Parouse.com
 Parouse.com



Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) c. 1300 – 1373) was a highly influential historian and Sunni
Sunni
scholar of the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school during the Mamluk era in Syria. An expert on tafsir (Quranic exegesis) and faqīh (jurisprudence), he wrote several books, including a fourteen-volume universal history.[8][9] Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said about him, “ Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
worked on the subject of the hadith in the texts (متون) and chains of narrators (رجال). He had a good memory, his books became popular during his lifetime, and people benefited from them after his death.”[10][page needed]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Creed 3 Works

3.1 Tafsir 3.2 Hadith 3.3 History & Biography 3.4 Jihad 3.5 Other

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Biography[edit] His full name was Abū l-Fidāʾ Ismāʿīl ibn ʿUmar ibn Kaṯīr (أبو الفداء إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير) and had the honorary title of ʿImād ad-Dīn (عماد الدين "pillar of the faith"). He was born in Mijdal, a village on the outskirts of the city of Busra, to the east of Damascus, Syria, around about AH 701 (AD 1300/1)[citation needed]. He was taught by Ibn Taymiyya
Ibn Taymiyya
and Al-Dhahabi. Upon completion of his studies he obtained his first official appointment in 1341, when he joined an inquisitorial commission formed to determine certain questions of heresy.[7] He married the daughter of Al-Mizzi, one of the foremost Syrian scholars of the period, which gave him access to the scholarly elite. In 1345 he was made preacher (khatib) at a newly built mosque in Mizza, the home town of his father-in-law. In 1366, he rose to a professorial position at the Great Mosque of Damascus.[7][11] In later life, he became blind.[9][11] He attributes his blindness to working late at night on the Musnad of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal
in an attempt to rearrange it topically rather than by narrator. He died in February 1373 (AH 774) in Damascus. He was buried next to his teacher Ibn Taymiyya.[12] Creed[edit] Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
distanced himself from the literal reading of God's attributes asserted by his teacher Ibn Taimiyya, who was accused of anthropomorphism, a view that was objectionable according to Ashʿarism.[13] Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
did not interpret the mutashabihat, or 'unapparent in meaning' verses and hadiths in a literal anthropomorphic way. He states that:

People have said a great deal on this topic and this is not the place to expound on what they have said. On this matter, we follow the early Muslims (salaf): Malik, Awza'i, Thawri, Layth ibn Sa'd, Shafi'i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh, and others among the Imams of the Muslims, both ancient and modern that is, to let (the verse in question) pass as it has come, without saying how it is meant (min ghayr takyif), without likening it to created things (wa la tashbih), and without nullifying it (wa la ta'til): The literal meaning (zahir) that occurs to the minds of anthropomorphists (al-mushabbihin) is negated of Allah, for nothing from His creation resembles Him: "There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing" ( Qur'an
Qur'an
42:11)[14][15]

Works[edit] Tafsir[edit] Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
wrote a famous commentary on the Qur'an
Qur'an
named Tafseer al-Qurʾān al-ʿAẓeem which linked certain hadith, or sayings of Muhammad, and sayings of the sahaba to verses of the Qur'an, in explanation and avoided to use Isra'iliyyats. Many sunni Muslims hold his commentary as the best after Tafsir
Tafsir
al-Tabari[16] and it is highly regarded especially among Salafi
Salafi
school of thought.[17] Although Ibn Kathir claimed to rely on at-Tabari, he introduced new methods and differs in content, in attempt to clear Islam
Islam
from any Isra'iliyyat. His suspicion on Isra'iliyyat
Isra'iliyyat
probably dervied from Ibn Ibn Taimiyya's influence, who discounted much of the exegetical tradition since then.[18][19] Egyptian scholar Ahmad Muhammad
Muhammad
Shakir (1892–1958) edited Ibn Kathir's Tafsir
Tafsir
as ʿUmdat at-Tafsīr in five volumes published during 1956–1958. Faḍāʾil al-Qurʾān (فضائل القرآن) was intended as an annex to the Tafsir. It is a brief textual history of the Qur'an
Qur'an
and its collection after the death of Muhammad. Hadith[edit]

Al-Jāmi (الجامع) is a grand collection of hadith texts intended for encyclopedic use. It is an alphabetical listing of the Companions of the Prophet and the sayings that each transmitted, thus reconstructing the chain of authority for each hadith.[7] Al-Baa'ith al-Hatheeth is an abridgement of the Muqaddimah
Muqaddimah
by Ibn al-Salah in hadith terminology At-Takmil fi Ma`rifat Ath-Thiqat wa Ad-Du'afa wal Majdhil which Ibn Kathir collected from the books of his two Shaykhs Al-Mizzi and Adh-Dhahabi; Al-Kamal and Mizan Al-Ftiddl. He added several benefits regarding the subject of Al-Jarh and At-Ta'dil. Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
wrote references for the ahadith of Adillat At-Tanbih, from the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school of fiqh. History & Biography[edit]

Al-Bidāya wa-n-Nihāya (البداية والنهاية "The Beginning and The End") is a universal history of the world from the Creation to the end of time. Ibn Kathir's great ten-volume magnum opus contains accounts of the early nations of the world, the Prophets and their biographies (seerah) and Islamic history up to his own time. Within the Islamic literary corpus it is highly regarded for its great extent and range, and has been widely translated. Abridged edition available in English[20]. Al-Fitan, (كتاب الفتن والملاحم الواقعة في آخر الزمان) "The Sedition"; on the signs of the last hour; valuable for political details of his day. First printed in Cairo (1932–1939); several Arabic editions; Unavailable in English.[21] Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya,(السيرة النبوية) "Life of the Prophet Muhammad". Four vols.[22]. Unavailable in English. Qisas Al-Anbiya, (قصص الأنبياء) "Tales of the Prophets"; a collection of tales of the Prophets of Islam
Islam
and others of the Old Testament; Extract published as Tuhfat an-Nubla' min Qisas al'Anbia lil'Imam al-Hafiz ibn Kathir (تحفة النبلاء من قصص الأنبياء للإمام الحافظ ابن كثير (Masterpiece of the Nobles from Tales of the Prophets by al-Hafiz ibn Kathir).[23] Unavailable in English.

Jihad[edit] Al-ijtihād fī ṭalab al-jihād (الاجتهاد في طلب الجهاد), written by commission of the Mamluk governor of Damascus, is a defense of armed jihad and ribat against the neighboring Christian powers (remnants of the crusader states, such as the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia) based on the evidence of the Qur'an and the sunnah. Other[edit]

Al-Hadi was-Sunan fī Aḥādīth Al-Masānīd was-Sunan, aka Jāmiʻ al-masānīd: collected narratives of the Imams Ahmad bin Hanbal, Al-Bazzar, Abu Ya'la Al-Mawsili, and Ibn Abi Shaybah, and six collected Hadiths: two ṣaḥīḥs of (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) and four sunan of Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasai and Ibn Majah. Classified under fiqh divisions. Tabaqat Ash-Shafi'iyah ("The levels of the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
scholars"). Commentary on Sahih Al-Bukhari; unfinished work. The ahkam - large volume on Laws (up to the Hajj
Hajj
rituals); unfinished work. Summary of Al-Baihaqi's 'Al-Madkhal; unpublished. Mawlid ("Celebrating the Birthday of the Holy Prophet").

NOTE: Many books listed here remain unpublished. See also[edit]

Ibn Taymiyyah Al-Tabari Al-Qurtubi

Notes[edit]

^ "Was Ibn Kathīr the 'Spokesperson' for Ibn Taymiyya? Jonah as a Prophet of Obedience". Journal of Qur'anic Studies. 16 (1): 3. 2014-02-01. doi:10.3366/jqs.2014.0130. ISSN 1465-3591.  ^ Jackson, Sherman A. “ Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Taymiyyah
on Trial in Damascus.” Journal of Semitic Studies 39 (Spring 1994): 41-85, 48. ^ Makdisi, George. 1962. "Ash’ari and the Asharites and Islamic history I." Studia Islamica 17: 37-80, 76 ^ Mirza, Y. “Was Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
the Spokesperson for Ibn Taymiyya? Jonah as a Prophet of Obedience.” Journal of Qur'anic Studies 16, no. 1 (2014), 3-4. ^ a b http://www.arabnews.com/node/219573 ^ "Was Ibn Kathīr the 'Spokesperson' for Ibn Taymiyya? Jonah as a Prophet of Obedience". Journal of Qur'anic Studies. 16 (1): 3. 2014-02-01. doi:10.3366/jqs.2014.0130. ISSN 1465-3591. Jane McAullife remarks that ‘certainly the most famous of Ibn Kathīr’s teachers, and perhaps the one who influenced him the most, was the Ḥanbalī theologian and jurisconsult Ibn Taymiyyah’.  ^ a b c d " Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
- Muslim scholar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 March 2016.  ^ "Was Ibn Kathīr the 'Spokesperson' for Ibn Taymiyya? Jonah as a Prophet of Obedience". Journal of Qur'anic Studies. 16 (1): 1. 2014-02-01. doi:10.3366/jqs.2014.0130. ISSN 1465-3591.  ^ a b Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.138. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810861615. ^ Ad-Durar Al-Kaminah (الدرر الكامنة) by Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani ^ a b Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
I, Le Gassick T (translator), Fareed M (reviewer) (2000). The Life of the Prophet Muhammad : English translation of Ibn Kathir's Al Sira Al Nabawiyya. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Was Ibn Kathīr the 'Spokesperson' for Ibn Taymiyya? Jonah as a Prophet of Obedience". Journal of Qur'anic Studies. 16 (1): 2. 2014-02-01. doi:10.3366/jqs.2014.0130. ISSN 1465-3591. Ibn Qāḍī al-Shuhba concludes mentioning that Ibn Kathīr was buried ‘next to his teacher (shaykhihi) Ibn Taymiyya’.  ^ Juan Eduardo Campo Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
Infobase Publishing 2009 ISBN 978-1-438-12696-8 page 340 ^ Spevack, Aaron (2014-09-09). The Archetypal Sunni
Sunni
Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of al-Bajuri. SUNY Press. pp. 129–130. ISBN 9781438453712.  ^ Ibn Kathir, Ismail (2000). Tafsir
Tafsir
al- Qur'an
Qur'an
al-Azim. Cairo: Maktabat Awlad al-Shaykh l'il Turath. pp. 6:320.  ^ Sohaib Sultan Koran für Dummies John Wiley & Sons 2014 ISBN 978-3-5277-1039-3 page 114 (german) ^ Oliver Leaman The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia Taylor & Francis 2006 ISBN 978-0-415-32639-1 page 632 ^ Karen Bauer Gender Hierarchy in the Qur'an: Medieval Interpretations, Modern Responses Cambridge University Press 2015 ISBN 978-1-316-24005-2 page 115 ^ Aysha A. Hidayatullah Feminist Edges of the Qur'an
Qur'an
Oxford University Press 2014 ISBN 978-0-199-35957-8 page 25 ^ al Bidayah wan Nihayah Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
Early Days.  ^ Kitab al-Fitan wa'l-Mulahim al-Waqa'a fi 'Akhir az-Zaman.  ^ as-Seera an-Nabawiyya.  ^ Tuhfat an-Nubla' min Qisas al'Anbia lil'Imam al-Hafiz ibn Kathir. 

References[edit]

Norman Calder, ' Tafsir
Tafsir
from Tabari to Ibn Kathir, Problems in the description of a genre, illustrated with reference to the story of Abraham', in: G. R. Hawting / Abdul-Kader A. Shareef (eds.): Approaches to the Qur'an, London 1993, pp. 101–140. Jane Dammen-McAuliffe, 'Quranic Hermeneutics, The views of al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir', in: Andrew Rippin (ed.): Approaches to the history of the interpretation of the Qur'an, Oxford 1988, pp.&nbs al hafid ibn kathir is not ash,ai

External links[edit]

The Aqidah of Ibn Kathir

Arabic Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Tafsir
Tafsir
ibn Kathir

Arabic Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Tafsir
Tafsir
Ibn Kasir

Tafsir
Tafsir
ibn Kathir in English Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
in English

v t e

Historians of Islam

Historians

7th century

Aban bin Uthman Urwah ibn Zubayr Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri

8th century

Hisham ibn al-Kalbi Ibn Ishaq Al-Waqidi Abu Mikhnaf Sayf ibn Umar Al-Mada'ini

9th century

Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam Khalifah ibn Khayyat Ibn Hisham Ya'qubi Al-Tabari Al-Baladhuri Ibn Sa'd Al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar Al-Azraqi Abu Hanifa Dinawari Ibn Qutaybah

10th century

Ibn al-Nadim Ibn Duraid Ibn al-Qūṭiyya Al-Masudi Miskawayh al-Suli Al-Qadi al-Nu'man Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Hamdani Al-Musabbihi

11th century

Arabic

Ibn Faradi Ibn Hayyan Said al-Andalusi Al-Udri Al-Bakri Ibn Hazm Hilal al-Sabi' Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi Al-Quda'i Ibn Bassam

Persian

Abu'l-Fadl Bayhaqi Abu Sa'id Gardezi

12th century

Arabic

Mohammed al-Baydhaq Ibn al-Jawzi Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi Ibn al-Qalanisi Ibn `Asakir Usama ibn Munqidh Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad Ibn Hammad

Persian

Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Ali Rawandi

13th century

Arabic

Yaqut al-Hamawi Abdelwahid al-Marrakushi Ibn Amira Ibn Jubayr Ibn al-Kardabūs Ibn al-Adim Ibn al-Athir Sibt ibn al-Jawzi Ibn Khallikan Al-Qifti Ibn Abi Zar

Persian

Ibn Bibi Muhammad
Muhammad
Aufi Ibn Isfandiyar Minhaj-i-Siraj Ata- Malik
Malik
Juvayni Rashid-al-Din Hamadani

14th century

Arabic

Abu'l-Fida Ibn Idhari Al-Dhahabi Ibn Battuta Ibn al-Khatib Shihab al-Umari Ibn Kathir Ibn al-Tiqtaqa Ibn al-Furat Al-Mufaddal Ibn Khaldun al-`Asqalani

Persian

Hamdallah Mustawfi Wassaf Ziauddin Barani Hafiz-i Abru

15th century

Arabic

al-Maqrizi Ibn Taghribirdi Al-Sakhawi Al-Suyuti Ibn Ghazi al-Miknasi

Persian

Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi Mīr-Khvānd Mullah Nadiri Zahir al-Din Mar'ashi Fazlallah Khunji Isfahani Idris Bitlisi

16th century

Arabic

Ibn Iyas Mujir al-Din Abd al-Aziz al-Fishtali Ibn al-Qadi

Persian

Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak Muhammad
Muhammad
Khwandamir `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni Nizamuddin Ahmad Firishta Iskandar Beg Munshi

17th century

Arabic

Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari Kâtip Çelebi

Persian

Shaikh Inayat Allah Kamboh Muhammad
Muhammad
Saleh Kamboh Abd al-Fattah Fumani Mohsin Fani

18th century

Arabic

Mohammed al-Ifrani Mohammed al-Qadiri Khalil al-Muradi al-Zayyani al-Jabarti

Persian

Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi

19th century

Arabic

Ahmad ibn Khalid al-Nasiri Ibn Bishr Mohammad Farid Ahmad ibn Abi Diyaf Jurji Zaydan

Persian

Jalal al-Din Mirza Qajar

Notable works

The Meadows of Gold History of the Prophets and Kings Mu'jam al-Buldan Concise History of Humanity The Complete History Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries Futuh al-Buldan Kitab al-I'tibar Al-Milal wa al-Nihal History of the Caliphs Kitab al-Rawd al-Mitar Tarikh al-Yaqubi Muqaddimah Book of Idols Rihla

Concepts

Isnad Islamic calendar Biographical evaluation Biographical dictionary Hadith
Hadith
studies Tabaqat Isra'iliyyat

v t e

Shafi`i
Shafi`i
School

by century (AH CE)

2nd/8th

Al- Shafi`i
Shafi`i
(founder of the school)

3rd/9th

Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari Al-Humaydi Al-Nasai Harith al-Muhasibi Ibn al-Mundhir Ibn Khuzaymah Ibn Majah Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj

4th/10th

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi Abu Nuaym Abu Talib al-Makki Al-Daraqutni Al-Hakim Nishapuri Ibn Furak

5th/11th

Abu Isḥāq ash-Shirazi Ahmad Ghazali Ahmad ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Tha`labi Al-Baghawi Al-Bayhaqi Al-Juwayni Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi Al-Mawardi Al-Qushayri Yusuf Hamadani

6th/12th

Ahmed al-Rifa`i Al-Ghazali Al-Shahrastani Fakhr al-Din al-Razi Ibn al-Salah Ibn `Asakir Sayf al-Din al-Amidi Shahab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash Suhrawardi

7th/13th

Ahmad al-Badawi Al-Baydawi Al-Nawawi Ibn Abil-Hadid Ibn Daqiq al-Id Ibn Khallikan Izz al-Din ibn Abd al-Salam Safi-ad-din Ardabili Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi

8th/14th

Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri Ali ibn Abu Bakr al-Haythami Al-Dhahabi Badr Ad-Din az-Zarkashi Ibn al-Jazari Ibn Kathir Taftazani Taj al-Din al-Subki Taqi al-Din al-Subki Zain al-Din al-Iraqi

9th/15th

Al-Qastallani Al-Sakhawi Al-Suyuti Ali ibn Ahmad al-Samhudi Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani Ibn Nuhaas Zakariyya al-Ansari

10th/16th

Al-Khaṭib ash-Shirbiniy Al-Sha`rani Ibn Hajar al-Haytami

11th/17th

Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad

12th/18th

Muhammad
Muhammad
Hayyat ibn Ibrahim al-Sindhi

13th/19th

Abd Al-Rahman bin Ahmad al-Zayla`i Ibrahim al-Bajuri Shaykh Sufi Uways al-Barawi Yusuf an-Nabhani

14th/20th

Abdul Azeez Madani Abdallah al-Qutbi Abdullah al-Harari Afifi al-Akiti Ahmad Syafi'i Maarif Ahmed Kuftaro Ali al-Jifri Ali Gomaa Awn Al-Qaddoumi Cherussery Zainuddeen Musliyar Gibril Haddad Hamka Hasyim Muzadi K. Ali Kutty Musliyar Mohammad Salim Al-Awa Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Yahya al-Ninowy Nuh Ha Mim Keller Said Nursî Sayyid Ibraheem Khaleel Al Bukhari Sayyid Muhammad
Muhammad
Jifri Muthukkoya Thangal Sheikh Aboobacker Ahmed Syed Muhammad
Muhammad
Naquib al-Attas Taha Jabir Alalwani Umar bin Hafiz Wahbah al-Zuhayli Zaid Shakir

Scholars of other Sunni
Sunni
Islamic schools of jurisprudence

Hanafi Hanbali Maliki Zahiri

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 90039047 LCCN: n83064845 ISNI: 0000 0000 8399 4506 GND: 119321009 SELIBR: 62936 SUDOC: 067717888 BNF: cb13748427p (data) BIBSYS: 90563104 NLA: 35550