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Indians are the people who are the nationals or citizens of India, the second most populous nation containing 17.50%[25] of the world's population. "Indian" refers to nationality, but not ethnicity or language. The Indian nationality consists of many regional ethno-linguistic groups, reflecting the rich and complex history of India. India
India
hosts all major ethnic groups found in the Indian Subcontinent. The diaspora populations with Indian ancestry, as a result of emigration, are somewhat widespread most notably in Asia
Asia
and North America.[4]

Contents

1 Ethnonym 2 History 3 Culture

3.1 Religion 3.2 Family 3.3 Dress 3.4 Cuisine 3.5 Performing arts 3.6 Contribution and discoveries 3.7 National personification

4 Indian diaspora

4.1 Britain 4.2 Canada 4.3 South Africa 4.4 Tanzania 4.5 United States 4.6 Caribbean

5 Genetics 6 See also 7 References

Ethnonym The name Bhārata has been used as a self-ascribed name by people of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and the Republic of India.[26] The designation Bhārata appears in the official Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name of the country, Bhārata Gaṇarājya. The name is derived from the ancient Vedic
Vedic
and Puranas, which refer to the land that comprises India
India
as Bhārata varṣam and uses this term to distinguish it from other varṣas or continents.[27] The Bhāratas were a vedic tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, notably participating in the Battle of the Ten Kings.[28] India
India
is named after legendary Emperor Bharata
Emperor Bharata
who was a descendant of the Bhāratas tribe, scion of Kuru Dynasty
Kuru Dynasty
who unified the Indian Subcontinent under one realm.[29]

उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् । वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।। "The country (varṣam) that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bhāratam; there dwell the descendants of Bharata."[30][31]

In early Vedic
Vedic
literature, the term Āryāvarta
Āryāvarta
(Sanskrit: आर्यावर्त) was in popular use before Bhārata. The Manusmṛti
Manusmṛti
(2.22) gives the name Āryāvarta
Āryāvarta
to "the tract between the Himalaya and the Vindhya ranges, from the Eastern (Bay of Bengal) to the Western Sea (Arabian Sea)".[32][33] While the word Indian and India
India
is derived from Greek Ἰνδία (Indía), via Latin India. Indía in Koine Greek
Koine Greek
denoted the region beyond the Indus (Ἰνδός) river, since Herodotus
Herodotus
(5th century BC) ἡ Ἰνδική χώρη, hē Indikē chōrē; "the Indian land", Ἰνδός, Indos, "an Indian", from Old Persian
Old Persian
Hinduš and medieval term Hindustani.[34] The name is derived ultimately from Sindhu, the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name of the river Indus, but also meaning "river" generically.[35] History Main articles: History
History
of India
India
and Greater India

Priest-King, Indus Valley civilisation

Map of the Mauryan Empire
Mauryan Empire
3rd century BC

Buddhist rock-cut architecture, 2nd century BC

Ashoka
Ashoka
pillar, erected by Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
in about 250 BC. It has been adopted as emblem of India.

The history of India
India
includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the blending of the Indus Valley Civilization and Indo-Aryan culture into the Vedic
Vedic
Civilization; the development of Hinduism
Hinduism
as a synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions; rise of sixteen oligarchic republics known as Mahajanapadas; rise of Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement; birth of Jainism
Jainism
in 9th-century BCE and Buddhism
Buddhism
in 6th-century BCE,[36] and the onset of a succession of powerful dynasties and empires for more than two millennia throughout various geographic areas of the subcontinent, including the growth of Muslim
Muslim
dynasties during the Medieval period intertwined with Hindu
Hindu
powers; the advent of European traders resulting in the establishment of the British rule; and the subsequent independence movement that led to the Partition of India
India
and the creation of the Republic of India. The Indian people
Indian people
established during ancient, medieval to early eighteenth century some of the greatest empires and dynasties in South Asian history like the Maurya Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Chalukya Empire, Chola Empire, Karkota Empire, Pala Empire, Vijayanagara Empire, Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
and Sikh Empire.The first great Empire of the Indian people
Indian people
was the Maurya Empire having Patliputra(currently Patna, Bihar) as its capital, conquered the major part of South Asia
Asia
in the 4th and 3rd century BC during the reign of the Indian Emperors Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
and Ashoka alongside their senior advisor, Acharya Chanakya, the pioneer of the field of political science and economics in the World. The next great ancient Empire of the Indian people
Indian people
was the Gupta Empire. This period, witnessing a Hindu
Hindu
religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or "Golden Age of India". During this period, aspects of Indian civilisation, administration, culture, and Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
spread to much of Asia, while Chola Empire
Chola Empire
in the south had flourishing maritime trade links with the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during this period. The ancient Indian mathematicians Aryabhata, Bhāskara I and Brahmagupta
Brahmagupta
invented the concept of zero and the Hindu–Arabic numeral system decimal system during this period.[37] During this period Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia
Asia
which led to the establishment of Indianized kingdoms in Southeast Asia.[38]

Maratha Empire: Territory under Maratha control in 1760 (yellow), without its vassals

During the early medieval period the great Rashtrakuta dynasty dominated the major part of the Indian subcontinent. from the 8th to 10th century and the Indian Emperor Amoghavarsha
Amoghavarsha
of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty was described by the Arab traveller Sulaiman as one of the four great kings of the world.[39] The medieval south Indian mathematician Mahāvīra lived in the Rashtrakuta dynasty
Rashtrakuta dynasty
and was the first Indian mathematician who separated astrology from mathematics and who wrote the earliest Indian text entirely devoted to mathematics.[40] The greatest maritime Empire of the medieval Indians was the Chola dynasty. Under the great Indian Emperors Rajaraja Chola I and his successor Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia
Asia
and South-East Asia.[41][42] The power of the Chola empire
Chola empire
was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges
Ganges
which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the occupation of cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya
Srivijaya
in Southeast Asia, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.[43] During the late medieval period the great Vijayanagara Empire dominated the major part of southern India
India
from the 14th to 16th century and reached its peak during the reign of the south Indian Emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya[44] The medieval Kerala
Kerala
school of astronomy and mathematics flourished during this period under such well known south Indian mathematicians as Madhava (c. 1340-1425) who made important contributions to Trigonometery and Calculus, and Nilakhanta (c. 1444-1545) who postulated on the orbitals of planets.[45] The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
unified much of Indian sub-continent under one realm. Under the Mughals India
India
developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. This marked a huge influence in the Indian society.[46] The Mughal Empire balanced and pacified local societies through new administrative practices[47][48] and had diverse and inclusive ruling elites,[49] leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.[50] Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pathans, the Jats
Jats
and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience.[51][52][53][54] The Marathas
Marathas
and Sikhs
Sikhs
emerged in the 17th century and established the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
and Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
which became the dominant power in India
India
in the 18th century.[55] The Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
is credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule in India.[56][57][58][59] The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
in the south, to Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
in the north[60] and Bengal and Andaman Islands in the east.[61] Culture Main articles: Culture of India
India
and Greater India India
India
is one of the world's oldest civilisations.[62] The Indian culture, often labelled as an amalgamation of several various cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and has been influenced and shaped by a history that is several thousand years old.[63][64] Throughout the history of India, Indian culture has been heavily influenced by Dharmic religions.[65] They have been credited with shaping much of Indian philosophy, literature, architecture, art and music.[66] Greater India
India
was the historical extent of Indian culture beyond the Indian subcontinent. This particularly concerns the spread of Hinduism, Buddhism, architecture, administration and writing system from India
India
to other parts of Asia
Asia
through the Silk
Silk
Road by the travellers and maritime traders during the early centuries of the Common Era.[67][68] To the west, Greater India
India
overlaps with Greater Persia in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush and Pamir Mountains.[69] During medieval period, Islam
Islam
played a significant role in shaping Indian cultural heritage[70] Over the centuries, there has been significant integration of Hindus, Jains, and Sikhs
Sikhs
with Muslims
Muslims
across India[71][72] Religion Main articles: Religion
Religion
in India, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, and Irreligion in India

Goddess Lakshmi on gold coinage issued under Gupta Empire, c. 380 AD

Holi
Holi
is a major Indian festival celebrated every spring.

India
India
is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism
Jainism
and Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions.[65] Indian religions, also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along with Abrahamic
Abrahamic
ones. Today, Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
are the world's third- and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 1 billion followers altogether,[73][74][75] and possibly as many as 1.5 or 1.6 billion followers.[73][76] Throughout India's history, religion has been an important part of the country's culture. Religious diversity and religious tolerance are both established in the country by the law and by custom; the Constitution of India
India
has declared the right to freedom of religion to be a fundamental right.[77] Atheism
Atheism
and agnosticism have a long history in India
India
and flourished within Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement.[78] The Cārvāka school originated in India
India
around the 6th century BCE and is one of the earliest form of materialistic and atheistic movement in ancient India.[79][80][81] Sramana, Buddhism, Jainism, Ājīvika
Ājīvika
and some schools of Hinduism like Samkhya
Samkhya
consider atheism to be valid and reject the concept of creator deity, ritualism and supernaturalism.[82][83][84] India
India
has produced some notable atheist politicians and social reformers.[85][86] According to the 2011 census, 79.8% of the population of India practices Hinduism
Hinduism
and 14.2% adheres to Islam, while the remaining 7.37% adheres to other religions, mostly Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Christianity.[87] Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
and Judaism
Judaism
each has several thousands of Indian adherents, and also have an ancient history in India.[88] India
India
has the largest population of people adhering to Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
and Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
in the world, even though these two religions are not native to India.[89] Many other world religions also have a relationship with Indian spirituality, such as the Bahá'í Faith which recognises Buddha
Buddha
and Krishna
Krishna
as manifestations of the God Almighty.[90] Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life, atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self-ascribed tolerance to other people. According to the 2012 WIN-Gallup Global Index of Religion
Religion
and Atheism
Atheism
report, 81% of Indians were religious, 13% were not religious, 3% were convinced atheists, and 3% were unsure or did not respond.[91] Traditionally, Indian society is grouped according to their caste. It's a system in which social stratification within various social sections defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups are often termed jāti or castes. Within a jāti, there exists exogamous groups known as gotras, the lineage or clan of an individuals.[92] Caste
Caste
barriers have mostly broken down in cities but still exists in some form in rural areas.[93] Hinduism
Hinduism
is the majority in most states; Kashmir and Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
are Muslim
Muslim
majority; Nagaland, Mizoram
Mizoram
and Meghalaya
Meghalaya
are Christian majority; Punjab is a Sikh
Sikh
majority with Hindus
Hindus
37%. It is to be noted that while participants in the Indian census may choose to not declare their religion, there is no mechanism for a person to indicate that he/she does not adhere to any religion. Due to this limitation in the Indian census process, the data for persons not affiliated with any religion may not be accurate. India
India
contains the majority of the world's Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, Zoroastrians
Zoroastrians
and Bahá'í. Christianity is widespread in the Northeast India, parts of southern India, particularly in Kerala
Kerala
and among various populations of Central India. Muslims
Muslims
are the largest religious minority. India
India
is also home to the third-largest Muslim
Muslim
population in the world after Indonesia
Indonesia
and Pakistan.[94][95][96] Family

Indian bride in traditional wedding attire

Historically, India
India
had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system or undivided family. Joint family system is an extended family arrangement prevalent throughout the Indian subcontinent, particularly in India.[97] The family is headed by a patriarch, the oldest male, who makes decisions on economic and social matters on behalf of the entire family. The patriarch's wife generally exerts control over the household, minor religious practices and often wields considerable influence in domestic matters. A patrilineal joint family consists of an older man and his wife, his sons and unmarried daughters, his sons’ wives and children. Family income flows into a common pool, from which resources are drawn to meet the needs of all members, which are regulated by the heads of the family.[98] However, with modernisation and economic development, India
India
has witnessed a break up of traditional joint family into more nuclear families and the traditional joint family in India
India
accounted for a small percent of Indian households.[99][100] Arranged marriages
Arranged marriages
have been the tradition in Indian society. Marriage is considered a union of the two families rather than just the individuals, the process involved in an arranged marriage can be different depending on the communities and families. Recent survey study found that fewer marriages are purely arranged without consent and that the majority of surveyed Indian marriages are arranged with consent.[101] The study also suggested that Indian culture is trending away from traditional arranged marriages, they find that the marriage trends in India
India
are similar to trends observed over last 40 years where arranged marriages was previously common, particularly in China and Japan.[101] Dress India's clothing styles have continuously evolved over the course of history. Cotton
Cotton
was first cultivated in Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
around the 5th millennium BC.[102] Dyes used during this period are still in use, particularly indigo, red madder, lac and turmeric.[103] Silk
Silk
was woven around 2450 BC and 2000 BC.[104][105] In 11th-century BC Rig-veda mentions dyed and embroidered garments known as paridhan and pesas respectively and thus highlights the development of sophisticated garment manufacturing techniques during this period.[106] In the 5th century BCE, Greek historian Herodotus
Herodotus
describes the richness of the quality of Indian textiles.[107] By the 2nd century AD, cotton, muslins and silk textiles manufactured in India
India
were imported by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and was one of the major exports of ancient India to other parts of the world along with Indian spices
Indian spices
and Wootz steel.[108] Traditional Indian clothing greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced by local culture, geography and climate. Women traditionally wear Sari, Gagra Choli, Angarkha, Phiran, Shalwar Kameez, Gharara
Gharara
and Bandi with Dupatta
Dupatta
or Ghoonghat
Ghoonghat
worn over head or shoulder to complete the outfit.[109] Men traditionally wear Angarkha, Achkan, Kurta, Kameez, Phiran, Sherwani and Koti for upper garment, lower garment includes Dhoti, Churidar, Shalwar, and Lungi. Pagri is usually worn around head to complete the outfit.[110] In urban centres, people often wear western clothing and variety of other contemporary fashion.[111] Cuisine Main article: Indian cuisine

Vegetarian thali with naan, daal, raita and papad

Indian food varies from region to region. Staple foods of Indian cuisine include a variety of lentils (dal), whole-wheat flour (aṭṭa), rice and pearl millet (bājra), which has been cultivated in Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
since 6200 BCE.[112][113] Over time, segments of the population embraced vegetarianism during Śramaṇa movement[114][115] while an equitable climate permitted a variety of fruits, vegetables, and grains to be grown throughout the year. A food classification system that categorised any item as saatvic, raajsic or taamsic developed in Yoga
Yoga
tradition.[116][117] The Bhagavad Gita prescribed certain dietary practices. During this period, consumption of various types of meat became taboo, due to being considered sacred or impure.[118][119] Indian cuisines use numerous ingredients, deploy a wide range of food preparation styles, cooking techniques and culinary presentation depending on geographical location.[120] Performing arts Main articles: Music
Music
of India
India
and Dance
Dance
in India

Kathakali
Kathakali
one of classical theatre forms of India

The oldest preserved examples of Indian music are the melodies of the Samaveda
Samaveda
(1000 BC) that are still sung in certain Śrauta sacrifices; this is the earliest account of Indian musical hymns.[121] The Samaveda, and other Hindu
Hindu
texts, heavily influenced India's classical music tradition, which is known today in two distinct styles: Hindustani music
Hindustani music
and Carnatic music. Both the Hindustani and Carnatic music systems are based on the melodic base known as Rāga, sung to a rhythmic cycle known as Tāla. These principles were refined in the nātyaśāstra (200 BC) and the dattilam (300 AD).[122] The nātyaśāstrais an ancient Indian treatise on the performing arts, encompassing theatre, dance and music. It was written during the period between 200 BCE and 200 CE in classical India
India
and is traditionally attributed to the Sage Bharata.[123] Natya Shastra is incredibly wide in its scope. While it primarily deals with stagecraft, it has come to influence music, classical dance, and literature as well. It covers stage design, music, dance, makeup, and virtually every other aspect of stagecraft. Indian drama and theatre has a long history alongside its music and dance. One of the earliest known theatre play is Mṛcchakatika composed by Śudraka. Followed by Aśvaghoṣa's Śāriputraprakaraṇa and Bhāsa's Swapnavāsavadatta and Pancharātra. Most notable works are Kālidāsa's Abhijñānaśākuntala, Vikramorvaśīya
Vikramorvaśīya
and Mālavikāgnimitra. Harsha's Ratnavali, Priyadarsika, and Naganandam, other notable ancient dramatists include Bhatta Narayana, Bhavabhuti, Vishakhadatta, Thirayattam[124] and Viswanatha Kaviraja.[125] Notable fable story-plays Panchatantra, Baital Pachisi, Kathasaritsagara, Brihatkatha
Brihatkatha
and Jataka tales
Jataka tales
were performed in folk theatres since ancient period.[126] Jataka tales
Jataka tales
has become part of Southeast and East Asian folklore with the spread of Buddhism. These literature's were also influential in development of One Thousand and One Nights during medieval period.[127] Contribution and discoveries Main articles: List of Indian inventions and discoveries
List of Indian inventions and discoveries
and history of science and technology in the Indian subcontinent Indian people
Indian people
have played a major role in the development of the philosophy, sciences, mathematics, arts, architecture and astronomy throughout history. During the ancient period, notable mathematics accomplishment of India
India
included Hindu–Arabic numeral system
Hindu–Arabic numeral system
with decimal place-value and a symbol for zero, interpolation formula, Fibonacci's identity, theorem, the first complete arithmetic solution (including zero and negative solutions) to quadratic equations.[128] Chakravala method, sign convention, madhava series, and the sine and cosine in trigonometric functions can be traced to the jyā and koti-jyā.[129] Notable military inventions include war elephants, crucible steel weapons popularly known as Damascus steel
Damascus steel
and Mysorean rockets.[130] Other notable inventions during ancient period include chess, cotton, sugar, fired bricks, carbon pigment ink, ruler, lac, lacquer, stepwell, indigo dye, snake and ladder, muslin, ludo, calico, Wootz steel, incense clock, shampoo, palampore, chintz, and prefabricated home. Indian cultural aspects, religions, philosophy, arts and architecture have developed over several millennia and have spread through much of Asia
Asia
in peaceful manner.[68] Many architectural structures of India such as Sanchi Stupa, Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
and Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
are UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage sites today.[131] In modern times, Indian people
Indian people
have continued to contribute to mathematics, sciences and astrophysics. Among them are Satyendra Nath Bose, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Jagadish Chandra Bose, Meghnad Saha, Homi J. Bhabha, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis
Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis
and notable Nobel Prize recipients C. V. Raman, Har Gobind Khorana, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
who is notable for currently accepted theory on the later evolutionary stages of massive stars, including black holes.[132] National personification Bharat Mata
Bharat Mata
(Hindi, from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
भारत माता, Bhārata Mātā), Mother India, or Bhāratāmbā (from अंबा ambā 'mother') is the national personification of India
India
as a mother goddess. The image of Bharat Mata
Bharat Mata
formed with the Indian independence movement of the late 19th century. A play by Kiran Chandra Bandyopadhyay, Bhārat Mātā, was first performed in 1873. She is usually depicted as a woman clad in an orange or saffron sari holding a flag, and sometimes accompanied by a lion.[133] Indian diaspora Main article: Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin Although, population groups originating in different parts of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and within the international borders of the modern country of India
India
had been migrating to south east Asia, far east Asia, central Asia, north Africa and even along the European mediterranean coast, the Indian diaspora
Indian diaspora
generally socio-politically or historically refers to those whose families or themselves migrated to other parts of the world after the British Empire established itself in India. Population estimates vary from a conservative 12 million to 20 million diaspora.[134][135] Britain Main article: British Indian The British Indian
British Indian
community had grown to number over one million. According to the 2001 UK Census, 1,053,411 Britons had full Indian ethnicity (representing 1.8% of the UK's population). An overwhelming majority of 99.3% resided in England (in 2008 the figure is thought to be around 97.0%). In the seven-year period between 2001 and 2009, the number of Indian-born people in the UK increased in size by 38% from 467,634 to around 647,000 (an increase of approximately 180,000).[136] Canada Main article: Indo-Canadians There are over 1.5 million people of Indian origin or ancestry in Canada, the majority of which live in Greater Toronto
Toronto
and Vancouver, with growing communities in Alberta and Quebec. Nearly 4% of the total Canadian population is of Indian ancestry, a figure higher than both the United States
United States
and Britain. According to Statistics Canada, Indo-Canadians
Indo-Canadians
are one of the fastest growing visible minority groups in Canada, making up the second largest non-European ethnic group in the country after Chinese Canadians. The Indo-Canadian community can trace its history in Canada
Canada
back 120 years to 1897 when a contingent of Sikh
Sikh
soldiers visited the western coast of Canada, primarily British Columbia which at the time was very sparsely populated and the Canadian government wanted to settle in order to prevent a takeover of the territory by the United States. South Africa Main article: Indian South Africans More than a million people of Indian descent live in South Africa, concentrated around the city of Durban. Tanzania Main article: Indians in Tanzania About 40,000 people of Indian origin live in Tanzania mostly in the urban areas. United States Main article: Indian American According to the American Community Survey
American Community Survey
of the US Census Bureau, the Indian American
Indian American
population in the United States
United States
grew from almost 1.67 million in 2000 to 3.1 million in 2010 which is the third-largest Asian American
Asian American
community in the United States
United States
after Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans. Caribbean Main articles: Indo-Caribbean, Indo-Caribbean
Indo-Caribbean
American, British Indo-Caribbean
Indo-Caribbean
people, Indo-Canadians
Indo-Canadians
§ Indians from the Caribbean, Indians in the Netherlands, and Indian diaspora
Indian diaspora
in France Indians from the Hindi Belt
Hindi Belt
and other parts of South Asia; primarily the Awadhi, Bhojpuri, and Purvanchal
Purvanchal
regions of the Hindi Belt
Hindi Belt
in the present-day states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
in India
India
and the Terai
Terai
and Madhesh
Madhesh
regions of the Hindi Belt
Hindi Belt
in Provinces No. 2, No. 3, and No. 5 in Nepal
Nepal
were sent to the Caribbean
Caribbean
by the British, French, and Dutch, from the 1830s to the 1920s as indentured laborers to work on the sugarcane, cocoa, rice, and coffee estates. There are more than a million Indo-Caribbeans. Many of them live in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, and Jamaica, but some live in others parts of the Caribbean. There are also many Indians living in Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
and Martinique, who most are of South Indian descent. Many of them have migrated to the United States, United Kingdom, France, Canada, the Netherlands, and Ireland, and some of them have migrated to the neighboring Latin American
Latin American
countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Peru, Panama, and Brazil. A majority of them are Hindus, while there are some Muslims, Christians, Jains, Sikhs, or another religion. They are known as the descendants of the jahajis or girmityas.[137] Genetics Main article: Genetics and archaeogenetics of South Asia Recent genome studies appear to show that South Asians are descendants of two major ancestral components, one component restricted to South Asia
Asia
and the other component shared with Central Asia, West Asia
Asia
and Europe.[138][139] See also

Lists of people from India
India
by state South Asian ethnic groups Ethnic
Ethnic
groups in Asia

References

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India
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Ethnic
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Pakistan
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