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The Indian subcontinent, is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate
Indian Plate
and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana
Gondwana
and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago.[2] Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas
Himalayas
in the north, the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
in the west, and the Arakanese in the east.[3] Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Sri Lanka.[4][5][6] Sometimes, the geographical term 'Indian subcontinent' is used interchangeably with 'South Asia',[7] although that last term is used typically as a political term and is also used to include Afghanistan.[8] Which countries should be included in either of these remains the subject of debate.[9][10][11]

Contents

1 Name 2 Definition

2.1 Geology 2.2 Socio-cultural sphere

3 Past and future population 4 Land and water area 5 See also 6 References

Name According to Oxford English Dictionary, the term "subcontinent" signifies a "subdivision of a continent which has a distinct geographical, political, or cultural identity" and also a "large land mass somewhat smaller than a continent". It is first attested in 1845 to refer to the North and South Americas, before they were regarded as separate continents. Its use to refer to the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
is seen from the early twentieth century. It was especially convenient for referring to the region comprising both British India
India
and the princely states under British Paramountcy.[12][13] The term Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
also has a geological significance. Similar to various continents, it was a part of the supercontinent of Gondwana. A series of tectonic splits caused formation of various basins, each drifting in various directions. The geological region called "Greater India" once included Madagascar, Seychelles, Antarctica
Antarctica
and Austrolasia along with the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
basin. As a geological term, Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
has meant that region formed from the collision of the Indian basin with Eurasia
Eurasia
nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene.[2][14] The geographical region has historically simply been known as "India" (in antiquity referring to the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
region, not the entire subcontinent). Other related terms are Greater India
India
and South Asia.[15][16] And the terms "Indian subcontinent" and "South Asia" are sometimes used interchangeably.[7] There is no globally accepted definition on which countries are a part of South Asia
Asia
or the Indian subcontinent.[9][11][10] The less common term "South Asian subcontinent" has seen occasional use since the 1970s.[17]

Definition Orthographic projection of the Indian subcontinent Geology Geologically, the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
was first a part of so-called "Greater India",[14] a region of Gondwana
Gondwana
that drifted away from East Africa
East Africa
about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period.[2] The region experienced high volcanic activity and plate subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Seychelles, Antarctica, Austrolasia and the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene. This geological region largely includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Sri Lanka.[2] The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
plates meet remains one of the geologically active areas, prone to major earthquakes.[18][19] The English term "subcontinent" mainly continues to refer to the Indian subcontinent.[20][21] Physiographically, it is a peninsular region in south-central Asia
Asia
delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
in the west, and the Arakanese in the east.[3][22] It extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
to the southeast.[4][23] Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate
Indian Plate
and is isolated from the rest of Asia
Asia
by large mountain barriers.[24] Using the more expansive definition – counting India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan
Bhutan
and Maldives
Maldives
as the constituent countries – the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
covers about 4.4 million km2 (1.7 million sq mi), which is 10% of the Asian continent or 3.3% of the world's land surface area.[25][26] Overall, it accounts for about 45% of Asia's population (or over 25% of the world's population) and is home to a vast array of peoples.[25][27][28]

Socio-cultural sphere Historical transmission routes of Buddhism from India
India
to Central Asia, East Asia
Asia
and Southeast Asia .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner display:flex;flex-direction:column .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle margin:1px;float:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100% .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:left;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left text-align:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right text-align:right .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center text-align:center @media all and (max-width:720px) .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow justify-content:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:center NASA images of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
during day and night. The Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
is a natural physical landmass in South Asia, geologically the dry-land portion of the Indian Plate, which has been relatively isolated from the rest of Eurasia.[29] Given the difficulty of passage through the Himalayas, the sociocultural, religious and political interaction of the Indian subcontinent has largely been through the valleys of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in its northwest,[30] the valleys of Manipur
Manipur
in its east, and by maritime routes.[29] More difficult but historically important interaction has also occurred through passages pioneered by the Tibetans. These routes and interactions have led to the spread of Buddhism out of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
into other parts of Asia. And the Islamic expansion arrived into the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
in two ways, through Afghanistan
Afghanistan
on land and to Indian coast through the maritime routes on the Arabian Sea.[29] Whether called the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
or South Asia, the definition of the geographical extent of this region varies. Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India.[15][16] In terms of modern geopolitical boundaries, the Indian subcontinent comprises the Republic of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, besides, by convention, the island nation of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and other islands of the Indian Ocean,[5] such as the Maldives.[6][31][32] The term "Indian continent" is first introduced in the early 20th century, when most of the territory was part of British India.[33] The Hindu Kush, centered on eastern Afghanistan, is the boundary connecting the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
with Central Asia
Asia
to the northwest, and the Persian Plateau to the west. The socio-religious history of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
are related to the Turkish-influenced Central Asia
Asia
and northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent, now known as Pakistan.[34][35] Others state Afghanistan
Afghanistan
being a part of Central Asia
Asia
is not an accepted practice, and it is "clearly not part of the Indian subcontinent".[9] The precise definition of an "Indian subcontinent" as opposed to "South Asia" in a geopolitical context is somewhat contested.[9][11][36]

Past and future population Main article: List of countries by past and future population The list of countries by past and future population provides 1950, 2000 and 2050 population while the population for the year 2100 is taken from United Nations projections[citation needed].

Rank Country Area (km2) 1950 2000 2050 2100

1  India 3,287,263 369,881,000 1,006,301,000 1,656,554,000 1,659,786,000

2  Pakistan 881,913 40,383,000 152,430,000 300,848,000 364,283,000

3  Bangladesh 147,570 45,646,000 132,151,000 201,249,000 169,541,000

4    Nepal 147,181 8,990,000 24,819,000 36,107,000 29,677,000

5  Sri Lanka 65,610 7,534,000 19,042,000 25,167,000 14,857,000

6  Bhutan 38,394 164,000 606,000 952,000 793,000

7  Maldives 298 80,000 300,000 445,000 438,000

Total 4,568,229 480,829,000 1,358,111,000 2,294,996,000 2,297,013,000

Land and water area Main articles: Exclusive economic zone
Exclusive economic zone
and Indian Ocean This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters.

Rank Country Area (km2) EEZ Shelf EEZ+TIA

1  India 3,287,263 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406

2  Pakistan 796,095 290,000 51,383 1,117,911

3  Bangladesh 147,570 86,392 66,438 230,390

4    Nepal 147,181 0 0 147,181

5  Sri Lanka 65,610 532,619 32,453 598,229

6  Bhutan 38,394 0 0 38,394

7  Maldives 298 923,322 34,538 923,622

Total 4,482,411 4,137,476 587,808 9,300,997

See also Geography
Geography
of South Asia References

^ "World Population Prospects". United Nations: Population Division. 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ a b c d Robert Wynn Jones (2011). Applications of Palaeontology: Techniques and Case Studies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 267–271. ISBN 978-1-139-49920-0.

^ a b Baker, Kathleen M.; Chapman, Graham P. (11 March 2002), The Changing Geography
Geography
of Asia, Routledge, pp. 10–, ISBN 978-1-134-93384-6, This greater India
India
is well defined in terms of topography; it is the Indian sub-continent, hemmed in by the Himalayas
Himalayas
on the north, the Hindu Khush in the west and the Arakanese in the east.

^ a b "Indian subcontinent". New Oxford Dictionary of English (ISBN 0-19-860441-6) New York: Oxford University Press, 2001; p. 929: "the part of Asia
Asia
south of the Himalayas
Himalayas
which forms a peninsula extending into the Indian Ocean, between the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
and the Bay of Bengal. Historically forming the whole territory of Greater India, the region is now divided into three countries named Bangladesh, India and Pakistan."

^ a b Dhavendra Kumar (2012). Genomics and Health in the Developing World. Oxford University Press. p. 889. ISBN 978-0-19-537475-9.

^ a b Mariam Pirbhai (2009). Mythologies of Migration, Vocabularies of Indenture: Novels of the South Asian Diaspora in Africa, the Caribbean, and Asia-Pacific. University of Toronto Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8020-9964-8.

^ a b John McLeod, The history of India, page 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31459-4; note: McLeod does not include Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
or South Asia;Jim Norwine & Alfonso González, The Third World: states of mind and being, pages 209, Taylor & Francis, 1988, ISBN 0-04-910121-8Raj S. Bhopal, Ethnicity, race, and health in multicultural societies, pages 33, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-19-856817-7; Quote: "The term South Asian refers to populations originating from the Indian subcontinent, effectively India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Sri Lanka;Lucian W. Pye & Mary W. Pye, Asian Power and Politics, pages 133, Harvard University Press, 1985, ISBN 0-674-04979-9Mark Juergensmeyer, The Oxford handbook of global religions, pages 465, Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN 0-19-513798-1Sugata Bose & Ayesha Jalal, Modern South Asia, pages 3, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-30787-2

^ As for example it is in the South Asian Games and the 8-nation South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), an economic cooperation organisation in the region, established in 1985, and ; SAARC Summit. "SAARC". SAARC Summit. Retrieved 17 December 2013.

^ a b c d Ewan W. Anderson; Liam D. Anderson (2013). An Atlas of Middle Eastern Affairs. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-136-64862-5., Quote: "To the east, Iran, as a Gulf state, offers a generally accepted limit to the Middle East. However, Afghanistan, also a Muslim state, is then left in isolation. It is not accepted as a part of Central Asia
Asia
and it is clearly not part of the Indian subcontinent".

^ a b Michael Mann (2014). South Asia’s Modern History: Thematic Perspectives. Taylor & Francis. pp. 13–15. ISBN 978-1-317-62445-5.

^ a b c Jona Razzaque (2004). Public Interest Environmental Litigation in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Kluwer Law International. pp. 3 with footnotes 1 and 2. ISBN 978-90-411-2214-8.

^ "subcontinent". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

^ "Indian subcontinent". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

^ a b Hinsbergen, D. J. J. van; Lippert, P. C.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; McQuarrie, N.; Doubrovine; et al. (2012). "Greater India
India
Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India
India
and Asia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (20): 7659–7664, for geologic Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
see Figure 1. doi:10.1073/pnas.1117262109. PMC 3356651.

^ a b Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby, Religions of South Asia: An Introduction, page 3, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 9781134593224

^ a b Kathleen M. Baker and Graham P. Chapman, The Changing Geography of Asia, page 10, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 9781134933846

^ Official Records: Proces-verbaux Officiels. Supplement. Supplement 1624-1683, United Nations, 1972, p. 38.

^ Bethany D. Rinard Hinga (2015). Ring of Fire: An Encyclopedia of the Pacific Rim's Earthquakes, Tsunamis, and Volcanoes. ABC-CLIO. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-1-61069-297-7.

^ Alexander E. Gates; David Ritchie (2006). Encyclopedia of Earthquakes and Volcanoes. Infobase. pp. 116–118. ISBN 978-0-8160-7270-5.

^ McLeod, John (1 January 2002). "The History of India". Greenwood Publishing Group – via Google Books.

^ Milton Walter Meyer, South Asia: A Short History of the Subcontinent, pages 1, Adams Littlefield, 1976, ISBN 0-8226-0034-X

^ Dhavendra Kumar (2012). Genomics and Health in the Developing World. Oxford University Press. pp. 889–890. ISBN 978-0-19-537475-9.

^ John McLeod, The history of India, page 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31459-4

^ "Asia" > Geologic history – Tectonic framework. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2009: "The paleotectonic evolution of Asia
Asia
terminated some 50 million years ago as a result of the collision of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
with Eurasia. Asia’s subsequent neotectonic development has largely disrupted the continents pre-existing fabric. The neotectonic units of Asia
Asia
are Stable Asia, the Arabian and Indian cratons, the Alpide plate boundary zone (along which the Arabian and Indian platforms have collided with the Eurasian continental plate), and the island arcs and marginal basins."

^ a b Desai, Praful B. 2002. Cancer control efforts in the Indian subcontinent. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology. 32 (Supplement 1): S13-S16. "The Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
in South Asia
Asia
occupies 2.4% of the world land mass and is home to 16.5% of the world population...."

^ "Indian Subcontinent" in Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Macmillan Reference USA (Gale Group), 2006: "The area is divided between five major nation-states, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Sri Lanka, and includes as well the two small nations of Bhutan
Bhutan
and the Maldives Republic... The total area can be estimated at 4.4 million square kilometres, or exactly 10 percent of the land surface of Asia... In 2000, the total population was about 22 percent of the world's population and 34 percent of the population of Asia."

^ "Asia" > Overview. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2009: "The Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
is home to a vast diversity of peoples, most of whom speak languages from the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European family."

^ "Indian Subcontinent", in Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Macmillan Reference USA (Gale Group), 2006: "The total area can be estimated at 4.4 million square kilometres, or exactly 10 percent of the land surface of Asia... In 2000, the total population was about 22 percent of the world's population and 34 percent of the population of Asia."

^ a b c Asher, Catherine B.; Talbot, Cynthia (2006), India
India
Before Europe, Cambridge University Press, pp. 5–8, 12–14, 51, 78–80, ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7

^ John L. Esposito; Emad El-Din Shahin (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. pp. 453–456. ISBN 978-0-19-063193-2.

^ John McLeod, The history of India, page 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31459-4Stephen Adolphe Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler & Darrell T. Tryon, Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, pages 787, International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies, Published by Walter de Gruyter, 1996, ISBN 3-11-013417-9Haggett, Peter (2001). Encyclopedia of World Geography
Geography
(Vol. 1). Marshall Cavendish. p. 2710. ISBN 0-7614-7289-4.

^ "the Indian Subcontinent
Subcontinent
occupies the major landmass of South Asia" John R. Lukacs, The People of South Asia: the biological anthropology of India, Pakistan, and Nepal, page 59, Plenum Press, 1984, ISBN 9780306414077. "the seven countries of South Asia
Asia
constitute geographically a compact region around the Indian Subcontinent". Tatu Vanhanen Prospects of Democracy: A Study of 172 Countries, page 144, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 9780415144063

^ "Indian subcontinent" is used by Henry D. Baker, British India
India
With Notes On Ceylon Afghanistan
Afghanistan
And Tibet
Tibet
(1915), p. 401.

^ Ira M. Lapidus (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 269, 698–699. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9.

^ Louis D Hayes (2014). The Islamic State in the Post-Modern World: The Political Experience of Pakistan. Ashgate. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-1-4724-1262-1.;Robert Wuthnow (2013). The Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion. Routledge. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-1-136-28493-9.

^ Akhilesh Pillalamarri, South Asia
Asia
or India: An Old Debate Resurfaces in California, The Diplomat, 24 May 2016; Ahmed, Mukhtar (2014), Ancient Pakistan
Pakistan
– An Archaeological History: Volume II: A Prelude to Civilization, Foursome, p. 14, ISBN 978-1-4959-4130-6

vteContinents of the world    Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

    Afro-Eurasia

America

Eurasia

Oceania

    Prehistoric supercontinentsGondwana Laurasia Pangaea Pannotia Rodinia Columbia Kenorland Nena Sclavia Ur Vaalbara

Other prehistoric continentsAmazonia Arctica Asiamerica Atlantica Avalonia Baltica Cimmeria Congo Craton Euramerica Kalaharia Kazakhstania Laurentia North China Siberia South China East Antarctica Pampia Cuyania Chilenia     Submerged continentsKerguelen Plateau Zealandia Sahul Sunda

Possible future supercontinents Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima Amasia Novopangaea

Mythical and hypothesised continentsAtlantis Kumari Kandam Lemuria Meropis Mu Hyperborea Terra Australis

Subcontinents

Arabian PeninsulaIndian subcontinent See also Regions of the worldContinental fragment Book Category vteEarth's primary regionsvteRegions of AfricaCentral Africa Guinea region Gulf of Guinea Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland Mbaise Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau East Africa African Great Lakes Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Kavirondo Zanj Serengeti Horn of Africa Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Dahlak Archipelago Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands Comoro Islands Lamu Archipelago Red Sea Hanish Islands North Africa Maghreb Ifriqiya Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains Nile
Nile
Valley Nile
Nile
Delta Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile
Nile
Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt Western Sahara West Africa Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region Gulf of Guinea Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Dahomey Gap Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta Yorubaland Fouta Djallon Southern Africa Madagascar Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands Rhodesia North South Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Skeleton Coast Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta Cape Peninsula False Bay Hydra Bay Macro-regions Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

vteRegions of AsiaCentral Greater Middle East Aral Sea Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee Tartary Transoxiana Turan Greater Khorasan Ariana Arachosia Khwarazm Sistan Kazakhstania Kazakh Steppe Betpak-Dala Eurasian Steppe Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields Yedisan Muravsky Trail Ural Ural Mountains Volga region Idel-Ural Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Siachen Glacier North Inner Asia Northeast Ural Ural Mountains Far East Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga Beringia Chukchi Peninsula Kamchatka Peninsula Extreme North Tartary Siberia Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Baraba steppe Khatanga Gulf Transbaikal West Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Sikhote-Alin Kolyma Bering Strait Ring of Fire Asia-Pacific East Orient Japanese archipelago Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China
Northeast China
Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland North China Plain Yan Mountains Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula High-mountain Asia Himalayas Tibetan Plateau Tibet Tarim Basin Sichuan Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop Loess Plateau Shaanbei Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta Yellow River Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Far East Ring of Fire Asia-Pacific West Greater Middle East MENA MENASA Middle East Red Sea Hanish Islands Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Elam Persian Gulf Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula Najd Al-Yamama Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Peninsula
coastal fog desert Tropical Asia Al-Sharat Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia Canaan Aram Aram-Naharaim Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley Levantine Sea Holy Land Palestine Land of Israel Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Hauran Iranian Plateau Dasht-e Kavir Armenian Highlands Caucasus Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus North Caucasus South Caucasus Shirvan Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula Kartli Anatolia Taurus Mountains Aeolis Paphlagonia Phasiane Isauria Ionia Bithynia Cilicia Cappadocia Caria Corduene Chaldia Doris Lycaonia Lycia Lydia Galatia Pisidia Pontus Mysia Arzawa Speri Sophene Biga Peninsula Troad Tuwana Alpide belt South Orient Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Bactria Carnatic region Tamilakam Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Guzgan Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Gedrosia Makran Marathwada Kashmir Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley
Indus Valley
Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern Coastal Plains Kalinga Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan Baltistan Shigar Valley High-mountain Asia Karakoram Saltoro Mountains Siachen Glacier Bengal Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Halar Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Laccadive Islands Amindivi Islands Paropamisadae Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands Maldive Islands Alpide belt Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Southeast Orient Sundaland Mainland Indochina Malay Peninsula Northern Triangle temperate forests Maritime Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands Indonesian Archipelago Wallacea Timor New Guinea Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula Bismarck Archipelago Philippine Archipelago Luzon Visayas Mindanao Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt Far East Ring of Fire Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia

vteRegions of EuropeNorth Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Jutland Sápmi Ingria West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands British Isles East Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Wallachia Transylvania Moldavia Bukovina Bessarabia Livonia Ruthenia Carpathian Ruthenia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula Amber Coast Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia East Karelia Karelian Isthmus Lokhaniemi Southeastern Crimea Epirus Rumelia Balkans Aegean Sea Aegean Islands Attica Boeotia Opuntian Locris Phocis Megaris Peloponnese Chalkidiki Aetolia Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia Istria European Russia Taman Peninsula Southern Russia Kola Peninsula Central North European Plain Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Visegrád Group Rhineland Eastphalia Westphalia Prussia Lusatia Bohemia Moravia Silesia Czech Silesia Pomerania Pomerelia Kashubia Bukovina Istria Transdanubia Polesia Germania Germania
Germania
Slavica West Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Upper Rhine
Upper Rhine
Plain Upper Rhine Gaul Normandy Brittany Batavia Gulf of Lion Iberia Al-Andalus Baetic System Pyrenees Alpide belt South Po Valley
Po Valley
(Padania) Italian Peninsula Tuscan Archipelago Insular Italy Aegadian Islands Iberia Al-Andalus Baetic System Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Alpide belt

Germanic Romance Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

vteRegions of North AmericaNorth(Canada)Eastern Central Canada Atlantic Canada Atlantic Northeast The Maritimes Great Lakes region Western Pacific Northwest Prairie Pothole Region Northern Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Greenland

Canadian Prairies The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia Acadian Peninsula Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Kodiak Island Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula Bay de Verde Peninsula Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula
Peninsula
(Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay North(United States)Arctic Aleutian Arc Aleutian Range Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula Aleutian Islands Gulf of Alaska Eastern East Coast Northeast Atlantic Northeast The Maritimes New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth Northeast Western West Coast Mountain states Intermountain West Basin and Range Province Northwestern United States Inland Northwest Pacific Northwest Southwest Old Southwest Four Corners Central Great Lakes Tallgrass prairie Midwest Upper Midwest South Central Gulf Coast Southern Deep South Upland South Santa Fe de Nuevo México

Pacific Coast Ranges Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Llano Estacado Third Coast Backcountry Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Basin Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area San Francisco Bay North Bay East Bay Silicon Valley Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
of Michigan Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Bering Strait "Belt" regions Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt MiddleNorthern Basin and Range Province Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California Colorado River Delta Gulf of Mexico Southern Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Gulf of Mexico Central Northern Triangle of Central America Western Caribbean
Caribbean
Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama Pearl Islands Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast Caribbean Antilles Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean West Indies

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Anglo Latin French Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

vteRegions of OceaniaAustralasia Gulf of Carpentaria Zealandia Kula Gulf Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia Maralinga Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula Melanesia Islands Region Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands North Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Fiji New Caledonia New Guinea Papua New Guinea Republic of West Papua Vanuatu Micronesia Caroline Islands Federated States of Micronesia Palau Kiribati Mariana Islands Guam Northern Mariana Islands Marshall Islands Nauru Wake Island Polynesia Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia Austral Islands Gambier Islands Mangareva Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotus Kermadec Islands New Zealand South Island North Island Niue Pitcairn Islands Samoan Islands American Samoa Independent State of Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire

vteRegions of South AmericaEast Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado North Caribbean
Caribbean
South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin Amazon rainforest Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta South Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula Triple Frontier West Andes Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic Bolivarian American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

vteEarth's polar regionsAntarctic Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands Arctic Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

vteEarth's oceans and seas Arctic
Arctic
Ocean Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea Atlantic Ocean Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea Indian Ocean Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea Pacific Ocean Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea Southern Ocean Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea Endorheic basins Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea