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Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية‎ Ifrīqya) or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania
Tripolitania
(western Libya) and the Constantinois
Constantinois
(eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.[1]. The southern boundary of Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
was far more unchallenged as bounded by the semi-arid areas and the salt marshes called el-Djerid. The northern and western boundaries fluctuated; at times as far north as Sicily
Sicily
otherwise just along the coastline, and the western boundary usually went as far as Béjaïa. The capital was briefly Carthage, then Qayrawan (Kairouan), then Mahdia, then Tunis.[2] The Arabs generally settled on the lower ground while the native population settled in the mountains.[citation needed] The Aghlabids, from their base in Kairouan, initiated the invasion of Sicily
Sicily
beginning in 827 and establishing the Emirate
Emirate
of Sicily, which lasted until it was conquered by the Normans.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Conquest phase 1.2 Umayyad
Umayyad
Governors of Ifriqiya 1.3 Fihrid Emirs of Ifriqiya 1.4 Kharijite
Kharijite
rulers 1.5 Abbasid
Abbasid
governors in Kairouan 1.6 Aghlabid
Aghlabid
Emirs of Ifriqiya 1.7 Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphs in Ifriqiya 1.8 Zirid dynasty
Zirid dynasty
rulers of Ifriqiya 1.9 Norman kings of the Kingdom of Africa
Kingdom of Africa
(Ifriqiya) 1.10 Hafsid
Hafsid
governors of Ifriqiya 1.11 Hafsid
Hafsid
caliphs of Ifriqiya

2 See also 3 Notes 4 Sources

4.1 Chronicles 4.2 Secondary

History[edit]

Qalaa of Banu Hammad

Conquest phase[edit] Main article: Muslim conquest of the Maghreb

( Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
and Tripolitana
Tripolitana
conquered in 643 by Amr ibn al-As, organized as new province with regional capital at Barqa; first governors uncertain.)[3] Mu'awiya ibn Hudaij al-Kindi, c.665–666 — ruled from Barqa[4] Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri, 666–674 — conquered south Tunisia (Byzacena), founded Kairouan
Kairouan
(670) Abu al-Muhajir Dinar, 674–681 Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri, (restored), 681–683 — led cavalcade to Morocco, ostensibly bringing entire Maghreb
Maghreb
under submission. (Oqba killed. Arabs expelled from Byzacena, occupied by Awraba Berber chieftain Kusaila, 683–686) Zuhair ibn Qais al-Balawi, 683–689 — initially only Barqa, recovered Byzacena
Byzacena
in 686. (Zohair killed. Berbers under Kahina
Kahina
recover Byzacena
Byzacena
in 689. No clear Arab governor, 689–92). Hassan ibn al-Nu'man al-Ghassani, 692–703 — initially only Barqa. Captured Carthage
Carthage
in 695 (lost again), then again in 698 (final). Permanent conquest of Ifriqiya, organized as new province, separately from Egypt, directly under Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph, with capital at Kairouan.

Umayyad
Umayyad
Governors of Ifriqiya[edit]

Musa ibn Nusair
Musa ibn Nusair
al-Lakhmi, 703–715 (During conquest of Spain, Abd Allah ibn Musa was regent in Kairouan, while Musa was in al-Andalus, 712–715) Muhammad ibn Yazid, 715–718 Ismail ibn Abd Allah ibn Abi al-Muhajir, 718–720 Yazid ibn Abi Muslim, 720–721 Muhammad ibn Yazid (restored), 721 Bishr ibn Safwan al-Kalbi, 721–727 Obeida ibn Abd al-Rahman es-Solemi, 727–32 Oqba ibn Qudama (temporary), 732–734 Obeid Allah ibn al-Habhab al-Maousili, 734–41. ( Berber Revolt
Berber Revolt
begins 740) Kulthum ibn Iyad al-Qasi, 741 Balj ibn Bishr al-Qushayri (de jure, in Córdoba) and Abd al-Rahman ibn Oqba al-Ghaffari (de facto, in Kairouan), 741–42 Handhala ibn Safwan al-Kalbi, 742–44

Fihrid Emirs of Ifriqiya[edit]

(Independence from Caliphate: Berber statelets in Morocco; Fihrid coup d'état in Kairouan, 745) Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri, 745–755. Ilyas ibn Habib al-Fihri, 755 Habib ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri, 755–57

Kharijite
Kharijite
rulers[edit]

( Fihrid Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
conquered by Kharijite
Kharijite
Berbers in 757 — Sufrite Warfajuma in Kairouan, Ibadite Nafusa
Nafusa
in Tripoli) Asim ibn Jamil al-Warfajumi (Sufrite), 757–758 Abd al-Malik ibn Abi 'l-Jad al-Waranjumi (Sufrite), 758 (Ibadites of Tripoli depose Sufrites in Kairouan, 758) Abu al-Khattab Abd al-Ala ibn al-Samh al-Maafiri (Ibadite), 758–760 Abd al-Rahman ibn Rustem al-Farissi (Ibadite), 760–62

Abbasid
Abbasid
governors in Kairouan[edit]

( Abbasid
Abbasid
invasion of Ifriqiya; Ibadites reduced to Tahert
Tahert
and Nafusa, 762)

Appointed governors

Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath al-Khuza'i 762–765 (former Abbasid
Abbasid
governor of Egypt) Isa ibn Yussuf al-Khurasani 765 al-Aghlab ibn Salim at-Tamimi 765–766 al-Hassan ibn Harb al-Kindi 766–767 al-Mikhariq ibn Ghuffar 767–768

Muhallabids

Umar ibn Hafs al-Muhallabi 768–771 Habib ibn Habib al-Muhallabi 771 Umar ibn Hafs al-Muhallabi 771 Abu Hatim Yaqub ibn Labib al-Khariji 771–772 ( Ibadi
Ibadi
rebel) Yazid ibn Hatim al-Muhallabi 772–787 Dawud ibn Yazid ibn Hatim al-Muhallabi 787 Rawh ibn Hatim al-Muhallabi 787–791 Nasr ibn Habib al-Muhallabi 791–793 al-Fadl ibn Rawh ibn Hatim al-Muhallabi 793–795

Appointed governors

Harthama ibn Ayan 795–797 Muhammad ibn Muqatil al-Akki, 797–799 Tammam ibn Tamim al-Tamimi 799–800 Muhammad ibn Muqatil al-Akki 800

Aghlabid
Aghlabid
Emirs of Ifriqiya[edit] [5]

Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab
Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab
ibn Salim (800–812) Abdallah I ibn Ibrahim (812–817) Ziyadat Allah I ibn Ibrahim(817–838) al-Aghlab Abu Iqal ibn Ibrahim (838–841) Abu 'l-Abbas Muhammad I ibn al-Aghlab Abi Affan (841–856) Ahmad ibn Muhammad
Ahmad ibn Muhammad
(856–863) Ziyadat Allah II ibn Abil-Abbas (863) Abu 'l-Gharaniq Muhammad II ibn Ahmad (863–875) Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad (875–902) Abu 'l-Abbas Abdallah II ibn Ibrahim (902–903) Abu Mudhar Ziyadat Allah III ibn Abdallah (903–909)

Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphs in Ifriqiya[edit] [6]

Abū Muḥammad ʻAbdu l-Lāh (ʻUbaydu l-Lāh) al-Mahdī bi'llāh (909–934) — founder of the Fatimid
Fatimid
dynasty Abū l-Qāsim Muḥammad al-Qā'im bi-Amr Allāh (934–946) Abū Ṭāhir Ismā'il al-Manṣūr bi-llāh (946–953) Abū Tamīm Ma'add al-Mu'izz li-Dīn Allāh (953–975) (transferred to Egypt
Egypt
in 973)

Zirid dynasty
Zirid dynasty
rulers of Ifriqiya[edit]

Zirids
Zirids
and Hammadids after Bedouin
Bedouin
invasions

[7]

Abul-Futuh Sayf ad-Dawla Buluggin ibn Ziri
Buluggin ibn Ziri
(973–983) Abul-Fat'h al-Mansur ibn Buluggin (983–995) Abu Qatada Nasir ad-Dawla Badis ibn Mansur (995–1016) Sharaf ad-Dawla al-Muizz ibn Badis (1016–1062), — lost west Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
to Hammadid
Hammadid
dynasty,(1018), declared independence from Fatimids (1045)

(invasion of the Banu Hilal (1057) — Kairouan
Kairouan
destroyed, Zirids reduced to the main coastal cities, rural areas fragments into petty Bedouin
Bedouin
emirates)[8]

Abu Tahir Tamim ibn al-Mu'izz (1062–1108) Yahya ibn Tamim (1108–1131) Ali ibn Yahya (1115–1121) Abul-Hasan al-Hasan ibn Ali (1121–1152)

(Ifriqiyan coast annexed by Norman Sicily
Sicily
(1143–1160)) Norman kings of the Kingdom of Africa
Kingdom of Africa
(Ifriqiya)[edit]

The "Kingdom of Africa" (Regno d'Africa) pinpointed in red

[9] See also: Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture

Roger II of Sicily
Sicily
(1143-1154) William I of Sicily
Sicily
(1154-1160)

(All of Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
conquered and annexed by the Almohads
Almohads
(1160))[10] Hafsid
Hafsid
governors of Ifriqiya[edit] [11]

Abd al-Wahid (1207–1216) Abd-Allah (1224–1229) Abu Zakariya
Abu Zakariya
(1229–1249)

Hafsid
Hafsid
caliphs of Ifriqiya[edit]

Muhammad I al-Mustansir (1249–1277) Muse Mohammed 1223–1270 Yahya II al-Watiq (1277–1279) Ibrahim I (1279–1283) Ibn Abi Umara (1283–1284) Abu Hafs Umar I (1284–1295) Muhammad I (1295–1309) Abu Bakr I (1309) Aba al-Baqa Khalid an-Nasir (1309–1311) Aba Yahya Zakariya al-Lihyani (1311–1317) Muhammad II (1317–1318) Abu Bakr II (1318–1346) Abu Hafs Umar II (1346–1349) Ahmad I (1349) Ishaq II (1350–1369) Abu al-Baqa Khalid (1369–1371) Ahmad II (1371–1394) Abd al-Aziz II (1394–1434) Muhammad III (1434–1436) Uthman (1436–1488) Abu Zakariya
Abu Zakariya
Yahya (1488–1489) Abd al-Mu'min (Hafsid) (1489–1490) Abu Yahya Zakariya (1490–1494) Muhammad IV (1494–1526) Muhammad V (1526–1543) Ahmad III (1543–1570) Muhammad VI (1574–1574) Jafari "Jafari the Clean" Yahya (1574–1581) Alem Nafirr (1581)

See also[edit]

Aghlabid Zirid dynasty Hafsid Maghreb History of Roman era Tunisia History of early Islamic Tunisia History of medieval Tunisia

Notes[edit]

^ (in French) Article « Ifriqiya » (Larousse.fr). ^ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Arabic_Thought_and_Its_Place_in_History : DE LACY O’LEARY, D.D. "ARABIC THOUGHT AND ITS PLACE IN HISTORY" London: KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., LTD. / NEW YORK: E. P. DUTTON & CO. (1922), pp. 227-8. ^ See chronicles of Ibn Abd al-Hakam and al-Nuwayri for accounts of the conquest. ^ This follows the tradition of al-Nuwayri, who says Mu'waiya ibn Hudaij was the first emir of Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(ruling from Baqra) in 665. Ibn Khaldoun, however, dates the appointment of Mu'waiya ibn Hudaij as early as 651/52, when Abdallah ibn Sa'ad was governor in Egypt. ^ This is primarily covered in the chronicle of al-Nuwayri. ^ On the rise of the Fatimids, see Ibn Khaldoun
Ibn Khaldoun
(v.2 App. #2(pp.496–549)) ^ See al-Nuwayri (v.2, App.1) and Ibn Khaldoun, v.2 ^ On the Banu Hillal
Banu Hillal
invasion, see Ibn Khaldoun
Ibn Khaldoun
(v.1). ^ Abulafia, "The Norman Kingdom of Africa" ^ For an account of the Almohad and Norman conquests of Ifriqiya, see Ibn al-Athir (p.578ff) ^ See Ibn Khaldoun
Ibn Khaldoun
(v.2 & 3)

Sources[edit] Chronicles[edit]

Ibn Abd al-Hakam, English trans. by C.C. Torrey, 1901, "The Mohammedan Conquest of Egypt
Egypt
and North Africa", Historical and Critical Contributions to Biblical Science, pp. 277–330. online; French trans. in De la Salle Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale, 1852, v.1, App. 1 (pp. 301–308) al-Nuwayri, French trans. in De La Salle, Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale, 1852, v.1, App. 2 (pp. 314–444) (From 647 raid through end of Aghlabids) and 1854, v. 2 App.1 (pp. 483–89) (for Zirids). Italian transl. in M. Amari (1851) Nuova raccolta di scritture e documenti intorno alla dominazione degli arabi in Sicilia, (p.27-163) ( Aghlabids
Aghlabids
only) Ibn Khaldoun, French trans. in De La Salle (1852–56), Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale 4 vols, Algiers: Imprimerie du Gouvernment. v.1, v.2 v.3, vol. 4 Ibn al-Athir extracts from Kamel al-Tewarikh, French trans. in De La Salle, Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale, 1854, v.2, App.#5, (pp. 573ff)

Secondary[edit]

Julien, C.A. (1931) Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord, vol. 2 – De la conquête arabe à 1830, 1961 edition, Paris: Payot.

v t e

Historical rulers of Algeria

Zayyanid rulers of the Kingdom of Tlemcen (1235–1556)

Yghomracen Ibn Zyan Abu Said Uthman I Abu Zayyan I Abu Hammu I Abu Tashufin I Abu Said Uthman II Abu Thabid I Abu Hammu II Musa Abu Zayyan Muhammad II ibn Uthman Abu Tashufin II Abu Thabid II Abul Hadjdjadj I Abu Zayyan II Abu Muh I Abu Abdallah I Abd er Rahman I bin Abu Muh Said I bin Abu Tashufin Abu Malek I Abu Abdallah II Abu Abbas Ahmad I Abu Abdallah III Abu Tashufin III Abu Abdallah IV Abu Abdallah V Abu Hammu III Abu Muh II Abu Abdallah VI Abu Zayyan III Al Hassan ben Abu Muh

Ottoman governors of the Regency of Algiers (1517–1830)

Aruj
Aruj
Barbarossa Hayreddin Barbarossa Hasan Agha Hadji Pasha Hasan Pasha Khalifa Saffah Salah Rais Hasan Corso Muhammad Kurdogli Mehmed Tekkelerli Yusuf Pasha Yahyia Pasha Hasan Khüsro Aga Ahmed Bostandji Ahmad Pasha Qabia Muhamad Pasha Uluç Ali Reis Mehmet Pasha Arab Ahmed Pasha Ramdan Pasha Hassan Veneziano Djafar Pasha Mami Muhammad Pasha Dali Ahmed Pasha Hızır Pasha Hadji Shaban Pasha Mustapha Pasha Daly Hassan Pasha Soliman Pasha Muhammad II the eunuch Mustapha II Pasha Rizvan Pasha Köse Mustafa Pacha Hasan IV Mustapha IV Pasha Soliman Katanya Kassan Kaid Koça Hizir Pasha Mustafa III Pasha Khüsrev Pacha Murat Pasha Hassan Khodja Yusuf II Pasha Ali Bitchin Mahmud Bursali Pacha Ahmed I Pasha Yusuf III Pasha Murad Pasha Buzenak-Muhammad Ahmed II Pasha Ibrahim Pasha Ismail Pasha Khalil Aga Ramadan Aga Shaban Aga Ali Aga Hadj Mohamed Dey Baba Hassan Dey Mezzo Morto Hüseyin Pasha Ahmed Sharban Hadji Ahmed ben al-Hadji Baba Hassan Hadji Mustapha Hussein Kodja Mohamed Bektach Deli Ibrahim Ali Chauch Muhammad III ben Hassan Abdy Pasha Mohammed Arslan Ibrahim ben Ramdan Kutchuk Ibrahim Muhammed ibn Bekir Baba Ali Pasha Bousba Muhammad V ben Osman Baba Hassan Mustafa ibn Ibrahim Ahmed ibn Ali Ali ibn Muhammad Khodja Hadji Ali ben Khrelil Khodja Hadji Muhammad Dey Omar Agha Ali Khodja Muhammad VI ben Ali Hussein Dey

Governors of French Algeria (1830–1962)

Louis-Auguste-Victor Bertrand Clausel Pierre Bertheéne Anne Jean Marie René Savary Théophile Voirol Jean-Baptiste Drouet, comte d'Erlon Bertrand, comte Clauzel Charles-Marie Denys de Damrémont Sylvain Charles Valée Thomas Robert Bugeaud Christophe Juchault de Lamoricière Marie Alphonse Bedeau Henri d'Orleans Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Nicolas Théodule Changarnier Viala, Baron Charon Alphonse Henri, comte d'Hautpoul Aimable Pélissier Jacques Louis Randon Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte Prosper, comte de Chasseloup-Laubat Édouard de Martimprey Patrice MacMahon Louis, Baron Durieu Jean Walsin-Esterhazy Henri-Gabriel Didier Charles de Bouzet Romuald Vuillermoz Alexis Lambert Louis Henri de Gueydon Antoine Chanzy Albert Grévy Louis Tirman Jules Cambon Auguste Loze Louis Lépine Edouard Lafferrièr Celestine Charles Jonnart Paul Réviol Maurice Varnier Charles Lutaud Jean-Baptiste Abel Théodore Steeg Henri Dubief Maurice Viollette Pierre-Louis Bordes Jules-Gaston Henri Carde Georges le Beau Jean-Charles Abrial Maxime Weygand Yves-Charles Chatel Marcel-Edmond Peyrouton Georges Catroux Yves Chataigneau Marcel-Edmond Naegelen Roger Léonard Jacques Soustelle

Presidents of the Republic of Algeria (1962–present)

Abderrahmane Farès Ferhat Abbas Ahmed Ben Bella Houari Boumediene Rabah Bitat Chadli Bendjedid Abdelmalek Benhabyles Mohamed Boudiaf Ali Kafi Liamine Zéroual Abdelaziz Bouteflika

v t e

Islamic dynasties in Maghreb
Maghreb
region

Salihids (710–1019) Barghawata
Barghawata
(744-1058) Rustamids (767-909) Muhallabids
Muhallabids
(771–793) Idrisids (780–985 ) Ifranids (790-1066) Aghlabids
Aghlabids
(800–909) Zirids
Zirids
(973–1148) Banu Kanz (1004–1412) Hammadids (1008–1152) Almoravids
Almoravids
(1040–1147) Khurasanids (1059-1158) Almohads
Almohads
(f. 1130, r. 1147–1269) Hafsids (1229–1574) Ziyyanids (1235–1556) Marinids (f. 1244, r. 1269–1465) Wattasids (1472–1554) Saadi (f. 1509, r. 1554–1659) Kingdom of Ait Abbas
Kingdom of Ait Abbas
(f. 1510, r. 1510–1872) Kuku Sultanate (1515-1638) Alaouites (f. 1631, r. 1666–present) Husainids (1705–1957) Karamanli (1711–1835) Senussi
Senussi
(1837-1969)

v t e

Timeline of the Maghreb
Maghreb
dynasties

Coordinates: 35°00′N 7°00′E / 35.000°N 7.000°E / 3