hideyoshi's son and used his position to gain political and military support. When open war broke out, Ieyasu defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara
in 1600. Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
was appointed shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei
Emperor Go-Yōzei
in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
in Edo
Edo
(modern Tokyo).[51] The shogunate enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of conduct to control the autonomous daimyōs;[52] and in 1639 the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo
Edo
period (1603–1868).[53] The study of Western sciences, known as rangaku, continued through contact with the Dutch enclave at Dejima
Dejima
in Nagasaki. The Edo period
Edo period
also gave rise to kokugaku ("national studies"), the study of Japan
Japan
by the Japanese.[54] Modern era

Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji
(1868–1912), in whose name imperial rule was restored at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate

On March 31, 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy
United States Navy
forced the opening of Japan
Japan
to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa. Subsequent similar treaties with Western countries in the Bakumatsu
Bakumatsu
period brought economic and political crises. The resignation of the shōgun led to the Boshin War and the establishment of a centralized state nominally unified under the Emperor (the Meiji Restoration).[55] Plunging itself through an active process of Westernization
Westernization
during the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
in 1868, Japan
Japan
adopted Western political, judicial and military institutions and Western cultural influences integrated with its traditional culture for modern industrialization. The Cabinet organized the Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the Imperial Diet. The Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
transformed the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
into an industrialized world power that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of influence. After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
(1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan
Japan
gained control of Taiwan, Korea
Korea
and the southern half of Sakhalin.[56] Japan's population grew from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million in 1935.[57]

Chinese generals surrendering to the Japanese in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895

World War I enabled Japan, on the side of the victorious Allies, to widen its influence and territorial holdings in Asia. The early 20th century saw a brief period of "Taishō democracy (1912–1926)" but the 1920s saw a fragile democracy buckle under a political shift towards fascism, the passing of laws against political dissent and a series of attempted coups. The subsequent "Shōwa period" initially saw the power of the military increased and brought about Japanese expansionism and militarization along with the totalitarianism and ultranationalism that are a part of fascist ideology. In 1931 Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria
Manchuria
and following international condemnation of this occupation, Japan
Japan
resigned from the League of Nations in 1933. In 1936, Japan
Japan
signed the Anti-Comintern Pact
Anti-Comintern Pact
with Germany
Germany
and the 1940 Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
made it one of the Axis Powers.[58] In 1941, following its defeat in the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War, Japan
Japan
negotiated the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact,[59] which lasted until 1945 with the Soviet invasion of Manchuria.[60]

Japanese officials surrendering to the Allies on September 2, 1945, in Tokyo
Tokyo
Bay, ending World War II

The Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
invaded other parts of China
China
in 1937, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
(1937–1945). The Imperial Japanese Army swiftly captured the capital Nanjing
Nanjing
and conducted the Nanking Massacre.[61] In 1940, the Empire invaded French Indochina, after which the United States
United States
placed an oil embargo on Japan.[62] On December 7–8, 1941, Japanese forces carried out surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor, British forces in Malaya, Singapore
Singapore
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and declared war on the United States
United States
and the British Empire, bringing the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
into World War II
World War II
in the Pacific.[63][64] After Allied victories across the Pacific during the next four years, which culminated in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and Nagasaki
Nagasaki
in 1945, Japan agreed to an unconditional surrender on August 15.[65] The war cost Japan, its colonies, China
China
and the war's other combatants tens of millions of lives and left much of Japan's industry and infrastructure destroyed. The Allies (led by the United States) repatriated millions of ethnic Japanese from colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the Japanese empire and restoring the independence of its conquered territories.[66] The Allies also convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East
International Military Tribunal for the Far East
on May 3, 1946, to prosecute some Japanese leaders for war crimes. However, the bacteriological research units and members of the imperial family involved in the war were exonerated from criminal prosecutions by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
despite calls for the trial of both groups.[67] In 1947, Japan
Japan
adopted a new constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. The Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952[68] and Japan
Japan
was granted membership in the United Nations
United Nations
in 1956. Japan
Japan
later achieved rapid growth to become the second-largest economy in the world, until surpassed by China
China
in 2010. This ended in the mid-1990s when Japan
Japan
suffered a major recession. In the beginning of the 21st century, positive growth has signaled a gradual economic recovery.[69] On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered one of the largest earthquakes in its recorded history; this triggered the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, one of the worst disasters in the history of nuclear power.[70] Geography Main articles: Geography of Japan
Geography of Japan
and Geology of Japan

Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago
as seen from satellite

Japan
Japan
has a total of 6,852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of East Asia. The country, including all of the islands it controls, lies between latitudes 24° and 46°N, and longitudes 122° and 146°E. The main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku
Shikoku
and Kyushu. The Ryukyu Islands, which include Okinawa, are a chain to the south of Kyushu. Together they are often known as the Japanese archipelago.[71] About 73 percent of Japan
Japan
is forested, mountainous and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial or residential use.[7][72] As a result, the habitable zones, mainly located in coastal areas, have extremely high population densities. Japan
Japan
is one of the most densely populated countries in the world.[73] The islands of Japan
Japan
are located in a volcanic zone on the Pacific Ring of Fire. They are primarily the result of large oceanic movements occurring over hundreds of millions of years from the mid-Silurian to the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
as a result of the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the continental Amurian Plate
Amurian Plate
and Okinawa Plate
Okinawa Plate
to the south, and subduction of the Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
under the Okhotsk Plate
Okhotsk Plate
to the north. The Boso Triple Junction
Boso Triple Junction
off the coast of Japan
Japan
is a triple junction where the North American Plate, the Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
and the Philippine Sea Plate
Philippine Sea Plate
meets. Japan
Japan
was originally attached to the eastern coast of the Eurasian continent. The subducting plates pulled Japan
Japan
eastward, opening the Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan
around 15 million years ago.[74] Japan
Japan
has 108 active volcanoes. During the twentieth century several new volcanoes emerged, including Shōwa-shinzan
Shōwa-shinzan
on Hokkaido
Hokkaido
and Myōjin-shō
Myōjin-shō
off the Bayonnaise Rocks
Bayonnaise Rocks
in the Pacific. Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunami, occur several times each century.[75] The 1923 Tokyo
Tokyo
earthquake killed over 140,000 people.[76] More recent major quakes are the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake
Great Hanshin earthquake
and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, a 9.1-magnitude[77] quake which hit Japan
Japan
on March 11, 2011, and triggered a large tsunami.[70] Japan
Japan
is substantially prone to earthquakes, tsunami and volcanoes due to its location along the Pacific Ring of Fire.[78] It has the 15th highest natural disaster risk as measured in the 2013 World Risk Index.[79] Climate Main article: Climate of Japan

Cherry blossoms of Mount Yoshino
Mount Yoshino
have been the subject of many plays and waka poetry

Autumn maple leaves (momiji) at Kongōbu-ji
Kongōbu-ji
on Mount Kōya, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

The climate of Japan
Japan
is predominantly temperate, but varies greatly from north to south. Japan's geographical features divide it into six principal climatic zones: Hokkaido, Sea of Japan, Central Highland, Seto Inland Sea, Pacific Ocean, and Ryukyu Islands. The northernmost zone, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very warm to cool summers. Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks in the winter.[80] In the Sea of Japan
Sea of Japan
zone on Honshu's west coast, northwest winter winds bring heavy snowfall. In the summer, the region is cooler than the Pacific area, though it sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures because of the foehn. The Central Highland has a typical inland humid continental climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter seasons, as well as large diurnal variation; precipitation is light, though winters are usually snowy. The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku
Shikoku
regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing mild weather year-round.[80] The Pacific coast
Pacific coast
features a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with occasional snowfall and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal wind. The Ryukyu Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the rainy season.[80] The average winter temperature in Japan
Japan
is 5.1 °C (41.2 °F) and the average summer temperature is 25.2 °C (77.4 °F).[81] The highest temperature ever measured in Japan 41.0 °C (105.8 °F) was recorded on August 12, 2013.[82] The main rainy season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the rain front gradually moves north until reaching Hokkaido
Hokkaido
in late July. In most of Honshu, the rainy season begins before the middle of June and lasts about six weeks. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain.[83] Biodiversity Main article: Wildlife of Japan

The Japanese macaques at Jigokudani hot spring are notable for visiting the spa in the winter

Japan
Japan
has nine forest ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands, to temperate broadleaf and mixed forests in the mild climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northern islands.[84] Japan
Japan
has over 90,000 species of wildlife, including the brown bear, the Japanese macaque, the Japanese raccoon dog, the large Japanese field mouse, and the Japanese giant salamander.[85] A large network of national parks has been established to protect important areas of flora and fauna as well as thirty-seven Ramsar wetland sites.[86][87] Four sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List for their outstanding natural value.[88] Environment Main article: Environmental issues in Japan In the period of rapid economic growth after World War II, environmental policies were downplayed by the government and industrial corporations; as a result, environmental pollution was widespread in the 1950s and 1960s. Responding to rising concern about the problem, the government introduced several environmental protection laws in 1970.[89] The oil crisis in 1973 also encouraged the efficient use of energy because of Japan's lack of natural resources.[90] Current environmental issues include urban air pollution (NOx, suspended particulate matter, and toxics), waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management and international co-operation for conservation.[91] As of June 2015, more than 40 coal-fired power plants are planned or under construction in Japan. The NGO Climate Action Network announced Japan
Japan
as the winner of its "Fossil of the Day" award for "doing the most to block progress on climate action".[92] Japan
Japan
ranks 20th in the 2018 Environmental Performance Index, which measures a nation's commitment to environmental sustainability.[93] As the host and signatory of the 1997 Kyoto
Kyoto
Protocol, Japan
Japan
is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take other steps to curb climate change.[94] Politics Main article: Politics of Japan

Emperor Akihito Emperor since 1989 Shinzō Abe Prime Minister since 2012

Government Main article: Government
Government
of Japan Japan
Japan
is a constitutional monarchy whereby the power of the Emperor is very limited. As a ceremonial figurehead, he is defined by the constitution to be "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people". Executive power is wielded chiefly by the Prime Minister and his cabinet, while sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people.[95] Japan's legislative body is the National Diet, seated in Chiyoda, Tokyo. The Diet is a bicameral body, comprising the lower House of Representatives with 465 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved; and the upper House of Councillors
House of Councillors
with 242 seats, whose popularly elected members serve six-year terms. There is universal suffrage for adults over 18 years of age,[96] with a secret ballot for all elected offices.[95] The Diet is dominated by the social liberal Constitutional Democratic Party (CDP) and the conservative Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). The LDP has enjoyed near-continuous electoral success since 1955, except for brief periods between 1993 and 1994 and from 2009 to 2012. As of November 2017, it holds 283 seats in the lower house and 125 seats in the upper house.

National Diet
National Diet
Building

The Prime Minister of Japan
Prime Minister of Japan
is the head of government and is appointed by the Emperor after being designated by the Diet from among its members. The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet, and appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State. Following the LDP's landslide victory in the 2012 general election, Shinzō Abe
Shinzō Abe
replaced Yoshihiko Noda as the Prime Minister on December 26, 2012.[97] Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period
Edo period
through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki.[98] However, since the late 19th century the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably Germany. For example, in 1896, the Japanese government established a civil code based on a draft of the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch; with the code remaining in effect with post–World War II modifications.[99] Statutory law originates in Japan's legislature and has the rubber stamp of the Emperor. Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts.[100] The main body of Japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes.[101] Administrative divisions Main article: Administrative divisions of Japan See also: Prefectures of Japan Japan
Japan
consists of 47 prefectures, each overseen by an elected governor, legislature and administrative bureaucracy.[102] Each prefecture is further divided into cities, towns and villages.[103] The nation is currently undergoing administrative reorganization by merging many of the cities, towns and villages with each other. This process will reduce the number of sub-prefecture administrative regions and is expected to cut administrative costs.[104]

Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Japan

Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe
Shinzō Abe
and U.S. President Donald Trump

The Liancourt Rocks
Liancourt Rocks
known as Takeshima in Japan, has become an issue known as the Liancourt Rocks
Liancourt Rocks
dispute

Japan
Japan
has diplomatic relations with nearly all independent nations and has been an active member of the United Nations
United Nations
since December 1956. Japan
Japan
is a member of the G8, APEC, and "ASEAN Plus Three", and is a participant in the East Asia
East Asia
Summit. Japan
Japan
signed a security pact with Australia
Australia
in March 2007[105] and with India
India
in October 2008.[106] It is the world's fifth largest donor of official development assistance, donating US$9.2 billion in 2014.[107] Japan
Japan
has close ties to the United States. Since Japan's defeat by the United States
United States
and allies in World War II, the two countries have maintained close economic and defense relations. The United States
United States
is a major market for Japanese exports and the primary source of Japanese imports, and is committed to defending the country, having military bases in Japan
Japan
for partially that purpose.[108] Japan
Japan
contests Russia's control of the Southern Kuril Islands (including Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group) which were occupied by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1945.[109] South Korea's assertions concerning Liancourt Rocks
Liancourt Rocks
(Japanese: "Takeshima", Korean: "Dokdo") are acknowledged, but not accepted by Japan.[110] Japan
Japan
has strained relations with the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) and the Republic of China
China
(ROC) over the Senkaku Islands;[111] and with the People's Republic of China
China
over the status of Okinotorishima. Japan's relationship with South Korea
Korea
has been strained due to Japan's treatment of Koreans
Koreans
during Japanese colonial rule, particularly over the issue of comfort women.[112] These women were essentially sex slaves, and although there is no exact number on how many women were subjected to this treatment, experts believe it could be in the tens or hundreds of thousands. Between 1910–1945, the Japanese government rebuilt Korean infrastructure, introduced over 800,000 Japanese immigrants onto the peninsula, and carried out a campaign of cultural suppression through efforts to ban the Korean language in schools and force Koreans
Koreans
to adopt Japanese names.[113] With the surrender of Japan
Japan
and the Axis at the end of WWII in 1945, the Korean Peninsula was once again independent. Despite their historical tensions, in December 2015, Japan
Japan
agreed to settle the comfort women dispute with South Korea
Korea
by issuing a formal apology, taking responsibility for the issue and paying money to the surviving comfort women. Today, South Korea
Korea
and Japan
Japan
have a stronger and more economically-driven relationship. Since the 1990s, the Korean Wave
Korean Wave
has created a large fanbase in East Asia, but most notably in Japan. Japan
Japan
is the number one importer of Korean music (K-pop), television (K-dramas), and films, but this was only made possible after the South Korean government lifted the 30-year ban on cultural exchange with Japan
Japan
that had been in place since 1948.[114] Korean pop cultural products' success in the Japanese market is partially explained by the borrowing of Japanese ideas such as the star-marketing system and heavy promotion of new television shows and music. Korean dramas such as Winter Sonata
Winter Sonata
and Coffee Prince, as well as K-pop
K-pop
artists such as BIGBANG and SHINee
SHINee
are extremely popular with Japanese consumers. Most recently, South Korean President Moon Jae-in
Moon Jae-in
met with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe at the 2017 G-20 Summit in Hamburg, Germany
Germany
to discuss the future of their relationship and specifically how to cooperate on finding solutions for North Korean aggression in the region. Both leaders restated their commitment to solving the comfort women dispute, building positive relations in the region, and pressuring China
China
to be more assertive with North Korea
Korea
as it continues to test nuclear weapons and isolate themselves further form the international community.[115] Military Main article: Japan
Japan
Self-Defense Forces

JMSDF Kongō class destroyer

JDS Kongō
JDS Kongō
(DDG-173), a guided missile destroyer, launching a Standard Missile 3 anti-ballistic missile in 2007

JASDF F-2, a multirole combat aircraft

Japan
Japan
maintains one of the largest military budgets of any country in the world.[116] The country's military (the Japan
Japan
Self-Defense Forces – JSDF) is restricted by Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, which renounces Japan's right to declare war or use military force in international disputes. Accordingly, Japan's Self-Defense Forces is an unusual military that has never fired shots outside Japan.[117] Japan is the highest-ranked Asian country in the Global Peace Index.[118] The military is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
(JGSDF), the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) and the Japan
Japan
Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
(JMSDF) is a regular participant in RIMPAC maritime exercises.[119] The forces have been recently used in peacekeeping operations; the deployment of troops to Iraq marked the first overseas use of Japan's military since World War II.[120] Japan Business Federation
Japan Business Federation
has called on the government to lift the ban on arms exports so that Japan
Japan
can join multinational projects such as the Joint Strike Fighter.[121] The 21st century is witnessing a rapid change in global power balance along with globalization. The security environment around Japan
Japan
has become increasingly severe as represented by nuclear and missile development by North Korea. Transnational threats grounded on technological progress including international terrorism and cyber attacks are also increasing their significance.[122] Japan, including its Self-Defense Forces, has contributed to the maximum extent possible to the efforts to maintain and restore international peace and security, such as UN peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping
operations. Building on the ongoing efforts as a peaceful state, the Government of Japan
Government of Japan
has been making various efforts on its security policy which include: the establishment of the National Security Council (NSC), the adoption of the National Security Strategy (NSS), and the National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG).[122] These efforts are made based on the belief that Japan, as a "Proactive Contributor to Peace", needs to contribute more actively to the peace and stability of the region and the international community, while coordinating with other countries including its ally, the United States.[122] Japan
Japan
has close economic and military relations with the United States; the US- Japan
Japan
security alliance acts as the cornerstone of the nation's foreign policy.[123] A member state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan
Japan
has served as a non-permanent Security Council member for a total of 20 years, most recently for 2009 and 2010. It is one of the G4 nations
G4 nations
seeking permanent membership in the Security Council.[124] In May 2014, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe
Shinzō Abe
said Japan
Japan
wanted to shed the passiveness it has maintained since the end of World War II
World War II
and take more responsibility for regional security. He said Japan
Japan
wanted to play a key role and offered neighboring countries Japan's support.[125] In recent years, they have been engaged in international peacekeeping operations including the UN peacekeeping.[126] Recent tensions, particularly with North Korea,[127] have reignited the debate over the status of the JSDF and its relation to Japanese society.[128] New military guidelines, announced in December 2010, will direct the JSDF away from its Cold War
Cold War
focus on the former Soviet Union to a focus on China, especially regarding the territorial dispute over the Senkaku Islands.[129] Economy Main article: Economy of Japan

Bank of Japan
Bank of Japan
headquarters in Chuo, Tokyo

The Tokyo
Tokyo
Stock Exchange, one of the largest stock exchanges in Asia[130]

Ginza, a luxury shopping area in Tokyo

Japan
Japan
is the third largest national economy in the world, after the United States
United States
and China, in terms of nominal GDP,[131] and the fourth largest national economy in the world, after the United States, China and India, in terms of purchasing power parity. As of 2016[update], Japan's public debt was estimated at more than 230 percent of its annual gross domestic product, the largest of any nation in the world.[132] In August 2011, Moody's rating has cut Japan's long-term sovereign debt rating one notch from Aa3 to Aa2 inline with the size of the country's deficit and borrowing level. The large budget deficits and government debt since the 2009 global recession and followed by the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 caused the rating downgrade.[133] The service sector accounts for three quarters of the gross domestic product.[134] Japan
Japan
has a large industrial capacity, and is home to some of the largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronics, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods. Agricultural businesses in Japan
Japan
cultivate 13 percent of Japan's land, and Japan accounts for nearly 15 percent of the global fish catch, second only to China.[7] As of 2016[update], Japan's labor force consisted of some 65.9 million workers.[7] Japan
Japan
has a low unemployment rate of around four percent. Some 20 million people, around 17 per cent of the population, were below the poverty line in 2007.[135] Housing in Japan is characterized by limited land supply in urban areas.[136] Japan's exports amounted to US$4,210 per capita in 2005. As of 2014[update], Japan's main export markets were the United States
United States
(20.2 percent), China
China
(17.5 percent), South Korea
Korea
(7.1 percent), Hong Kong (5.6 percent) and Thailand
Thailand
(4.5 percent). Its main exports are transportation equipment, motor vehicles, iron and steel products, semiconductors and auto parts.[7] Japan's main import markets as of 2015[update] were China
China
(24.8 percent), the United States
United States
(10.5 percent), Australia
Australia
(5.4 percent) and South Korea
Korea
(4.1 percent).[7] Japan's main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs (in particular beef), chemicals, textiles and raw materials for its industries. By market share measures, domestic markets are the least open of any OECD
OECD
country.[137] Junichirō Koizumi's administration began some pro-competition reforms, and foreign investment in Japan
Japan
has soared.[138] Japan
Japan
ranks 27th of 189 countries in the 2014 ease of doing business index and has one of the smallest tax revenues of the developed world. The Japanese variant of capitalism has many distinct features: keiretsu enterprises are influential, and lifetime employment and seniority-based career advancement are relatively common in the Japanese work environment.[137][139] Japanese companies are known for management methods like "The Toyota
Toyota
Way", and shareholder activism is rare.[140] Japan's top global brands include Toyota, Honda, Canon, Nissan, Sony, Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
UFJ (MUFG), Panasonic, Uniqlo, Lexus, Subaru, Nintendo, Bridgestone, Mazda
Mazda
and Suzuki.[141] Economic history Main article: Economic history of Japan Modern Japan's economic growth began in the Edo
Edo
period. Some of the surviving elements of the Edo period
Edo period
are roads and water transportation routes, as well as financial instruments such as futures contracts, banking and insurance of the Osaka
Osaka
rice brokers.[142] During the Meiji period
Meiji period
from 1868, Japan
Japan
expanded economically with the embrace of the market economy.[143] Many of today's enterprises were founded at the time, and Japan
Japan
emerged as the most developed nation in Asia.[144] The period of overall real economic growth from the 1960s to the 1980s has been called the Japanese post-war economic miracle: it averaged 7.5 percent in the 1960s and 1970s, and 3.2 percent in the 1980s and early 1990s.[145] Growth slowed in the 1990s during the "Lost Decade" due to after-effects of the Japanese asset price bubble
Japanese asset price bubble
and government policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Efforts to revive economic growth were unsuccessful and further hampered by the global slowdown in 2000.[7] The economy recovered after 2005; GDP growth for that year was 2.8 percent, surpassing the growth rates of the US and European Union during the same period.[146] Today, Japan
Japan
ranks highly for competitiveness and economic freedom. It is ranked sixth in the Global Competitiveness
Competitiveness
Report for 2015–2016.[147][148] Agriculture and fishery Main article: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing in Japan

A rice paddy in Aizu, Fukushima Prefecture

The Japanese agricultural sector accounts for about 1.4% of the total country's GDP.[149] Only 12% of Japan's land is suitable for cultivation.[150][151] Due to this lack of arable land, a system of terraces is used to farm in small areas.[152] This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area, with an overall agricultural self-sufficiency rate of about 50% on fewer than 56,000 square kilometres (14,000,000 acres) cultivated. Japan's small agricultural sector, however, is also highly subsidized and protected, with government regulations that favor small-scale cultivation instead of large-scale agriculture as practiced in North America.[150] There has been a growing concern about farming as the current farmers are aging with a difficult time finding successors.[153] Rice
Rice
accounts for almost all of Japan's cereal production.[154] Japan is the second-largest agricultural product importer in the world.[154] Rice, the most protected crop, is subject to tariffs of 777.7%.[151][155] In 1996, Japan
Japan
ranked fourth in the world in tonnage of fish caught.[156] Japan
Japan
captured 4,074,580 metric tons of fish in 2005, down from 4,987,703 tons in 2000, 9,558,615 tons in 1990, 9,864,422 tons in 1980, 8,520,397 tons in 1970, 5,583,796 tons in 1960 and 2,881,855 tons in 1950.[157] In 2003, the total aquaculture production was predicted at 1,301,437 tonnes.[158] In 2010, Japan's total fisheries production was 4,762,469 fish.[159] Offshore fisheries accounted for an average of 50% of the nation's total fish catches in the late 1980s although they experienced repeated ups and downs during that period. Today, Japan
Japan
maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch,[160] prompting some claims that Japan's fishing is leading to depletion in fish stocks such as tuna.[161] Japan
Japan
has also sparked controversy by supporting quasi-commercial whaling.[162] Industry Main article: Manufacturing in Japan

Toyota
Toyota
factory in Ohira, Miyagi
Ohira, Miyagi
Prefecture

Japan's industrial sector makes up approximately 27.5% of its GDP.[163] Japan's major industries are motor vehicles, electronics, machine tools, metals, ships, chemicals and processed foods; some major Japanese industrial companies include Toyota, Canon Inc., Toshiba
Toshiba
and Nippon Steel.[163][164] Japan
Japan
is the third largest automobile producer in the world, and is home to Toyota, the world's largest automobile company.[165][166] The Japanese consumer electronics industry, once considered the strongest in the world, is currently in a state of decline as competition arises in countries like South Korea, the United States
United States
and China.[167][168] However, despite also facing similar competition from South Korea
Korea
and China, the Japanese shipbuilding industry is expected to remain strong due to an increased focus on specialized, high-tech designs.[169] Services Main article: Trade and services in Japan Japan's service sector accounts for about three-quarters of its total economic output.[149] Banking, insurance, real estate, retailing, transportation, and telecommunications are all major industries, with companies such as Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
UFJ, Mizuho, NTT, TEPCO, Nomura, Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
Estate, ÆON, Mitsui
Mitsui
Sumitomo, Softbank, JR East, Seven & I, KDDI
KDDI
and Japan Airlines
Japan Airlines
listed as some of the largest in the world.[170][171] Four of the five most circulated newspapers in the world are Japanese newspapers.[172] Japan
Japan
Post Holdings, one of the country's largest providers of savings and insurance services, was slated for privatization by 2015.[173] The six major keiretsus are the Mitsubishi, Sumitomo, Fuyo, Mitsui, Dai-Ichi Kangyo and Sanwa Groups.[174] Tourism Main article: Tourism in Japan

Tokyo
Tokyo
Sky Tree, the tallest tower in the world

Mount Fuji, the highest peak, is considered as one of the most iconic landmarks of Japan

Cherry blossom
Cherry blossom
with Himeji Castle
Himeji Castle
in the background, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Fushimi Inari-taisha
Fushimi Inari-taisha
in Kyoto

Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Peace Memorial

Japan
Japan
attracted 19.73 million international tourists in 2015[175] and increased by 21.8% to attract 24.03 million international tourists in 2016.[176][177][178] Tourism from abroad is one of the few promising businesses in Japan. Foreign visitors to Japan
Japan
doubled in last decade and reached 10 million people for the first time in 2013, led by increase of Asian visitors. In 2008, the Japanese government has set up Japan Tourism Agency
Japan Tourism Agency
and set the initial goal to increase foreign visitors to 20 million in 2020. In 2016, having met the 20 million target, the government has revised up its target to 40 million by 2020 and to 60 million by 2030.[179][180] Japan
Japan
has 20 World Heritage Sites, including Himeji Castle, Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto
Kyoto
and Nara.[181] Popular tourist attractions include Tokyo
Tokyo
and Hiroshima, Mount Fuji, ski resorts such as Niseko
Niseko
in Hokkaido, Okinawa, riding the shinkansen and taking advantage of Japan's hotel and hotspring network. For inbound tourism, Japan
Japan
was ranked 16th in the world in 2015.[182] In 2009, the Yomiuri Shimbun
Yomiuri Shimbun
published a modern list of famous sights under the name Heisei Hyakkei
Heisei Hyakkei
(the Hundred Views of the Heisei period). The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness
Competitiveness
Report 2017 ranks Japan
Japan
4th out of 141 countries overall, which was the best in Asia. Japan
Japan
gained relatively high scores in almost all aspects, especially health and hygiene, safety and security, cultural resources and business travel.[183] In 2016, 24,039,053 foreign tourists visited Japan.[184] Neighbouring South Korea
Korea
is Japan's most important source of foreign tourists. In 2010, the 2.4 million arrivals made up 27% of the tourists visiting Japan.[185] Chinese travelers are the highest spenders in Japan
Japan
by country, spending an estimated 196.4 billion yen (US$2.4 billion) in 2011, or almost a quarter of total expenditure by foreign visitors, according to data from the Japan
Japan
Tourism Agency.[186] The Japanese government hopes to receive 40 million foreign tourists every year by 2020.[187]

Rank Country Number (people) in 2016 Percentage change 2015 to 2016 Number (people) in 2015 Percentage change 2014 to 2015

1  China 6,373,000 27.6% 4,993,689 107.3%

2  South Korea 5,090,300 27.2% 4,002,095 45.3%

3  Taiwan 4,167,400 13.3% 3,677,075 29.9%

4  Hong Kong 1,839,200 20.7% 1,524,292 64.6%

5  United States 1,242,700 20.3% 1,033,258 15.9%

6  Thailand 901,400 13.1% 796,731 21.2%

7  Australia 445,200 18.4% 376,075 24.3%

8  Malaysia 394,200 29.1% 305,447 22.4%

9  Singapore 361,800 17.2% 308,783 35.5%

10  Philippines 347,800 29.6% 268,361 45.7%

11  United Kingdom 292,500 13.2% 258,488 17.5%

12  Canada 273,100 18.0% 231,390 26.5%

All countries 24,039,053 21.8% 19,737,409 47.1%

Science and technology Main article: Science and technology in Japan

Kounotori 6
Kounotori 6
grappled by the International Space Station's robotic arm

Japan
Japan
is a leading nation in scientific research, particularly in fields related to the natural sciences and engineering. The country ranks second among the most innovative countries in the Bloomberg Innovation Index.[188][189] Nearly 700,000 researchers share a US$130 billion research and development budget.[190] The amount spent on research and development relative to gross domestic product is the third highest in the world.[191] The country is a world leader in fundamental scientific research, having produced twenty-two Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry or medicine[192] and three Fields medalists.[193] Japanese scientists and engineers have contributed to the advancement of agricultural sciences, electronics, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors, life sciences and various fields of engineering. Japan
Japan
leads the world in robotics production and use, possessing more than 20% (300,000 of 1.3 million) of the world's industrial robots as of 2013[update][194]—though its share was historically even higher, representing one-half of all industrial robots worldwide in 2000.[195] Japan
Japan
boasts the third highest number of scientists, technicians, and engineers per capita in the world with 83 scientists, technicians and engineers per 10,000 employees.[196][197][198] Electronics
Electronics
and automotive engineering Main articles: Electronics
Electronics
industry in Japan
Japan
and Automotive industry in Japan

A plug-in hybrid car manufactured by Toyota, one of the world's largest carmakers— Japan
Japan
is the second-largest maker of automobiles in the world[199]

Sony
Sony
Xperia phone

The Japanese electronics and automotive manufacturing industry is well known throughout the world, and the country's electronic and automotive products account for a large share in the global market, compared to a majority of other countries. Brands such as Fujifilm, Sony, Nintendo, Panasonic, Toyota, Nissan
Nissan
and Honda
Honda
are internationally famous. It is estimated that 16% of the world's gold and 22% of the world's silver is contained in Japanese electronics.[200] Japan
Japan
has started a project to build the world's fastest supercomputer by the end of 2017.[201] Aerospace

The Japanese Experiment Module
Japanese Experiment Module
(Kibo) at the International Space Station

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
(JAXA) is Japan's national space agency; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. It is a participant in the International Space Station: the Japanese Experiment Module
Japanese Experiment Module
(Kibo) was added to the station during Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
assembly flights in 2008.[202] The space probe Akatsuki was launched May 20, 2010, and achieved orbit around Venus on December 9, 2015. Japan's plans in space exploration include: developing the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter to be launched in 2018;[203] and building a moon base by 2030.[204] On September 14, 2007, it launched lunar explorer SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) on a H-IIA
H-IIA
(Model H2A2022) carrier rocket from Tanegashima Space Center. SELENE
SELENE
is also known as Kaguya, after the lunar princess of The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter.[205] Kaguya is the largest lunar mission since the Apollo program. Its purpose is to gather data on the moon's origin and evolution. It entered a lunar orbit on October 4,[206][207] flying at an altitude of about 100 km (62 mi).[208] The probe's mission was ended when it was deliberately crashed by JAXA into the Moon on June 11, 2009.[209] Nobel laureates Main article: List of Japanese Nobel laureates Japan
Japan
has received the most science Nobel Prizes in Asia and ranked 8th in the world.[210] Hideki Yukawa, educated at Kyoto
Kyoto
University, was awarded the prize in physics in 1949. Shin'ichirō Tomonaga followed in 1965. Solid-state physicist Leo Esaki, educated at the University of Tokyo, received the prize in 1973. Kenichi Fukui
Kenichi Fukui
of Kyoto
Kyoto
University shared the 1981 prize in chemistry, and Susumu Tonegawa, also educated at Kyoto
Kyoto
University, became Japan's first laureate in physiology or medicine in 1987. Japanese chemists took prizes in 2000 and 2001: first Hideki Shirakawa
Hideki Shirakawa
( Tokyo
Tokyo
Institute of Technology) and then Ryōji Noyori
Ryōji Noyori
( Kyoto
Kyoto
University). In 2002, Masatoshi Koshiba
Masatoshi Koshiba
(University of Tokyo) and Koichi Tanaka
Koichi Tanaka
(Tohoku University) won in physics and chemistry, respectively. Makoto Kobayashi, Toshihide Masukawa
Toshihide Masukawa
and Yoichiro Nambu, who was an American citizen when awarded, shared the physics prize and Osamu Shimomura also won the chemistry prize in 2008. Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano
Hiroshi Amano
and Shuji Nakamura, who is an American citizen when awarded, shared the physics prize in 2014 and the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi
Yoshinori Ohsumi
in 2016.[211] Infrastructure Transportation Main article: Transport in Japan

Japan
Japan
Airlines, flag carrier of Japan

A JR Central L0 Series
L0 Series
maglev train

Japan's road spending has been extensive.[212] Its 1.2 million kilometres (0.75 million miles) of paved road are the main means of transportation.[213] As of April 2012, Japan
Japan
has approximately 1,215,000 kilometres (755,000 miles) of roads made up of 1,022,000 kilometres (635,000 miles) of city, town and village roads, 129,000 kilometres (80,000 miles) of prefectural roads, 55,000 kilometres (34,000 miles) of general national highways and 8,050 kilometres (5,000 miles) of national expressways.[214][215] A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads connects major cities on Honshu, Shikoku
Shikoku
and Kyushu. Hokkaido
Hokkaido
has a separate network, and Okinawa Island
Okinawa Island
has a highway of this type. A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads connects major cities and is operated by toll-collecting enterprises. New and used cars are inexpensive; car ownership fees and fuel levies are used to promote energy efficiency. However, at just 50 percent of all distance traveled, car usage is the lowest of all G8 countries.[216] Since privatisation in 1987, dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; major companies include seven JR enterprises, Kintetsu, Seibu Railway
Seibu Railway
and Keio Corporation. Some 250 high-speed Shinkansen
Shinkansen
trains connect major cities and Japanese trains are known for their safety and punctuality.[217][218] Proposals for a new Maglev
Maglev
route between Tokyo and Osaka
Osaka
are at an advanced stage.[219] There are 175 airports in Japan;[7] the largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport, is Asia's second-busiest airport.[220] The largest international gateways are Narita International Airport, Kansai International Airport and Chūbu Centrair International Airport.[221] Nagoya Port
Nagoya Port
is the country's largest and busiest port, accounting for 10 percent of Japan's trade value.[222] Energy Main article: Energy in Japan

The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant, a nuclear plant with seven units, the largest single nuclear power station in the world

As of 2011[update], 46.1% of energy in Japan
Japan
was produced from petroleum, 21.3% from coal, 21.4% from natural gas, 4.0% from nuclear power and 3.3% from hydropower. Nuclear power
Nuclear power
produced 9.2 percent of Japan's electricity, as of 2011[update], down from 24.9 percent the previous year.[223] However, by May 2012 all of the country's nuclear power plants had been taken offline because of ongoing public opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
in March 2011, though government officials continued to try to sway public opinion in favor of returning at least some of Japan's 50 nuclear reactors to service.[224] As of November 2014[update], two reactors at Sendai
Sendai
are likely to restart in early 2015.[225] Japan
Japan
lacks significant domestic reserves and so has a heavy dependence on imported energy.[226] Japan
Japan
has therefore aimed to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency.[227] Water supply and sanitation Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Japan

Tokuyama Dam
Tokuyama Dam
in Gifu Prefecture
Gifu Prefecture
is the largest dam in Japan

The government took responsibility for regulating the water and sanitation sector is shared between the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in charge of water supply for domestic use; the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism in charge of water resources development as well as sanitation; the Ministry of the Environment in charge of ambient water quality and environmental preservation; and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in charge of performance benchmarking of utilities.[228] Access to an improved water source is universal in Japan. 97% of the population receives piped water supply from public utilities and 3% receive water from their own wells or unregulated small systems, mainly in rural areas.[229] Access to improved sanitation is also universal, either through sewers or on-site sanitation. All collected waste water is treated at secondary-level treatment plants. All effluents discharged to closed or semi-closed water bodies, such as Tokyo
Tokyo
Bay, Osaka
Osaka
Bay, or Lake Biwa, are further treated to tertiary level. This applies to about 15% of waste water. The effluent quality is remarkably good at 3–10 mg/l of BOD for secondary-level treatment, well below the national effluent standard of 20 mg/l. Water supply and sanitation in Japan
Water supply and sanitation in Japan
is facing some challenges, such as a decreasing population, declining investment, fiscal constraints, ageing facilities, an ageing workforce, a fragmentation of service provision among thousands of municipal utilities, and the vulnerability of parts of the country to droughts that are expected to become more frequent due to climate change. Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Japan, Japanese people, Ethnic groups of Japan, and List of metropolitan areas in Japan Population

View of Tokyo

Ainu, an ethnic minority people from Japan

Japan's population is estimated at around 128 million,[230] with 80% of the population living on Honshū. Japanese society
Japanese society
is linguistically, ethnically and culturally homogeneous,[231][232] composed of 98.5% ethnic Japanese,[7] with small populations of foreign workers.[231] Zainichi Koreans,[233] Chinese, Filipinos, Brazilians mostly of Japanese descent,[234] Peruvians mostly of Japanese descent and Americans are among the small minority groups in Japan.[235] In 2003, there were about 134,700 non-Latin American Western (not including more than 33,000 American military personnel and their dependents stationed throughout the country)[236] and 345,500 Latin American expatriates, 274,700 of whom were Brazilians (said to be primarily Japanese descendants, or nikkeijin, along with their spouses),[234] the largest community of Westerners.[237] The most dominant native ethnic group is the Yamato people; primary minority groups include the indigenous Ainu[238] and Ryukyuan peoples, as well as social minority groups like the burakumin.[239] There are persons of mixed ancestry incorporated among the Yamato, such as those from Ogasawara Archipelago.[240] In 2014, foreign-born non-naturalized workers made up only 1.5% of the total population.[241] Japan
Japan
is widely regarded as ethnically homogeneous, and does not compile ethnicity or race statistics for Japanese nationals; sources varies regarding such claim, with at least one analysis describing Japan
Japan
as a multiethnic society[242] while another analysis put the number of Japanese nationals of recent foreign descent to be of less than 0.5% of the population.[232] Most Japanese continue to see Japan
Japan
as a monocultural society. Former Japanese Prime Minister and current Finance Minister Tarō Asō
Tarō Asō
described Japan
Japan
as being a nation of "one race, one civilization, one language and one culture", which drew criticism from representatives of ethnic minorities such as the Ainu.[243] Japan
Japan
has the second longest overall life expectancy at birth of any country in the world: 83.5 years for persons born in the period 2010–2015.[22][244] The Japanese population is rapidly aging as a result of a post– World War II
World War II
baby boom followed by a decrease in birth rates. In 2012, about 24.1 percent of the population was over 65, and the proportion is projected to rise to almost 40 percent by 2050.[245]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Japan 2010 Census

Rank Name Prefecture Pop. Rank Name Prefecture Pop.

Special
Special
wards of Tokyo

Yokohama 1 Special
Special
wards of Tokyo Tokyo 8,949,447 11 Hiroshima Hiroshima 1,174,209

Osaka

Nagoya

2 Yokohama Kanagawa 3,689,603 12 Sendai Miyagi 1,045,903

3 Osaka Osaka 2,666,371 13 Kitakyushu Fukuoka 977,288

4 Nagoya Aichi 2,263,907 14 Chiba Chiba 962,130

5 Sapporo Hokkaido 1,914,434 15 Sakai Osaka 842,134

6 Kobe Hyōgo 1,544,873 16 Niigata Niigata 812,192

7 Kyoto Kyoto 1,474,473 17 Hamamatsu Shizuoka 800,912

8 Fukuoka Fukuoka 1,463,826 18 Kumamoto Kumamoto 734,294

9 Kawasaki Kanagawa 1,425,678 19 Sagamihara Kanagawa 717,561

10 Saitama Saitama 1,222,910 20 Shizuoka Shizuoka 716,328

Religion Main article: Religion in Japan

Religion in Japan
Religion in Japan
(data from 2000)[8]   Folk Shinto, or "not religious"[note 1] (51.82%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(34.9%)    Shinto
Shinto
organisations and others (4%)    Christianity
Christianity
(2.3%)   No answer (6.98%)

The torii of Itsukushima Shinto
Shinto
Shrine
Shrine
near Hiroshima, one of the Three Views of Japan
Three Views of Japan
and a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

The Byōdō-in
Byōdō-in
Buddhist temple, located in Uji, Kyoto

Japan
Japan
has full religious freedom based on Article 20 of its Constitution. Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percent of the Japanese population subscribe to Shinto
Shinto
as its indigenous religion (50% to 80% of which considering degrees of syncretism with Buddhism, shinbutsu-shūgō).[246][247] However, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, rather than the number of true believers. The number of Shinto
Shinto
shrines in Japan
Japan
is estimated to be around 100,000. Other studies have suggested that only 30 percent of the population identify themselves as belonging to a religion.[248] According to Edwin Reischauer and Marius Jansen, some 70–80% of the Japanese do not consider themselves believers in any religion. Nevertheless, the level of participation remains high, especially during festivals and occasions such as the first shrine visit of the New Year. Taoism
Taoism
and Confucianism
Confucianism
from China
China
have also influenced Japanese beliefs and customs.[249] Japanese streets are decorated on Tanabata, Obon
Obon
and Christmas.[247] Shinto
Shinto
is the largest religion in Japan, practiced by nearly 80% of the population, yet only a small percentage of these identify themselves as "Shintoists" in surveys. This is due to the fact that "Shinto" has different meanings in Japan: most of the Japanese attend Shinto
Shinto
shrines and beseech kami without belonging to Shinto organisations, and since there are no formal rituals to become a member of folk "Shinto", " Shinto
Shinto
membership" is often estimated counting those who join organised Shinto
Shinto
sects. Shinto
Shinto
has 100,000 shrines and 78,890 priests in the country.[250] Buddhism
Buddhism
first arrived in Japan
Japan
in the 6th century; it was introduced in the year 538 or 552[251] from the kingdom of Baekje
Baekje
in Korea.[251] Christianity
Christianity
was first introduced into Japan
Japan
by Jesuit
Jesuit
missions starting in 1549.[252] Today, fewer than 1%[253][254][255] to 2.3% are Christians.[note 2] Most of them living in the western part of the country, where the missionaries' activities were greatest during the 16th century. Nagasaki
Nagasaki
Prefecture has the highest percentage of Christians: about 5.1% in 1996.[256] As of 2007[update], there are 32,036 Christian priests and pastors in Japan.[250] Throughout the latest century, some Western customs originally related to Christianity
Christianity
(including Western style weddings, Valentine's Day
Valentine's Day
and Christmas) have become popular as secular customs among many Japanese.[257] Islam in Japan
Islam in Japan
is estimated to constitute, about 80–90%, of foreign born migrants and their children, primarily from Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Iran.[258] Much of the ethnic Japanese Muslims are those who convert upon marrying immigrant Muslims.[259] The Pew Research Center estimated that there were 185,000 Muslims in Japan
Japan
in 2010.[260] Other minority religions include Hinduism, Sikhism
Sikhism
and Judaism, and since the mid-19th century numerous new religious movements have emerged in Japan.[261] Languages Main articles: Languages of Japan
Languages of Japan
and Japanese language More than 99 percent of the population speaks Japanese as their first language.[7] Japanese is an agglutinative language distinguished by a system of honorifics reflecting the hierarchical nature of Japanese society, with verb forms and particular vocabulary indicating the relative status of speaker and listener. Japanese writing uses kanji (Chinese characters) and two sets of kana (syllabaries based on cursive script and radical of kanji), as well as the Latin alphabet and Arabic numerals.[262] Besides Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages
Ryukyuan languages
(Amami, Kunigami, Okinawan, Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni), also part of the Japonic language family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands
chain. Few children learn these languages,[263] but in recent years the local governments have sought to increase awareness of the traditional languages. The Okinawan Japanese dialect is also spoken in the region. The Ainu language, which has no proven relationship to Japanese or any other language, is moribund, with only a few elderly native speakers remaining in Hokkaido.[264] Public and private schools generally require students to take Japanese language
Japanese language
classes as well as English language courses.[265][266] Problems The changes in demographic structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a potential decline in workforce population and increase in the cost of social security benefits such as the public pension plan.[267] A growing number of younger Japanese are not marrying or remain childless.[268] In 2011, Japan's population dropped for a fifth year, falling by 204,000 people to 126.24 million people. This was the greatest decline since at least 1947, when comparable figures were first compiled.[269] This decline was made worse by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami, which killed nearly 16,000 people.[270] Japan's population is expected to drop to 95 million by 2050;[245][271] demographers and government planners are currently in a heated debate over how to cope with this problem.[268] Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the nation's ageing population.[272][273] Japan
Japan
accepts an average flow of 9,500 new Japanese citizens by naturalization per year.[274] According to the UNHCR, in 2012 Japan accepted just 18 refugees for resettlement,[275] while the United States took in 76,000.[276] Japan
Japan
suffers from a high suicide rate.[277][278] In 2009, the number of suicides exceeded 30,000 for the twelfth successive year.[279] Suicide is the leading cause of death for people under 30.[280] Education Main article: Education in Japan

Students celebrating after the announcement of the results of the entrance examinations to the University of Tokyo

Primary schools, secondary schools and universities were introduced in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration.[281] Since 1947, compulsory education in Japan
Japan
comprises elementary and middle school, which together last for nine years (from age 6 to age 15). Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school. Japan's education system played a central part in the country's recovery and rapid economic growth in the decades following the end of World War II. After World War II, the Fundamental Law of Education and the School Education Law were enacted. The latter law defined the school system that would be in effect for many decades: six years of elementary school, three years of junior high school, three years of high school, and two or four years of university. Starting in April 2016, various schools began the academic year with elementary school and junior high school integrated into one nine-year compulsory schooling program, in hopes to mitigate bullying and truancy; MEXT plans for this approach to be adopted nationwide in the coming years.[282] In Japan, having a strong educational background greatly improves the likelihood of finding a job and earning enough money to support oneself. Highly educated individuals are less affected by unemployment trends as higher levels of educational attainment make an individual more attractive in the workforce. The lifetime earnings also increase with each level of education attained. Furthermore, skills needed in the modern 21st century labor market are becoming more knowledge-based and strong aptitude in science and mathematics are more strong predictors of employment prospects in Japan's highly technological economy.[283] Japan
Japan
is one of the top-performing OECD
OECD
countries in reading literacy, maths and sciences with the average student scoring 540 and has one of the worlds highest-educated labor forces among OECD
OECD
countries.[284] The Japanese populace is well educated and its society highly values education as a platform for social mobility and for gaining employment in the country's competitive high-tech economy. The country's large pool of highly educated and skilled individuals is largely responsible for ushering Japan's post-war economic growth. Tertiary-educated adults in Japan, particularly graduates in sciences and engineering benefit economically and socially from their education and skills in the country's high tech economy.[283] Spending on education as a proportion of GDP is below the OECD
OECD
average. Although expenditure per student is comparatively high in Japan, total expenditure relative to GDP remains small.[283] In 2015, Japan's public spending on education amounted to just 3.5 percent of its GDP, below the OECD
OECD
average of 4.7%.[285] In 2014, the country ranked fourth for the percentage of 25- to 64-year-olds that have attained tertiary education with 48 percent. In addition, bachelor's degrees are held by 59 percent of Japanese aged 25–34, the second most in the OECD
OECD
after South Korea.[19] As the Japanese economy is largely scientific and technological based, the labor market demands people who have achieved some form of higher education, particularly related to science and engineering in order to gain a competitive edge when searching for employment opportunities. About 75.9 percent of high school graduates attended a university, junior college, trade school, or other higher education institution.[286] The two top-ranking universities in Japan
Japan
are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto
Kyoto
University,[287][288] which have produced 16 Nobel Prize laureates. The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD
OECD
currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of Japanese 15-year-olds as sixth best in the world.[289] Health Main articles: Health in Japan
Health in Japan
and Health care system in Japan In Japan, health care is provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance.[290] Patients are free to select the physicians or facilities of their choice.[291] Culture Main article: Culture of Japan See also: Japanese popular culture

Part of a series on the

Culture of Japan

History

People

Languages

Traditions

Values Etiquette Marriage Funerals Tea ceremony Geisha Onsen / Sentō Clothing Games

Mythology and folklore

Mythology folklore

Cuisine

Festivals

Religion

Buddhism Christian New religions Shinto

Art

Ikebana Bonsai Gardens Pottery
Pottery
and porcelain

Literature

Manga Poetry

Music and performing arts

Music Performing arts

Media

Television Cinema Mobile phone culture Anime

Sport

Martial arts

Monuments

World Heritage Sites Architecture

Symbols

Flag Coat of arms

Organisations

Museums

Japan
Japan
portal

v t e

Japanese culture has evolved greatly from its origins. Contemporary culture combines influences from Asia, Europe
Europe
and North America. Traditional Japanese arts include crafts such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and dolls; performances of bunraku, kabuki, noh, dance, and rakugo; and other practices, the tea ceremony, ikebana, martial arts, calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha
Geisha
and games. Japan
Japan
has a developed system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties and National Treasures.[292] Nineteen sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List, fifteen of which are of cultural significance.[88] Architecture Main article: Japanese architecture

Kinkaku-ji
Kinkaku-ji
or "The Temple
Temple
of the Golden Pavilion" in Kyoto, Special Historic Site, Special
Special
Place of Scenic Beauty and a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site, whose torching by a monk in 1950 is the subject of a novel by Mishima

Japanese architecture
Japanese architecture
is a combination between local and other influences. It has traditionally been typified by wooden structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Sliding doors (fusuma) were used in place of walls, allowing the internal configuration of a space to be customized for different occasions. People usually sat on cushions or otherwise on the floor, traditionally; chairs and high tables were not widely used until the 20th century. Since the 19th century, however, Japan
Japan
has incorporated much of Western, modern, and post-modern architecture into construction and design, and is today a leader in cutting-edge architectural design and technology. The introduction of Buddhism
Buddhism
during the sixth century was a catalyst for large-scale temple building using complicated techniques in wood. Influence from the Chinese Tang and Sui dynasties led to the foundation of the first permanent capital in Nara. Its checkerboard street layout used the Chinese capital of Chang'an
Chang'an
as a template for its design. A gradual increase in the size of buildings led to standard units of measurement as well as refinements in layout and garden design. The introduction of the tea ceremony emphasised simplicity and modest design as a counterpoint to the excesses of the aristocracy. During the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
of 1868 the history of Japanese architecture was radically changed by two important events. The first was the Kami
Kami
and Buddhas Separation Act of 1868, which formally separated Buddhism
Buddhism
from Shinto
Shinto
and Buddhist temples from Shinto shrines, breaking an association between the two which had lasted well over a thousand years.[293] Second, it was then that Japan
Japan
underwent a period of intense Westernization
Westernization
in order to compete with other developed countries. Initially architects and styles from abroad were imported to Japan
Japan
but gradually the country taught its own architects and began to express its own style. Architects returning from study with western architects introduced the International Style of modernism into Japan. However, it was not until after the Second World War that Japanese architects made an impression on the international scene, firstly with the work of architects like Kenzō Tange
Kenzō Tange
and then with theoretical movements like Metabolism. Art Further information: Japanese art, Japanese garden, and Japanese aesthetics The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of Japanese architecture.[294] Largely of wood, traditional housing and many temple buildings see the use of tatami mats and sliding doors that break down the distinction between rooms and indoor and outdoor space.[295] Japanese sculpture, largely of wood, and Japanese painting are among the oldest of the Japanese arts, with early figurative paintings dating back to at least 300 BC. The history of Japanese painting exhibits synthesis and competition between native Japanese aesthetics and adaptation of imported ideas.[296] The interaction between Japanese and European art has been significant: for example ukiyo-e prints, which began to be exported in the 19th century in the movement known as Japonism, had a significant influence on the development of modern art in the West, most notably on post-Impressionism.[296] Famous ukiyo-e artists include Hokusai
Hokusai
and Hiroshige. Japanese comics, known as manga, developed in the 20th century and have become popular worldwide.[297] Rakuten Kitazawa
Rakuten Kitazawa
was first to use the word "manga" in the modern sense.[298] Japanese-made video game consoles have been popular since the 1980s.[299]

Hirado ware porcelain censers in the form of tiger and figurine with fan, brown and blue glazes

19th-century ukiyo-e woodblock print The Great Wave off Kanagawa

Example of Japanese calligraphy
Japanese calligraphy
(書道 shodō)

An anime store in Akihabara, Tokyo

Animation Japanese animated films and television series, known as anime, were largely influenced by Japanese manga and have been extensively popular in the West. Japan
Japan
is a world-renowned powerhouse of animation.[300] Music Main article: Music of Japan

Masayo Ishigure playing 13-strings Koto

Japanese music is eclectic and diverse. Many instruments, such as the koto, were introduced in the 9th and 10th centuries. The accompanied recitative of the Noh
Noh
drama dates from the 14th century and the popular folk music, with the guitar-like shamisen, from the sixteenth.[301] Western classical music, introduced in the late 19th century, now forms an integral part of Japanese culture. The imperial court ensemble Gagaku
Gagaku
has influenced the work of some modern Western composers.[302] Notable classical composers from Japan
Japan
include Toru Takemitsu
Toru Takemitsu
and Rentarō Taki. Popular music in post-war Japan
Japan
has been heavily influenced by American and European trends, which has led to the evolution of J-pop, or Japanese popular music.[303] Karaoke
Karaoke
is the most widely practiced cultural activity in Japan. A 1993 survey by the Cultural Affairs Agency found that more Japanese had sung karaoke that year than had participated in traditional pursuits such as flower arranging (ikebana) or tea ceremonies.[304] Literature Main articles: Japanese literature
Japanese literature
and Japanese poetry

12th-century illustrated handscroll of The Tale of Genji, a National Treasure

The earliest works of Japanese literature
Japanese literature
include the Kojiki
Kojiki
and Nihon Shoki chronicles and the Man'yōshū poetry anthology, all from the 8th century and written in Chinese characters.[305][306] In the early Heian period, the system of phonograms known as kana (hiragana and katakana) was developed. The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter
The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter
is considered the oldest Japanese narrative.[307] An account of Heian court life is given in The Pillow Book
The Pillow Book
by Sei Shōnagon, while The Tale of Genji
The Tale of Genji
by Murasaki Shikibu
Murasaki Shikibu
is often described as the world's first novel.[308][309] During the Edo
Edo
period, the chōnin ("townspeople") overtook the samurai aristocracy as producers and consumers of literature. The popularity of the works of Saikaku, for example, reveals this change in readership and authorship, while Bashō revivified the poetic tradition of the Kokinshū
Kokinshū
with his haikai (haiku) and wrote the poetic travelogue Oku no Hosomichi.[310] The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms as Japanese literature
Japanese literature
integrated Western influences. Natsume Sōseki
Natsume Sōseki
and Mori Ōgai
Mori Ōgai
were the first "modern" novelists of Japan, followed by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, Jun'ichirō Tanizaki, Yukio Mishima
Yukio Mishima
and, more recently, Haruki Murakami. Japan
Japan
has two Nobel Prize-winning authors—Yasunari Kawabata (1968) and Kenzaburō Ōe
Kenzaburō Ōe
(1994).[307] Philosophy Main article: Japanese philosophy

Kitaro Nishida, one of the most notable Japanese philosophers

Japanese Philosophy has historically been a fusion of both foreign; particularly Chinese and Western, and uniquely Japanese elements. In its literary forms, Japanese philosophy
Japanese philosophy
began about fourteen centuries ago. Archaeological evidence and early historical accounts suggest that Japan
Japan
was originally an animistic culture, which viewed the world as infused with kami (神) or sacred presence as taught by Shinto, though it is not a philosophy as such, but has greatly influenced all other philosophies in their Japanese interpretations.[311] Confucianism
Confucianism
entered Japan
Japan
from China
China
around the 5th century A.D., as did Buddhism.[312] Confucian ideals are still evident today in the Japanese concept of society and the self, and in the organization of the government and the structure of society.[312] Buddhism
Buddhism
has profoundly impacted Japanese psychology, metaphysics, and aesthetics.[313] Indigenous ideas of loyalty and honour have been held since the 16th century. Western philosophy
Western philosophy
has had its major impact in Japan
Japan
only since the middle of the 19th century. Cuisine Main article: Japanese cuisine

Breakfast at a ryokan or inn

Maiko
Maiko
preparing teacups for tea ceremony

Japanese cuisine
Japanese cuisine
is based on combining staple foods, typically Japanese rice
Japanese rice
or noodles, with a soup and okazu—dishes made from fish, vegetable, tofu and the like—to add flavor to the staple food. In the early modern era ingredients such as red meats that had previously not been widely used in Japan
Japan
were introduced. Japanese cuisine is known for its emphasis on seasonality of food,[314] quality of ingredients and presentation. Japanese cuisine
Japanese cuisine
offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. The phrase ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜, "one soup, three sides") refers to the makeup of a typical meal served, but has roots in classic kaiseki, honzen, and yūsoku cuisine. The term is also used to describe the first course served in standard kaiseki cuisine nowadays.[315] Traditional Japanese sweets are known as wagashi. Ingredients such as red bean paste and mochi are used. More modern-day tastes includes green tea ice cream, a very popular flavor. Almost all manufacturers produce a version of it. Kakigori
Kakigori
is a shaved ice dessert flavored with syrup or condensed milk. It is usually sold and eaten at summer festivals. Popular Japanese beverages such as sake, which is a brewed rice beverage that, typically, contains 15%~17% alcohol and is made by multiple fermentation of rice. Beer has been brewed in Japan
Japan
since the late 1800s and is produced in many regions by companies including Asahi Breweries, Kirin Brewery, and Sapporo
Sapporo
Brewery – the oldest brand of beer in Japan. The Michelin Guide
Michelin Guide
has awarded restaurants in Japan
Japan
more Michelin stars than the rest of the world combined.[316]

Sushi
Sushi
(寿司)

Ramen
Ramen
(ラーメン)

Tempura
Tempura
(天ぷら)

Wagashi
Wagashi
(和菓子) served with matcha (抹茶)

Holidays Main article: Public holidays in Japan

Young ladies celebrate Coming of Age Day
Coming of Age Day
(成人の日 Seijin no Hi) in Harajuku, Tokyo

Officially, Japan
Japan
has 16 national, government-recognized holidays. Public holidays in Japan are regulated by the Public Holiday Law (国民の祝日に関する法律 Kokumin no Shukujitsu ni Kansuru Hōritsu) of 1948.[317] Beginning in 2000, Japan
Japan
implemented the Happy Monday System, which moved a number of national holidays to Monday in order to obtain a long weekend. In 2006, the country decided to add Shōwa Day, a new national holiday, in place of Greenery Day on April 29, and to move Greenery Day to May 4. These changes took effect in 2007. In 2014, the House of Councillors
House of Councillors
decided to add Mountain Day (山の日, Yama no Hi) to the Japanese calendar on August 11, after lobbying by the Japanese Alpine Club. It is intended to coincide with the Bon Festival
Bon Festival
vacation time, giving Japanese people
Japanese people
an opportunity to appreciate Japan's mountains.[318][319] The national holidays in Japan
Japan
are New Year's Day on January 1, Coming of Age Day on Second Monday of January, National Foundation Day on February 11, Vernal Equinox Day on March 20 or 21, Shōwa Day on April 29, Constitution Memorial Day on May 3, Greenery Day on May 4, Children's Day on May 5, Marine Day on Third Monday of July, Mountain Day on August 11, Respect for the Aged Day on Third Monday of September, Autumnal Equinox
Autumnal Equinox
on September 23 or 24, Health and Sports Day on Second Monday of October, Culture Day on November 3, Labour Thanksgiving Day on November 23, and The Emperor's Birthday
The Emperor's Birthday
on December 23.[320] Festivals Main article: Japanese festivals

Popular Japanese festival, Hanami
Hanami
celebration at Ueno Park, Tokyo

There are many festivals in Japan, which are called in Japanese as matsuri (祭) which celebrate annually. There are no specific festival days for all of Japan; dates vary from area to area, and even within a specific area, but festival days do tend to cluster around traditional holidays such as Setsubun
Setsubun
or Obon. Festivals are often based around one event, with food stalls, entertainment, and carnival games to keep people entertained. Its usually sponsored by a local shrine or temple, though they can be secular.[321] Notable festival often feature processions which may include elaborate floats. Preparation for these processions is usually organised at the level of neighborhoods, or machi (町). Prior to these, the local kami may be ritually installed in mikoshi and paraded through the streets, such as Gion
Gion
in Kyoto, and Hadaka in Okayama.[321] Sports Main article: Sport in Japan

Sumo
Sumo
wrestlers form around the referee during the ring-entering ceremony

National High School Baseball Championship
National High School Baseball Championship
at Koshien Stadium

Traditionally, sumo is considered Japan's national sport.[322] Japanese martial arts
Japanese martial arts
such as judo, karate and kendo are also widely practiced and enjoyed by spectators in the country. After the Meiji Restoration, many Western sports were introduced in Japan
Japan
and began to spread through the education system.[323] Japan
Japan
hosted the Summer Olympics in Tokyo
Tokyo
in 1964 and the Winter Olympics in Sapporo
Sapporo
in 1972 and Nagano in 1998.[324] Further, the country hosted the official 2006 Basketball World Championship.[325] Tokyo
Tokyo
will host the 2020 Summer Olympics, making Tokyo
Tokyo
the first Asian city to host the Olympics twice.[326] The country gained the hosting rights for the official Women's Volleyball World Championship on five occasions (1967, 1998, 2006, 2010, 2018), more than any other nation.[327] Japan
Japan
is the most successful Asian Rugby Union
Rugby Union
country, winning the Asian Five Nations
Asian Five Nations
a record 6 times and winning the newly formed IRB Pacific Nations Cup
IRB Pacific Nations Cup
in 2011. Japan
Japan
will host the 2019 IRB Rugby World Cup.[328] Baseball is currently the most popular spectator sport in the country. Japan's top professional league, now known as Nippon Professional Baseball, was established in 1936[329] and is widely considered to be the highest level of professional baseball in the world outside of the North American Major Leagues. Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has also gained a wide following.[330] Japan
Japan
was a venue of the Intercontinental Cup from 1981 to 2004 and co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea.[331] Japan
Japan
has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the Asian Cup four times.[332] Also, Japan
Japan
recently won the FIFA
FIFA
Women's World Cup in 2011.[333] Golf is also popular in Japan,[334] as are forms of auto racing like the Super GT series and Formula Nippon.[335] The country has produced one NBA player, Yuta Tabuse.[336] Media Main article: Media of Japan

Fuji TV
Fuji TV
headquarters in Tokyo

NHK
NHK
Broadcasting Building in Osaka

Television
Television
and newspapers take an important role in Japanese mass media, though radio and magazines also take a part.[337][338] For a long time, newspapers were regarded as the most influential information medium in Japan, although audience attitudes towards television changed with the emergence of commercial news broadcasting in the mid-1980s.[337] Over the last decade, television has clearly come to surpass newspapers as Japan's main information and entertainment medium.[339] There are 6 nationwide television networks: NHK
NHK
(public broadcasting), Nippon Television
Television
(NTV), Tokyo
Tokyo
Broadcasting System (TBS), Fuji Network System (FNS), TV Asahi
TV Asahi
(EX) and TV Tokyo
Tokyo
Network (TXN).[338] For the most part, television networks were established based on capital investments by existing radio networks. Variety shows, serial dramas, and news constitute a large percentage of Japanese television show. According to the 2015 NHK
NHK
survey on television viewing in Japan, 79 percent of Japanese watch television every day. The average daily duration of television viewing was three hours.[340] Japanese readers have a choice of approximately 120 daily newspapers with a total of 50 million copies of set paper with an average subscription rate of 1.13 newspapers per household.[341] The main newspaper's publishers are Yomiuri Shimbun, Asahi Shimbun, Mainichi Shimbun, Nikkei Shimbun and Sankei Shimbun. According to a survey conducted by the Japanese Newspaper
Newspaper
Association in June 1999, 85.4 per cent of men and 75 per cent of women read a newspaper every day. Average daily reading times vary with 27.7 minutes on weekdays and 31.7 minutes on holidays and Sunday.[339] See also

Japan
Japan
portal Islands portal Asia portal

Housing in Japan Index of Japan-related articles Outline of Japan

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Notes

^ Routledge Handbook of Japanese Culture and Society
Society
(2011) edited by Victoria Bestor, Theodore C. Bestor, and Akiko Yamagata, pp. 66–67 ISBN 978-0-415-43649-6: 無宗教 mushūkyō, "no religion", in Japanese language
Japanese language
and mindset identifies those people who do not belong to organised religion. To the Japanese, the term "religion" or "faith" means organized religions on the model of Christianity, that is a religion with specific doctrines and requirement for church membership. So, when asked "what is their religion", most of the Japanese answer that they "do not belong to any religion". According to NHK
NHK
studies, those Japanese who identify with mushūkyō and therefore do not belong to any organised religion, actually take part in the folk ritual dimension of Shinto. Ama Toshimaru in Nihonjin wa naze mushukyo na no ka ("Why are the Japanese non-religious?") of 1996, explains that people who do not belong to organised religions but regularly pray and make offerings to ancestors and protective deities at private altars or Shinto
Shinto
shrines will identify themselves as mushukyo. Ama designates "natural religion" what NHK
NHK
studies define as "folk religion", and other scholars have named "Nipponism" (Nipponkyō) or "common religion". ^ According to the Dentsu survey of 2006: 1% Protestants, 0.8% members of the Catholic Church, and 0.5% members of the Orthodox Church.[8]

Further reading Further information: Bibliography of Japanese history

Flath (2000). The Japanese Economy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-877503-2.  Henshall (2001). A History of Japan. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23370-1.  Iwabuchi (2002). Recentering Globalization: Popular Culture and Japanese Transnationalism. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2891-7.  Jansen (2000). The Making of Modern Japan. Belknap. ISBN 0-674-00334-9.  Kato; et al. (1997). A History of Japanese Literature: From the Man'Yoshu to Modern Times. Japan
Japan
Library. ISBN 1-873410-48-4.  Pilling, David (2014). Bending Adversity: Japan
Japan
and the Art of Survival. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1-84614-546-9.  Samuels (2008). Securing Japan: Tokyo's Grand Strategy and the Future of East Asia. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-7490-6.  Silverberg (2007). Erotic Grotesque Nonsense: The Mass Culture of Japanese Modern Times. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22273-3.  Sugimoto; et al. (2003). An Introduction to Japanese Society. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52925-5.  Taggart Murphy, R. (2014). Japan
Japan
and the Shackles of the Past. Oxford and New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-984598-9.  Varley (2000). Japanese Culture. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2152-1. 

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 159367111 LCCN: n78089021 ISNI: 0000 0001 2364 9740 GND: 4028495-5 SELIBR: 149361 SUDOC: 02648918X BNF: cb11872797r (data) HDS: