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Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)

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Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih") (Khomeini 1970)

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Abduh Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī Qazi Hussain Ahmad Muhammad
Muhammad
Nasiruddin al-Albani Muhammad
Muhammad
Asad Hassan al-Banna Necmettin Erbakan Rached Ghannouchi Safwat Hegazi Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal Ali Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini Abul A'la Maududi Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sayyid Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali Shariati Haji Shariatullah Hassan Al-Turabi Ahmed Yassin

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An Islamic state
Islamic state
(Arabic: دولة إسلامية‎, dawlah islāmiyyah) is a type of government primarily based on the application of shari'a (Islamic law), dispensation of justice, maintenance of law and order.[1] From the early years of Islam, numerous governments have been founded as "Islamic".[2] However, the term "Islamic state" has taken on a more specific connotation since the 20th century. The concept of the modern Islamic state has been articulated and promoted by ideologues such as Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini, Israr Ahmed
Israr Ahmed
or Sayyid Qutb. Like the earlier notion of the caliphate, the modern Islamic state
Islamic state
is rooted in Islamic law. It is modeled after the rule of Muhammad. However, unlike caliph-led governments which were imperial despotisms or monarchies (Arabic: malik), a modern Islamic state
Islamic state
can incorporate modern political institutions such as elections, parliamentary rule, judicial review, and popular sovereignty. Today, many Muslim countries have incorporated Islamic law, wholly or in part, into their legal systems. Certain Muslim states have declared Islam
Islam
to be their state religion in their constitutions, but do not apply Islamic law
Islamic law
in their courts. Islamic states which are not Islamic monarchies are usually referred to as Islamic republics.

Contents

1 The historical Islamic state

1.1 Early Islamic governments 1.2 The essence of Islamic governments 1.3 Revival and abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate

2 The modern Islamic state

2.1 Origins in 20th-century nationalist and anti-imperialist movements 2.2 Islamic states today

2.2.1 Iran 2.2.2 Pakistan

3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

The historical Islamic state[edit] Early Islamic governments[edit] Main articles: Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina and Caliphate The first Islamic State was the political entity established by Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina in 622 CE, under the Constitution
Constitution
of Medina. It represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah
Ummah
(nation). It was subsequently transformed into the caliphate by Muhammad's disciples, who were known as the Rightly Guided (Rashidun) Caliphs (632–661 CE). The Islamic State significantly expanded under the Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(661–750) and consequently the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258). The essence of Islamic governments[edit] The essence or guiding principles of an Islamic government or Islamic state, is the concept of Al-Shura. Different scholars have different understandings or thoughts, with regard to the concept al-Shura. However, most Muslim scholars are of the opinion that Islamic al-Shura should consist of:[3]

Meeting or consultation, that follows the teachings of Islam. Consultation following the guidelines of the Quran
Quran
and Sunnah. There is a leader elected among them to head the meeting. The discussion should be based on mushawarah and mudhakarah. All members are given fair opportunity to voice out their opinions. The issue should be of maslahah ammah or public interest. The voices of the majority are accepted, provided it does not violate the teachings of the Quran
Quran
or Sunnah.

Muhammad
Muhammad
himself respected the decision of the shura members. He is the champion of the notion of al-Shura, and this was illustrated in one of the many historical events, such as in the Battle of Khandaq (Battle of the Trench), where Muhammad
Muhammad
was faced with two decisions, i.e. to fight the invading non-Muslim Arab armies outside of Medina or wait until they enter the city. After consultation with the sahabah (companions), it was suggested by Salman al-Farsi that it would be better if the Muslims fought the non-Muslim Arabs within Medina by building a big ditch on the northern periphery of Medina to prevent the enemies from entering Medina. This idea was later supported by the majority of the sahabah, and thereafter Muhammad
Muhammad
also approved it. The reason why Muhammad
Muhammad
placed great emphasis on the agreement of the decision of the shura was because the majority of opinion (by the sahabah) is better than the decision made by one individual. Revival and abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate[edit] Main article: Ottoman Caliphate The Ottoman Sultan, Selim I
Selim I
(1512–1520) reclaimed the title of caliph, which had been in dispute and asserted by a diversity of rulers and "shadow caliphs" in the centuries of the Abbasid-Mamluk Caliphate
Caliphate
since the Mongols' sacking of Baghdad and the killing of the last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad, Iraq 1258. The Ottoman Caliphate
Caliphate
as an office of the Ottoman Empire
Empire
was abolished under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
in 1924 as part of Atatürk's Reforms. This move was most vigorously protested in India, as Gandhi and Indian Muslims united behind the symbolism of the Ottoman Caliph in the Khilafat
Khilafat
(or "Caliphate") Movement, which sought to reinstate the Caliph deposed by Atatürk. The Khilafat Movement
Khilafat Movement
leveraged the Ottoman political resistance to the British Empire, and this international anti-imperial connection proved to be a galvanizing force during India's nascent nationalism movement of the early 1900s, for Hindus and Muslims alike, even though India was far from the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate
Caliphate
in Istanbul. However, the Khilaphat found little support from the Muslims of the middle east themselves who preferred to be independent nation states, instead of being under the Ottoman (Turkish ) rule. In the Indian sub-continent, although Mahatma Gandhi tried to co-opt Khilafat
Khilafat
as a national movement, it soon degenerated into a jihad against non-Muslims with thousands being killed in malabar region of Kerala (also known as Moplah riots). The modern Islamic state[edit] Origins in 20th-century nationalist and anti-imperialist movements[edit] See also: Abul A'la Maududi
Abul A'la Maududi
and Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist "The very term, 'Islamic State', was never used in the theory or practice of Muslim political science, before the twentieth century," according to Pakistani scholar of Islamic history Qamaruddin Khan.[4][5] The modern conceptualization of the "Islamic state" is attributed to Abul A'la Maududi
Abul A'la Maududi
(1903–1979), a Pakistani Muslim theologian who founded the political party Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
and inspired other Islamic revolutionaries such as Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini.[6] Abul A'la Maududi's early political career was influenced greatly by anti-colonial agitation in India, especially after the tumultuous abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate
Caliphate
in 1924 stoked anti-British sentiment.[7] The Islamic state
Islamic state
was perceived as a "third way" between the rival political systems of democracy and socialism (see also Islamic Modernism).[8] Maududi's seminal writings on Islamic economics
Islamic economics
argued as early as 1941 against free-market capitalism and socialist state intervention in the economy, similar to Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr's later Our Economics written in 1961. Maududi envisioned the ideal Islamic state as combining the democratic principles of electoral politics with the socialist principles of concern for the poor.[9] Islamic states today[edit]

Islamic states (dark green), states where Islam
Islam
is the official religion (light green), secular states (blue) and other (orange), among countries with a Muslim majority.

Today, many Muslim countries have incorporated Islamic law
Islamic law
in part, into their legal systems. Certain Muslim states have declared Islam
Islam
to be their state religion in their constitutions, but do not apply Islamic law
Islamic law
in their courts. Islamic states which are not Islamic monarchies are usually referred to as Islamic republics,[10] such as the Islamic Republics of Pakistan, Mauritania, Iran[11] and Afghanistan.[12] Pakistan adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania
Mauritania
adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. In Iran, the form of government is known as "Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists". Afghanistan was run as an Islamic state
Islamic state
("Islamic State of Afghanistan") in the post-communist era since 1992 but then de facto by the Taliban
Taliban
("Islamic Emirate
Emirate
of Afghanistan") in areas controlled by them since 1996, and after the 2001 overthrow of the Taliban
Taliban
the country is still known as the "Islamic Republic of Afghanistan". Despite the similar name, the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws. Pan- Islamism
Islamism
is a form of religious nationalism within political Islam which advocates the unification of the Muslim world
Muslim world
under a single Islamic state, often described as a caliphate or ummah. The most famous, powerful and aggressive modern pan-Islamic group that pursues objective to unify Muslim world
Muslim world
and establish worldwide caliphate is the wahhabi/salafi jihadist movement Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration
Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration
as of 3 August 2011 declared Islam
Islam
to be the official religion of Libya. Iran[edit] Leading up to the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
of 1979, many of the highest-ranking clergy in Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
held to the standard doctrine of the Imamate, which allows political rule only by Muhammad
Muhammad
or one of his true successors. They were opposed to creating an Islamic state (see Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Ha'eri Yazdi (Khomeini's own teacher), Ayatollah Borujerdi, Grand Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Shariatmadari, and Grand Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei).[13] Contemporary theologians who were once part of the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
also became disenchanted and critical of the unity of religion and state in the Islamic Republic of Iran, are advocating secularization of the state to preserve the purity of the Islamic faith (see Abdolkarim Soroush
Abdolkarim Soroush
and Mohsen Kadivar).[14] Pakistan[edit] Pakistan was created as a separate state for Indian Muslims in British India in 1947, and followed the parliamentary form of democracy. In 1949, the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan
Constituent Assembly of Pakistan
passed the Objectives Resolution which envisaged an official role for Islam
Islam
as the state religion to make sure any future law should not violate its basic teachings. On the whole, the state retained most of the laws that were inherited from the British legal code that had been enforced by the British Raj
British Raj
since the 19th century. In 1956, the elected parliament formally adopted the name "Islamic Republic of Pakistan", declaring Islam
Islam
as the official religion. See also[edit]

Theocracy

Christian republic Jewish state

Syed Farid al-Attas Hizb ut-Tahrir Islamic Revolutionary State of Afghanistan Former Salafist states in Afghanistan Islamic Emirate
Emirate
of Afghanistan Islamic State of Azawad
Islamic State of Azawad
– a former short-lived unrecognised state declared unilaterally in 2012 by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad Islamic State of Waziristan
Islamic State of Waziristan
– also known as Islamic Emirate
Emirate
of Waziristan, declared in Waziristan, Pakistan Islamic State of Indonesia
Islamic State of Indonesia
– (Negara Islam
Islam
Indonesia or Darul Islam), Islamist group in Indonesia that aims for the establishment of an Islamic state
Islamic state
of Indonesia (an unrecognised state)

References[edit]

^ Ashgar, Ali (2006). The State in Islam: Nature and the Scope. Pinnacle Technology. p. 91. ISBN 9781618200822.  ^ See article by Imam Mohamad Jebara "The delusion of an Islamic State" http://www.ottawasun.com/2015/10/18/the-delusion-of-an-isalmic-state ^ Jeong Chun Hai & Nor Fadzlina Nawi. (2007). Principles of Public Administration: An Introduction. Kuala Lumpur: Karisma Publications. ISBN 978-983-195-253-5 ^ Khan, Qamaruddin (1982). Political Concepts in the Quran. Lahore: Islamic Book Foundation. p. 74. The claim that Islam
Islam
is a harmonious blend of religion and politics is a modern slogan, of which no trace can be found in the past history of Islam. The very term, “Islamic State” was never used in the theory or practice of Muslim political science, before the twentieth century. Also if the first thirty years of Islam
Islam
were excepted, the historical conduct of Muslim states could hardly be distinguished from that of other states in world history.  ^ Eickelman, D. F., & Piscatori, J. (1996). Muslim politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 53. The Pakistani writer Qamaruddin Khan, for example, has proposed that the political theory of Islam
Islam
does not arise from the Qur'an but from circumstances and that the state is neither divinely sanctioned nor strictly necessary as a social institution. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Nasr, S.V.R. 1996. Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, Ch. 4. New York: Oxford University Press ^ Minault, G. The Khilafat
Khilafat
Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. ^ Kurzman, Charles. “Introduction,” in Modernist Islam
Islam
1840-1940: A Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. ^ Khir, B.M. “The Islamic Quest for Sociopolitical Justice.” In Blackwell Companion to Political Theology, edited by W.T. Cavanaugh & P. Scott, 503-518. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2004 ^ Elliesie, Hatem. Rule of Law in Islamic Modeled States. In: Matthias Koetter / Gunnar Folke Schuppert (Eds.), Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World: Working Paper Series Nr. 13 of SFB 700: Governance in Limited Areas of Statehood, Berlin 2010. ^ Moschtaghi, Ramin. Rule of Law in Iran. In: Matthias Koetter / Gunnar Folke Schuppert (Eds.), Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World: Working Paper Series Nr. 11 of SFB 700: Governance in Limited Areas of Statehood, Berlin 2010. ^ Elliesie, Hatem. Rule of Law in Afghanistan. In: Matthias Koetter / Gunnar Folke Schuppert (Eds.), Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World: Working Paper Series Nr. 4 of SFB 700: Governance in Limited Areas of Statehood, Berlin 2010. ^ Chehabi, H. E. 1991. Religion and Politics In Iran: How Theocratic is the Islamic Republic?. Daedalus, Vol 120, No. 3, Summer 1991, pp. 69-91. ^ Kurzman, Charles. 2001. Critics Within: Islamic Scholars' Protest Against the Islamic State in Iran. International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, Vol. 15, No. 2, Winter 2001..

Further reading[edit]

Ankerl, Guy Contemporary Coexisting Civilizations. Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. INUPress, Geneva, 2000, 5001 p. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.

External links[edit]

Why Islamic States Would Be Bad for Muslims The Islamic State by Amin Ahsan Islahi[dead link]

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