Parouse.com
 Parouse.com



The House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet. The first house was created when Henry III of England created the Earldom of Lancaster—from which the house was named—for his second son Edmund Crouchback
Edmund Crouchback
in 1267. Edmund had already been created Earl of Leicester
Earl of Leicester
in 1265 and was granted the lands and privileges of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, after de Montfort's death and attainder at the end of the Second Barons' War.[2] When Edmund's son Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, inherited his father-in-law's estates and title of Earl of Lincoln
Earl of Lincoln
he became at a stroke the most powerful nobleman in England, with lands throughout the kingdom and the ability to raise vast private armies to wield power at national and local levels.[3] This brought him—and Henry, his younger brother—into conflict with their cousin Edward II of England, leading to Thomas's execution. Henry inherited Thomas's titles and he and his son, who was also called Henry, gave loyal service to Edward's son—Edward III of England. The second house of Lancaster was descended from John of Gaunt, who married the heiress of the first house. Edward III married all his sons to wealthy English heiresses rather than following his predecessors' practice of finding continental political marriages for royal princes. Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, had no male heir so Edward married his son John to Henry's heiress daughter and John's third cousin Blanche of Lancaster. This gave John the vast wealth of the House of Lancaster. Their son Henry usurped the throne in 1399, creating one of the factions in the Wars of the Roses. There was an intermittent dynastic struggle between the descendants of Edward III. In these wars, the term Lancastrian became a reference to members of the family and their supporters. The family provided England with three kings: Henry IV, who ruled from 1399 to 1413, Henry V (1413–1422), and Henry VI (1422–1461 and 1470–1471). The House became extinct in the male line upon the murder in the Tower of London
London
of Henry VI, following the battlefield execution of his son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, by supporters of the House of York in 1471. Lancastrian cognatic descent—from John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
and Blanche of Lancaster's daughter Phillipa—continued in the royal houses of Spain and Portugal while the Lancastrian political cause was maintained by Henry Tudor—a relatively unknown scion of the Beauforts—eventually leading to the establishment of the House of Tudor. The Lancastrians left a legacy through the patronage of the arts—most notably in founding Eton College
Eton College
and King's College, Cambridge—but to historians' chagrin their propaganda, and that of their Tudor successors, means that it is Shakespeare's partly fictionalized history plays rather than medievalist scholarly research that has the greater influence on modern perceptions of the dynasty.[4]

Contents

1 Origin of the Earls of Lancaster 2 Duchy and Palatinate of Lancaster 3 Reign of Henry IV 4 Henry V and the Hundred Years' War 5 Henry VI and the fall of the House of Lancaster 6 Legacy

6.1 Shakespeare's history plays 6.2 Succession 6.3 Religion, education and the arts

7 Earls and Dukes of Lancaster (first creation) 8 Dukes of Lancaster (second creation) 9 Lancastrian Kings of England 10 Family tree 11 Coats of Arms

11.1 Lancaster badges

12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

Origin of the Earls of Lancaster[edit] After the supporters of Henry III of England
Henry III of England
suppressed opposition from the English nobility in the Second Barons' War, Henry granted to his second son Edmund Crouchback
Edmund Crouchback
the titles and possessions forfeited by attainder of the barons' leader, Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, including the Earldom of Leicester, on 26 October 1265. Later grants included the first Earldom of Lancaster on 30 June 1267 and that of Earl Ferrers
Earl Ferrers
in 1301. Edmund was also Count of Champagne and Brie from 1276 by right of his wife.[2] Henry IV of England
Henry IV of England
would later use his descent from Edmund to legitimise his claim to the throne, even making the spurious claim that Edmund was the elder son of Henry but had been passed over as king because of his deformity.[5]

Seal of Edmund Crouchback

Edmund's second marriage to Blanche of Artois, the widow of the King of Navarre, placed him at the centre of the European aristocracy. Blanche's daughter Joan I of Navarre
Joan I of Navarre
was queen regnant of Navarre and through her marriage to Philip IV of France
Philip IV of France
was queen consort of France. Edmund's son Thomas became the most powerful nobleman in England, gaining the Earldoms of Lincoln and Salisbury through marriage to the heiress of Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln. His income was £11,000 per annum—double that of the next wealthiest earl.[3] Thomas and his younger brother Henry served in the coronation of their cousin King Edward II of England
Edward II of England
on 25 February 1308; Thomas carried Curtana, the Sword of Mercy, and Henry carried the royal sceptre.[6] After initially supporting Edward, Thomas became one of the Lords Ordainers, who demanded the banishment of Piers Gaveston
Piers Gaveston
and the governance of the realm by a baronial council. After Gaveston was captured, Thomas took the lead in his trial and execution at Warwick in 1312.[7] Edward's authority was weakened by poor governance and defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn. This allowed Thomas to restrain Edward's power by republishing the Ordinances of 1311. Following this achievement Thomas took little part in the governance of the realm and instead retreated to Pontefract
Pontefract
Castle.[8] This allowed Edward to regroup and re-arm, leading to a fragile peace in August 1318 with the Treaty of Leake. In 1321 Edward's rule again collapsed into civil war. Thomas raised a northern army but was defeated and captured at the Battle of Boroughbridge. He was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered but because he was Edward's cousin he was given a quicker death by beheading.[9] Henry joined the revolt of Edward's wife Isabella of France
Isabella of France
and her lover Mortimer in 1326, pursuing and capturing Edward at Neath
Neath
in South Wales.[9] Following Edward's deposition at the Parliament of Kenilworth in 1326 and reputed murder at Berkeley Castle,[10] Thomas's conviction was posthumously reversed and Henry regained possession of the Earldoms of Lancaster, Derby, Salisbury and Lincoln that had been forfeit for Thomas's treason. His restored prestige led to him knighting the young King Edward III of England
Edward III of England
before his coronation.[11] Mortimer lost support over the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton that formalised Scotland's independence, and his developing power in the Welsh Marches
Welsh Marches
provoked jealousy from the barons. When Mortimer called a parliament to make his new powers and estates permanent with the title of Earl of March
Earl of March
in 1328, Henry led the opposition and held a counter-meeting. In response, Mortimer ravaged the lands of Lancaster and checked the revolt. Edward III was able to assume control in 1330 but Henry's further influence was restricted by poor health and blindness for the last fifteen years of his life.[12][13] Duchy and Palatinate of Lancaster[edit] See also: County palatine

English Royalty

House of Lancaster

Armorial of Plantagenet

Henry IV

Henry V, King of England John, Duke of Bedford Thomas, Duke of Clarence Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Blanche, Electress Palatine Philippa, Queen of Denmark

Henry V

Henry VI

Henry VI

Edward, Prince of Wales

v t e

Henry's son, also called Henry, was born at the castle of Grosmont in Monmouthshire
Monmouthshire
between 1299 and 1314.[1] According to the younger Henry's memoirs, he was better at martial arts than academic subjects and did not learn to read until later in life.[14] Henry was coeval with Edward III and was pivotal to his reign, becoming his best friend and most trusted commander.[15] Henry was knighted in 1330, represented his father in parliament and fought in Edward's Scottish campaign.[16] After the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War, Henry took part in several diplomatic missions and minor campaigns and was present at the great English victory in the naval Battle of Sluys
Battle of Sluys
in 1340.[17] Later, he was required to commit himself as hostage in the Low Countries
Low Countries
for Edward’s considerable debts. He remained hostage for a year and had to pay a large ransom for his own release.[18] In 1345, Edward III launched a major, three-pronged attack on France. The Earl of Northampton attacked from Brittany, Edward from Flanders, and Henry from Aquitaine
Aquitaine
in the south.[15] Moving rapidly through the country, Henry confronted the Comte d'Isle at the Battle of Auberoche and achieved a victory described as "the greatest single achievement of Lancaster's entire military career".[19] The ransom from the prisoners has been estimated at £50,000.[20] Edward rewarded Henry by including him as a founding knight of the Order of the Garter.[21] An even greater honour was bestowed on Lancaster when Edward created him Duke of Lancaster. The title of duke was relatively new in England, with only Cornwall being a previous ducal title. Lancaster was also given palatinate status for the county of Lancashire, which entailed a separate administration independent of the crown.[22] There were two other counties palatine; Durham was an ancient ecclesiastical palatinate and Chester
Chester
was crown property. In 1350, Henry was present at the naval victory at Winchelsea, where he saved the life of the Black Prince.[23] He spent 1351-2 on crusade in Prussia where a quarrel with Otto, Duke of Brunswick, almost led to a duel between the two men, which was only averted by the intervention of John II of France.[24] As campaigning in France resumed, Henry participated in the last great offensive of the Rheims
Rheims
campaign of 1359–60—the first phase of the Hundred Years' War—before returning to England where he fell ill and died, most likely of the plague, at Leicester Castle.[25] Edward III of England
Edward III of England
married John of Gaunt, his third surviving son, to Henry's heiress Blanche of Lancaster. On Henry's death, Edward conferred on Gaunt the second creation of the title of Duke of Lancaster, which made Gaunt, after Edward, the wealthiest landowner in England. Gaunt enjoyed great political influence during his lifetime, but upon his death in 1399 his lands were confiscated by Richard II. Gaunt's exiled son and heir Henry of Bolingbroke returned home and gathered military support in clear contravention of Richard's treason act of 1397, which included a definition of treason of "or [to] ... raiseth People and rideth against the King to make War within his Realm ...". Although he claimed his aim was restoration of his Lancaster inheritance, this Act and Henry's knowledge of Richard's character—suspicious and vindictive—probably meant Henry knew that only by removing Richard from power could he be secure.[26] Henry unified popular opposition to Richard II, took control of the kingdom and Richard—recognising that he had insufficient support to resist—surrendered to Henry’s forces at Conwy Castle. Henry instigated a commission to decide who should be king. Richard was forced to abdicate and although Henry was not next in line, he was chosen by an unlawfully constituted parliament dominated by his supporters.[27] After the first unrest of his reign and a revolt by the Earls of Salisbury, Gloucester, Exeter and Surrey, Richard reputedly starved to death.[28] There is some debate as to whether this was self-inflicted or ordered by Henry to end the risk of restoration without leaving incriminating marks on the body.[29] Reign of Henry IV[edit] There is much debate amongst historians about Henry's accession, in part because some see it as a cause of the Wars of the Roses. For many historians, the accession by force of the throne broke principles the Plantagenets had established successfully over two and a half centuries and allowed any magnate with sufficient power and Plantagenet blood to have ambitions to assume the throne. Richard had attempted to disinherit Henry and remove him from the succession. In response Henry’s legal advisors, led by William Thirning, dissuaded Henry from claiming the throne by right of conquest and instead look for legal justification.[30] Although Henry established a committee to investigate his assertion that his mother had legitimate rights through descent from Edmund Crouchback, whom he said was the elder son of Henry III of England
Henry III of England
but was set aside because of deformity, no evidence was found. The eight-year-old Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, was the heir general to Richard II by being the grandson of Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, and also the son of Richard's last nominated heir. In desperation, Henry's advisors made the case that Henry was heir male to Henry III and this was supported by thirteenth-century entails.[31] Mortimer's sister Anne de Mortimer
Anne de Mortimer
married Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, son of Edward III's fourth son Edmund of Langley, consolidating Anne's place in the succession with that of the more junior House of York.[32] As a child Mortimer was not considered a serious contender and as an adult he showed no interest in the throne, instead loyally serving the House of Lancaster. Mortimer informed Henry V when Conisburgh, in what was later called the Southampton Plot, attempted to place him on the throne instead of Henry's newly crowned son—their mutual cousin—leading to the execution of Conisburgh and the other plotters.[33] Henry IV was plagued with financial problems, the political need to reward his supporters, frequent rebellions and declining health—including leprosy and epilepsy.[34] The Percy family had been some of Henry's leading supporters, defending the North from Scotland largely at their own expense, but revolted in the face of lack of reward and suspicion from Henry. Henry Percy (Hotspur)
Henry Percy (Hotspur)
was defeated and killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury. In 1405, Hotspur's father Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, supported the Archbishop of York, Richard le Scrope, in another rebellion, after which the elder Percy fled to Scotland
Scotland
and his estates were confiscated. Henry had Scrope executed in an act comparable to the murder of another Archbishop— Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket
by men loyal to Henry II. This would probably have led to Henry's excommunication but the church was in the midst of the Western Schism, with competing popes keen on Henry's support; it protested but took no action.[35] In 1408, Percy invaded England once more and was killed at the Battle of Bramham Moor.[36] In Wales, Owain Glyndŵr's widespread rebellion was only suppressed with the recapture of Harlech Castle
Harlech Castle
in 1409, although sporadic fighting continued until 1421.[37] Henry IV was succeeded by his son Henry V,[38] and eventually by his grandson Henry VI in 1422.[39] Henry V and the Hundred Years' War[edit] Main article: Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
(1415–1453)

Henry V's victory at the Battle of Agincourt

Henry V of England
Henry V of England
was a successful and ruthless monarch.[40] He was quick to re-assert the claim to the French throne he inherited from Edward III, continuing what was later called the Hundred Years' War. The war was not a formal, continuous conflict but a series of English raids and military expeditions from 1337 until 1453. There were six major royal expeditions; Henry himself led the fifth and sixth, but these were unlike the smaller, frequent, provincial campaigns.[41] In Henry's first major campaign—and the fifth major royal campaign of the war—he invaded France, captured Harfleur, made a chevauchée to Calais
Calais
and won a near-total victory over the French at the Battle of Agincourt despite being outnumbered, outmanoeuvred and low on supplies.[42] In his second campaign, he recaptured much of Normandy and in a treaty secured a marriage to Catherine of Valois. The terms of the Treaty of Troyes
Treaty of Troyes
were that Henry's and Catherine's heirs would succeed to the throne of France. This condition was contested by the Dauphin and the momentum of the war changed. In 1421, Henry's brother Thomas, Duke of Clarence, was killed at the Battle of Baugé, and Henry V died of dysentery at Vincennes
Vincennes
in 1422.[39][43] Henry VI of England
Henry VI of England
was less than a year old but his uncles—led by Henry V's brother John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford—continued the war.[44] There were more victories, including the Battle of Verneuil, but it was impossible to maintain campaigning at this level. Joan of Arc's involvement helped the French remove the siege of Orleans[45] and win the Battle of Patay
Battle of Patay
before Joan was captured by the Burgundians, sold to the English, tried as a witch and burned at the stake. The Dauphin was crowned and continued the successful Fabian tactics of avoiding full frontal assault and exploiting logistical advantage.[46] Henry VI and the fall of the House of Lancaster[edit] Main articles: Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
and House of York See also: List of members of the House of Plantagenet
House of Plantagenet
and Issue of Edward III of England The Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
caused political division between the Lancastrians and the other Plantagenets during the minority of Henry VI: Bedford wanted to maintain the majority of the Lancastrian’s French possessions; Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester wanted to hold only Calais; and Cardinal Beaufort
Cardinal Beaufort
desired a negotiated peace.[43][47] Gloucester's attacks on Beaufort forced the latter from public life but brought him little advantage as the earl of Suffolk’s influence over the king enabled him to direct policy for the rest of the decade. Gloucester remained heir presumptive but in 1441 his ambitious wife, Eleanor Cobham, consulted astrologers on the likelihood of the king's death and was arrested for treasonable necromancy—although Gloucester was not implicated he was discredited forced into retirement. In 1447 Suffolk had him arrested and within days he died in prison.[43] England's ally Philip III, Duke of Burgundy
Philip III, Duke of Burgundy
defected to Charles, when the English ambassadors' refusal to renounce the claim to the French crown stalled negotiations, signing the Treaty of Arras (1435).[48] The French reorganised the superior numbers of their feudal levies into a modern professional army and retook Paris, Rouen, Bordeaux and Normandy. Victories at the Battle of Formigny
Battle of Formigny
in 1450 and the Battle of Castillon in 1453 brought the war to an end with the House of Lancaster losing forever all its French holdings, except Calais
Calais
and the Channel Islands.[49][50] Henry VI proved to be a weak king and vulnerable to the over-mighty subjects who developed private armies of retainers. Rivalries often spilled over from the courtroom into armed confrontations, such as the Percy–Neville feud.[51] Without the common purpose of the war in France, Henry's cousin Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, and Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, used their networks to defy the crown.[52] Henry became the focus of discontent as the population, agricultural production, prices, the wool trade and credit declined in the Great Slump.[53] This led to radical demands from the lower classes. In 1450, Jack Cade
Jack Cade
raised a rebellion to force Henry to address the economic problems or abdicate his throne.[54] The uprising was suppressed but conflict remained between villagers, gentry and aristocracy. Society remained deeply unsettled and radical demands continued to be suppressed such as those from the yeoman brothers John and William Merfold.[55]

Symbolic representation of the Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
in art

Henry's marriage to Margaret of Anjou
Margaret of Anjou
prompted criticism from Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, because it included the surrender of Maine and an extended truce with France. York was Henry's cousin through his descent from Edward III sons Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, and Edmund, Duke of York. This gave York political influence but he was removed from English and French politics through his appointment as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.[56] On returning to England, York was conscious of the fate of Henry's uncle Humphrey at the hands of the Beauforts and suspicious that Henry intended to nominate Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, as heir presumptive, and recruited military forces. Armed conflict was avoided because York lacked aristocratic support and was forced to swear allegiance to Henry. However, when Henry later underwent a mental breakdown, York was named regent. Henry was trusting and not a man of war, but Margaret was more assertive and showed open enmity towards York—particularly after the birth of a male heir that resolved the succession question and assured her position.[57] According to historian Robin Storey, "If Henry's insanity was a tragedy; his recovery was a national disaster".[58] When Henry's sanity returned, the court party reasserted its authority but York and his relatives, the Nevilles, defeated them at the First Battle of St Albans. Historian Anthony Goodman suggests that around 50 men were killed; among them were Somerset and two Percy lords, Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, and Thomas Clifford, 8th Baron de Clifford, creating feuds that would confound reconciliation attempts despite the shock to the ruling class caused by the armed conflict.[59][60] Threatened with treason charges and lacking support, York, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, fled abroad. Henry was captured by the opposition when the Nevilles returned and won the Battle of Northampton.[61] York joined them, surprising parliament by claiming the throne and then forcing through the Act of Accord
Act of Accord
stating that Henry would remain as monarch for his lifetime and that York would succeed him. The disinheriting of Henry's son Edward was unacceptable to Margaret so the conflict continued. York was killed at the Battle of Wakefield
Battle of Wakefield
and his head was displayed at Micklegate Bar, York, along with those of Edmund, Earl of Rutland, and Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury—both of whom were captured and beheaded.[62] Margaret gained the support of the Scottish queen Mary of Guelders, and with a Scottish army she pillaged into southern England.[63] The citizens of London
London
feared the city being plundered and enthusiastically welcomed York's son Edward, Earl of March.[64] Margaret's defeat at the Battle of Towton
Battle of Towton
confirmed Edward's position and he was crowned.[65] Disaffected with Edward's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville
Elizabeth Woodville
and preferment of her formerly Lancastrian-supporting family, Warwick and Clarence defected to the Lancastrians. The alliance was sealed with the marriage of Henry's son Edward to Anne, Warwick's daughter. Edward and Richard, Duke of Gloucester, fled England. When they returned, Clarence switched sides at the Battle of Barnet
Battle of Barnet
and Warwick and his brother were killed. Henry, Margaret and Edward of Lancaster were caught at the Battle of Tewkesbury before they could escape back to France. Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, was executed on the battlefield and John Beaufort, Marquess of Dorset, was killed in the fighting—meaning that when his brother Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset, was executed two days later, the Beaufort family
Beaufort family
became extinct in the legitimate male line. The captive Henry was murdered on 21 May 1471 in the Tower of London
Tower of London
and buried in Chertsey Abbey, extinguishing the House of Lancaster.[66] Legacy[edit] Shakespeare's history plays[edit]

"This royal throne of kings, this sceptr’d isle, This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, This other Eden, demi-paradise, This fortress built by Nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war, This happy breed of men, this little world, This precious stone set in the silver sea, Which serves it in the office of a wall, Or as a moat defensive to a house Against the envy of less happier lands; This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England...

—John of Gaunt's speech in Richard II, Act II, Scene I, 40–50[67]

It is a source of irritation to historians that Shakespeare's influence on the perception of the later medieval period exceeds that of academic research.[68] While the chronology of Shakespeare's history plays runs from King John to Henry VIII, they are dominated by eight plays in which members of the House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
play a significant part, voicing speeches on a par with those in Hamlet
Hamlet
and King Lear.[69] These plays are:

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V Henry VI, Part 1 Henry VI, Part 2 Henry VI, Part 3 Richard III.

According to the historian Norman Davies, the plays were constrained by the political and religious requirements of Tudor England. While they are factually inaccurate, they demonstrate how the past and the House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
are remembered in terms of myth, legend, ideas and popular misconceptions. Shakespeare
Shakespeare
avoided contentious political and religious issues to dubiously illustrate Tudor England as having rejected medieval conflict and entered an era of harmony and prosperity. The famous patriotic "sceptr'd isle" speech is voiced by John of Gaunt, a man who spent the majority of his life in Aquitaine, and is a piece of poetic licence that illustrates English prejudices. Henry V is one-sided with little sympathy for the French.[70] Many of these historical lines illustrate historical myth rather than realism.[71] Succession[edit] Lancastrian cognatic descent from John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
and Blanche's daughter Phillipa continued in the royal houses of Spain and Portugal.[72] The remnants of the Lancastrian court party coalesced support around Henry Tudor—a relatively unknown scion of the Beauforts. They had been amongst the most ardent supporters of the House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
and were descended illegitimately from John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
by his mistress Katherine Swynford. However John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
and Katherine subsequently married and their children were legitimated by the Pope and by Parliament during the reign of Richard II. Henry IV had tried to debar them from the succession by use of his royal prerogative to avoid competition with the House of Lancaster’s claims to the throne but this was of limited effect. By some calculations of primogeniture, there were as many as 18 people—including both his mother and future wife—with what some might claim a better right to the throne. By 1510, this figure had increased with the birth of an additional 16 possible Yorkist claimants.[73] With the House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
extinct, Henry claimed to be the Lancastrian heir through his mother Lady Margaret Beaufort. His father was Henry VI's maternal half-brother. In 1485, Henry Tudor united increasing opposition within England to the reign of Richard III with the Lancastrian cause to take the throne. To further legitimise his claim, Henry married Elizabeth of York—Edward IV of England's daughter—and promoted the House of Tudor
House of Tudor
as a dynasty of dual Lancastrian and Yorkist descent.[74]

Religion, education and the arts[edit]

King's College Chapel, Cambridge

The Lancastrians were both pious and well read. Henry IV was the first English king known to have possessed a vernacular Bible, supported the canonization of John Twenge, gave a pension to the anchoress Margaret Pensax and maintained close relations with several Westminster recluses. His household accounts as king record conventional payments to large numbers of paupers (12,000 on Easter day 1406) and the intercession for him of twenty-four oratores domini regis at 2d each per day. However, his reliance on the church was both personal and political. Archbishop Arundel gave the Lancastrians vital support and carried other bishops with him. In return the church required support for religious orthodoxy against heresy. Lollards
Lollards
were suppressed and heresy was made a capital offence in England under the statute of De haeretico comburendo even though Henry could not afford to overly antagonize his supporters with Lollard sympathies, including those among his Lancastrian retainers.[26] According to the author of the Gesta Henrici quinti, Henry V aimed ‘to promote the honour of God, the extension of the Church, the deliverance of his country and the peace and tranquillity of kingdoms’. He was deeply religious, engaged with ecclesiastical issues and saw that his role as king was to honour God, extend the church, fight heresy and defend the established social order. All his victories, especially Agincourt, were attributed to divine intervention. Henry V founded Syon Abbey
Syon Abbey
in 1415, as penance for his father’s execution of Archbishop Scrope, and three monasteries in London: for Carthusian, Bridgettine
Bridgettine
and Celestine orders.[75] The equally devout Henry VI continued the architectural patronage begun by his father, founding Eton College
Eton College
and King's College, Cambridge
King's College, Cambridge
and leaving a lasting educational and architectural legacy in buildings including King's College Chapel and Eton College
Eton College
Chapel.[76] The Lancastrian regime was founded and legitimised by formal lying that was both public and official. This has been described as "a series of unconstitutional actions" based "upon three major acts of perjury".[77] The historian K.B. McFarlane found it hard "to think of another moment of comparable importance in medieval English political history when the supply of information was so effectively manipulated as it was by Henry IV on this occasion".[78] The Lancastrians patronised poets for panegyric purposes for years before Henry IV ascended the throne, including Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
who dedicated The Book of the Duchess to Blanche of Lancaster
Blanche of Lancaster
around 1368. In 1400, poets in the pay of Henry IV were directed to propaganda purposes. John Gower based his Cronica Tripertita on the official Lancastrian accounts of the usurpation:"The Record and Process of the Deposition of Richard II" from 1399. Gower also produced a number of further favourable works including "In praise of peace" which was dedicated to Henry IV.[79] Earls and Dukes of Lancaster (first creation)[edit]

Earl Portrait Birth Marriages Death

Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster
Earl of Lancaster
and Leicester[80]

16 January 1245 London son of Henry III of England
Henry III of England
and Eleanor of Provence (1) Aveline de Forz 1269 0 children (2) Blanche of Artois 21 September 1271 4 children Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster John of Lancaster, Lord of Beaufort Mary of Lancaster 5 June 1296 Bayonne, Gascony aged 51

Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster
Earl of Lancaster
and Leicester[81]

c. 1278 Grismond Castle, Monmouthshire son of Edmund Crouchback
Edmund Crouchback
and Blanche of Artois Alice de Lacey 28 October 1294 - Divorced 1318 0 children 22 March 1322 Pontefract, Yorkshire Executed by order of Edward II of England aged 43–44

Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
Earl of Lancaster
and Leicester[1]

1281 Grosmont Castle, Monmouthshire son of Edmund Crouchback
Edmund Crouchback
and Blanche of Artois Matilda de Chaworth 7 children Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster Blanche of Lancaster, Baroness Wake of Liddell Maud of Lancaster, Countess of Ulster Joan of Lancaster, Baroness Mowbray Isabel of Lancaster, Prioress of Amesbury Eleanor of Lancaster, Countess of Arundel Mary of Lancaster, Baroness Percy 22 September 1345 Leicestershire aged 63–64

Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 4th Earl of Lancaster
Earl of Lancaster
and Leicester[1]

c. 1310 Grosmont Castle, Monmouthshire son of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster Isabel de Beaumont 1334 2 children Maud, Countess of Leicester Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster 23 March 1361 Leicester Castle, Leicestershire Black Death aged 50–51

Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster, 5th Countess of Lancaster and Leicester[82]

25 March 1345 Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire daughter of Henry of Grosmont John of Gaunt 19 May 1359 7 children Philippa, Queen of Portugal John of Lancaster Elizabeth of Lancaster, Duchess of Exeter Edward of Lancaster John of Lancaster Henry IV Bolingbroke, King of England Isabel of Lancaster 12 September 1369 Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire Black Death aged 23

Dukes of Lancaster (second creation)[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death

John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster[83] Earl by right of his wife, the title Duke of Lancaster
Duke of Lancaster
was vacant because there were no male heirs. Created Duke by his father Edward III of England

6 March 1340 Ghent, Flanders son of Edward III of England
Edward III of England
and Philippa of Hainault (1) Blanche of Lancaster 1359 7 children See above (2) Constance of Castile 21 September 1371 2 children Catherine, Queen of Castile John of Lancaster (3) Katherine Swynford 13 January 1396 4 children House of Beaufort John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset Cardinal Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland 3 February 1399 Leicester Castle, Leicestershire aged 58

Lancastrian Kings of England[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim

Henry IV of England[84]

3 April 1367 Bolingbroke Castle son of John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
and Blanche of Lancaster (1) Mary de Bohun Arundel Castle 20 July 1380 seven children Edward of Lancaster Henry V of England Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester Blanche, Electress Palatine Philippa, Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (2) Joanna of Navarre Winchester Cathedral 7 February 1403 no children 20 March 1413 Westminster, London aged 45 Henry's claim was extremely tenuous. He claimed the throne through his mother's descent from Edmund on the basis that he was older than Edward I but had been set aside because of deformity. This was not widely accepted

Henry V of England[85]

9 August 1387 Monmouth Castle son of Henry IV and Mary de Bohun Catherine of Valois Troyes Cathedral 2 June 1420 one son Henry VI of England 31 August 1422 Château de Vincennes aged 35 son of Henry IV (agnatic primogeniture)

Henry VI of England[86]

6 December 1421 Windsor Castle son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois Margaret of Anjou Titchfield Abbey 22 April 1445 one son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales 21 May 1471 Tower of London aged 49 (believed murdered) son of Henry V (agnatic primogeniture)

Family tree[edit] See also: Lancaster monarchs' family tree

Family Tree: House of Lancaster

King Henry III (1207–r.1216–1272)

EARL OF LANCASTER, 1267

King Edward I (1239–r.1272–1307)

Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245–1296)

King Edward II (1284–r.1307–1327)

Thomas of Lancaster, 2nd Earl of Lancaster (1278–1322)

Henry of Lancaster, 3rd Earl of Lancaster (1281–1345)

DUKE OF LANCASTER, 1351

King Edward III (1312–r.1327–1377)

Henry of Grosmont, 4th Earl, 1st Duke of Lancaster (c.1310–1361)

DUKE OF LANCASTER, 1362

John of Gaunt, 5th Earl, 1st Duke of Lancaster (1340–1399)

Blanche of Lancaster (1345–1368)

Henry Bolingbroke, 2nd Duke of Lancaster King Henry IV (1367–r.1399–1413)

John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1371-1410)

DUKE OF LANCASTER, 1399

Henry of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Lancaster King Henry V (1386–r.1413–1422)

John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset (1404-1444)

King Henry VI (1421–1471, r.1422–61, 1470–71)

Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby (1443-1509)

Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales (1453–1471)

Henry VII of England 1457–r.1485–1509)

Coats of Arms[edit] Main article: List of coats of arms of the House of Plantagenet Lancaster badges[edit] See also: Royal badges of England The Red Rose of Lancaster
Red Rose of Lancaster
derives from the gold rose badge of Edward I of England. Other members of his family used variants of the royal badge, with the king's brother, the Earl of Lancaster, using a red rose.[87] It is believed that the Red Rose of Lancaster
Red Rose of Lancaster
was the House of Lancaster's badge during the Wars of the Roses. Evidence for this "wearing of the rose" includes land tenure records requiring service of a red rose yearly for a manor held directly from Henry VI of England.[88] There are, however, doubts as to whether the red rose was actually an emblem taken up by the Lancastrians during the Wars of the Roses. Adrian Ailes has noted that the red rose “probably owes its popular usage to Henry VII quickly responding to the pre-existing Yorkist white rose in an age when signs and symbols could speak louder than words." It also allowed Henry to invent and exploit his most famous heraldic device, the Tudor Rose, combining the so-called Lancastrian red rose and the White Rose of York. This floral union neatly symbolised the restoration of peace and harmony and his marriage in January 1486 to Elizabeth of York. It was a brilliant piece of simple heraldic propaganda.”[89] The Tudor Rose
Tudor Rose
is used as the plant badge of England ( Scotland
Scotland
uses the thistle, Ireland
Ireland
uses the shamrock, and Wales
Wales
uses the leek).

Red Rose Badge of Lancaster.

Monogram SS Badge of Henry IV.

Chained Antelope Badge of Henry V & VI.

Hereford Swan Badge of Henry V.

Fire Beacon Badge of Henry V

Crossed Feather Badge of Henry VI.

File:Panther Badge of Henry VI.

See also[edit]

Background information on the Act that enable the House of Lancaster to accumulate its vast holdings can be found at Quia Emptores Further information on the Lancastrian descent in Portugal and Spain – Philippa of Lancaster, Jorge de Lencastre, Duke of Coimbra, John of Lencastre, 1st Duke of Aveiro

References[edit]

^ a b c d Weir 2008, p. 77 ^ a b Weir 2008, p. 75 ^ a b Jones 2012, pp. 371 ^ Galbraith 1982, pp. 223–239 ^ Weir 1995, p. 40 ^ Jones 2012, pp. 363 ^ Jones 2012, pp. 375–8 ^ Jones 2012, p. 390 ^ a b Jones 2012, p. 400 ^ Davies 1999, p. 381 ^ Jones 2012, p. 422 ^ Waugh 2004 ^ Lee 1997, p. 115 ^ Fowler 1969, p. 26 ^ a b Jones 2012, p. 471 ^ Fowler 1969, p. 30 ^ Fowler 1969, p. 34 ^ Fowler 1969, pp. 35–7 ^ Fowler 1969, pp. 58–9 ^ Fowler 1969, p. 61 ^ McKisack 1959, pp. 252 ^ Fowler 1969, pp. 173–4 ^ Fowler 1969, pp. 193–5 ^ Fowler 1969, pp. 106–9 ^ Fowler 1969, pp. 217–8 ^ a b Brown & Summerson 2010 ^ Weir 1995, pp. 36–9 ^ Saul 1997, pp. 424–5 ^ Tuck 2004, pp. 209–215 ^ Mortimer 2012, p. 297 ^ Mortimer 2012, pp. 298–99 ^ Weir 1995, p. 235 ^ Griffiths 2008. ^ Swanson 1995, p. 298. ^ Weir 1995, p. 49 ^ Lee 1997, pp. 138–41 ^ Davies 1995, pp. 293 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 130 ^ a b Weir 2008, pp. 133 ^ Schama 2000, pp. 265–6 ^ Davies 1997, pp. 419–20 ^ Schama 2000, p. 265 ^ a b c Harriss 2004 ^ Stratford 2004 ^ Davies 1999, pp. 76–80 ^ Weir 1995, pp. 82–3 ^ Weir 1995, pp. 72–6 ^ Weir 1995, pp. 86,101 ^ Weir 1995, pp. 156 ^ Weir 1995, pp. 172 ^ Schama 2000, p. 266 ^ Castor 2000, pp. 3–22 ^ Hicks 2010, p. 44 ^ Weir 1995, pp. 147–55 ^ Mate 2006, p. 156 ^ Crofton 2007, p. 112. ^ Crofton 2007, p. 111 ^ Storey 1986, p. 159 ^ Goodman 1981, p. 25. ^ Goodman 1981, p. 31 ^ Goodman 1981, p. 38. ^ Weir 1995, p. 257 ^ Goodman 1981, p. 57. ^ Goodman 1981, p. 1. ^ Goodman 1981, p. 147. ^ Weir 2008, p. 134 ^ Davies 1999, p. 508 ^ Davies 1999, p. 506 ^ Davies 1999, p. 507 ^ Davies 1999, p. 509 ^ Belsey 1992, p. 103 ^ Weir 2008, p. 100 ^ Weir 2008, p. 148 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 146–9 ^ Allmand 2010, p. 1 ^ Weir 1995, p. 94 ^ Sherborne 1994, pp. 218,239 ^ McFarlane 1972, p. 94 ^ Brewer 2012, p. 4 ^ Lloyd 2004 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 76–7 ^ Walker 2004 ^ Walker 2004, p. 124 ^ Weir 2008, p. 124 ^ Weir 2008, p. 130 ^ Griffiths 2004 ^ Henry Bedingfeld and Peter Gwynn-Jones, Heraldry, Chartwell Books, 1993, page 130. ^ Guy Cardogan Rothery, Concise Encyclopedia of Heraldry, Brackten Books, 1915, page 183 ^ Adrian Ailes, “Heraldry in Medieval England: Symbols of Politics and Propaganda,” in Heraldry, Pageantry, and Social Display in Medieval England, ed. Peter Cross and Maurice Keen (Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell, 2002), 83-104 (101).

Bibliography[edit]

Allmand, C. T. (2010). "Henry V (1386–1422)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12952.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Belsey, Catherine (1992). "Making History". In Holderness, Graham. Shakespeare's history plays: Richard II to Henry V. Macmillan. ISBN 0333549023.  Brewer, DS (2012). John Gower, Poetry and Propaganda
Propaganda
in Fourteenth-century England (Volume 7 of Publications of the John Gower Society ed.). DS Brewer. ISBN 1843843153.  Brown, Henry; Summerson, A. L (2010). "Henry IV (1367–1413)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12951.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Castor, Helen (2000). The King, the Crown, and the Duchy of Lancaster: Public Authority and Private Power, 1399–1461. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820622-4.  Crofton, Ian (2007). The Kings and Queens of England. Quercus. ISBN 1-84724-065-8.  Davies, Norman (1997). Europe – A History. Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6633-8.  Davies, Norman (1999). The Isles – A History. MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-76370-X.  Davies, R R (1995). The Revolt of Owain Glyn Dwr. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280209-7.  Fowler, Kenneth Alan (1969). The King's Lieutenant: Henry of Grosmont, First Duke of Lancaster, 1310–1361. Elek (Paul) (Scientific Books) Ltd. ISBN 0-236-30812-2.  Galbraith, Vivian Hunter (1982). Kings and chroniclers: essays in English medieval history. Hambledon Press. ISBN 095068824X.  Goodman, Anthony (1981). The Wars of the Roses: Military Activity and English Society, 1452–97. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-05264-5.  Griffiths, G. L. (2004). "Henry VI (1421–1471)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12953.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Griffiths, R. A. (2008). "Mortimer, Edmund (V), fifth earl of March and seventh earl of Ulster (1391–1425)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19344.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Harriss, R. A. (2004). "Thomas , duke of Clarence (1387–1421)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27198.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Harriss, R. A. (2004). "Humphrey , duke of Gloucester (1390–1447)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14155.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Hicks, Michael (2010). The Wars of the Roses. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300114232.  Jones, Dan (2012). The Plantagenets: The Kings Who Made England. HarperPress. ISBN 0-00-745749-9.  Lee, Christopher (1997). This Sceptred Isle. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-1-84529-994-1.  Lloyd, Simon (2004). "Edmund , first earl of Lancaster and first earl of Leicester (1245–1296)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8504.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Mate, Mavis (2006). Trade and Economic Developments 1450–1550: The Experience of Kent, Surrey and Sussex. Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-189-9.  McFarlane, K.B. (1972). Lancastrian kings and Lollard knights. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198223447.  McKisack, M. (1959). The Fourteenth Century: 1307–1399. Continuum Publishing Corporation. ISBN 978-1441102690.  Mortimer, Ian (2012). Medieval Intrigue: Decoding Royal Conspiracies. Continuum. ISBN 1441102698.  Saul, Nigel (1997). Richard II. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07003-9.  Schama, Simon (2000). A History of Britain – At the edge of the world. BBC. ISBN 0-563-53483-4.  Sherborne, James (1994). War, Politics and Culture in 14th Century England. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 1852850868.  Storey, Robin (1986). The End of the House of Lancaster. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-86299-290-7.  Stratford, Jenny (2004). "John , duke of Bedford (1389–1435)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14844.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Swanson, R.N. (1995). Religion and Devotion in Europe, c. 1215–c. 1515. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37950-4.  Tuck, Anthony (2004). Crown and Nobility 1272–1461: Political Conflict in Late Medieval England. London: Fontana. ISBN 0-00-686084-2.  Walker, Simon (2004). "John, duke of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
and duke of Lancaster, styled king of Castile and León (1340–1399)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14843.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Walker, Simon (2004). " Blanche of Lancaster
Blanche of Lancaster
(1346?–1368)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/54463.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Waugh, Scott L. (2004). "Henry of Lancaster, third Earl of Lancaster and third Earl of Leicester
Earl of Leicester
(c.1280–1345)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12959.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Weir, Alison (1995). Lancaster & York – The Wars of the Roses. Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6674-5.  Weir, Alison (2008). Britain's Royal Families. Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-953973-5. 

External links[edit]

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
on the official website of the British monarchy

Wikimedia Commons has media related to House of Lancaster.

Royal house House of Lancaster Cadet branch of the House of Plantagenet

Preceded by House of Valois Ruling house of the Kingdom of France (disputed with the House of Valois) 1422–1453 Succeeded by House of Valois

Preceded by House of Plantagenet (senior line) Ruling house of the Duchy of Aquitaine 1399–1422

Ruling house of the Kingdom of England 1399–1461 Succeeded by House of York

Preceded by House of York Ruling house of the Kingdom of England 1470–1471

v t e

Royal houses of Europe

Nordic countries

Denmark

Knýtlinga Fairhair Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Finland

Bjelbo Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov

Norway

Fairhair Knýtlinga Hardrada Gille Sverre Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Sweden

Munsö Stenkil Sverker Eric Bjelbo Estridsen Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte

Iceland

Fairhair Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Britain and Ireland

England

Mercia Wuffing Kent Sussex Essex Bernicia Deira Northumbria Uí Ímair Wessex Knýtlinga Normandy Angevin Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor

Scotland

Fergus Óengus Strathclyde Mann and the Isles Alpin Northumbria Bernicia Uí Ímair Galloway Dunkeld Sverre Balliol Bruce Stuart

Wales

Dinefwr Aberffraw Gwynedd Mathrafal Cunedda Tudor

Ireland

Ulaid Dál Riata Érainn Corcu Loígde Laigin Connachta Uí Néill Ó Gallchobhair Ó Domhnail Ó Néill Ó Máel Sechlainn Mac Murchada Ó Briain Mac Lochlainn Ó Conchobhair

Gaelic Ireland

Laigin Síl Conairi Ulaid Dáirine Osraige Cruthin Dál nAraidi Connachta Uí Fiachrach Uí Briúin Uí Néill Síl nÁedo Sláine Clann Cholmáin Eóganachta Chaisil Glendamnach Raithlind Uí Dúnlainge Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
(Norse) Uí Ceinnselaig Dál gCais Ó Briain Mac Carthaig Ó Conchobhair Ó Ruairc De Burgh (Norman) FitzGerald (Norman) Ó Domhnaill Ó Néill

Great Britain

Stuart Orange-Nassau Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Windsor

Eastern Europe

Albania

Angevin Progon Arianiti Thopia Kastrioti Dukagjini Wied Zogu Ottoman Savoy

Armenia2

Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignan Savoy

Bosnia

Boričević Kulinić Kotromanić Kosača Ottoman Habsburg-Lorraine

Bulgaria

Dulo Krum Cometopuli Asen Smilets Terter Shishman Sratsimir Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Croatia

Trpimirović Domagojević Svačić Ottoman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed)

Cyprus2

Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy

Georgia1

Pharnavazid Artaxiad Arsacid Ottoman Chosroid Bagrationi

Greece

Argead Macedonian Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaiologos Ottoman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Lithuania

Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Moldavia

Dragoș (Drăgoșești) Rossetti Bogdan-Muşat Movilești Drăculeşti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Racoviță Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Basarab

Montenegro

Vojislavljević Balšić Ottoman Crnojević Petrović-Njegoš

Romania

House of Basarab Rossetti Bogdan-Mușat Movilești Drăculești Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Romanov Racoviță Ottoman Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Romania/Royal family

Russia1

Rurik Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov

Serbia

Vlastimirović Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Mrnjavčević Dejanović Branković Ottoman Obrenović Karađorđević

Turkey1

Ottoman

Ukraine

Rurikids Piast Gediminids Olshanski Olelkovich Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia
Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe.

Western Europe

Belgium

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

France

Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orléans

Italy

Aleramici Appiani Bonaparte Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies Carolingian Della Rovere Este Farnese Flavian Gonzaga Grimaldi Habsburg Julio-Claudian Malatesta Malaspina Medici Montefeltro Nerva–Antonine Ordelaffi Orsini Palaiologos Pallavicini Savoy Severan Sforza Visconti

Luxembourg

Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma

Monaco

Grimaldi

Netherlands

Bonaparte Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) (Lippe) (Amsberg)

Portugal

Vímara Peres Burgundy Aviz Habsburg Spanish Braganza

Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Spain

Asturias Barcelona Jiménez Burgundy Champagne Capet Évreux Trastámara Habsburg Bourbon

Bonaparte Savoy

Central Europe

Austria

Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Bohemia

Přemyslid Piast Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Germany

Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Süpplingenburg Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg Brunswick-Lüneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollern Württemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa Palatine Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Lippe Zähringen

Hungary

Árpád Přemyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Ottoman Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Poland

Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Kingdom of Poland Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań

v t e

Wars of the Roses

Red Rose of Lancaster White Rose of York Tudor Rose

Key figures

Monarchs of England

Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII

Lancastrian

Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford

Yorkist

Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent Thomas Neville, Viscount Fauconberg John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk

Battles

Lancastrian victories

Battle of Ludford Bridge Battle of Worksop
Battle of Worksop
(Small victory) Battle of Wakefield Second Battle of St Albans Battle of Ferrybridge
Battle of Ferrybridge
(Indecisive) Battle of Edgecote Moor Battle of Bosworth Field Battle of Stoke Field

Yorkist victories

First Battle of St Albans Battle of Blore Heath Battle of Sandwich Battle of Northampton Battle of Mortimer's Cross Battle of Ferrybridge
Battle of Ferrybridge
(Indecisive) Battle of Towton Battle of Hedgeley Moor Battle of Hexham Battle of Lose-coat Field Battle of Barnet Battle of Tewkesbury

See also

Act of Accord Buckingham's rebellion Percy–Neville feud Issue of Edward III of England Readeption of Henry VI

Book:Wars of the Roses Category:Wars of the Roses Portal: