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The history of modern Greece
Greece
covers the history of Greece
Greece
from the recognition of its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
by the Great Powers (Great Britain, France, and Russia) in 1828, after the Greek War of Independence, to the present day.

Contents

1 Background 2 Administration of Ioannis Kapodistrias 3 Assassination of Kapodistrias and the creation of the Kingdom of Greece 4 Reign of King Otto, 1833–1863 5 Reign of King George I, 1864–1913

5.1 Balkan Wars

6 World War I
World War I
and subsequent crises, 1914-1922

6.1 Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)

7 Republic and Monarchy (1922–1940) 8 World War II 9 Civil War 10 Postwar Greece
Greece
(1950–1973)

10.1 Greek military junta of 1967–1974

11 Transition and democracy (1973–2009) 12 Economic crisis (2009-present)

12.1 Coalition Government

13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading

Background[edit] Main articles: Frankokratia, Ottoman Greece, Modern Greek Enlightenment, and Greek War of Independence The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
had ruled most of the Greek-speaking world since late Antiquity, but experienced a decline as a result of Muslim Arab and Seljuk Turkish invasions and was fatally weakened by the sacking of Constantinople
Constantinople
by the Latin Crusaders in 1204. The establishment of Catholic Latin states on Greek soil, and the struggles of the Orthodox Byzantine Greeks
Byzantine Greeks
against them, led to the emergence of a distinct Greek national identity. The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was restored by the Palaiologos
Palaiologos
dynasty in 1261, but it was a shadow of its former self, and constant civil wars and foreign attacks in the 14th century brought about its terminal decline. As a result, most of Greece gradually became part of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the late 14th and early 15th century, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
in 1453, the conquest of the Duchy of Athens
Duchy of Athens
in 1458, and of the Despotate of the Morea in 1460. Ottoman control was largely absent in the mountainous interior of Greece, and many fled there, often becoming brigands.[1] Otherwise, only the islands of the Aegean and a few coastal fortresses on the mainland, under Venetian and Genoese rule, remained free from Ottoman rule, but by the mid-16th century, the Ottomans had conquered most of them as well. Rhodes
Rhodes
fell in 1522, Cyprus
Cyprus
in 1571, and the Venetians retained Crete
Crete
until 1670. The Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
were only briefly ruled by the Ottomans ( Kefalonia
Kefalonia
from 1479 to 1481 and from 1485 to 1500), and remained primarily under the rule of Venice. The first large-scale insurrection against Ottoman rule was the Orlov Revolt of the early 1770s, but it was brutally repressed. The same time, however, also marks the start of the Modern Greek
Modern Greek
Enlightenment, as Greeks
Greeks
who studied in Western Europe brought knowledge and ideas back to their homeland, and as Greek merchants and shipowners increased their wealth. As a result, especially in the aftermath of the French Revolution, liberal and nationalist ideas began to spread across the Greek lands. In 1821, the Greeks
Greeks
rose up against the Ottoman Empire. Initial successes were followed by infighting, which almost caused the Greek struggle to collapse; nevertheless, the prolongation of the fight forced the Great Powers (Britain, Russia
Russia
and France) to recognize the claims of the Greek rebels to separate statehood (Treaty of London) and intervene against the Ottomans at the Battle of Navarino. Greece was initially to be an autonomous state under Ottoman suzerainty, but by 1832, in the Treaty of Constantinople, it was recognized as a fully independent kingdom. In the meantime, the 3rd National Assembly of the Greek insurgents called upon Ioannis Kapodistrias, a former foreign minister of Russia, to take over the governance of the fledgling state in 1827. Administration of Ioannis Kapodistrias[edit]

Ioannis Kapodistrias.

On his arrival, Kapodistrias launched a major reform and modernisation programme that covered all areas. He re-established military unity by bringing an end to the second phase of the civil war; re-organised the military, which was then able to reconquer territory lost to the Ottoman military during the civil wars; and introduced the first modern quarantine system in Greece, which brought diseases such typhoid fever, cholera and dysentery under control for the first time since the start of the War of Independence. Kapodistrias also negotiated with the Great Powers and the Ottoman Empire to establish the borders and degree of independence of the Greek state; signed the peace treaty that ended the War of Independence with the Ottomans; introduced the phoenix, the first modern Greek currency; organised local administration; and, in an effort to raise the living standards of the population, introduced the cultivation of the potato into Greece.

Face and Obverse of a Phoenix coin.

Furthermore, he tried to undermine the authority of the traditional clans (or dynasties) that he considered the useless legacy of a bygone and obsolete era.[2] However, he underestimated the political and military strength of the capetanei (καπεταναίοι – commanders) who had led the revolt against Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1821, and who had expected a leadership role in the post-revolution Government. When a dispute between the capetanei of Laconia
Laconia
and the appointed governor of the province escalated into an armed conflict, he called in Russian troops to restore order, because much of the army was controlled by capetanei who had been part of the rebellion. George Finlay's 1861 History of Greek Revolution records that by 1831 Kapodistrias's government had become hated, chiefly by the independent Maniots, but also by the Roumeliotes
Roumeliotes
and the rich and influential merchant families of Hydra, Spetses
Spetses
and Psara. The customs dues of the inhabitants of Hydra were the chief source of revenue for these municipalities, and they refused to hand these over to Kapodistrias. It appears that Kapodistrias had refused to convene the National Assembly and was ruling as a despot, possibly influenced by his Russian experiences. The municipality of Hydra instructed Admiral Miaoulis and Alexandros Mavrokordatos
Alexandros Mavrokordatos
to go to Poros
Poros
and seize the Hellenic Navy's fleet there. This Miaoulis did so with the intention of preventing a blockade of the islands, so for a time it seemed as if the National Assembly would be called. Kapodistrias called on the British and French residents to support him in putting down the rebellion, but this they refused to do. Nonetheless, an Admiral Rikord (or Ricord) took his ships north to Poros. Colonel (later General) Kallergis took a half-trained force of Greek Army regulars and a force of irregulars in support. With less than 200 men, Miaoulis was unable to make much of a fight; Fort Heidek on Bourtzi Island was overrun by the regulars and the brig Spetses (once Laskarina Bouboulina's Agamemnon) sank by Ricord's force. Encircled by the Russians in the harbor and Kallergis' force on land, Poros
Poros
surrendered. Miaoulis was forced to set charges in the flagship Hellas and the corvette Hydra to blow them up when he and his handful of followers returned to Hydra. Kallergis' men were enraged by the loss of the ships and sacked Poros, carrying off plunder to Nauplion. The loss of the best ships in the fleet crippled the Hellenic Navy
Hellenic Navy
for many years, but it also weakened Kapodistrias' position. He did finally call the National Assembly, but his other actions triggered more opposition and that led to his downfall. Assassination of Kapodistrias and the creation of the Kingdom of Greece[edit] Further information: Kingdom of Greece

Assassination of Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ioannis Kapodistrias
by Dionysios Tsokos.

The Entry of King Otto in Athens
Athens
by Peter von Hess.

In 1831, Kapodistrias ordered the imprisonment of Petrobey Mavromichalis, the Bey of the Mani Peninsula, one of the wildest and most rebellious parts of Greece. This was a mortal offence to the Mavromichalis family, and on 9 October 1831 (27 September in the Julian Calendar) Kapodistrias was assassinated by Petros' brother Konstantis and son Georgios on the steps of the church of Saint Spyridon in Nafplio. Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ioannis Kapodistrias
was succeeded as Governor by his younger brother, Augustinos Kapodistrias. Augustinos ruled only for six months, during which the country was very much plunged into chaos. Under the protocol signed at the London Conference of 1832 on 7 May 1832 between Bavaria and the protecting Powers, Greece
Greece
was defined as an independent kingdom, free of Ottoman control, with the Arta-Volos line as its northern frontier. The protocol also dealt with the way in which a Regency was to be managed until Otto of Bavaria
Bavaria
reached his majority to assume the throne of Greece. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was indemnified in the sum of 40,000,000 piastres for the loss of territory in the new kingdom. Reign of King Otto, 1833–1863[edit] Main article: Otto of Greece

Otto, the first King of modern Greece.

Otto's reign would prove troubled, but he managed to hang on for 30 years before he and his wife, Queen Amalia, left the same way they came, aboard a British warship. During the early years of his reign, a group of Bavarian Regents ruled in his name, and they made themselves very unpopular by trying to impose German ideas of rigid hierarchical government on the Greeks, while keeping most significant state offices away from them. Nevertheless, they laid the foundations of a Greek administration, army, justice system and education system. Otto was sincere in his desire to give Greece
Greece
good government, but he suffered from two great handicaps: his Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
faith and his childless marriage to Queen Amalia. This meant he could neither be crowned as King of Greece
Greece
under the Orthodox rite nor establish a dynasty. The Bavarian Regents ruled until 1837, when they were recalled at the insistence of Britain and France. Otto thereafter appointed Greek ministers, although Bavarian officials still ran most of the administration and the army. At this time, Greece
Greece
still had no legislature and no constitution. Discontent grew until the 3 September 1843 Revolution broke out in Athens. Otto agreed to grant a constitution and convened a National Assembly that met in November of the same year. The Greek Constitution of 1844
Greek Constitution of 1844
then created a bicameral parliament consisting of an Assembly (Vouli) and a Senate (Gerousia). Power then passed into the hands of a group of Greek politicians, most of whom who had been commanders in the War of Independence against the Ottomans. Greek politics in the 19th century was dominated by the "national question." The majority of Greeks
Greeks
continued to live under Ottoman rule, and Greeks
Greeks
dreamed of liberating them all and reconstituting a state embracing all the Greek lands, with Constantinople
Constantinople
as its capital. This was called the Great Idea (Megali Idea), and it was sustained by almost continuous rebellions against Ottoman rule in Greek-speaking territories, particularly Crete, Thessaly
Thessaly
and Macedonia. When the Crimean War
Crimean War
broke out in 1854, Greece
Greece
saw an opportunity to gain Ottoman-controlled territory that had large Greek populations. Greece, an Orthodox nation, had considerable support in Russia, but the Russian government decided it was too dangerous to help Greece expand its holdings.[3] When the Russians attacked the Ottoman forces, Greece
Greece
invaded Thessaly
Thessaly
and Epirus. To block further Greek moves, the British and French occupied the main Greek port at Piraeus
Piraeus
from April 1854 to February 1857.[4] The Greeks, gambling on a Russian victory, incited the large-scale Epirus Revolt of 1854
Epirus Revolt of 1854
as well as uprisings in Crete. The revolts failed and Greece
Greece
made no gains during the Crimean War, which Russia
Russia
lost.[5] A new generation of Greek politicians was growing increasingly intolerant of King Otto's continuing interference in government. In 1862, the King dismissed his Prime Minister, the former admiral Constantine Kanaris, the most prominent politician of the period. This provoked a military rebellion, forcing Otto to accept the inevitable and leave the country. The Greeks
Greeks
then asked Britain to send Queen Victoria's son Prince Alfred as their new king, but this was vetoed by the other Powers. Instead, a young Danish Prince became King George I. George was a very popular choice as a constitutional monarch, and he agreed that his sons would be raised in the Greek Orthodox faith. As a reward to the Greeks
Greeks
for adopting a pro-British King, Britain ceded the Ionian Islands to Greece. Reign of King George I, 1864–1913[edit]

King George I of the Hellenes in Hellenic Navy
Hellenic Navy
uniform.

At the urging of Britain and King George, Greece
Greece
adopted the much more democratic Greek Constitution of 1864. The powers of the King were reduced, the Senate was abolished, and the franchise was extended to all adult males. Approval voting
Approval voting
was used in elections, with one urn for each candidate divided into "yes" and "no" portions into which voters dropped lead beads. Nevertheless, Greek politics remained heavily dynastic, as it has always been. Family names such as Zaimis, Rallis and Trikoupis occurred repeatedly as Prime Ministers. Although parties were centered around the individual leaders, often bearing their names, two broad political tendencies existed: the liberals, led first by Charilaos Trikoupis
Charilaos Trikoupis
and later by Eleftherios Venizelos, and the conservatives, led initially by Theodoros Deligiannis and later by Thrasivoulos Zaimis. Trikoupis and Deligiannis dominated Greek politics in the later 19th century, alternating in office. Trikoupis favoured co-operation with Great Britain in foreign affairs, the creation of infrastructure and an indigenous industry, raising protective tariffs and progressive social legislation, while the more populist Deligiannis depended on the promotion of Greek nationalism and the Megali Idea. Greece
Greece
remained a very poor country throughout the 19th century. The country lacked raw materials, infrastructure and capital. Agriculture was mostly at the subsistence level, and the only important export commodities were currants, raisins and tobacco. Some Greeks
Greeks
grew rich as merchants and shipowners, and Piraeus
Piraeus
became a major port, but little of this wealth found its way to the Greek peasantry. Greece remained hopelessly in debt to London finance houses. By the 1890s Greece
Greece
was virtually bankrupt. Poverty was rife in the rural areas and the islands, and was eased only by large-scale emigration to the United States. There was little education in the rural areas. Nevertheless, there was progress in building communications and infrastructure, and fine public buildings were erected in Athens. Despite the bad financial situation, Athens
Athens
staged the revival of the Olympic Games in 1896, which proved a great success.

The Hellenic Parliament
Hellenic Parliament
in the 1880s, with PM Charilaos Trikoupis standing at the podium.

The parliamentary process developed greatly in Greece
Greece
during the reign of George I. Initially, the royal prerogative in choosing his prime minister remained and contributed to governmental instability, until the introduction of the dedilomeni principle of parliamentary confidence in 1875 by the reformist Charilaos Trikoupis. Clientelism and frequent electoral upheavals however remained the norm in Greek politics, and frustrated the country's development. Corruption and Trikoupis' increased spending (to create necessary infrastructure such as the Corinth Canal) overtaxed the weak Greek economy, forcing the declaration of public insolvency in 1893 and to accept the imposition of an International Financial Control authority to pay off the country's creditors. Another political issue in 19th-century Greece
Greece
was the Greek language question. The Greek people spoke a form of Greek called Demotic. Many of the educated elite saw this as a peasant dialect and were determined to restore the glories of Ancient Greek. Government documents and newspapers were consequently published in Katharevousa (purified) Greek, a form that few ordinary Greeks
Greeks
could read. Liberals favoured recognising Demotic as the national language, but conservatives and the Orthodox Church resisted all such efforts, to the extent that when the New Testament
New Testament
was translated into Demotic in 1901, riots erupted in Athens
Athens
and the government fell (the Evangeliaka). This issue would continue to plague Greek politics until the 1970s.

Map of the Kingdom of Greece, the Cretan State
Cretan State
and the Principality of Samos in 1903, before the Balkan Wars.

All Greeks
Greeks
were united, however, in their determination to liberate the Greek-speaking provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Especially in Crete, the Cretan Revolt (1866–1869)
Cretan Revolt (1866–1869)
raised nationalist fervour. When war broke out between Russian and the Ottomans in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Greek popular sentiment rallied to Russia's side, but Greece
Greece
was too poor and too concerned about British intervention to enter the war officially. Nevertheless, in 1881, Thessaly
Thessaly
and small parts of Epirus were ceded to Greece
Greece
as part of the Treaty of Berlin. Greeks
Greeks
in Crete
Crete
continued to stage regular revolts, and in 1897, the Greek government under Theodoros Deligiannis, bowing to popular pressure, declared war on the Ottomans. In the ensuing Greco-Turkish War of 1897, the badly trained and equipped Greek army was defeated by the Ottomans. Through the intervention of the Great Powers however, Greece
Greece
lost only a little territory along the border to Turkey, while Crete
Crete
was established as an autonomous state under Prince George of Greece
Greece
as the Cretan State.

Popular lithograph celebrating the success of the Goudi pronunciamiento of 1909 as a national rebirth.

Nationalist sentiment among Greeks
Greeks
in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
continued to grow, and by the 1890s there were constant disturbances in Macedonia. Here, the Greeks
Greeks
were in competition not only with the Ottomans, but also with the Bulgarians, in an armed propaganda struggle for the hearts and minds of the ethnically mixed local population, the so-called "Macedonian Struggle". In July 1908, the Young Turk Revolution
Young Turk Revolution
broke out in the Ottoman Empire. Taking advantage of the Ottoman internal turmoil, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire. On Crete, the local population, led by a young politician named Eleftherios Venizelos, declared Enosis, Union with Greece, provoking another crisis. The fact that the Greek government, led by Dimitrios Rallis, proved unable to likewise take advantage of the situation and bring Crete
Crete
into the fold, rankled many Greeks, especially young military officers. These formed a secret society, the "Military League", with the purpose of emulating their Ottoman colleagues to seek governmental reforms. The resulting Goudi coup
Goudi coup
on 15 August 1909 marked a watershed in modern Greek history: as the military conspirators were inexperienced in politics, they asked Venizelos, who had impeccable liberal credentials, to come to Greece
Greece
as their political adviser. Venizelos quickly established himself as a powerful political figure, and his allies won the August 1910 elections. Venizelos became Prime Minister in October 1910, ushering a period of 25 years where his personality would dominate Greek politics.

Venizelos initiated a major reform program, including a new and more liberal constitution and reforms in the spheres of public administration, education and economy. French and British military missions were invited for the army and navy respectively, and arms purchases were made. In the meantime, the Ottoman Empire's weaknesses were revealed by the ongoing Italo-Turkish War
Italo-Turkish War
in Libya. Balkan Wars[edit] Main article: Balkan Wars Through the spring of 1912, a series of bilateral agreements between the Christian Balkan states (Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro
Montenegro
and Serbia) formed the Balkan League, which in October 1912 declared war on the Ottoman Empire. In the First Balkan War, the Ottomans were defeated on all fronts, and the four allies rushed to grab as much territory as they could. The Greeks
Greeks
occupied Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
just ahead of the Bulgarians, and also took much of Epirus with Ioannina, as well as Crete
Crete
and the Aegean Islands. The Treaty of London (1913)
Treaty of London (1913)
ended the war, but no one was left satisfied, and soon, the four allies fell out over the partition of Macedonia. In June 1913, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
attacked Greece
Greece
and Serbia, beginning the Second Balkan War, but was beaten back. The Treaty of Bucharest (1913), which concluded the Second Balkan War, left Greece with southern Epirus, the southern half of Macedonia (known as Greek Macedonia), Crete
Crete
and the Aegean islands, except for the Dodecanese, which had been occupied by Italy
Italy
since 1911. These gains nearly doubled Greece's area and population. In March 1913, an anarchist, Alexandros Schinas, assassinated King George in Thessaloniki, and his son came to the throne as Constantine I. Constantine was the first Greek king born in Greece
Greece
and the first to be Greek Orthodox by birth. His very name had been chosen in the spirit of romantic Greek nationalism (the Megali Idea), evoking the Byzantine emperors of that name. In addition, as the Commander-in-chief of the Greek Army during the Balkan Wars, his popularity was enormous, rivalled only by that of Venizelos, his Prime Minister. World War I
World War I
and subsequent crises, 1914-1922[edit] Main articles: Greece
Greece
during World War I, National Schism, Greek genocide, and Asia Minor Campaign When World War I
World War I
broke out in 1914, the King and his Prime Minister Venizelos both preferred to maintain a neutral stance, in spite of Greece's treaty of alliance with Serbia, which had been attacked by Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
as the first belligerent action of the conflict. But when the Allies asked for Greek help in the Dardanelles campaign
Dardanelles campaign
of 1915, offering Cyprus
Cyprus
in exchange, their diverging views became apparent: Constantine had been educated in Germany, was married to Sophia of Prussia, sister of Kaiser Wilhelm, and was convinced of the Central Powers' victory. Venizelos, on the other hand, was an ardent anglophile, and believed in an Allied victory. Since Greece, a maritime country, could not oppose the mighty British navy, and citing the need for a respite after two wars, King Constantine favored continued neutrality, while Venizelos actively sought Greek entry in the war on the Allied side. Venizelos resigned, but won the Greek elections of 1915 and again formed the government. When Bulgaria
Bulgaria
entered the war as a German ally in October 1915, Venizelos invited Allied forces into Greece
Greece
(the Salonika Front), for which he was again dismissed by Constantine.

Venizelos reviews a section of the Greek army on the Macedonian front during the First World War, 1917. He is accompanied by Admiral Pavlos Koundouriotis (left) and General Maurice Sarrail
Maurice Sarrail
(right).

In August 1916, after several incidents in which both sides in the war had encroached upon the still theoretically neutral Greek territory, Venizelist officers rose up in Allied-controlled Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and Venizelos established a separate government there known as the result of a so-called Movement of National Defence. Constantine was now ruling only in what was Greece
Greece
before the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
("Old Greece"), and his government was subject to repeated humiliations from the Allies. In November 1916 the French occupied Piraeus, bombarded Athens and forced the Greek fleet to surrender. The royalist troops fired at them, leading to a battle between French and Greek royalist troops. There were also riots against supporters of Venizelos in Athens
Athens
(the Noemvriana). Following the February Revolution
February Revolution
in Russia
Russia
in 1917, the Tsar's support for his cousin Constantine was eliminated, and he was forced to leave the country, without actually abdicating, in June 1917. His second son Alexander became King, while the remaining royal family and the most prominent royalists followed him into exile. Venizelos now led a superficially united Greece
Greece
into the war on the Allied side, but underneath the surface, the division of Greek society into Venizelists and anti-Venizelists, the so-called National Schism, became more entrenched. Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)[edit] Main article: Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922)

The Greek Kingdom and the Greek diaspora
Greek diaspora
in the Balkans and western Asia Minor, according to a 1919 map submitted to the Paris Peace Conference.

With the end of the war in November 1918, the moribund Ottoman Empire was ready to be carved up among the victors, and Greece
Greece
now expected the Allies to deliver on their promises. In no small measure through the diplomatic efforts of Venizelos, Greece
Greece
secured Western Thrace
Western Thrace
in the Treaty of Neuilly
Treaty of Neuilly
in November 1919 and Eastern Thrace
Eastern Thrace
and a zone around Smyrna
Smyrna
in western Anatolia
Anatolia
(already under Greek administration as the Occupation of İzmir
Occupation of İzmir
since May 1919) in the Treaty of Sèvres of August 1920. The future of Constantinople
Constantinople
was left to be determined. But at the same time, a Turkish National Movement
Turkish National Movement
rose in Turkey
Turkey
led by Mustafa Kemal (later Kemal Atatürk), who set up a rival government in Ankara
Ankara
and was engaged in fighting the Greek army.

Map of the military developments during the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922).

At this point, the fulfillment of the Megali Idea
Megali Idea
seemed near. Yet so deep was the rift in Greek society that on his return to Greece, an assassination attempt was made on Venizelos by two royalist former officers. Even more surprisingly, Venizelos' Liberal Party lost the Greek elections of November 1920, and in the Greek plebescite of 1920, the Greek people voted for the return of King Constantine from exile after the sudden death of King Alexander. The United Opposition, which had campaigned on the slogan of an end to the Asia Minor Campaign
Asia Minor Campaign
in Anatolia, instead intensified it. But the royalist restoration had dire consequences: many veteran Venizelist officers were dismissed or left the army, while Italy
Italy
and France
France
found the return of the hated Constantine a useful pretext for switching their support to Kemal. Finally, in August 1922, the Turkish army shattered the Greek front, and took Smyrna
Smyrna
in an operation that led to the disastrous Great Fire of Smyrna. The Greek army evacuated not only Anatolia, but also Eastern Thrace and the islands of Imbros
Imbros
and Tenedos
Tenedos
in accordance with the terms of the (Treaty of Lausanne). A population exchange between Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
was agreed between the two countries, with over 1.5 million Christians and almost half a million Muslims being uprooted. This catastrophe marked the end of the Megali Idea, and left Greece financially exhausted, demoralized, and having to house and feed a proportionately huge number of Greek refugees. Republic and Monarchy (1922–1940)[edit] Main articles: 11 September 1922 Revolution, Second Hellenic Republic, and 4th of August Regime

Crowds celebrating in Athens
Athens
the proclamation of the Republic, 1924, with placards of republican leaders Papanastasiou, Hatzikyriakos and Kondylis.

The catastrophe deepened the political crisis, with the returning army rising up under Venizelist officers and forcing King Constantine to abdicate again, in September 1922, in favour of his firstborn son, George II. The "Revolutionary Committee" headed by Colonels Stylianos Gonatas (soon to become Prime Minister) and Nikolaos Plastiras
Nikolaos Plastiras
engaged in a witch-hunt against the royalists, culminating in the "Trial of the Six". The Greek election of 1923 was held to form a National Assembly with powers to draft a new constitution. Following a failed royalist Leonardopoulos-Gargalidis coup attempt, the monarchist parties abstained, leading to a landslide for the Liberals and their allies. King George II was asked to leave the country, and on 25 March 1924, Alexandros Papanastasiou
Alexandros Papanastasiou
proclaimed the Second Hellenic Republic, ratified by the Greek plebiscite of 1924 a month later. However, the new Republic was built on unstable foundations. The National Schism
National Schism
lived on, as the monarchists, with the exception of Ioannis Metaxas, did not acknowledge the Venizelist-sponsored Republican regime. The army, which had power and provided many of the leading proponents of both sides, became a factor to be reckoned with, prone to intervene in politics. Greece
Greece
was diplomatically isolated and vulnerable, as the Corfu incident of 1923 showed, and the economic foundations of the state were in ruins after a decade of war and the sudden increase of the country's population by a quarter. The refugees, however, also brought a new air into Greece. They were impoverished now, but before 1922 many had been entrepreneurs and well-educated. Staunch supporters of Venizelos and the Republic, many would radicalize and play a leading role in the nascent Communist Party of Greece. In June 1925, General Theodoros Pangalos launched a coup and ruled as a dictator for a year until a counter-coup by another General, Georgios Kondylis, unseated him and restored the Republic. In the meantime, Pangalos managed to embroil Greece
Greece
in a short-lived war with Bulgaria
Bulgaria
precipitated by the Incident at Petrich
Incident at Petrich
and make unacceptable concessions in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
and its hinterland to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in an effort to gain its support for his revanchist policies against Turkey. In 1928, Venizelos returned from exile. After a landslide victory in the Greek election of 1928, he formed a government. This was the only cabinet of the Second Republic to run its full four-year term, and the work it left behind was considerable. Alongside domestic reforms, Venizelos restored Greece's frayed international relations, even initiating a Greco-Turkish reconciliation with a visit to Ankara
Ankara
and the signing of a Friendship Agreement in 1930. The Great Depression
Great Depression
hit Greece, an already poor country dependent on agricultural exports, particularly hard. Matters were made worse by the closing off of emigration to the United States, the traditional safety valve of rural poverty. High unemployment and consequent social unrest resulted, and the Communist Party of Greece
Greece
made rapid advances. Venizelos was forced to default on Greece's national debt in 1932, and he fell from office after the Greek elections of 1932. He was succeeded by a monarchist coalition government led by Panagis Tsaldaris of the People's Party. Two failed Venizelist military coups followed in 1933 and 1935 in an effort to preserve the Republic, but they had the opposite effect. On 10 October 1935, a few months after he suppressed the 1935 Greek coup d'état attempt, Georgios Kondylis, the former Venizelist stalwart, abolished the Republic in another coup, and declared the monarchy restored. The rigged Greek plebiscite of 1935 confirmed the regime change (with an unsurprising 97.88% of votes), and King George II returned.

The conservative regime of Ioannis Metaxas
Ioannis Metaxas
(4th of August Regime) adopted many of the ideas and symbolism of Italian Fascism. Here members of the National Organisation of Youth
National Organisation of Youth
give the Roman salute
Roman salute
to Metaxas.

King George II immediately dismissed Kondylis and appointed Professor Konstantinos Demertzis
Konstantinos Demertzis
as interim Prime Minister. Venizelos meanwhile, in exile, urged an end to the conflict over the monarchy in view of the threat to Greece
Greece
from the rise of Fascist Italy. His successors as Liberal leader, Themistoklis Sophoulis
Themistoklis Sophoulis
and Georgios Papandreou, agreed, and the restoration of the monarchy was accepted. The Greek elections of 1936 resulted in a hung parliament, with the Communists holding the balance. As no government could be formed, Demertzis continued on. At the same time, a series of deaths left the Greek political scene in disarray: Kondylis died in February, Venizelos in March, Demertzis in April and Tsaldaris in May. The road was now clear for Ioannis Metaxas, who had succeeded Demertzis as interim Prime Minister. Metaxas, a retired royalist general, believed that an authoritarian government was necessary to prevent social conflict and quell the rising power of the Communists. On 4 August 1936, with the King's support, he suspended parliament and established the 4th of August Regime. The Communists were suppressed and the Liberal leaders went into internal exile. Patterning itself after Benito Mussolini's Fascist Italy,[citation needed] Metaxas' regime promoted various concepts such as the "Third Hellenic Civilization", the Roman salute, a National Organisation of Youth, and introduced measures to gain popular support, such as the Greek Social Insurance Institute
Social Insurance Institute
(IKA), still the biggest social security institution in Greece. Despite these efforts, the regime lacked a broad popular base or a mass movement supporting it. The Greek people were generally apathetic, without actively opposing Metaxas. Metaxas also improved the country's defenses in preparation for the forthcoming European war, constructing, among other defensive measures, the "Metaxas Line". Despite his aping of Fascism, and the strong economic ties with resurgent Nazi Germany, Metaxas followed a policy of neutrality, given Greece's traditionally strong ties to Britain, reinforced by King George II's personal anglophilia. In April 1939, the Italian threat suddenly loomed closer when Italy
Italy
annexed Albania, whereupon Britain publicly guaranteed Greece's borders. Thus, when World War II
World War II
broke out in September 1939, Greece
Greece
remained neutral. World War II[edit] Main articles: Military history of Greece
Military history of Greece
during World War II, Axis Occupation of Greece, and Greek Resistance

The symbolic start of the Occupation: German soldiers raising the German War Flag over the Acropolis. It would be taken down in one of the first acts of the Greek Resistance.

The three occupation zones. Blue indicates the Italian, red the German and green the territory annexed by Bulgaria. The Italian zone was taken over by the Germans in September 1943.

Guerillas of ELAS

Despite this declared neutrality, Greece
Greece
became a target for Mussolini's expansionist policies. Provocations against Greece included the sinking of the Greek cruiser Elli on 15 August 1940. Italian troops crossed the border on 28 October 1940, beginning the Greco-Italian War, but were stopped by a determined Greek defence that ultimately drove them back into Albania. Metaxas died suddenly in January 1941. His death raised hopes for a liberalization of his regime and the restoration of parliamentary rule, but King George quashed these hopes when he retained the regime's machinery in place. In the meantime, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
was reluctantly forced to divert German troops to rescue Mussolini from defeat, and attacked Greece
Greece
through Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
on 6 April 1941. Despite British assistance, the Germans overran most of the country by the end of May. The King and the government escaped to Crete, where they stayed until the end of the Battle of Crete. They then transferred to Egypt, where a Greek government in exile
Greek government in exile
was established. The occupied country of Greece
Greece
was divided in three zones (German, Italian and Bulgarian) and in Athens, a puppet regime was established. The members were either conservatives or nationalists with fascist leanings. The three quisling prime ministers were Georgios Tsolakoglou, the general who had signed the armistice with the Wehrmacht, Konstantinos Logothetopoulos, and Ioannis Rallis, who took office when the German defeat was inevitable and aimed primarily at combating the left-wing Resistance movement. To this end, he created the collaborationist Security Battalions. Greece
Greece
suffered terrible privations during World War II
World War II
as the Germans appropriated most of the country's agricultural production and prevented its fishing fleets from operating. As a result, and because a British blockade initially hindered foreign relief efforts, the Great Greek Famine resulted. Hundreds of thousands of Greeks
Greeks
perished, especially in the winter of 1941–1942. In the mountains of the Greek mainland, in the meantime, several Greek resistance movements sprang up, and by mid-1943, the Axis forces controlled only the main towns and the connecting roads, while a "Free Greece" was set up in the mountains. The largest resistance group, the National Liberation Front (EAM), was controlled by the Communist Party of Greece, as was the Greek People's Liberation Army (Elas), led by Aris Velouchiotis, and a civil war soon broke out between it and non-Communist groups such as the National Republican Greek League (EDES) in those areas liberated from the Germans. The exiled government in Cairo
Cairo
was only intermittently in touch with the resistance movement and exercised virtually no influence in the occupied country. Part of this was due to the unpopularity of King George II in Greece
Greece
itself, but despite efforts by Greek politicians, British support ensured his retention at the head of the Cairo
Cairo
government. As the German defeat drew nearer, the various Greek political factions convened in Lebanon in May 1944 under British auspices and formed a government of national unity under George Papandreou, in which EAM was represented by six ministers. Civil War[edit] Main article: Greek civil war German forces withdrew on 12 October 1944, and the government in exile returned to Athens. After the German withdrawal, the EAM-ELAS guerrilla army effectively controlled most of Greece, but its leaders were reluctant to take control of the country, as they knew that Soviet premier Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
had agreed that Greece
Greece
would be in the British sphere of influence after the war. Tensions between the British-backed Papandreou and the EAM, especially over the issue of disarmament of the various armed groups, led to the resignation of the latter's ministers from the government. A few days later, on 3 December 1944, a large-scale pro-EAM demonstration in Athens
Athens
ended in violence and ushered an intense, house-to-house struggle with British and monarchist forces (the Dekemvriana). After three weeks, the Communists were defeated: the Varkiza agreement ended the conflict and disarmed ELAS, and an unstable coalition government was formed. The anti-EAM backlash grew into a full-scale "White Terror", which exacerbated tensions.

Organization and military bases of the "Democratic Army", as well as entry routes to Greece.

The Communists boycotted the March 1946 elections, and on the same day, fighting broke out again. By the end of 1946, the Communist Democratic Army of Greece
Greece
had been formed, pitted against the governmental National Army, which was backed first by Britain and after 1947 by the United States. Communist successes in 1947–1948 enabled them to move freely over much of mainland Greece, but with extensive reorganization, the deportation of rural populations and American material support, the National Army was slowly able to regain control over most of the countryside. In 1949, the insurgents suffered a major blow, as Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
closed its borders following the split between Marshal Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
with the Soviet Union. Finally, in August 1949, the National Army under Marshal Alexander Papagos
Alexander Papagos
launched an offensive that forced the remaining insurgents to surrender or flee across the northern border into the territory of Greece's northern Communist neighbors. The civil war resulted in 100,000 killed and caused catastrophic economic disruption. In addition, at least 25,000 Greeks
Greeks
and an unspecified number of Macedonian Slavs were either voluntarily or forcibly evacuated to Eastern bloc
Eastern bloc
countries, while 700,000 became displaced persons inside the country. Many more emigrated to Australia and other countries. The postwar settlement ended Greece's territorial expansion, which had begun in 1832. The 1947 Treaty of Paris required Italy
Italy
to hand over the Dodecanese
Dodecanese
islands to Greece. These were the last majority-Greek-speaking areas to be united with the Greek state, apart from Cyprus
Cyprus
which was a British possession until it became independent in 1960. Greece's ethnic homogeneity was increased by the postwar expulsion of 25,000 Albanians from Epirus (see Cham Albanians). The only significant remaining minorities are the Muslims in Western Thrace (about 100,000) and a small Slavic-speaking minority in the north. Greek nationalists continued to claim southern Albania
Albania
(which they called Northern Epirus), home of a significant Greek population (about 3%-12% in the whole of Albania[6]), and the Turkish-held islands of Imvros
Imvros
and Tenedos, where there were smaller Greek minorities. Postwar Greece
Greece
(1950–1973)[edit] After the civil war, Greece
Greece
sought to join the Western democracies and became a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1952. Since the Civil war (1946–49) but even more after that, the parties in the parliament were divided in three political concentrations. The political formation Right-Centre-Left, given the exacerbation of political animosity that had preceded dividing the country in the 40s, tended to turn the concurrence of parties into ideological positions.

Workmen grade the street in front of new housing constructed with the help of Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
funds in Greece.

In the beginning of the 1950s, the forces of the Centre (EPEK) succeeded in gaining the power and under the leadership of the aged general N. Plastiras they governed for about half a four-year term. These were a series of governments having limited manoeuvreability and inadequate influence in the political arena. This government, as well as those that followed, was constantly under the American auspices. The defeat of EPEK in the elections of 1952, apart from increasing the repressive measures that concerned the defeated of the Civil war, also marked the end of the general political position that it represented, namely political consensus and social reconciliation. The Left, which had been ostracized from the political life of the country, found a way of expression through the constitution of EDA (United Democratic Left) in 1951, which turned out to be a significant pole, yet steadily excluded from the decision making centres. After the disbandment of the Centre as an autonomous political institution, EDA practically expanded its electoral influence to a significant part of the EAM-based Centre-Left. The 1960s are part of the period 1953-72, during which Greek economy developed rapidly and was structured within the scope of European and worldwide economic developments. One of the main characteristics of that period was the major political event - as we have come to accept it - of the country's accession in the European Economic Community, in an attempt to create a common market. The relevant treaty was contracted in 1962. The developmental strategy adopted by the country was embodied in centrally organized five-year plans; yet their orientation was indistinct. The average annual emigration, which absorbed the excess workforce and contributed to extremely high growth rates, exceeded the annual natural increase in population. The influx of large amounts of foreign private capital was being facilitated and consumption was expanded. These, associated with the rise of tourism, the expansion of shipping activity and with the migrant remittances, had a positive effect on the country's balance of payments. The peak of development was registered principally in manufacturing, mainly in the textile, chemical and metallurgical industries, the growth rate of which reached 11% during 1965-70. The other large area where obvious economic and social consequences occurred, was that of construction. The policy of αντιπαροχή (antiparochi, "property-swap"), a Greek invention which entailed the concession of construction land to developers in return for a share in the resulting multi-storey apartment buildings, favoured the creation of a class of small-medium contractors on the one hand and settled the housing system and property status on the other. However, it was also responsible for the demolition of much of the country's traditional and 19th-century neoclassical architecture, and the transformation of Greek cities, and especially Athens, into a "form-less, border-less and placeless urban landscape".[7] During that decade, youth culture came to the fore in society as a distinct social power with autonomous presence (creation of a new culture in music, fashion etc.) and young people displayed dynamism in the assertion of their social rights. The independence granted to Cyprus, which was mined from the very beginning, constituted the main focus of young activist mobilizations, along with struggles aiming at reforms in education, which were provisionally realized to a certain extent through the educational reform of 1964. The country reckoned on and was influenced by Europe - usually behind time - and by the current trends like never before. Thus, in a sense, the imposition of the military junta conflicted with the country's social and cultural development. Greek military junta of 1967–1974[edit] Main article: Greek military junta of 1967–1974 The country descended into a prolonged political crisis, and elections were scheduled for late April 1967. On 21 April 1967 a group of right-wing colonels led by Colonel George Papadopoulos seized power in a coup d'état establishing the Regime of the Colonels. Civil liberties were suppressed, special military courts were established, and political parties were dissolved. Several thousand suspected communists and political opponents were imprisoned or exiled to remote Greek islands. Alleged US support for the junta is claimed to be the cause of rising anti-Americanism in Greece
Greece
during and following the junta's harsh rule. The junta's early years also saw a marked upturn in the economy, with increased foreign investment and large-scale infrastructure works. The junta was widely condemned abroad, but inside the country, discontent began to increase only after 1970, when the economy slowed down. Even the armed forces, the regime's foundation, were not immune: In May 1973, a planned coup by the Hellenic Navy
Hellenic Navy
was narrowly suppressed, but led to the mutiny of the HNS Velos, whose officers sought political asylum in Italy. In response, junta leader Papadopoulos attempted to steer the regime towards a controlled democratization, abolishing the monarchy and declaring himself President of the Republic. Transition and democracy (1973–2009)[edit] Main articles: Metapolitefsi and Third Hellenic Republic

Greek territorial changes between 1821 and 1947, showing territories awarded to Greece
Greece
in 1919 and those lost in 1923.

On 25 November 1973, following the bloody suppression of Athens Polytechnic uprising on the 17th, the hardliner Brigadier Dimitrios Ioannides overthrew Papadopoulos and tried to continue the dictatorship despite the popular unrest the uprising had triggered. Ioannides' attempt in July 1974 to overthrow Archbishop Makarios, the President of Cyprus, brought Greece
Greece
to the brink of war with Turkey, which invaded Cyprus
Cyprus
and occupied part of the island.[8] Senior Greek military officers then withdrew their support from the junta, which collapsed. Constantine Karamanlis
Constantine Karamanlis
returned from exile in France
France
to establish a government of national unity until elections could be held. Karamanlis worked to defuse the risk of war with Turkey and also legalised the Communist Party, which had been illegal since 1947.[8] His newly organized party, New Democracy (ND), won the elections held in November 1974 by a wide margin, and he became prime minister. Following the 1974 referendum which resulted in the abolition of the monarchy, a new constitution was approved by parliament on 19 June 1975. Parliament elected Constantine Tsatsos
Constantine Tsatsos
as President of the Republic. In the parliamentary elections of 1977, New Democracy again won a majority of seats. In May 1980, Prime Minister Karamanlis was elected to succeed Tsatsos as President. George Rallis
George Rallis
succeeded Karamanlis as Prime Minister. On 1 January 1981, Greece
Greece
became the tenth member of the European Community (now the European Union).[9] In parliamentary elections held on 18 October 1981, Greece
Greece
elected its first socialist government when the Panhellenic Socialist Movement
Panhellenic Socialist Movement
(PASOK), led by Andreas Papandreou, won 172 of 300 seats. On 29 March 1985, after Prime Minister Papandreou declined to support President Karamanlis for a second term, Supreme Court Justice Christos Sartzetakis
Christos Sartzetakis
was elected president by the Greek parliament. Greece
Greece
had two rounds of parliamentary elections in 1989; both produced weak coalition governments with limited mandates. Party leaders withdrew their support in February 1990, and elections were held on 8 April. New Democracy, led by Constantine Mitsotakis, won 150 seats in that election and subsequently gained two others. However, a split between Mitsotakis and his first Foreign Minister, Antonis Samaras, in 1992, led to Samaras' dismissal and the eventual collapse of the ND government. In new elections in September 1993, Papandreou returned to power. On 17 January 1996, following a protracted illness, Papandreou resigned and was replaced as Prime Minister by former Minister of Trade and Industry Costas Simitis. Within days, the new prime minister had to handle a major Greek-Turkish crisis over the Imia/Kardak islands. Simitis subsequently won re-election in the 1996 and 2000 elections. In 2004, Simitis retired and George Papandreou succeeded him as PASOK leader.[10] In the March 2004 elections, PASOK was defeated by New Democracy, led by Kostas Karamanlis, the nephew of the former President. The government called early elections in September 2007 (normally, elections would have been held in March 2008), and New Democracy again was the majority party in the Parliament. As a result of that defeat, PASOK undertook a party election for a new leader. In that contest, George Papandreou was reelected as the head of the socialist party in Greece. In the 2009 elections however, PASOK became the majority party in the Parliament and George Papandreou became Prime Minister of Greece. After PASOK lost its majority in the Parliament, ND and PASOK joined the smaller Popular Orthodox Rally
Popular Orthodox Rally
in a grand coalition, pledging their parliamentary support for a government of national unity headed by former European Central Bank vice-president Lucas Papademos. Economic crisis (2009-present)[edit] Main article: Greek government-debt crisis

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2016)

From late 2009, fears of a sovereign debt crisis developed among investors concerning Greece's ability to meet its debt obligations due to strong increase in government debt levels.[11][12] This led to a crisis of confidence, indicated by a widening of bond yield spreads and risk insurance on credit default swaps compared to other countries, most importantly Germany.[13][14] Downgrading of Greek government debt to junk bonds created alarm in financial markets. On 2 May 2010, the Eurozone countries and the International Monetary Fund agreed on a €110 billion loan for Greece, conditional on the implementation of harsh austerity measures. In October 2011, Eurozone leaders also agreed on a proposal to write off 50% of Greek debt owed to private creditors, increasing the EFSF to about €1 trillion and requiring European banks to achieve 9% capitalization to reduce the risk of contagion to other countries. These austerity measures have proved extremely unpopular with the Greek public, precipitating demonstrations and civil unrest. There are widespread fears that a Greek default on its debt would have global repercussions, endangering the economies of many other countries in the European Union, threatening the stability of the European currency, the euro, and possibly plunging the world into another recession. It has been speculated that the crisis may force Greece
Greece
to abandon the euro and bring back its former currency, the drachma. In April 2014, Greece
Greece
returned to the global bond market as it successfully sold €3 billion worth of five-year government bonds at a yield of 4.95%. According to the IMF, Greece
Greece
will have real GDP growth of 0.6% in 2014 after 5 years of decline. Coalition Government[edit] Main article: Antonis Samaras Following the May 2012 legislative election where the New Democracy party became the largest party in the Hellenic Parliament, Samaras, leader of ND, was asked by Greek President Karolos Papoulias
Karolos Papoulias
to try to form a government.[15] However, after a day of hard negotiations with the other parties in Parliament, Samaras officially announced he was giving up the mandate to form a government. The task passed to Alexis Tsipras, leader of the SYRIZA (the second largest party) who was also unable to form a government.[16] After PASOK also failed to negotiate a successful agreement to form a government, emergency talks with the President ended with a new election being called while Panagiotis Pikrammenos was appointed as Prime Minister in a caretaker government. Voters once again took to the polls in the widely watched June 2012 election. New Democracy came out on top in a stronger position with 129 seats, compared to 108 in the May election. On 20 June 2012, Samaras successfully formed a coalition with PASOK (now led by former Finance Minister Evangelos Venizelos) and DIMAR.[17] The new government would have a majority of 58, with SYRIZA, Independent Greeks
Greeks
(ANEL), Golden Dawn (XA) and the Communist Party (KKE) comprising the opposition. PASOK and DIMAR chose to take a limited role in Samaras' Cabinet, being represented by party officials and independent technocrats instead of MPs.[18] See also[edit]

Greece
Greece
portal History portal

Timeline of Greek history Timeline of modern Greek history

References[edit]

^ Cavendish, Marshall (2009). World and Its Peoples. Marshall Cavendish. p. 1478. ISBN 0-7614-7902-3. The klephts were descendants of Greeks
Greeks
who fled into the mountains to avoid the Turks in the fifteenth century and who remained active as brigands into the nineteenth century.  ^ John S. Koliopoulos, Brigands with a Cause - Brigandage and Irredentism in Modern Greece
Greece
1821-1912, Clarendon Press Oxford (1987), p. 67. ^ Orlando Figes, The Crimean War(2010 pp 32-40, 139 ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2009). A Global Chronology of Conflict. ABC-CLIO. p. 1210.  ^ Candan Badem (2010). "The" Ottoman Crimean War: (1853 - 1856). BRILL. p. 183.  ^ CIA - The World Factbook ^ Yannis Aesopos, Yorgos Simeoforidis, "The contemporary Greek city", in The Contemporary (Greek) City, ed. Yannis Aesopos and Yorgos Simeoforidis (Athens: Metapolis Press, 2001), 32-60. ^ a b Clogg, Richard. A Concise history of Greece. ^ EU members - Chronology - Ministère des Affaires étrangères Archived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ PM Simitis resigns as PASOK president, initiates election of new party leader Archived 17 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ George Matlock (16 February 2010). "Peripheral euro zone government bond spreads widen". Reuters. Retrieved 28 April 2010.  ^ " Acropolis
Acropolis
now". The Economist. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2011.  ^ "Greek/German bond yield spread more than 1,000 bps". Financialmirror.com. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2010. [dead link] ^ "Gilt yields rise amid UK debt concerns". Financial Times. 18 February 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ "Samaras tries to form Greek coalition". Rthk.hk. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2012.  ^ Petrakis, Maria. "Greek Government Mandate to Pass to Syriza as Samaras Fails". Bloomberg. Retrieved 14 May 2012.  ^ "Antonis Samaras". BBC News. 20 June 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.  ^ "PM Antonis Samaras
Antonis Samaras
announces cabinet". BBC News. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

Colovas, Anthone C. A Quick History of Modern Greece
Greece
(2007) excerpt and text search Gallant, Thomas W. Modern Greece
Greece
(Brief Histories) (2001) Herzfeld, Michael. Ours Once More: Folklore, Ideology and the Making of Modern Greece
Greece
(1986) excerpt and text search Kalyvas, Stathis. Modern Greece: What Everyone Needs to Know (Oxford University Press, 2015) Keridis, Dimitris. Historical Dictionary of Modern Greece
Greece
(2009) excerpt and text search Koliopoulos, John S., and Thanos M. Veremis. Modern Greece: A History since 1821 (2009) excerpt and text search Miller, James E. The United States
United States
and the Making of Modern Greece: History and Power, 1950-1974 (2008) excerpt and text search Woodhouse, C. M. Modern Greece: A Short History (2000) excerpt and text search

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